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1.0 INTRODUCTION Transformers are a critical and expensive component of the power system.

Due to the long lead time for repair of and replacement of transformers, a major goal of transformer protection is limiting the damage to a faulted transformer. Some protection functions, such as over excitation protection and temperature-based protection may aid this goal by identifying operating conditions that may cause transformer failure. The comprehensive transformer protection provided by multiple function protective relays is appropriate for critical transformers of all applications. Various types of transformers used in the industry are  Generator transformer  Power transformer  Distribution transformer  Pole-mounted lighting transformer  Grounding transformer  Regulating transformer  Welding transformer  Converter transformer  Instrument transformer (CT and VT)

2.0 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION OVERVIEW The type of protection for the transformers varies depending on the application and the importance of the transformer. Transformers are protected primarily against faults and overloads. The type of protection used should minimize the time of disconnection for faults within the transformer and to reduce the risk of catastrophic failure to simplify eventual repair. Any extended operation of the transformer under abnormal condition such as faults or overloads compromises the life of the transformer, which means adequate protection should be provided for quicker isolation of the transformer under such conditions.


4.  HT Circuit breakers with over load. loose connections. open winding)  Core faults (core insulation failure.  Oil temperature (OTI)  Winding temperature (WTI) 2 . Earth Fault relay tripping.  HORN GAPS & Lightening Arrestor.  Breather. 4.  Oil Surge Relay for OLTC.0 PROTECTION DEVICES THAT ARE USED AT THE TRANSFORMERS  Bourdon Tube  Buchholz Relay. overloading.  LT circuit breaker. electrical. short circuits)  On-load tap changer failures (mechanical. overheating)  abnormal operating conditions (over fluxing. short circuit. phase-ground.0 TYPES OF FAILURES OF TRANSFORMER  Winding failures due to short circuits (turn-turn faults. In a transformer there are two critical temperatures to measure. phase-phase faults.3. fuse.  HT fuse & D.O. shorted laminations)  Terminal failures (open leads. overvoltage)  external faults  Faults due to lightning effect  Transformer firing.  Pressure release device  Explosion Vent.1 BOURDON TUBE This is a devise which uses to measure the temperature.

the other for bulk displacement of oil in the event of a heavy internal fault.Oil temperature normally increases slowly to a critical point without an unacceptable winding temperature increase while Winding temperature increases rapidly without much of an increasing oil temperature. 3 . Normally a Burdon Tube alarm and trip the circuit according to following criteria. The probe of the instrument is placed on the oil-filled pocket at the top of the transformer and the mercury expansion in the probe causes the spiral Bourdon tube to try to straighten.80ºC to 95ºC Oil trip .2 BUCHHOLZ PROTECTION Buchholz protection is normally provided on all transformers fitted with a conservator. rotating a mechanical arm. A typical Buchholz relay will have two sets of contacts.95ºC to 115ºC Figure 01 4.90ºC to 110ºC Winding trip .110ºC to 135ºC Oil alarm . Winding alarm . Following figure shows a typical Bourdon Tube scheme with winding temperature compensation. Since there are two measurements to measure it uses two Bourdon Tubes for a transformer. One is arranged to operate for slow accumulations of gas.

 Inter turn faults or other winding faults involving only lower power in feeds.  Faulty joints.Figure 02 The device will therefore give an alarm for following fault conditions.  Loss of oil if allowed to continue to a dangerous degree.3 PRESSURE RELEASE DEVICE This device releases the pressure due to massive internal fault condition and help to protect the tank from bursting or splitting. When a major winding fault occurs. 4. This action will take place for. this causes a surge of oil.  Hot spots on the core due to short circuit of lamination insulation.  Loss of oil due to leakage. 4. all of which are of a low order of urgency. either to earth or inter phase. making fault detection by primary current measurement difficult. This is a unit protection scheme for one 4 .  Core bolt insulation failure.4 RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION This is particularly the case for a star connected winding with an impedance-earthed neutral.  All severe winding faults. because of faults in the winding produce very little current in the primary winding. Also the relay incorporate with device is trips the transformer in such condition. which displaces the lower float and thus causes isolation of transformer.

Maximum 3 phase short circuit current. Figure 03 For the high-impedance type. Typically they are set to 150% to 200% of the maximum of 1. The protection zone of over current devices is normally more than the transformer. In the biased low-impedance version.5 OVER CURRENT PROTECTION Over current protection is commonly used for protection from phase and ground faults. 4. the three phase currents and neutral current become the bias inputs to a differential element. The system remains stable for all faults outside this zone. Instantaneous over current relays are also used for back up where differential relays have been used.winding of the transformer. It is used as primary protection where differential protection is not used. Typically. Magnetizing current inrush (If harmonic restraint is not used) 2. 3. Short time load – Cold Pickup. The time delay characteristic should be chosen to discriminate with circuit protection on the secondary side. The system is operative for faults within the region between current transformers that is for faults on the star winding. If can be of the high impedance type or of the biased low impedance type. 5 . fuses are used as primary protection for transformers below 10MVA. the residual current of three current transformers is balance against the output of current transformer in neutral conductor. Hence they are part of the system protection and need to be coordinated with the other system protection devices. Above 10MVA over current relays are used as back up along with differential relays as primary protection for transformers.

(Ratio correction)  The effect of magnetizing inrush during initial energization.Figure 04 4.6 DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION A differential system can be arranged to cover the complete transformer. (Filter of zero sequence currents)  Correction for possible unbalance of signals from CT’s on either side of the winding. In applying the principles of differential protection to transformers. 6 . Figure 05 The principle.  Correction for possible phase shift across the transformer winding. a variety of considerations have to be taken to account. (Phase correction)  The effects of the variety of earthing and winding arrangements. current transformers on the primary and secondary sides is connected to form a circulating current system.

7 EARTH FAULT (E/F) PROTECTION An earth fault (E/F) relay sees either transformer neutral or residual (sum of three phases) current. High impedance differential relays (based on Kirchhoff’s Current Law)  Especially sensitive. will also detect terminal faults (a snake across a bushing. one for HV windings and one for LV windings if galvanic ally separate. The possible occurrence of over fluxing. very fast  One scheme required for each galvanic ally connected set of windings i.e. Figure 06 7 .40 ms)  Depending on CT location. as HV and LV are galvanic ally connected – thus requires only one three phase scheme for transformer (note: delta winding must be separately protected)  Not usually applied to delta windings many CTs required for overlap. Biased differential relays (based on the balance of ampere-turns)  Sensitive – down to <10% of rating  fast operating (20 . 1. depending on CT location.  ideal for auto-transformers. E/F relays can be set well below load – 10% of load typical. This relay can only see the earth fault of a transformer. for example) 2. There are two types of techniques for differential protection which are operating on very different principles. 4.

and if the earth fault continues in an arcing condition.Typically it installed two over current relay for a earth fault relay. that is. dangerous over voltages may occur. But it is prefer if it can use three over current relays for a earth fault relay when there is a 2:1:1 current distribution because its fast response. the broken-delta voltage will rise to three times the phase voltage. the feeder may be still live. The feeder will then be a local unearthed system. 4. The relay normally. 8 . it is not easily seen in the residual earth fault connection so it is better if it can use neutral earth fault relay for better operation. but if there is also a source of supply on the other side of the transformer. Figure 07 A voltage relay is energized from the broken-delta connected secondary winding of a voltage transformer on the high voltage line. receives zero voltage but.8 NEUTRAL DISPLACEMENT An earth fault occurring on the feeder connected to an unearthed transformer winding should be cleared by the feeder circuit. For winding earth fault. to any displacement of the neutral point. in the presence of an earth fault. and receives an input proportion to the zero sequence voltage of the line.