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PROFILE

Geography Area: 3.29 million sq. km. (1.27 million sq. mi.); about one-third the size of the U.S. Cities: Capital--New Delhi (pop. 12.8 million, 2001 census). Other major cities--Mumbai, formerly Bombay (16.4 million); Kolkata, formerly Calcutta (13.2 million); Chennai, formerly Madras (6.4 million); Bangalore (5.7 million); Hyderabad (5.5 million); Ahmedabad (5 million); Pune (4 million). Terrain: Varies from Himalayas to flat river valleys and deserts in the west. Climate: Alpine to temperate to subtropical monsoon.

People Nationality: Noun and adjective--Indian(s). Population (2010 est): 1.17 billion; urban 29%. Annual growth rate: 1.376%. Density: 324/sq. km. Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, others 3%. While the national census does not recognize racial or ethnic groups, it is estimated that there are more than 2,000 ethnic groups in India. Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi within 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census). Languages: Hindi, English, and 16 other official languages. Education: Years compulsory--K-10. Literacy--61%. Health: Infant mortality rate--49.13/1,000. Life expectancy--66.46 years (2009 est.). Work force (est.): 467 million. Agriculture--52%; industry and commerce--14%; services and government--34%.

Government Type: Federal republic. Independence: August 15, 1947. Constitution: January 26, 1950. Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet). Legislative--bicameral parliament (Rajya Sabha or Council of States, and Lok Sabha or House of the People). Judicial--Supreme Court. Political parties: Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Communist Party of India-Marxist, and numerous regional and small national parties. Political subdivisions: 28 states,* 7 union territories (including National Capital Territory of Delhi). Suffrage: Universal over 18.

Economy GDP (FY 2009 est): $1.095 trillion ($1,210 billion). Real growth rate (2009 est.): 6.5%. Per capita GDP (PPP, FY 2008): $3,100. Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude oil.

cotton apparel and fabrics. but remains prevalent. machinery. cotton. textiles.000 villages. Buddhists. jute. They omit. Sikhs.4 billion. communication. Indian society is divided into thousands of jatis--local. tea. steel. The government has recognized 18 official languages. they describe reality only in the most general terms. electronic goods. the tribal people and those outside the caste system formerly known as "untouchables”. land reform and economic opportunity through access to information. petroleum. India's median age is 25. Hindi.2% of GDP. although English is a national lingua franca. . expanding education. iron and steel. mining. Indian people and culture have absorbed and modified these influences to produce a remarkable racial and cultural synthesis.S. Discrimination based on caste is officially illegal. especially in rural areas. However.4% of the world's land area. Central Asia. China. EU.E.9% of GDP. In reality. Afghanistan. machinery and transport equipment. In the countryside. the national language. Russia. chemicals. Japan. Imports (FY 2009 est)--$268. Although these categories are understood throughout India. PEOPLE Although India occupies only 2. processed food. Religion. The Hindu caste system reflects Indian occupational and socially defined hierarchies. gold. India has been invaded from the Iranian plateau. U. Services exports $101. transport equipment. or dalits. gems and jewelry. one of the youngest among large economies. petroleum products. Only China has a larger population. cement. where an increasing percentage of India's population lives. About 70% live in more than 550. Jains.A. when the inhabitants of the Indus River valley developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. and Parsis. for example. and the remainder in more than 200 towns and cities. rice. aluminum. Industry: 28. oilseeds.C. Software exports--$35. represent more than one third of India's total exports. petroleum. Major trade partners--U. warriors (Kshatriya).. precious stones. and language are major determinants of social and political organization in India today. engineering goods. coarse grains. is the most widely spoken. fertilizers. India has begun a quiet social transformation in this area. fertilizers. Arabia. Moreover. caste. The population also includes Christians. Trade: Exports (FY 2009 est)--$164. handicrafts. jute. Nevertheless. sugar. Although 81% of its people are Hindu. and the West.E.76 billion.3 billion. edible oils.. transport.Agriculture: 17% of GDP. the government has made strong efforts to minimize the importance of caste through active affirmative action and social policies. Services and transportation: 54. and credit are helping to lessen the harshest elements of the caste system. tea. and computer software. priests (Brahmin). HISTORY The people of India have had a continuous civilization since 2500 B. traders/artisans (Vaishya) and farmers/laborers (Shudra). Products--wheat. India also is the home of more than 138 million Muslims--one of the world's largest Muslim populations. chemicals. caste is often diluted if not subsumed in the economically prosperous and heterogeneous cities. Ancient Sanskrit sources divide society into four major categories. with more job opportunities in the private sector and better chances of upward social mobility. endogamous groups based on occupation--and organized hierarchically according to complex ideas of purity and pollution.. Over the thousands of years of its history. Products--textiles. it supports over 15% of the world's population.2 billion in 2008-09.

. In the 10th and 11th centuries. Sri Lanka. Indian courtly culture evolved into a unique blend of Hindu and Muslim traditions.C.C. an unsuccessful rebellion in north India led by Indian soldiers seeking the restoration of the Mughal Emperor led the British Parliament to transfer political power from the East India Company to the Crown. while controlling the rest through treaties with local rulers. and Calcutta (now Kolkata). as it came to be known. originating in ancient Bactria. reaching its greatest height under Emperor Ashoka.. settled in the middle Ganges River valley. In the early 16th century. which lasted for 200 years. The British expanded their influence from these footholds until. Alexander the Great expanded across Central Asia during the 4th century B. but by the 17th century large areas of South India came under the direct rule or influence of the expanding Mughal Empire. Imperial India became the “crown jewel” of the rapidly expanding British Empire. including service in both World Wars and countless other overseas actions in service of the Empire. Bombay (now Mumbai). South India followed an independent path. by the 1850s. and adapted to antecedent cultures. exposing India to Grecian influences.E. Babur. established the Mughal Dynasty.C. While most of Indian society in its thousands of villages remained untouched by the political struggles going on around them.C. each under the protection of native rulers.. Aryan-speaking tribes migrated from the northwest into the subcontinent. northern India was unified under the Gupta Dynasty. the first steps were taken toward self-government in British India with the appointment of Indian councilors to advise the British Viceroy and the establishment of Provincial Councils with Indian members. The party used both parliamentary and nonviolent resistance and non-cooperation to agitate for independence.E. the British subsequently widened participation in Legislative Councils. declined around 1500 B..E. In 1857. known as India's Golden Age. they controlled most of present-day India. In the late 1800s. During this period. Later in the century. Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate.E.E. During the second millennium B. At the height of the Roman Empire under Emperor Hadrian during the 2nd century C. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. Hindu culture and political administration reached new heights. Great Britain began administering most of India directly and maintained both political and economic control. Pakistan. and Bangladesh. the Company opened permanent trading stations at Madras (now Chennai). most likely due to ecological changes. conquered north India and the trans-Indus region ushering in a period of trade and prosperity. During this period. a Turkish-Mongol adventurer and distant relative of Timurlane and Genghis Khan. pastoral. . The political map of ancient and medieval India was made up of myriad kingdoms with fluctuating boundaries. Gandhi transformed the Indian National Congress political party into a mass movement to campaign against British colonial rule.E. The Maurya Empire came to dominate the Indian subcontinent during the 3rd century B. the Kushan Empire. Indian leader Mohandas K.The Harappan Civilization. millions of Indians served with honor and distinction in the British Indian Army. however. In the 4th and 5th centuries C... Beginning in 1920. The first British outpost in South Asia was established by the English East India Company in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast.

under the leadership of P. resulting in national elections in June 1991.V. she called for elections in March 1977. and the Janata Dal. was chosen by the Congress (I)--for "Indira"--Party to take her place. In 1979. the Indian National Congress. supported by the Congress (I). initiated a gradual process of economic liberalization under then-Finance Minister Manmohan Singh. with Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister. he was unable to form a government with a clear majority. but chose to continue as a member of the British Commonwealth. which led to the killings of thousands of Sikhs in New Delhi. Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated on May 21. who headed the Janata Party. On August 15. In one month. which served a full 5-year term. This Congress-led government. Strategic colonial considerations. India's domestic politics also took new shape. Desai's government crumbled. with the exception of brief periods in the 1970s and 1980s and during a short period in 1996. a coalition led by the Bharatiya Janata Party governed. 1950. an amalgam of five opposition parties. India became a republic. which was followed by Mrs. a union of opposition parties. led the British to partition British India into two separate states: India. came to power for a short period.With Indians increasingly united in their quest for independence. Rajiv. 1984. Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards. Nehru was succeeded by Lal Bahadur Shastri. the party of Mohandas K. . Her son. Indira Gandhi. creed. with a Hindu majority. Seeking a mandate at the polls for her policies. These reforms opened the Indian economy to global trade and investment. Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977. The Janata Dal. From 1998-2004. a war-weary Britain led by Labor Prime Minister Clement Attlee began in earnest to plan for the end of its suzerainty in India. His Congress government was plagued with allegations of corruption resulting in an early call for national elections in November 1989. with Chandra Shekhar as Prime Minister. which consisted of two "wings. After independence. power passed to Nehru's daughter. ruled India under the leadership first of Nehru and then his daughter (Indira Gandhi) and grandson (Rajiv Gandhi). then joined with the Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) on the right and the Communists on the left to form the government. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Congress (I) won 213 parliamentary seats and returned to power at the head of a coalition. as well as political tensions between Hindus and Muslims." East and West Pakistan--currently Bangladesh and Pakistan--with Muslim majorities. leading to the founding of a plethora of small. While campaigning in Tamil Nadu on behalf of his Congress (I) party. regionally based political parties. Charan Singh formed an interim government. and Pakistan. Gandhi's return to power in January 1980. regional. Gandhi declared a state of emergency and suspended many civil liberties. Mrs. In June 1975. Although Rajiv Gandhi's Congress Party won more seats than any other single party in the 1989 elections. This loose coalition collapsed in November 1990. Mrs. and ethnic alignments. who also died in office in January 1966. On October 31. That alliance also collapsed. 1947. only to be defeated by Morarji Desai. In the elections. beset with deepening political and economic problems. Prime Minister Nehru governed the nation until his death in May 1964. 1991 by Tamil extremists from Sri Lanka unhappy with India's military intervention in that country‟s civil war. India became a dominion within the Commonwealth. as the nationalist appeal of the Congress Party gave way to traditional caste. Narasimha Rao. after promulgating its constitution on January 26.

mostly Muslims. . 1998. formed a coalition government.S. 2005. a 14-party coalition led by the Janata Dal formed a government known as the United Front. In April 1999. In March 2006. Under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. President Bill Clinton to impose economic sanctions on India pursuant to the 1994 Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act. which contributed to the worst electoral performance by the Congress Party in its history. His government collapsed after less than a year. Bush concluded a landmark U. particularly improving relations with the U. Inder Kumar Gujral replaced Deve Gowda as the consensus choice for Prime Minister at the head of a 16-party United Front coalition.000 homeless. The UPA's victory was attributed to dissatisfaction among poorer rural voters that the prosperity of the cities had not filtered down to them. Prime Minister Singh and President George W. the BJP-led coalition government fell apart. when the Congress Party withdrew its support in March 1997. and sparking widespread religious riots in which thousands.D. In February 2002.000 people and left 100.The final months of the Rao-led government in the spring of 1996 were marred by several major corruption scandals. the subsequent BJP coalition lasted only 13 days. Hindu nationalists supportive of the BJP agitated to build a temple on a disputed site in Ayodhya.S. The Congress-led UPA government has continued many of the BJP's foreign policies. The National Democratic Alliance--a new coalition led by the BJP--won a majority to form the government with Vajpayee a Prime Minister in October 1999. The Kargil conflict in May-July 1999 and an attack by terrorists on the Indian Parliament in December 2001 led to increased tensions with Pakistan. The Hindu-nationalist BJP emerged from the May 1996 national elections as the single-largest party in the Lok Sabha but without a parliamentary majority. In new elections in February 1998. and rejection of the BJP's Hindu nationalist agenda. The NDA government was the first coalition in many years to serve a full 5-year term. under the leadership Sonia Gandhi. the widow of Rajiv Gandhi. With all political parties wishing to avoid another round of elections. leading to fresh elections in September-October.-India strategic partnership framework agreement on July 18. On March 20. the President approved a BJP-led coalition government with Vajpayee again serving as Prime Minister. the Congress Party again withdrew support from the United Front. Manmohan Singh as Prime Minister. this government conducted a series of underground nuclear tests. anti-Muslim rioters throughout the state of Gujarat killed over 2. spurring U. 57 Hindu volunteers returning from Ayodhya were burnt alive when their train caught fire. were killed. The Congress Party. under the former Chief Minister of Karnataka. the BJP won the largest number of seats in Parliament--182--but fell far short of a majority. In November 1997. known as the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). On May 11 and 13. The ruling BJP-led coalition was defeated in a five-stage election held in April and May of 2004. It took power on May 22 with Dr. 1998. Deve Gowda.S. providing much-needed political stability. Alleging that the fire was caused by Muslim attackers. H. The Gujarat state government and the police were criticized for failing to stop the violence and in some cases for participating in or encouraging it. destroying a 17th century mosque there in December 1992.

The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and 25 other justices. and two are appointed. the UPA won a confidence motion with 275 votes in its favor and 256 against. led by the prime minister. whose duties are largely ceremonial. The president appoints the prime minister. the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states.President Bush visited India to further the many initiatives that underlie the new agreement. riding mainly on the support of rural voters. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton traveled to India to launch the “Strategic Dialogue. India's independent judicial system began under the British. GOVERNMENT According to its constitution. The Lok Sabha consists of 545 members. health issues. Their terms are staggered. and trade and investment. education. and has adopted a British-style parliamentary system. including climate change. with one-third up for election every 2 years. democracy promotion. India's bicameral Parliament consists of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). A special electoral college elects the president and vice president indirectly for 5-year terms. In July 2008. The members of the Rajya Sabha serve 6-year terms. DC in late November 2009 for the first state visit of the Obama administration. In July 2009. The president then appoints subordinate ministers on the advice of the prime minister. and the vice president does not automatically become president following the death or removal from office of the president. The legislatures of the states and union territories elect 233 members to the Rajya Sabha. secular. However. and the president appoints another 12. who serve 5-year terms. 543 are directly elected. and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. who is designated by legislators of the political party or coalition commanding a parliamentary majority in the Lok Sabha (lower house). trade. and counterterrorism. Real national executive power is centered in the Cabinet (senior members of the Council of Ministers). agriculture. In late November 2008. high-technology commerce. Manmohan Singh became the first Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full 5-year term. Prime Minister Singh promised a thorough investigation and Home Minister Chidambaram pledged significant reforms to improve India‟s counterterrorism agencies. The Congress-led UPA coalition gained a more stable majority following the May 2009 elections." Like the United States. all . Prime Minister Manmohan Singh is visiting Washington. India is a "sovereign. democratic republic. India has a federal form of government. The government exercises its broad administrative powers in the name of the president. The strategic partnership is anchored by a historic civil nuclear cooperation initiative and includes cooperation in the fields of space. socialist.” which called for collaboration in a number of areas. terrorists killed at least 164 people in a series of coordinated attacks around Mumbai.

under a power-sharing agreement. Principal Government Officials President--Pratibha D. India has 28 states* and 7 union territories. Party President Sonia Gandhi was re-elected by the Party National Executive in May 2005. Each state also has a presidentially appointed governor. It currently rules either directly or in coalition with its allies in 10 states. 202-939-7000. Patil Vice President--Mohammed Hamid Ansari Prime Minister--Manmohan Singh Home Minister--P. email indembwash@indiagov. as many traditional supporters were lost to emerging regional and caste-based parties. The central government exerts greater control over the union territories than over the states. The Hindu-nationalist BJP draws its . although some territories have gained more power to administer their own affairs. Chicago. The embassy's web site is http://www. POLITICAL CONDITIONS Emerging as the nation's single largest party in the May 2009 Lok Sabha election. left of center party.S. led by Shri Nitinn Gadkari. Congress prides itself as being a secular.org/. DC 20008 (tel.org and consulates general in New York. The states' chief ministers are responsible to the legislatures in the same way the prime minister is responsible to Parliament. but have rebounded since its May 2004 ascension to power. and its courtship of India's many poor.appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister. Also a Member of Parliament. Washington. its surprise victory in 2004 was a result of recruiting strong allies into the UPA. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Congress political fortunes suffered badly in the 1990s. Congress currently leads a coalition UPA government under Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Although its performance in national elections had steadily declined during the previous 12 years. Some states are trying to revitalize the traditional village councils. At the state level. who may assume certain broad powers when directed by the central government. In November 2005. Local governments in India have less autonomy than their counterparts in the United States. Sushma Swaraj is Leader of the Opposition. Houston.indianembassy.--Meera Shankar Ambassador to the UN--Hardeep Singh Puri India maintains an embassy in the United States at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW. with a long history of political dominance. Over half a million Panchayats exist throughout India. fax 202-265-4351. or Panchayats. the Congress regained the Chief Ministership of Jammu and Kashmir state. holds the second-largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. to promote popular democratic participation at the village level. such as the Bahujan Samaj Party and the Samajwadi Party. rural and Muslim voters. Chidambaram Minister of External Affairs--Pranab Mukherjee Ambassador to the U. and San Francisco. where much of the population still lives. she heads the Congress Lok Sabha delegation. the anti-incumbency factor among voters. some legislatures are bicameral. patterned after the two houses of the national parliament.

Despite the 2008-2009 downturn. The Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgency continues to be a major internal security threat. albeit haltingly. the government expects the annual GDP growth to return to around 9%. reductions in tariffs and other trade barriers. Four Communist and Marxist parties are united in a bloc called the "Left Front. India's population is estimated at more than 1. Popularly viewed as the party of the northern upper caste and trading communities. It has the world's 12th largest economy--and the third largest in Asia behind Japan and China--with total GDP in 2008 of around $1. 9. Orissa and Punjab. opening and modernization of the financial sector." which controls 59 parliamentary seats.210 billion).6% . India continues to move forward. Gujarat. and center-right modernizers who see the BJP as a party of economic and political reform. significant adjustments in government monetary and fiscal policies. and 18% of GDP respectively.6% GDP growth in 2006.833). India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Since the Communists have been in a retreat in West Bengal the Trinamool Congress Party is likely to perform well in the upcoming 2011 state elections.21 trillion ($1.000 to 1. in a positive light.0% in 2007. with market-oriented economic reforms that began in 1991.55% a year.political strength mainly from the "Hindi Belt" in the northern and western regions of India. (who advocate construction of a temple on a disputed site in Ayodhya. but there is a large and growing middle class of more than 50 million Indians with disposable income ranging from 200.000 rupees per year ($4. and more safeguards for intellectual property rights. The party holds power without outside support in the states of Chhattisgarh.166-$20. ECONOMY India has fared the global financial crisis remarkabley well. and 6. Former Foreign Minister Jaswant Singh was expelled from the party in August 2009 after authoring a book which portrayed the founder of Pakistan. reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. industrial decontrol. Reforms include increasingly liberal foreign investment and exchange regimes. The party must balance the competing interests of Hindu nationalists. Estimates are that the middle class will grow ten-fold by 2025. Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. The Left Front provided external support to the UPA government until a July 2008 confidence vote. it is part of ruling coalitions in few other states including Bihar. but more than half of the population depends on agriculture for its livelihood. and agriculture account for 54%. Uttarakhand.1 billion and is growing at 1. and other primarily religious issues including the propagation of anti-conversion laws and violence against religious minorities). 29%. Himachal Pradesh. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% in the decade since 1997. affecting large parts of eastern India. 700 million Indians live on $2 per day or less. though he was allowed to rejoin in June 2010. It advocates a secular and Communist ideology and opposes many aspects of economic liberalization and globalization. the BJP made strong inroads into lower castes in recent national and state assembly elections. resulting in dissonance with Prime Minister Singh's liberal economic approach. Muhammad Ali-Jinnah.000. India achieved 9. The Left Front rules the states of West Bengal and Kerala. Services. industry.

They contributed to the $283. with a 13% share.S. The outlook for further trade liberalization is mixed. ports. Internet-enabled services. petroleum exploration/processing.0% or less because of the financial crisis and resulting global economic slowdown. the "reservation" of key products for small-scale industries.420 consumer imports in 2002 and has incrementally lowered non-agricultural customs duties in recent successive budgets. U. depending on the kind of industry. Foreign investment is particularly sought after in power generation.indiatechonline.added in the second quarter of 2011. corruption.000 persons. education. Foreign portfolio and direct investment inflows have risen significantly in recent years. Automatic approvals are available for investments involving up to 100% foreign equity. and chemicals. Software exports crossed $35 billion in FY 2009.-India bilateral merchandise trade in 2008 topped nearly $50 billion.5 billion in foreign exchange reserves by December 2009. 2009 was initially expected to be between 8. and a key World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Ministerial in July 2008 was unsuccessful due to differences between the U.S. telecommunications. labor market rigidities. significantly expanding manufactures through late 2008. imports from India include textiles and ready-made garments.S. with focus on infrastructure. and mining. a cumbersome bureaucracy. says Gartner. health. The World Bank plans to double aid to India to almost $3 billion a year.5 million units of PCs – desktop plus portables -. Major U. Economic growth is constrained by inadequate infrastructure. while business process outsourcing (BPO) revenues hit $14. India's total inflow of U. This makes for a modest 2. Personal computer penetration is 14 per 1. gems and jewelry. but has been revised downward by a number of economists to 7.6 billion. The number of cell phone users is expected to rise to nearly 300 million by 2010. India's external debt was nearly $230 billion by the end of 2008. aircraft and parts. Government receipts from the 34-day 3G auction were $14. However. roads. the tax structure is complex. fertilizers.in 2008. Proposals for direct foreign investment are considered by the Foreign Investment Promotion Board and generally receive government approval. and rural livelihoods http://www. exports are diagnostic or lab reagents. cotton. and computer hardware. Foreign assistance was approximately $3 billion in 2006-2007.0%.com/india-pc-market-share-estimates-for-second-quarter-of-2011--5 38. India eliminated quotas on 1.5-9.php The India market saw just 2. The United States is India's largest investment partner. and high fiscal deficits. with compounding effects of various taxes. with the United States providing about $126 million in development assistance.S. Principal U. ferrous waste/scrap metal. advanced machinery. up from $126 billion in 2005-2006.S. The rapidly growing software sector is boosting service exports and modernizing India's economy. regulatory and foreign investment controls. . leather products.5 per cent increase over the same period in 2010. agricultural and related products. direct investment was estimated at more than $16 billion through 2008.8 billion in 2009. and India (as well as China) over market access. Growth for the fiscal year ending March 31.

Asia/Pacific.gartner. Dell.4 HCL 6. the top 4 vendors. representing 50.php http://www.6 Others 43.6 percent of PC shipments in the second quarter of 2011. HP and Lenovo. It unveils newest server chip – the eight-core.1 HP 11.7 Acer 12.php . the other in Bangalore – and both addressed the enterprise server market: We come cheaper by the dozen! AMD brings industry’s first 12-core chip to India. With the recent hike in commodity pricing such as fuel and food items.indiatechonline. The EX stands for expandable: from two to 256 processors per server.php Intel’s new Xeon 7500 Series chips make mission-critical computing.4 percent of the market. 2 position in the market due to its strong commercial business. 16-thread Xeon processor 7500 series or “Nehalem-EX” in India. http://www. mainstream. http://www. India PC Market Share Estimates for Second Quarter of 2011 ( Brand and Percentage of Shipments) Dell 16. 2Q11 Update”. we expect the market to perform far better in the coming quarter to due to the festive season.0 Source: "Quarterly Statistics: Personal Computers. experienced double-digit growth in PC shipments in the second quarter of 2011. http://www. held to its No.2 Lenovo 10.. unbranded /assembled or smaller global brands in fairly large numbers – almost half of all PCs bought.com/amd-12-core-chip-launch-125. 2 ranking with 12 percent market share. principal research analyst at Gartner.“This growth was primarily driven by the mobile PC market which grew 17 percent year on year in the second quarter of 2011.with a promise to abolish the „4P tax‟: customers do not have to pay a premium for a processor capable of scaling up from 2 CPUs to 4 CPUs in a single platform.indiatechonline. while Acer was in the No. Multinational brands contributed more than half of the total PC shipments in the second quarter of 2011 with shipments from Acer.” says Vishal Tripathi. “Economic factors such as rising interest rates and high inflation costs resulted in slower consumer demand.1 position. with the exception of HP. Acer dethroned HP from the No. the cause of concern continues to exist in the Indian market.com/intel-xeon--nehalem-ex-launch-in-india-123. with 17 percent market share. Local vendor HCL accounted for 6.” All the major multinational PC vendors.com/amd-fusion-chips--unveiled-405.com/resId=1761120 Me two! Processor leaders AMD and Intel made simultaneous announcements at High Noon on the same day last week – one in Delhi. Dell.indiatechonline. local. However. The hidden message in this is that Indian buyers still preferred.

” Also under advanced development for May 2011 release is the Fusion „A‟ series which effectively kicks the 100 Giga Flop performance of the low powered A and C series to supercomputing space -.Massive parallel processing to speed application performance[ii] . Sales & Marketing. CPU+GPU is APU. “AMD Fusion marks a monumental shift in computing performance.0 Everywhere The VISION Engine is a n unmatched combination of: . AMD is targeting the “sweet spot” for accelerated HD experiences across notebooks.. and value notebooks as well as desktops and all-in-ones. Lenovo. Fusion Experience Program. “Through Fusion. Following the successful strategy set by our discrete GPU business. According to AMD.The UVD3 video acceleration block found in the new AMD Radeon™ HD 6800 Series GPUs . and a high-speed bus that speeds data across the differing types of processor cores within the same design. Over 11 AMD Fusion-based systems are expected to be launched in India in the first half of 2011 from leading manufacturers including Sony. the Fusion design enables improvements in some key areas of user interest: High Definition. HP. The APU comes in the following two versions based on performance and (low) power draw. This will also allow our partners to offer exciting new form factors on a robust computing platform…. we will define the industry standard in personal computing”. Adds Manju Hegde. “AMD Fusion will eliminate the need for consumers to choose between power and performance enabling exciting new computing experiences at price points that offer tremendous value. Both these series are “owned” by AMD‟s Hyderabad centre – industry jargon denoting substantial design and development input and responsibility for the future roadmap of the device.more than 500 G Flops on a notebook. AMD‟s Fusion Family of what it calls Accelerated Processing Units (APUs) uses a single die design to house multi-core CPU (x86) technology with a powerful graphics and a parallel processing engine. Dell. Asus. Managing Director and Regional Vice-President. MSI and Toshiba. AMD India at the launch in Bangalore. In other words. The C-Series. our Fusion APUs are focused on delivering a performance advantage consumers can see and feel in the highest-sales volume segments of the PC industry. an 18-watt APU formerly codenamed “Zacate” is for ultrathin.With the APU technology in our stable.DirectX 11-capable graphics . Also on board are a dedicated high-definition video acceleration block. Significantly the Fusion family was built from concept to foundry tape-out by AMD’s India based engineers in Hyderabad and Bangalore. desktops and HD netbooks.Silicon sangam is here! AMD has heralded a new era of computing fuelled by a new system-on-a-chip family seamlessly merging general purpose and graphics processiong on the same slab of silicon. This work is being done in AMD’s Bangalore centre says AMD Corporate VP and Chief Engineer ( low power products) Michael Goddard. experience and possibilities because of the powerful combination of CPUs and discrete-level GPUs. a 9-watt APU formerly codenamed “Ontario” for netbooks and small form factor desktops and devices.” says Ravi Swaminathan. HD 2. The E-Series. Corporate Vice President. mainstream.

2D content can be converted into stereoscopic 3D. http://dqindia.[iii] Personal Supercomputing AMD Fusion APUs allows developers to take full advantage of the parallel processing power of a GPU – more than 500 GFLOPs for the upcoming A-Series “Llano” APUt hus bringing supercomputer-like performance to every day computing tasks. standard definition video looks high-definition. The trend over the last year was not just only about packing more transistors and cores. AMD Fusion technology enables all-day battery life – 10 hours or more. Even in the new and emerging netbook segmentIntel Atom does not have any serious competition. desktops or notebooks. The processor is also optimized for Windows 7 and users can leverage the hi-definition video capabilities of the new chip. and 3D gaming at HD resolutions is fast and life-like.ciol. the Core i series was a big launch over the year and it went aggressive with this new generation chips. manipulating HD content is fast and easy. The processor was code named Lynnfield and based on the Nehalem architecture. it is developing a six core desktop processor called Thuban and also developing a matching platform which is code named Leo that will create harmonization between CPU. However. 1080p HD video playback is smooth and quiet. More applications can run simultaneously and they can do so faster than previous designs in the same class. Intels Core i series brought in new benchmarksusers can leverage the chips without use of dedicated graphical cards. Its a significant launch for both Intel as well as for the consumers in a sense that when Intel launched the Core i7 900 processors in late 2008. industry is still obsessed with cores and it is to be seen whether one has apps that can effectively leverage all the cores.com/content/dqtop20_10/IndustryAnalyses/2010/110082318. Intel positioned it for multiple user segmentslow-mid and high-end notebook and desktops since JFM the notebook segment effectively transitioned to Core i and its various flavors. Market Dynamics For Intel. On the desktop side too Core i saw good traction. even the most graphics-intensive websites load quickly. . graphical performance acted as a key driver in delivering rich user experience. For instance. as per industry sources. it was only for the power users and with the launch of Core-i5 700 and Core-i7 800 in late 2009. For instance. Core i was one of the fastest chips Intel launched over the last year and its availability in the Indian market augured well. Take the case of AMD. The new power-saving features present in the single-chip design greatly extend the time between plug-ins. Moreover. rather vendors looked at products that can leverage the cores to the apps users run.asp The PC and system processor landscape is a bi-polar one and it goes without sayingIntel ruleswhether it is servers. even when enjoying HD content. graphics card and chipset. Intel has brought the same superior performance for mainstream consumers.Unique graphics driver capabilities updated on a monthly basis to continuously improve visual performance Selecting a PC equipped with the VISION Engine means Internet browsing is a faster.. Core i brought in superior graphical and performance capabilities and ushered in significant power boost to PCs. application-like experience.ii AMD AllDay Power Additionally.

For instance. AMDs Magny-Cours has four more cores. Intels Nehalem-EX is also dual-threaded. Microsoft and HCL and launched Bharat PC. though they started looking at products that can leverage the cores to apps users run But as we look at competition. Magny-Cours is a single threaded 12-core chip that is based on two six-core die in a package. Both Intel and AMD continued packing in more cores to their processors. While on the PC side it was near total domination by Intel. For instance. eight core processor with 24 Mb of L3 cache meant for use in systems with four or more CPUs. Both microprocessors have four 64-bit DDR3 memory controllers. at the end of FY10. with a total 12 Mb L3 cache. took server processor wars to new levels. AMD did react by OND 09 breaking its silence after looking at the huge market opportunity for Netbooks. AMD launched its low-voltage chipsingle core AMD . the Intels Nehalem-EX supports four more threads than the Magny-Cours. Intels dominance on the netbook and low end Internet access devices space was also due to lack of a strong competition. But clearly one of the areas AMD lagged was in the area of Netbooks where Intels Atom dominated last year. Intel came out with new devices and solutions that provided mobile and wireless broadband Internet access. Intels Netbooks were predominantly driven by vendors like Acer and Asus that flooded the market with low cost netbook offering that created new market opportunities for Intel in India on the low end computing space. AMD launched Magny-Cours under the Opteron 6000 series. it was rather a very subdued year for AMD in India and it is to be seen during FY11 what AMD has to offer and its uptake in India. It attempted products like Nettops with Atom processor and collaborated with BSNL. Stacking up with AMD. but in server space the battle lines get more defined between Intel and AMD. AMD which launched Magny-Cours.CyberMedia Research Estimates DQ The processor market growth is directly linked to the growth of the PC market. buoyed by its Netbook success in India also looked at leveraging its low end chips to its advantage by launching low cost computing products aimed at narrowing the digital divide in India. Intel. during last year the battle for supremacy got intense between Intels Nehalem-EX and AMDs Magny-Cours.

might turn around AMDs fortunes. to a great extent. According to Dataquests estimates during FY10. Right now this space is dominated by ARM based designs and licenses used by major handset OEMs. ASUS runs the show in motherboards. One of the path-breaking innovations Intel has done on the Core i series is the incorporation of its Turbo Mode technology. Intel accrued close to $150 mn from the grey market alone. (its proportion comes from motherboards only) thanks to its strong channel base Meanwhile. Turbo Mode is a technology that adjusts the core speed dynamically and depending on the applications processing requirements. To put it simply. CyberMedia DQ Research Estimates Its still Intel inside for India and its market seems to be growing over the year at AMDs expense. Intel as well as AMD is working on adding more features to their processors and making it more suitable for specific tasks tailor-made for user requirements. So the emphasis over the last year for both Intel and AMD were in delivering chips that are capable of bigger multitasking. it will scale up and down the processing power. has been eaten by PC OEMs but still they are a good slice of the PC pie and a force to reckon with. over the last year AMD announced a new technology called VISION Pro is a balanced PC platform technology offering cutting edge graphical capabilities and priced competitively. Ravi Swaminathan. Outlook The emphasis by processor vendors right now is the shift to the 32 nm processes. India is a unique geography and probably it is one of the few in the world where the grey market is huge. Design Breakthroughs Intel brought in some hot technologies with its new chips last year which are in the 32 nm process. A new MD. This un-organized market. The grey market mostly offers Intel based assembled desktops and they contributed significantly to Intels kitty in India.Athlon 64 L110 processor which marked its foray into the netbook segment in India. Meanwhile. But in FY11 this will heat up as Intel has unveiled its Moorestown processor architecture for mobile phones that will leverage its Atom processors. For the on-going year Intel will be focusing on . both Intel and AMD could not replicate the success they have had on the larger computing processors to mobile space.

a campaign that will target youth.in http://articles.the Core i series and will launch many more flavors in the coming year until it comes with its next micro-architecture. the company launched 'Future Is Me'.asp For more tech detail: http://sites. believes that with the help of its recently-unveiled Fusion processors it will be able to at least double the market share in India in the next few months.ciol. a server sprawl of 200 single core ones can be overhauled with just about twenty-five two socket Quad core servers. As part of the campaign. the number two in computer processor market. said Ravi Swaminathan.timesofindia. Quad core will be the in-thing as many enterprises will consolidate and virtualize by moving from a large fleet of single core servers to Quad core ones. the company currently has a 19% market share in desktop market and 6. AMD India.aspx . The value is significant for CIO and CTOs in moving to Quad cores. Shrikanth G shrikanthg@cybermedia.com/content/dqtop20_10/IndustryAnalyses/2010/110082318. Overall. http://dqindia. which is fighting to gain ground from Intel. For instance. This campaign will feature a four-month long contest targeting youth with the objective of anticipating the future in four categories: Music. On the server side. entertainment. AMD has roped in actor Jacqueline Fernandes. MD and CEO of Hungama to act as the judges for the contest. MD.com/2011-08-26/india-business/29932473_1_fusion-processors-a md-india-worldwide-channel-marketing NEW DELHI: With the world of personal technology undergoing major changes.co. The company. On Thursday. According to reports by IDC and GFK. both Intel and AMD had started 2010 on a good note and their recent quarter numbers indicate a revival in the PC segment and that is certainly good news going forward. is sensing its chances. Miss India International 2011 Ankita Shorey and Neeraj Roy. AMD is expected to make some waves in the Indian market with key management changes over the last year and its. AMD. classical musician Ayaan Ali.5% in the laptop segment.com/us/fusion/apu/Pages/fusion.indiatimes. digital and fashion.amd.

pdf http://rtn.gov.telecomcircle.com/ .trai.indiatechonline.com/2009/06/india-telecom/ http://www.http://www.in/WriteReadData/trai/upload/Reports/55/Indicator_Report-Mar-11.asia/651_android-touch-12-india-year-1-lakh-tablets-be-sold http://www.

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