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Chapter 3

Pressure
Our first topic as we begin our detailed exploration of fluid mechanics is the pressure that
prevails whether or not a fluid is bounded by a container. We will quickly discover that fluid
pressure, p, acts as a force potential, i.e., the gradient of the pressure, ∇p, is a force (per unit
volume) that acts to accelerate and/or balance other forces acting on a fluid particle. Roughly
speaking, pressure is analogous to voltage in electromagnetic theory. If it's constant, the fluid
is at some base state. If it changes, then something happens.
We will develop two particularly interesting formulas in this chapter, viz., the hydrostatic
relation for pressure and Bernoulli's equation. The hydrostatic relation shows why pressure
increases with depth in the ocean and decreases with altitude in the atmosphere. It can also be
used to measure the pressure at any point in a stationary fluid indirectly by simply measuring
the height of a column of fluid. Bernoulli's equation, which gives an explicit relation between
velocity and pressure for a moving fluid, is one of the most famous and widely used equations
in fluid-flow theory. The section on Bernoulli's equation includes a simple experiment you
can perform at home.
Even in the absence of fluid motion, the presence of a gravitational field gives rise to some
interesting phenomena. On the one hand, we learned in Chapter 1 that pressure acts equally
in all directions at a given point in a fluid. On the other hand, the gravitational field causes
a pressure gradient, and we find that pressure increases with depth in a fluid. There is no
contradiction as the former observation applies to a single point, while gravitational effects
are felt over a finite distance.
After developing and applying the hydrostatic relation and Bernoulli's equation, the concluding sections of this chapter focus on fluid-pressure variation in a gravitational field for
a motionless, or static fluid. For the obvious reason, general engineering literature describes
this topic as fluid statics.
We will develop a method for computing forces and moments on both planar and curved
surfaces. With a clever balance of forces, we will replace the problem of integrating a varying
pressure over a general curvilinear surface with a simple set of algebraic operations. We
will accomplish this by deriving formulas for a point force and moment arm that give the
mechanical equivalent of the force and moment due to the distributed pressure. This method
is useful for determining the loads on a structure such as a dam or a flow-control valve.
We conclude the chapter with a discussion of buoyancy and a famous result known as
Archimedes' Principle. This principle says the buoyancy force on a floating or submerged
body is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. The section on buoyancy includes another
home experiment.
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CHAPTER 3. PRESSURE

3.1

Pressure on an Infinitesimal Element

Before proceeding, it is worthwhile to pause and derive a very useful mathematical relationship
that we will make use of from time to time in developing the basic equations governing the
behavior of fluids. Consider the differential element shown in Figure 3.1. The element is a
rectangular parallelepiped and the pressure, p, acts on its six faces. We assume that the fluid
element's center lies at the point (x, y, z) and that the lengths of the three sides are ∆x, ∆y
and ∆z in the x, y and z directions, respectively.
p(x, y, z+ 12 ∆z)

.
.... z
........
...
..
....
..
...
....
..
...
.
.... k
.
..
........
p(x, y- 12 ∆y, z)
....
..
...
....
.
.
.
..........................................................................................................
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y
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.
j
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.......
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........................................ ∆y .......................................... p(x-.. 2 ∆x, y, z)
.......................................................................................................... ..
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..
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.......................................................................................................
...
...
...
...

z)

p(x, y, z- 12 ∆z)

Figure 3.1: Pressure acting on an infinitesimally small fluid element centered at the point
(x, y, z). i, j and k are unit vectors in the x, y and z directions, respectively.
We can calculate the net force on the fluid element by integrating the pressure over the
surface bounding the fluid element. We indicate this symbolically as follows.
ZZ
F = − p n dS
(3.1)
S

There are three key points that require discussion to explain the notation.
1. The `O' joining the integrals denotes closed-surface integral, i.e., we must integrate
over the entire surface that bounds the fluid element. For the infinitesimal element in
Figure 3.1, this means
ZZ
ZZ
6
X
p n dS =
S

m=1

p n dAm

Am

where the six Am are the areas of the six faces of the element.
2. The vector n is the outer unit normal, i.e., a unit vector normal to the bounding surface
that points outward. In the present case we have
• Face at x+ 21 ∆x: n = i, Face at x- 12 ∆x: n = −i
• Face at y+ 12 ∆y: n = j, Face at y- 12 ∆y: n = −j
• Face at z+ 12 ∆z: n = k, Face at z- 12 ∆z: n = −k
where i, j and k are unit vectors in the x, y and z directions, respectively.

3.1. PRESSURE ON AN INFINITESIMAL ELEMENT

83

3. We require a minus sign because the pressure pushes in the opposite direction of n.
So, for our infinitesimal element, we have
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ
F = −
p i dydz −
p (−i) dydz −
p j dxdz
| A {z
| A {z
| A {z
}
}
}
Face at x+ 21 ∆x
Face at x- 12 ∆x
Face at y+ 12 ∆y
ZZ
ZZ
ZZ

p (−j) dxdz −
p k dxdy −
p (−k) dxdy
A
A
A
|
|
|
{z
}
{z
}
{z
}
Face at y- 12 ∆y
Face at z+ 12 ∆z
Face at z- 12 ∆z

(3.2)

Because we are dealing with infinitesimally small quantities, we can treat the pressure as being
constant on each face. Our result will be exact in the limit as ∆x, ∆y and ∆z approach zero.
Thus,  

F ≈ − p(x + 12 ∆x, y, z) − p(x − 12 ∆x, y, z) i ∆y∆z  

− p(x, y + 12 ∆y, z) − p(x, y − 12 ∆y, z) j ∆x∆z  

− p(x, y, z + 12 ∆z) − p(x, y, z − 12 ∆z) k ∆x∆y
(3.3)
Next, we rearrange terms to arrive at
F ≈

p(x + 12 ∆x, y, z) − p(x − 12 ∆x, y, z)
i ∆x∆y∆z
∆x
p(x, y + 12 ∆y, z) − p(x, y − 12 ∆y, z)

j ∆x∆y∆z
∆y
p(x, y, z + 12 ∆z) − p(x, y, z − 12 ∆z)

k ∆x∆y∆z
∆z

(3.4)

Finally, as ∆x, ∆y and ∆z approach zero, each line in Equation (3.4) contains a partial
derivative of the pressure. Defining the differential volume, ∆V , according to

we conclude that
F≈− 

∆V = ∆x∆y∆z

(3.5) 

∂p
∂p
∂p
i+
j+
k ∆V
∂x
∂y
∂z

(3.6)

The quantity in square brackets is the familiar gradient of p, which we write symbolically as
∇p =

∂p
∂p
∂p
i+
j+
k
∂x
∂y
∂z

Therefore, we have proven that, for an infinitesimally small fluid element,
ZZ
− p n dS ≈ −∇p ∆V for ∆V → 0

(3.7)

(3.8)

S

In words, Equation (3.8) tells us that the net force on a differential fluid element due to the
pressure is equal to the product of the element's volume and the pressure gradient within the
element. We will use this result in the next section in order to derive a key result for fluids at
rest.

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3.2

CHAPTER 3. PRESSURE

The Hydrostatic Relation

For a fluid at rest in a gravitational field, the only forces acting are gravity and the pressure
within the fluid. In the absence of gravity, the pressure in the fluid would obviously be the
same at all points. Thus, the presence of a gravitational field must give rise to a variation in
pressure. In this section, we will determine how the pressure varies.

Bounding

...... n
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Volume V
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x
surface S ..................

Figure 3.2: Fluid volume in a gravitational field.
Consider the arbitrary volume V bounded by a closed surface S shown in Figure 3.2. As
noted in the preceding section, if n is the outer unit normal to the differential surface element
dS, the net pressure force exerted by the surroundings on the surface is the closed-surface
integral of −p n (the minus sign makes it an inward directed force). That is, the net pressure
force acting on the volume is
ZZ
Pressure Force = − p n dS
(3.9)
S

Now, the density of the fluid contained in the volume is ρ and the gravitational acceleration
vector is given by −gk where k is a unit vector in the z direction. So, the weight of the fluid
is the volume integral of −ρgk, i.e.,
ZZZ
Weight = −
ρgk dV
(3.10)
V

Since the volume is at rest, balancing forces yields
ZZ
ZZZ
p n dS +
ρgk dV = 0
S

(3.11)

V

Equation (3.11) applies to stationary volumes of arbitrary shape and size. We will make use of
this integral relationship in Section 3.10 when we address buoyancy. Because of the generality
of this equation, we can apply it to an infinitesimal fluid element such as the one depicted in
Figure 3.1. We can use this fact to determine how the pressure behaves at an arbitrary point
within the volume V . Clearly, as the volume size approaches zero, we have
ZZZ
ρgk dV ≈ ρgk ∆V as ∆V → 0
(3.12)
V

where ρ is an averaged value for the fluid within ∆V . In the limit ∆V → 0, the value of
ρ approaches the value at the point we are interested in. Recalling Equation (3.8), the force
balance simplifies to
∇p ∆V + ρgk ∆V = 0 as ∆V → 0
(3.13)

3.2. THE HYDROSTATIC RELATION

85

Dividing through by ∆V yields
(3.14)

∇p = −ρgk
Thus, in component form, we have shown that,
∂p
∂p
=
=0
∂x
∂y

and

∂p
= −ρg
∂z

(3.15)

In addition to demonstrating that a stationary fluid in a gravitational field has a pressure
gradient parallel to the direction of gravitational acceleration, we have also shown that pressure
is a function only of depth. This means p = p(z) and we can replace Equation (3.15) with
the following ordinary differential equation.
dp
= −ρg
dz

(3.16)

We can integrate immediately for fluids such as liquids in which density is constant. The
resulting pressure variation is
p + ρgz = constant
(3.17)
We call Equation (3.17) the hydrostatic relation. It tells us that pressure increases linearly
with depth (remember that negative values of z correspond to increasing depth).
The physical meaning of the hydrostatic relation becomes obvious if we regard the pressure
as a force potential. This is sensible since, by definition, a force potential is a function whose
gradient is a force vector (the standard convention is to include a minus sign). In this sense
pressure is analogous to voltage, whose gradient is proportional to electrostatic force. As
demonstrated in the last section, the net force on an infinitesimal fluid element is −∇p∆V .
Consequently, ∇p is force per unit volume and p is thus the pressure-force potential per unit
volume.
Similarly, the term ρgz is potential energy per unit volume. Thus, Equation (3.17) tells
us that the sum of the pressure-force potential per unit volume and the potential energy per
unit volume is constant. In other words, the hydrostatic relation is a mechanical-energy
conservation principle for a motionless fluid.
Example 3.1 At what depth in a 20o C fresh-water lake is the pressure twice the pressure of the
atmosphere?
Solution. Since the pressure at the lake surface (z = 0) is atmospheric, the value of \constant" in
Equation (3.17) is pa . Thus, the depth at which p = 2pa is given by
2pa + ρgz = pa
Solving for z yields
z=−

pa
ρg

The density of water at 20o C is ρ = 998 kg/m3 , g = 9.807 m/sec2 and atmospheric pressure is
pa = 1.01 · 105 Pa. Therefore,
z=−

1.01 · 105 kg/(m · sec2 )
= −10.32 m
(998 kg/m3 )(9.807 m/sec2 )

where we make use of the fact that 1 Pa = 1 kg/(m·sec2). Thus, the pressure is 2 atm at a depth
of 10.32 m.

Using no breathing equipment.8 psi (note that the density of seawater is 2. [Photograph courtesy of Barbara Wilcox] The hydrostatic relation tells us that the pressure at 130 feet in the ocean is 72. the region from the Earth's surface (z = 0) up to z = 11.. There is a simple model for the atmosphere over the United States known as the U. However.3: Because of the increase in pressure with depth. leading to impaired judgment and a painful condition known as the bends if the diver returns to the surface too rapidly.0 km (6.19) If we knew the variation of temperature T with altitude.16) assumes the following form. their pulse rates have gone so low at these great depths as to be in a state close to death|this practice is not recommended! 3.0 slugs/ft3). dp g =− p dz RT (3.84 miles) is called the troposphere and the temperature decreases linearly with altitude according to T = T0 − αz for 0 ≤ z ≤ 11. S. S. Standard Atmosphere [U. Impaired judgment is very noticeable at a depth of 130 feet.20) . New York City). which can cause the bends.86 CHAPTER 3. Atmospheric air behaves like a perfect gas so that its density is given by ρ= p RT (3. PRESSURE Figure 3. which is the established maximum depth for sport diving. This high a pressure is sufficient to cause nitrogen to dissolve in a diver's bloodstream. sport diving is done no deeper than 130 feet. The hydrostatic relation tells us the pressure is nearly 5 atm at this depth. Standard Atmosphere. S.17). integration of Equation (3. This model represents average conditions in the United States at 40o N latitude (e.19) would be straightforward.g.0 km (3. In the U. Equation (3.3 Atmospheric Pressure Variation The pressure in the Earth's atmosphere varies in a more complicated manner than the simple linear relation in Equation (3. divers have exceeded this depth and risen to the surface rapidly with no ill effects. Government Printing Office (1974)]. The reason for this is the following.18) Hence.

....... S... ... ......... ....50 K/km 288 K (15o C) 218 K (−55o C) USCS Units 18.. .....19) and (3. ... ... ................................................................... .....4 shows the temperature variation in the U. ........ .. .. Standard Atmosphere Property α T0 T1 SI Units 6..... Focusing first on the troposphere............... ..........5 miles) is called the stratosphere...21) p R(T0 − αz) Integrating..4o R (−67o F) Tropospheric Pressure Variation........... . we find that the pressure varies according to  g/(αR) αz p = p0 1 − for T0 0 ≤ z ≤ 11..............3............. .......... ..... ............... Figure 3.... ........ .. .......................... ......... ... .. which is the approximate altitude at which modern airliners fly.. .......... ......... Table 3... .5 kPa (3..7 psi) is the pressure at sea level...................... Table 3.... .............. ... ........ . The exponent g/(αR) in Equation (3............. ........... .1: Properties of the U.... .. ....... . .......... .... . ... .... ......... T = T0 ............... ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE VARIATION 60 z (km) 50 40 30 20 10 87 .. .. .... ... ......... . .............84 mi) to z = 20.. temperature increases in a nontrivial manner............ and denoted by T1 ....... ... Standard Atmosphere............. .......... .... .......... . ............ ................. ....... ..... ...22) is approximately 5...3.. ..... S... .. . ......... ..... .. . ...... S. The region from z = 11.... ...1 km (12.............. 0 200 220 240 260 280 T (K) 300 Figure 3.... .0 km (6..... ............. ............ where the coefficient α is the lapse rate........20) yields dp g dz =− (3... and T0 is the average surface temperature... .. .. .. .............. ...... .... The temperature in this idealized model is constant in the stratosphere............... .... troposphere .............28 psi) at the upper boundary of the troposphere. T0 and T1 in SI and USCS units.......... .. Standard Atmosphere......... . .... ..... .................... ... . combining Equations (3...... .... .......0 km (3.....................4o R (59o F) 392. ..... ....4: Temperature in the U.....................22) where p0 = 101 kPa (14.............. stratosphere . T = T1 ........... .......... .. ....... .... ..... ..85o R/mi 518... with the troposphere and stratosphere clearly indicated..... .. ...... Note that the pressure falls to 22..... .. .... ..... . ........... ..............................26........ . .. Above the stratosphere.......1 lists values of α.. ................... ... . ..... ..

. The prevailing winds in the Los Angeles area are unable to relieve the pollution problem because of this lid.. ...5 km (0.... ... ....... Inversion . ... ..28 psi) follows from insisting that Equations (3. This is the primary mechanism that creates the temperature inversion as in Figure 3.. . Example 3. low pressure air is trapped inside your ears.. PRESSURE Stratospheric Pressure Variation.....1 km (3. . and we sometimes refer to this as an exponential atmosphere. The pressure varies as follows. ... with the heavier cool air trapped near the surface. T1 T0 1/5...... ...... Thus.. in which temperature increases with increasing altitude..... Specifically........... ..22) to compute the altitude in the U. . .2 The cabin pressure in a modern airliner at cruise altitude is typically about 12 psi.... .... .. ... . .. We can use Equation (3. .. This is what causes the \popping" sensation you experience when you yawn and allow the pressure to equilibrate. known as the inversion layer.. S..... we find T0 z= α " 1−  z z1 p p0 .. there is a region in the troposphere.3 mi).. This layer is present because the Los Angeles area is almost completely enclosed by high mountains.88 CHAPTER 3..26 # = 1...... Solution.....4o R = 1− 18. ... Solving for z.. they merely move the smoggy air from one part of the region to another..... T Figure 3.....23) yield the same pressure at the interface between the troposphere and stratosphere...0 psi 14. ......85o R/mi  12..5. .. .. Rather..... ..0 km ≤ z ≤ 20..... Standard Atmosphere..   g(z − z1 ) p = p1 exp − RT1 for 11... . ..04 mi .. As the airplane descends to land. the pressure (and density) fall off exponentially in the stratosphere. . S. As air descends from the mountains.... Estimate the altitude in the atmosphere at which this pressure prevails. . the sun heats it and creates a warm layer that rises above cooler air blowing in from the Pacific Ocean. .... αR/g # " 518........... The inversion layer puts a \lid" on the area that traps surface emissions responsible for smog.. . Standard Atmosphere in a significant manner.. .. The atmospheric temperature variation near Los Angeles (and many other large cities) deviates from the U. typically at an altitude of about 0...5 kPa (3.23) The pressure p1 = 22.. ..5: Temperature variation over Los Angeles........ The integration is even easier in the stratosphere since temperature is constant........... ...7 psi . . . ..22) and (3. .....

.................. .............. . ............ ...... ..... ................................ ..........9).......... .........4.... ....... ........................... .. (3.. ...................... ............e............. .. ...... ........................ ... ............ .. ................... ........................... ... .......... .......................................................................... .... This is the basis of the mercury barometer invented by Torricelli in 1644.. ............................ ..... .......................... ........ ........................ ....... .......... ................. .... ...... .................... ................................. ........... .......... ............. ................... . ............ ..... .... ......... ........................... ...... ....... L.. . ............... ....... .. .. ......... .. ........ ..... ................ ................. .. H2 O ....................... .......... ............... .. ... .. ... ............... ............. . .................. ................................................ .. . ........ .......................................... .... h .................................. .......... ....... Since pressure in the tube above the mercury........................................................................................... . ........ the height......... ... 2 ... .................... .. .... ... ....................... ...... .. ... .... . ....807 m/sec (3.... ...... ............ ...... ................... p4 + ρH2 O gL = p3 (3..... .... . ............ ...................... ....... ........... .................. .............................. ........ . .................. ... Figure 3............... ..... we attach a U-shaped tube containing mercury.................................... .......... .......... is negligible....... .. ................ .. ................ ... ............................................ .................. ...... ................ ...................... ...... ........... ............. ............................ ................................... Hg .... ........................... .. .................. .................. ....................................................... 4 ............ ...............4 89 Manometry The hydrostatic relation tells us that a change in depth is directly proportional to the corresponding change in pressure........ .......................... . ......... ......... ..... .................... ................. there will be a near vacuum in the top of the tube...................................... ... However......................... .... ............................... ..... ......................... ................. Hence........................ ..................... ......... ................................................ ....... ................................. ........................... ∆h .......... ........... ........ ......... ............... pa = 1 atm = 101 kPa..... .. .... ..... .......26) p1 + ρHg g∆h = p2 Similarly..... ..................... ..... ... z = 0 .................... ...... ... The hydrostatic relation tells us that the pressure at Point 2 equals the pressure at Point 1 plus the weight of the column of mercury above......................... .... .... .................................... ........... for atmospheric pressure........... ....... ................... ......... ........ ....... ..................27) h .......... ....... . As shown in Figure 3........ .. ... ............... ............. ... ........................................... because the vapor pressure of mercury is very small (Subsection 1.............................. ............... . ..................... .............. .................24) ρg ρg Thus............................ ......................... ............. Mercury . ............................................ ................. ...4.............................. ................... ..... ......... . ............................. ....... .................. ....... ........ ........ ........ ............ ............ .... ................................. ............. ...................25) The hydrostatic relation is also the basis of a pressure-measurement device known as the U-Tube Manometer..... ......................... The tube is initially filled with mercury and turned upside down when inserted in the container...................................... ............................................... .............................. ............................ ............................. . .......... ................................... ....................................... ...........7: U-Tube manometer.... .................. ..........7............... ........... . ...................... ....... ................................. .......................................... an example of which is shown in Figure 3............... ......... ... ...... ....... .............................................................................. 3 ........ ............................ ........... ...................... ...................... .................................................................. ........... ... .................................... ..... ................................................... .................. ....... ......... . .................................... .......... ................ ..6. . To measure pressure in a channel filled with water (at Point 4)...................................... hHg ...................................... ................. .................................... ..................................................... ........................................ .............................. ... ... Mercury vapor fills the open space above the column of mercury.... ..................................................................... . .... ...... ........ ...... .........3. h h h Figure 3. ..... ........................ ...... ....... ........................... .................................... ......................... ...... .... ..................................4 and Table A............. 1 .................. ............................. ................. ..................................................................... ................................................................................................. .................................................................... The tube is open to the atmosphere at Point 1................................... ......... .... ........................ .................... ................. ............... ....... ............. i..................... ....................................... p................. .................................. .............................. .............. . .......... ................... ... the pressure at Point 3 is equal to the pressure at Point 4 plus the weight of the column of water above.................... .................................................................... ........................ ............ the hydrostatic relation tells us pa − p pa p + ρghHg = pa =⇒ h Hg = ≈ (3........ ............................ .... pa pa .................................... ............ ........... .................. ............................. . ....... ................. ................. ...... ................... ................ . .................... ........................ a barometer consists of a glass tube closed at one end with the open end immersed in a container filled with mercury............... ...................... is 2 h Hg =  101000 N/m   = 760 mm 3 2 13550 kg/m 9. ................... ....... ............................ .......... .... ..... .................................. ....... .... ..... ............... ........ .................... ........................................................... ................ ..... ......... .. .............. ............... MANOMETRY 3....................................................... ....... ................... ................................... .... .............. ........ ......6: Mercury barometer.. .. ..... ............ .. .................. .......... ............................................. ................... ...............

... we have  g   p3 = p0 + ρHggL3 Next. for the column of water..... . .......01% from the value above. .. ... To make the problem a little more interesting........... ... ... ....... . ............ ...................... ...... (3...... .. . ....... ... p1 = p0 + (ρHg L3 + ρH2 O L1 − ρAir L2 )g Using densities corresponding to a temperature of 20o C. .................... .. ......... ...... ........ ........ ......... ......... .. ................. .. ...... .. p1 ≈ p0 + (ρHg L3 + ρH2 O L1 )g This equation indicates that p1 − p0 is 54. ............ H2 O ... .... .. ... .. ................  Solution. ..... ............ ..... ... .. . ... The following example illustrates how this is done when several fluids are present......... ....... .3 Consider the arrangement shown in the figure below......... .. . . ........ .. Since the U-Tube is open to the atmosphere........................ .. with one important word of caution......... . ............ ...... . . .............. ...2 . ∆h. then p1 is the pressure of the atmosphere.. ........ ............... ....... L.. ... .. . .......... . ... .... g ............................ ........ ..... . . pressure can be computed by repeated use of the hydrostatic relation............ PRESSURE Finally.. .......... . ............. .. .. ...... ... ........................ ..... .. p1 .26) and (3...............17).......... .. ... . . .... we have p1 = p2 + ρH2 O gL1 We thus have three equations for the three unknown pressures................. .............. ..... . .... ...... .... .. . we can infer the pressure in the water channel. p2 and p3 .................. . .. . Thus.............. The density of mercury and water are known quantities.. ....... ....... ... which is designed to monitor the pressure at the interface of the water and oil in the tank.... Since L1 .......... .... 3 ................... . . Therefore......... .............. ....................... Working first in the column of mercury... which yields the following.... ....15) only when density is constant......... ..... ......... ......... .... . . . we can neglect the contribution from the trapped air because ρAir  ρHg...... ........... ..... ...... . ........... .......... .3 .. by simply measuring L and the height of the mercury column......... ...... L2 and L3 are all of the same order of magnitude............ ............ . . ............... .... .17) follows from Equation (3........... .. we must stay within the same fluid when applying Equation (3....... . . ....... .. ....27)................................. .. ... ........ is 54.. Consequently.............. ............................... .. .. The measured heights are L1 = 100 mm...... ........ .... . since z3 = z2........... . .. 0 .. When a manometry configuration involves layers or columns of different fluids........ .........28) p4 − p1 = (ρHg ∆h − ρH2 O L)g The implication of Equation (3... Air g ..... .... .. .. Hg ..  2g.... .  .... .. ...... ..........................28) is clear.. we find that the pressure difference........... ............... .... .. ... ...... .......... ........... ........133 kPa|a difference of 0............ Determine the pressure difference p1 − p0 .............. .... ...... L.............. ............ ..........90 CHAPTER 3............ applying the hydrostatic relation in the column of air yields p3 = p2 + ρAir gL2 Finally...... ..................   .. .......... ...... .. .. ............ the hydrostatic relation also tells us that p3 = p2 ............ . and how much of a difference ignoring the contribution from the air makes..................... ... ......... . .... ..... ......... . . .... ..... ............. Since Equation (3........ ..... ... p1 −p0 .. .... ............ .. ........ .............. ρH2 O ....... Example 3....... ... . . ..... . ..... ....................... .. .... . we assume some air has been trapped in the attached manometer........ 1 L1 ... ...127 kPa................. A little straightforward algebra shows that the pressure at the oil-water interface is as follows... we can equate the left-hand sides of Equations (3.......... Oil ...... . ... ................... ... . ....... L2 = 450 mm and L3 = 400 mm.... ......

the \real fun" begins when a fluid moves.5 91 Bernoulli's Equation While there are many important applications in which a fluid is motionless. the ocean or the laboratory. which is an energy conservation principle.. at a given point. i. While the answer is essentially no (there are simple applications where it does. When we derive Bernoulli's equation we will find that several conditions must be satisfied in order for the equation to be valid. often bringing cool breezes and sometimes bringing violent storms. the fluid velocity must have zero curl (∇ × u = 0).e.e. 2. The first four conditions are straightforward and require no further elaboration. i. Viscous effects must be negligible. Although we have arrived at this equation heuristically. the hydrostatic relation is the limiting form of Bernoulli's equation for zero velocity.. The complicated motions involved are rich with interesting phenomena that have fascinated mankind for many centuries. We can reasonably ask if the hydrostatic relation [Equation (3.e. ρgz. It tells us that the sum of the pressure. There are five conditions and they are as follows. 1.17) where we noted that the hydrostatic relation represents conservation of mechanical energy per unit volume. By simply replacing the hydrostatic relation with an equation that includes the fluid's kinetic energy. With some analysis. In Chapter 9. 5. . we replace the hydrostatic relation by 1 p + ρ u · u + ρgz = constant (3. Recall the discussion immediately following Equation (3. Thus. we can show that the curl of a fluid particle's velocity is proportional to the particle's angular-rotation rate about its center of gravity. However. we must determine the appropriate way to represent kinetic energy per unit volume.29) 2 This equation is one of the most famous in fluid mechanics literature and we call it Bernoulli's equation. it can be rigorously derived. The flow must be incompressible (ρ = constant). Therefore. has any relevance for a fluid that is moving. The flow must be irrotational. The flow must not be changing with time. most notably for constant velocity). in the presence of a gravitational field. we arrive at one of the best known equations in fluid-flow theory. it must have (∂u/∂t = 0).5.3. If ρ and u are the fluid density and velocity. 3. and potential energy per unit volume. 4. The Earth's atmosphere is in continuous motion. respectively. to include kinetic energy. That is. only forces that can be defined in terms of a force potential (f = −∇V where V is a force potential). Clearly. The fluid must be subject only to a conservative forces. which we will do in Chapter 9.17)]. 12 ρ u · u. then the kinetic energy of a fluid particle with volume ∆V is 12 ρ∆V u · u and the corresponding kinetic energy per unit volume is 12 ρ u · u (this quantity is also referred to as the dynamic pressure or dynamic head). fluids are in motion for any vehicle that moves in the atmosphere. is constant.. we will see explicitly why Bernoulli's equation holds only in a restricted way when a fluid particle rotates and tumbles as it moves. our knowledge of basic physics tells us that total energy is conserved. i. Blood flows throughout your body on a continuous basis. The last condition is more subtle and deserves a bit more discussion. kinetic energy per unit volume. p. this requires first developing the differential equations governing fluid motion. BERNOULLI'S EQUATION 3.

.. .......... ..... ... . ... ........ .... .... .... You may assume that. . .... . as is generally true for thin jets. . ....... . . . .. .. ... ..... .. . ... .. . ......... . .. .... ....... ..... . . .. . . .. .. . .. ..... ..... .... ........... .... . . ... .. ..... ... . .... ... .. .. .... ...... ...... .. . ... .. . ... .... ....... . ....... . .... .... . .... . . . ... ..... ........ . ..... .. . .. .... .. . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . ... ... . ..... .......... ... ... . ....... .. ........ .. anywhere we wish........ ... . ... ... . . the surrounding air impresses atmospheric pressure...... ... ..... .. . ...... .. . .... .. .. . you create a suction on the top surface that causes the paper to rise. ..... . . ..... .... .. .. . ... . . . ... .. .... . ... . ... . . . ..... ..... .. . .. but when done correctly....... .. ..... .. . ... . . . .... ....... .................. . .... .. .. .................. .... .. .. From Bernoulli's equation...... . . . .... . .. .. ..... .. . . . ...... . . . A jet of fluid issues from the hole with velocity U .......... . .. .... ..... .. . . .. . . . . ... .. . 0 ..... .. . . .... ...... .. .. ....... ...... .. ... .. . . .. . ... .. ... . ...... ... ......... ............ ....... .. ..... .... ...... . . .. .. .. .... . ..... .. .... .. ... .. . ... . ... .... ...... .. . . . . ... . .. .. .. .. ..... .. ........ . ... .. . ..... . ..... .. . .. ...... ...... .. . .. . . ......... .. ..... .... ..... . .. .. .... . .. . .... . .. . ...... ... .. . . PRESSURE AN EXPERIMENT YOU CAN DO AT HOME Contributed by Prof....... . ... .... . ..... .. ...... . .... . . ..... . . ..... . . ... .. ......... .. .... ... .. .. .. . . . .... .. .. .. .. .. . ........ . ..... ....... . .. ..... ........ .. ..... ..... ... . ... ....... ........ . .... ... .. ..... .. . . .... ....... . . . . .. ..... . . . ........ . ... . .. it should be clear that by creating a moving stream of air over the top of the paper. .. .. . . . .... .. . .... . ......... .... . . ... ...... . . . . .. . . .. .... ... . Thus... ..92 CHAPTER 3. . .. . U .. .... . . ... . ....... ...... ... ....... . ...... . ...... .. . .. ..... .. ... . . .... .. .. .. . ..... . .... ... .. .. . .... .............. ... ... . ....... ......... Thus.. ........ . ........... ... .. . .. . ...... . . .... .. ... .. . .... . .... ..... .... . ...... ...... .. . .. ... ...... . . . .... .... .4 Consider a large tank with a small hole a distance h below the surface. .. ... . .......... . .. ..... ...... . ... .. .... .... .. .... . .......... . ...... .. .. . .... . throughout the jet.... .... .... ..... .. ..... ..... .. ..... ..... ... d . . ...... ... . . ..... ... ... .... .... . h. .. . .... . ... ............... . ..... .... ... .. .... ....... ..... .... . .. . .. ... ... ..... . ........... . ... ........ . . .. .. . . .... ... . .. ....... . ........ . . . ...... .. .. .. .. .... d. . . ..... .. .. .. .. .. ... . Bernoulli's equation tells us that 1 p + ρ u · u + ρgz = constant 2 The tank is open to the atmosphere so that the pressure at the top of the tank is also pa .. .... ... ........... ....... .. ... .. ... ..... . . .... D......... .. . .. ..... . . .. . .... . .... ... .... . ..... . . .. ...... .. .... ... ... .. . ρgh...... ... .. .. ... . ... . .. ..... ... .. . o... ... .. . . . . .. .. ... ...... ... . ... . ... .... .... . .......... .......... . . . . ....... .. .. .... ... . . .... ..... .. . . ..... .. .... .. ... ..... ..... .... .... ... . .. ...... ... .. .......... ....... .. ..... .. ..... ............ . . .. ... ... .. . . ... ... .. .. . ...... ... .. ...... .. .... ... .... .... ... . . . .... .. .. .. . . . . ... .... ..... . . .. ...... . . ... . ... ......... .. . ... . .. . ... . .. ...... .. . .. . .... .. .. ...... .. .. .. . .. ... .. . .............. ... .. ....... ........ ........ . . . . ... ...... . ........... .... ... .. . . .. .. . . . ..... . . .... .. .. ....... . . . . .. . .. .... .. ... . ..... .. . . .. . ....... . .. .... ...... . ...... . .. .. .. . . . . . ..... . .. . ......... .. ..... . . .. ... . . .. .... ..... .. . .... . ... .. Blow gently.. .... .. ...... . . .... .. ... . . . ..... . ... ...... ... ... a thin sheet of paper such as toilet paper. . ... ..... ... . .. .. . . . ... .. .. . ... .... . .. ... . ... is very large compared to the diameter of the small hole............ ... . .... ... . ... ........... .. .. .. . .. .. .. ... ...... . ... .. ... . .. ... .. . . .... ... ... ... ... . . .... . . . ..... ...... .. . .. ... .. ... .. . .... ... . ... ........... ... . .. .... ..... .. .. . ...... .... . ... ....... . .. .. .. .. .... so that only the difference in potential energy between the surface and the jet... . ... ... ... .. d. . .... . . . .. .... .. . .... ..... . ........ . . ... . .... .... .. . .. ..... ... ... . .. . .. . .. . .. .... ........... .. .......... . .. ...... ... ........... .. .... . ... ... .... .... ... .. ... .... . . .... ........ ....... . . . . .... ..... ....... ........ . .............. ........... .... . ....... ....... .... .. .. . ........ .. .. ..... . . ....... .. ...... .. . .. . . .... ..... . .. . This is true since the potential energy appears on both sides of this equation... .. ... ... .... . . . . ..... .. .. ... ..... . ........... Example 3... .. . . .... .. ... .. ... ... ..... ............ . ... . .. is very large compared to the diameter of the small hole.. . . .. .. ......... . .... .............. .. .... ...... . .... .. .. . .. ... . ... . .. .. .... .... . ...... . . ......... . ... ............. ..... . . ...... .. ..... . ..... ... . . ... ..... . . ... ... .. . .. .. . . .... ... . . ... .... ...... .. ... .. ... . .... ......... .... ...... ... ........ . .. ...... ... . . . ......... .. .... . . ..... .. . .. .... .... .. . ... . ... . .. . . .... ... ... .... . ... ... . ...... . ....... .. . . .. ... . ...... ... . . . ..... . .. ...... .. ... ..... . . .............. .... It may take a couple practice tries. .... ... .. .. .... ... . . ... .... ... . ..... ... . . . . . .. ......   D . . ... . . ...... ... . ..... . .... .. ... .... ....... . ... .. determine U .... .. . . . ...... ...... . ... .. .. ...... ... .... .. . .... .. .. . ..... .. .. .. .. .. ......... . ... . .. ... .. ... ..... ..... ... ........... . . . . ......... . .. Assuming the tank diameter..... ... ...... . .. .. . . . . .. ..... . . . . . . ...... ..... . . .... .. ......... ... ..... h .. .... ... . . ... .. .......... p = pa z= . ... .... .... ... .. ......... ..... .. . ...... . .... . . ... ..... ... ...... . .... . .... . ........ .. .. .. ........ . ..... . ..... .. . . ...... . .. ... .. Hence. .... ........ ....... .. . . . . . .. ...... . .. ... .. .... ........ . .. . ..... ....... ... .. . the pressure decreases.... . ... .... ........ .. ...... . . ...... . .. . ......... .... .. . .. .... ... ... . .. ..... . ... ...... ..... ........ .... ... ... . z = 0. . ...... .. ..... .. .... .... . . . ......... ... .............. .. .... ... .. . .. ... ..... . . ... .. . ..... . ... ........ . .... ........ .... .... . ....... . .... ... .. . . . . ... . ...... . ...... . .. ........ . . .. . ........ . ... ........... . .. .. .. ........ .. . .. ..... .. .. ....... .. .............. ... ... ... . . . .... . .. . .. ..... ...... .. ...... .. Grasp the paper in each hand and hold it up to your mouth. . .. . .... . ........ . the paper will rise to a horizontal orientation. ............ ... ... ..... .. .. ... . ...... pa . ........ ...... .. . . . . ... . ... .. ........ .... .. . .. ........ . ..... .... . .. .... . .. .... ... .. . ... . . ... . ...... .. ............ ... .. .. . .. . .... . .. .... ....... .. Peter Bradshaw.... . . ... . .. . .. . .. . ... ..... ... ... ... ..... ..... .. . ...... .... ....... . .. ....... .... . .. .. .. . .. .. . . ... .. ... .... ... ...... .. . . ... ... .... . . ... .. . . Solution.. . ... ... ... .. .. . .. ..... ..... . .. ...... .... ............. . .. .. ....... ...... .. . . .. ...... ..... .. ..... . . . . .... ... .. . .... . .. ... . ........... .. ..... ... ...... . .. .. . .... . .. . . . ... ... ... ... . .... . . .... . ..... . .. . ..... .... . .... . ..... ...... ........... ............ .... .. .... ..... . ...... ... . . ... .. .. ... . . . .. .. .. .. ....... .... . ....... ..... ... ........ . . . ... ...... .. . .. .. .... ..... ..... .. . .... ... . .... .. . ... ....... . .... .. .... ............. ...... . being careful that you blow only on the top side. ... . ..... ... . ..... .. ......... ... ... ......... . . .. . .. ........ .. .. .... ..... ..... . ... ...... .. ... .. ρ ... .. .. . . ..... ......... .. ..... . ..... . ... . . . ... . .. . ..... p = pa .. ... .................. .. .... .. . ..... . . . ... .... ....... .. ... . .... .... ..... .... .. .... ... ...... .. .. ..... Since the tank diameter.. .... ... . .. . . . . ... . . . .. . .. matters.... ...... .... ....... .. . .. . .... . .... . .. . .. .... .. .... . .. . .. .............. .. .. .... ........... . .... . .. . . . ..... . . . ... ..... .. ........ ..... . You might even want to try all of the types of paper noted above to observe that you must blow harder for the more massive sheets.. . .. ...... . ............ ....... ..... .. . ... . .. . ..... ...... . .. . . . .. . ... . ..... .. . .. .... . . ... ....... .. ... ... .. ...... .. .. . . ... . ... . . ........... .. ...... Stanford University To observe one of the implications of Bernoulli's equation..... ...... . ... . . . ... .. ... ......... .... ... ... .. . . ... .. .. ...... . or even a sheet of notebook paper. .. .... .... ... ... we can ignore the velocity of the fluid at the top of the tank.. ....... .. . .. ... .. ... . .. ... .. you will need a paper napkin.... . .. .. . .. .. . ...... . . .... . . .... .... . ..... ...... ...... .. .... ........ .. ... ... ...... .. . . .. . .. .... .... .... .. .... .. .. . . . ... . .. .. .. . .... . . we can use Bernoulli's equation to relate a point at the top of the tank to a point in the jet to show that pa + ρg(h + ho ) = pa + 1 ρ U 2 + ρgho 2 Note that we can set the origin... ..... ....... .. . .. . ... .. . ...... . .. . the velocity in the jet is given by U= p 2gh ........ ... . .... .. . ... ....... . D... ... . . ..... ......... ........ .. .. .. . . . ......... . .. .. . .. ...... . . .. . . . ....... . . ..... .......... ... . ... . .. . . ... . .. . .. ...... ................ . .... .. ...... .. . .... . . . .. . . . .. . ... ..... .. . .. . .... ... .... . .. . ... . . .... . ......... . . . ... .. . .... .. .. ..... ..

................................................................... ................................................................................................................. ........................ .......................................... The most important point about using Bernoulli's equation in this way is that.............. Since the flow is uniform far upstream.............................................................................................. ................ ............................................................................. ...3.......... ................... .... ........................... the pressure must be atmospheric so that p = pa .................................. Also............... U2 ...... ........................................................ ............................. Air ...................................... ..................... ................ we seek a point that lies very far from solid boundaries where the flow is uniform............ the resulting equation applies at every point in the flow...... .............................. .......... we make use of the fact that the surrounding air impresses atmospheric pressure.............................................. ......................................................................................................... ........... ........5............ z=0 Solution............ ................................................... .......................................... .. ........ ................. ................................ ........ ....................................................................... BERNOULLI'S EQUATION 93 In Example 3.... ............................................................................................................................. .................................... .................. 1 .......................................... ........... since p = pa in the jet of fluid issuing from the tube............... ...................... ...................................................................... ...................................................... ................e............................... z .......................................................... ........................ ................................ .......... .................... ................ ....... we expect the flow to be uniform with velocity u = U1 i....... ..... ....... ................. . .. .......... .................................. .................................. ...................... ........................... . .... .... .... ... pa ..... Thus. ............... Then............ ...... .................... ................................................... we find pa + 1 1 ρ U22 + ρgz2 = pa + ρ U12 2 2 wherefore U2 = p U12 − 2gz2 Provided we are not too close to either the tube or the bottom................................................................. ................................ correspondingly........................ ρ ............... ............... ......................................................... .................................... we have 1 1 p + ρ u · u + ρgz = pa + ρ U12 2 2 Hence...................................................................................................... It involves flow with what we call a free surface.................................................................................. ..................................................................................................... .................. ......................................... . .. ................................. viscous effects would result in nonuniform velocity near the bottom............ ................................ .. ....... ................................. .......... The following example illustrates how to implement Bernoulli's equation in this manner........................ we also know that the velocity is U1 ....... ................... ..... ............................................... ...... ........................ ........................... ......................................................................... .......................5 Consider water flowing with uniform velocity........................................................ ............................................................... ....................................................................................... ....................................... Often it is helpful to determine the \constant" in Bernoulli's equation by evaluating each term at a point in the flow where all terms are known.......................... ..................................... ............. In a real fluid....... . in the moving stream............................................................. the velocity will deviate from the freestream value and..................... .......... ............................................................... .......... ..... ........................................................................................... .......................................................................... ......................... . . ...................... ... throughout the jet of fluid issuing from the tube..................... ............................... x ........................................................ which would also cause the pressure to differ from the hydrostatic value.. ............................ the pressure satisfies the hydrostatic relation................ .... .... Clearly...............4................. ......................................................... ........................................ Determine the velocity of the water leaving the tube at a height z2 above the surface....................... . ....... Bernoulli's equation becomes 1 1 p + ρU12 + ρgz = pa + ρU12 2 2 =⇒ p = pa − ρgz Thus...... . ..................................................... ........................................ ...................................................... .. Example 3............................... .................................................. ..................... As in the preceding example..................................................... ........ ............................. ................................................................. ....... .................................................................................................................... ...................... ............... ... we used Bernoulli's equation to relate conditions at two specified points in the flow..... The water enters a uniform-diameter tube at some point below the surface..................................................... determine the pressure in the primary stream of fluid............. ...... U ................................... ................................................ ....... U1 .............................. Water.............................. ............ ................. ................................... ..................... ............................ ................... .... ........................... ..... ............................... ......................................... ............................. because we have selected one universal reference point.......... .............................................................................. ............................................. .................................................................... .................................................... the potential energy is zero.............. ............ ............. ........................................... ................................................ ............................................................................................. ........... i........................................... ......... .............. Typically.......... ................ z2 ........... ........... ............ ...................... .......... ............ .............................................. as shown in the figure.................. .................... one point where we know everything about the flow is at the free surface very far upstream................................... ..... .......................................................... .. .......................................................... Because of the interface with the air............. Close to the tube.................... the pressure will depart from the hydrostatic relation...................... ............... Letting the free surface lie at z = 0..................................... a flow with an interface between a liquid and a gas............

............. we discuss two measurement devices known as the Pitot tube and the Pitot-static tube.. ................ Also... .. .......2 Pitot Tube The Pitot tube is one of the simplest devices based on Bernoulli's equation that provides an indirect measurement of velocity. .. very close to the front of the cylinder we must have zero horizontal velocity...... ......... ................... ..... . .... u=0 (Stagnation Point) (3.. ... ........ .... . . ...... .....8 illustrates ideal (i. ............. . This is useful because pressure is fundamentally easier to measure than velocity............................ .. To understand how this is done... . ....... .. . ......... ......... .... . ..... .. .. ... .. .... For ... .............. . ...........6...... v ... . ... ...... .......... . .. ........ ... ............ .......... .. .... .......... Since the contours are parallel to the velocity there is no flow across (normal to) streamlines... . .......... .... x... ....... .. Because there is no flow across a solid boundary...........30) So....... the dividing streamline and the cylinder surface..... . ........ .. .. ... ... ....... ....... . .. ... . .. .... .. ...... . ..... ........... ... ..... . .. ............. ... ... .... ........... ....... ... .. .. ..... ......... ..... ... ..............9 illustrates flow in the immediate vicinity of a Pitot tube placed a distance d below the surface in a flowing stream of water.......... .... ... ........ ...... ..... .... necessarily the vertical velocity component.. Figure 3........... . ..... . .. . ...... . ....... ....... . ... ....... namely...... ... .. ... ......... .. and we refer to these points as stagnation points................... ..... .. .... . ...................... •.. ....... . ... Points....... . .......... . which means fluid particles move along the streamlines. ......... ..... ............................ ........ . ... The streamlines rejoin at the back of the cylinder... This streamline splits at the front of the cylinder so that half of the fluid moves over the cylinder and half moves below... .. ...... .. ..... v.. . . ........... . ............ ........ ....... .. ............. .. .... ....94 CHAPTER 3.................. .. . . . .... . .........8) in order to have flow tangent to the surface......... ........ ....... ...... ...... ....... .. ... . .. 3.. ......... ....... Stagnation ... ...... ...... ......... ......... ...... .. .... ........ . . ..... ............ We call the streamline coincident with the x axis upstream and downstream of the cylinder the dividing streamline........ . ....... . ...... .................. ..... ...... .... . ............. . ....... . ... ..... .. PRESSURE 3... ..... .. .... ............... .. ........ .. on the surface (see Figure 3.. ....... ............. ....• ................... .......... .................. . ................... ....... .4)..... ............ . y...... ............... ..... ... . since streamlines are parallel to the velocity.. ........................ .................. .... ........ .. ... ..............1 Stagnation Points Figure 3.......... ... ..... .... ...... ........ ........... ............ ..... ........... . .... .. .. . ......... .... ... . we must first introduce the notion of a stagnation point...... . Specifically. ... .. .... ........ .. . . . Then..... ............................ .. ..............e....... ... .............. u=0 .. 3... ... ...... we have two points on the cylinder where the velocity vanishes. .. ... Figure 3......... We have a very special situation at these two points.......... we have the intersection of two perpendicular streamlines..... ........ ...... .... ....... ................ ........... u.. ..... .............. . ...... ............... Now..... .. .. at the point where the streamlines collide....... ..... ....... ...8: Ideal flow past a cylinder.......... .... ..... The figure includes several contours that we call streamlines (we will discuss streamlines in detail in Section 4.... ............... ..... on the dividing streamline must be zero approaching the cylinder.... .... .......... ..... .. ..... ................ ... frictionless) two-dimensional flow past a cylinder....... ............... . ... .. ...... ............... These are contours that are everywhere parallel to the flow velocity........... ...... .... u ... ... . ...... ............ ........ the cylinder surface is a streamline.... ... . .... ... ... .6..................... .6 Velocity-Measurement Techniques We can use Bernoulli's equation to infer velocity from a pressure measurement. Thus.. . .

........ Water........................................................................... which is open to the atmosphere. Hence.........g................. ......... .. .......... ..... ........ .............................................................................................. . ................... ....................... ......... As we will now show..................................................................... .. ................. . .................................................... ..... .. .................................................. . ................... for moving fluids...................................................... ......... ................. ...................................................... ..................... ........... ........ ρ ........................ .......... At this point. .............................................. ....... ......................... .................................... It is thus the analog.................................................................... ... h........................................... .......................................... .................................................. ........ ................................................................................ ................. ................. ............................... ..................................... pa .......................................................................................... ....................................... U1 ................. ............................ ........... ........ ............................ p U1 = 2gh (3..... ...31) We can evaluate the constant by selecting a point in the flowfield where the values of pressure..... and z = d (note that we are choosing the origin to be coincident with the lower portion of the Pitot tube)........................................... .................. and requires a point where velocity and pressure are both known... ....................... . Air .... .. .............................................. .... .......... this device permits determining the velocity by a simple measurement of the distance the fluid rises above the surface................... . ................... ............. ................ .................... ... ..................................... .. ........................................................ ................................................... ............ .....3).... ......................... ............... of the U-Tube manometer discussed in Section 3...... .... ................. 1 constant = pa + ρ U12 + ρgd 2 (3...34) While the Pitot tube permits a correlation between the height of a column of fluid and the fluid velocity.................................................................................. .................... ............................................................ ........ .............. .............................................................................................. .......... .. U1 ................. ................ ............................................. ................................ .... ... .............. .......... ............................ .............. The device has no provision for flows in which the velocity varies with z........................ ....................... ............ . ................................................ .................... .9: Pitot tube......... ................................................................................... .............................. e....... ........ ...... ................ ...... ........................................................................ Bernoulli's equation tells us that for this flow we have 1 p + ρ u · u + ρgz = constant 2 (3...................................... ............................ ........................................ ..... .... ............ ................ . ...... .......... there must be a stagnation point at the tube's entrance below the surface..... Stagnation Point ....... ........................................................ .......................... ............................4. ................................. .......... ... · Figure 3.... ........... ......................................................................................................... velocity and z are all known................................. .................. ........................ .. ......... ......... .......... .......................................... . we know the pressure is pa .............. VELOCITY-MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 95 precise measurements........................................ ................... .................... .............. .. .........33) Simplifying......... it is clearly limited to flows with uniform velocity.................... ....... ................... .. ....................... ....... ......................... .... ..... ........................... ........................................... applying Bernoulli's equation. ......................... ................. ........................................ ............ ........ ...... ... the tube must have a very small diameter such as that characteristic of a hypodermic needle....... ............ the pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure...................................... ...... ......................... we arrive at the following straightforward relation between the flow velocity and the height of the column of fluid in the Pitot tube.............. ..................................................... Now. ............................... ....................... ............... ........... ................................................... .................................. ... .........................32) Now.............. ...... . Because the fluid in the tube cannot move.................. As with the vertical-tube example considered earlier (see Example 3.................... at the top of the tube.............................. .................................................................................. .............................................. ..... ............. ..3............... .... ......................................................... ................. ..... ............................................................................... the velocity is zero and z = d + h........ .................................6...... z = 0 ...................................................................... ............................................................................................................ . ............................................ ....... ................. ...................................... .................. .............................................................. ............... .... ................................... ... d .......... As shown.......... ..........................................9 where viscous effects are important. ............................... .......... we select a point far upstream of the Pitot tube at the free surface............................................ ...................................................................................... .................................... ............................................... ............................................ ..................... ........ ......... we have 1 pa + ρg(d + h) = pa + ρ U12 + ρgd 2 (3..... ........................................... .. .... .. ... near the bottom of the channel shown in Figure 3....................................................... ................................. ........ ....................................................... .................. the water fills the Pitot tube up to a point a distance h above the free surface................... ................................ .............. ........................... ... the velocity assumes its freestream value..................... .... .......... Hence.

........6. pstag Stagnation Point..................... PRESSURE 3.... we can ignore the difference in depth of the stagnation point and the static pressure tap...... Therefore the local velocity is given by s U = 2 (pstag − pstatic) ρ (3.. also referred to as the static pressure... pstatic .... u = 0 Ui ..... ... Assuming the tube is extremely thin (as it must be to avoid changing the flow)... pstag .... ... .. The second measurement is at a point downstream of the probe tip sufficiently distant (typically 8 tube diameters) that the flow has returned to its freestream value.... Static Pressure...3 Pitot-Static Tube The Pitot-static tube is a measuring device based on Bernoulli's equation that can be used for more general velocity distributions... .... ... The first measurement is done with a standard Pitot tube........ Hence..........96 CHAPTER 3. The pressure at this point is the freestream pressure. ....35) 2 That is.... the stagnation pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure........ Because this is a stagnation point.. ... Stagnation Pressure.... . ...... Inc.10: Pitot-static tube..... from Bernoulli's equation. c Audie Technology.. ...10 schematically depicts a Pitot-static tube..11: Hand-held Pitot-static tubes used in the automobile racing engine industry.... .......... ......... ........ pstatic Figure 3.. the Pitot tube measures the stagnation pressure..36) Figure 3... . ............ 1 2 2 ρ U ......... Figure 3.... u≈Ui  .. . · u≈Ui ...... This device makes two separate pressure measurements........ we have 1 pstag = pstatic + ρ U 2 (3.... U .. which measures the pressure at the tip of the probe. .] [Photograph courtesy of and ...

... . ........ . ..... ... ......... ........ ........ . . ..... .. .. . .. ... . . . .... ... ... ........ .. .. ..... .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .... ....... . ..... .. ... . . . ... . . ... ........ .. .. .. .. .. ... . . . .... .. .. . .. . . ... .. . .. . . . .. . .. ....... .. .............. We can illustrate the problem more explicitly by introducing the hydrostatic relation... . .. . . . . ... . . ... ....... . .. . ........ . . .. ..... .... . . . . . .. . ... ... .... ... . . .... .... .. . ... .. . ...... ... . .... ... ..... ..... .. ....... .... ..... ... ...... .. .. .... ... .. . . . . . ....... . .. ..... ..... ... .. . ... ... .. . ... ... ... . .. .. ... .. ..... .... . ... .. ... .. . . .... .. .... .38) A This integral depends. . ... ..... . .. .. .... ....... ............... . ..... . .... ..... . .. .... .. . . .. ... .... .. . . .. ... .. ... .. ...... ... ......... .. .. . . ...37) Turning now to the vertical surface to the right.. . . . ......... . ... ... . ........ ... ....... .. ... . . . .. ... . . .. ... . . ....... . . ... ... . .... . .. ..... .... ... ... ... .... ..... .. .. . .. . . ... ...... .. .... . . . .. ..... . . ... . .. ... .. .7... . . .. ..... . .... ...... ... . . ........ .. ..... .. .. . .. ... .. .. ..... ... . .. .. ...... ... . ... ...... . .. ... .. ... .... .... ........ ..... ... . . . ......... .. . .. ...... ... . .. . ... . ....... .. ...... ....... . . ... ................. ...... . ZZ F = (pa − ρgz) dA (3. . .. ... ..... . . . .. ... . ... .. . . ... .. .. on the detailed shape of the object... ... ... . . . . .. .. .. ... .......... . .. . ......... ...... . ..... . ... ..... .. .... ..... .. .. ... .. .. . ..... ... .. ..... .... .... .. F = ...... .. .. .... .. . . ... . . .. ... of course. ..... . .. . . ... ... .. is F = (pa + ρgh)A (3.... ... . ... .... . . ..... .. .. F ........ . ..... .. ... .... . .. . . . .... . ... ........ ... .. . . . .. .. ..... .. . .... ... .. . .... ....... . ..... . .. . ...... . .......17). ... ..... .. .. .............. ... ..... . . . .... . .. .. .. .. ..... ... .. ..... . . . ....... . ..... . . . .. ...... .. . . .. . .. .... .. ρ . ... ....... .. . ... .. ... ..... .. Equation (3... . ... ...... ... .. ...... .. . ... . . ..... .. ..... ...... . . ... .. .... .... .... . .... ......... . . .. ........ . ....... .... .. .. . . we must integrate the varying pressure over the area of interest. .. . .... ... .. ...... .. . .. ..... ... . . .. .... . ... . ... . ...... .. .. .. ... . .... .. .. . .. . ..... . . ... .. ...... . ... . .. ..... . .. .. . ..... .. . . . .. .... .. .... .. . .... ... ... ...... . . ....... .. ..... . ...... . .. .... . . ..... . ....... . . .. ...... What is the velocity of the helium? Solution. ........... . ..... . ..... . . ...... .. . .. . .... . .. .... . . ... .. .. . . . . .... ... ... ..12. ... . .. . . .. .. .... ............ ... . .... ... ...... .. ....... .... . . . ... ...... .. . . .. ... . ... . .. ... .. . . ... .. .. . .. ... .... ...... . .. . . ..... .. ....... .. . .. ....... .. . .. ......... .......... .. ........ .... ... ..... .. ...... .... . .. ... . ................ . . ..... .. . .... ... . .. .. . . .... .. ... ...... .. . . .... . . .. .... . ........ . .. . .. ... . ...... . .. . ...... . . ... . ....... ...... . ... .. .. . ... .. .. . .. .. ..... .. ... . ..... .... ...... . ......... . .. .. .. . ... . .... ....... ..... ........ When the surface is inclined to the horizontal we must work a bit harder to evaluate the force.... ..... . . ... . ...... ..... .. .. . .. .... ...... ... ...... . .. .. . ..... . ..... .. . ...... . ... .. . .. . .. ..... . .. ... . . ... p dA ... . .... . . . ... ... ..... as illustrated in Figure 3. Specifically.. .. ..... .. ........ ..... ....... ... . .. .. .. .. . ... ...... ..... ... .... ... ....... .... . ....... . .. . .. .... .... ... . the force on a submerged horizontal surface of area A is simply F = pA.. .. . . .. .... ... . .. ..... ..... ...... ..... . . . . ... .... .. ..... .. ... .. .. . ... . ... .. ...... . . . . ....... .... . .. . .. .... . . .. .. . .. . . ...... . ... .. ... .. . . . ... .. . .. .... .... . . . .. . ... ... ... . . .. ... .. . ...... . . . . ....... .. .. . . .. .... ... ... ...... . ... . .. ........ . .. . . . ... ........ ..... . ... . respectively... ... .... . .... .. .. . ........ ... ...... ......... ..... .. ... . ... . . . .... ..... ........ ... ...7 2(103000 − 101000) N/m2 m = 158 sec 0....... . ...... ..... .... ... ... . .. .... ... . ...... . .. .. . ... . . . . . . .... .... ....... .. . . ... . . .. .. ..... ... ... F = pA . . .... . ... ...... .. .... ...... . ....... ... ...... .. . . . ...... . . . .... .. ... ..... ... . .. . . ...... . . .. ... .... . ... .... . .. . .. . ....... .. . ... .. .. ... .... .. .. .... ... .. . . .... ... ............ .. ....... ... ... ...... . ... . .... . .. .. ... .. ....... . . .. . .. .... . ... ... . . ... . .... ....... ... .. ..... .. ...... .. ....... .. ...... .. we have the following equation for the force acting on the left side of the object....... ...... . ...... . . . ... . . . .. . ..... . . .. ....... ... .16 kg/m3 . ..... ... . ...... .. . ... ... .. . . .. ..... .. . .. .. .... ... . ... .. ... . . .. . .. ....... .. ...... .. ... . . ... .... ... ... .. .. ... .. ...... .. . . . . ..... ... ...... .............. ... . .. ........ .. .... ... . . . . . ... . .. ...... .. .... . .. .. the flow velocity is s U = 3. ..... then the force on the upper surface of the object....... .. . ........... .... . ... .. . . . . .... ..... ...... .... . .. ..... .. .. .. . .. .. ... .. . . .. .. .... . ... .. .. ..... . ... . .. ... ... . ...... . .. . ........ .... .. .... . ...... . .. .. the Pitot-static tube is not limited to uniform velocity distributions....... .. .. where p is the pressure at the specified depth.. . .... .... .. ... ... ....... ....... ..... ...... .... .. . .. .... . ...... . . .... .......12... .. . ... . .. . .... . . . ... . . . .. ........ Using Equation (3.. . Example 3. . ...... . ..... .... .. ... . .. ... .... . . .. .. . .. . .... . ......... .. .......... .. . . . . . .. . ... . ..... . . ... .... . ....... ... ....... ... . .. . . . ... ...... ... .. ... . .... ... . ...... . . ... . . . . .. ... . .. .. . ..... ... .. .. . HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON PLANE SURFACES 97 Clearly...... ...... .. ... ... . ... ......... . . . . ........... . ..... . ... .. .. . .... .... .. . .... ..... . ..... . . . . . .... . . ........ .. . . . . if the plane is a distance h below the surface (so that z = −h) and the area of the surface is A. . ...... ... ... ... ... ... . ... .......... .. ..... .. ........... . . .. . .... ......... . .. .. ... .. ... . .. . . .... . . .. .... . .... . ... . ..... .. . ..... .. ... . . .... .... .. .. . ....... .. . .... .. ... ... .... . .. ... .... ... .... it is one of the most useful tools in experimental fluid mechanics. . ........... . .............. . . ... . .... ... ... . . .. ...... . ... ... . .... .. ... . . The stagnationand static-pressure taps read 103 kPa and 101 kPa. . . . ..... . .. ..... .. ... ..... ..... . .... ... . ... . .. ... .. . .. .... . .. ...... .. . .... . . ....... . ...... .. . . . . ... . . . .... . . . .. . ... . .. . . . .. .... ...... . .... .. . . . .. .... ... .. . .. .. .. . ZZ Figure 3. . . .. .. .. . . .. .... ... . ..... .. .. . ..... ... ... .. . .... . ..... .. ....... .. . ... .... .. . . . ... . ....... .. . . . . ..... . .. ......... .. ... .. . . .. .... ... ... . .. . .... . ... ...... ... . ... . . .... . .. . .. ..... . . .. ... ...... . . .... ... ... .. . ....... ... . . . . . . .... . .... .. . ........ ... .... .. . .... . . .. ....... ..... .... .. .. ... . .... .... . . .... . . . ......... .. ... .. ..... ..... .. ... . .. ... . ...... .. .. Thus..... . .. .. .. . ... ... . . ... ...... .... .. . .... .. .. .... . ..... ... ...... . .. .... ...... ...... . . .... .. .. .36).... .. ...... ... .. . . .... ..... .. ..... ... . ... A . .... . ..... ...... . .. . ... .. . ..... . ........ ... .. . .... . .... . .... ..... . . . .. .. . . .. . . ..... . .. ..... .. . ... . ......... . ... ...... . ........ . . ............... .. . ... ... ... ... ........... ... .... . . .. ..... .. .. . .. .......... . ....... . . . ..... . .......... .... .... Although somewhat sensitive to misalignment with flow direction. . ..... . ..... . ....... ... ........ ........ .. . . . . .. ... . ... . .. . ... .. ..... ... .. .. . ...... .... . .... ... ... .. .. .. .... . ... . . . Focusing first on the horizontal planar object to the left in Figure 3.... . . .. ... .. ..... . .. ....... . .. .. . ... . . ..... .. . ..... .. . . ... .. .. . . . . .... ... .... . .. . . ..... ........ .. .... . ..... .. . . .... . .... . .... .. ... .. ... .. .. . . .16 kg/m3 Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces The hydrostatic relation.... . .... . .. ... .... ... . . . ..... .. .... .... ...... . . .. .... . . . ... .. . .. .... . ......... . ..... .. . .. . . . .. .. ......... . ............ .... . . . . .. . . .. .. . ..... ..... . ... . ... . . ... ........ . .. . . ... . .. ..... . .. . . . . .. ... ... .. ... ..... . .. . .. ... ... . .... .... .. .. . .... ......... .. .... .. . ... .. . .. . .... .. .... .. ... . ... . ... . . . . .... .... ... .. .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . ..... .. .. . . .. . ....... .. .... ...... . .. ....... ... .. . .12: Submerged surfaces and pressure distributions for horizontal and vertical orientations. . . ... ... .. ... . . .. . . . ...... . .. .. . ...... . . . . .. .... . .... ...... ...6 A Pitot-static tube is placed in a flow of helium with ρ = 0.. .. . . . . . .. ........ . .. ... . Furthermore..... ... ... .... . ... . .. .. .. ... ......... . . ...... .... . .. . .... .. .. . . . . .. ..3.. .. tells us that pressure in a non-moving fluid varies only with depth... ..... . .. .... . . . . . ... ..... .. ..... .. . . .. . . . .. ... . ..... . .. . ... ... .... .. ..... .... ..... the device is essentially self calibrating in the sense that no reference pressure or velocity is needed. .... .......... ... . ... ........ .... . ..... . . .. .. .. . .... .. ... . . .. . . ........ .. ..

.. . . .. ..... . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . ... ... .. .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . ... .. . ........ . . .... . . . . . . . . . .. . That is. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ... . . .. .. . .. . ..... .. ... . . ..... . . . . .. . . . . ... .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . .. . . ξζ plane ηζ plane (side view) (front view) Figure 3.. . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . .. . ... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .... . we often define positive z downward for convenience. . . . . . .. . Center of . . . . . . .. . . .... . . ... .. . . .. . . . . .... . .... . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . ... . . . z . . . . . .. .. .... . .. . ... . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . ... . . .. . .. .. . . .. . .... . . .. . . . . . . . ... . .. .. . .. . ...  . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . ... .. ... . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . ... . . .. . . .. .... . .. . . . . . . . .. . . ... .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . .. . . . . .. . . . ... .. .. . . . . Air Air y. .. ... . .40) considering free-surface problems.. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . .... . . . . . ... .. ... .. .. .. . .. . . . . . .... . .. .. . . .. ... .. .. . . . . .. ..... . ... . . . . ... ... . . . ... . . . .. .. .. . . . ... . . . . . . . ... . .. . .. .. . . .H . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. ..... . . .. . . . . . . .. .. ..... . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . ... . . . . .. . ..... .. . . . ... . . . .. .... . . .. . . .. ζ . ... . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . As shown.. . . . ..... . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .H .. .. . . . . ... . . . . . .. .. . . ... . . . ... .. PRESSURE As we will see in this section. .. .. .. . .. . .... which follows from rotating the side view 90o about the ζ axis. . . .. ... . . . . . . . ... . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .1 x is parallel to the free surface. . . . .. ... .... . . .. . . .  s s  xz. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . ... . .. . . . .. .... . . .. .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. ... . . . . . . .. .. ... .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . ... .. . .. . . .. .... . . .. .. . . we can compute its integral over a surface inclined to the horizontal in terms of simple geometrical properties. . . . . ... ... . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . ... .H . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . ... .H .. . .. . . . ... . . .. . .13 shows a side view of the inclined surface... . . .. . .. .. .... . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . ... . .. .. . . . . .. ... . ... . . . . .. . ..... . .. .. .. . . . .. . .. .. . . . .. ... . . .. . . . . To see how this is done. . .. . Centroid . . .. ... . .. ... . . ... .. . . . .... . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . ... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . ... .. . . . ...H . . .. .. . .. .. . ... . ... . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ..... . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... ... .. .. . . .. . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . Figure 3. . . .. . ... .... . . . .. .. . . ... . . . . . ... because p varies linearly with depth. . .. . . α . .. . .. . . .. . ... . . . ... . . . . .. . . .... . .. . . . . . ... . .. . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. ..... . . . . . . ..H . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .... . .. ... .. . .. . .. . . .. . .... often referred to as a free surface.. . . . . .. . . ... . . ... . ρ .. . . . . . . Specifically. . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .... . . . . .. . . ρ . .. .. .... . . . . . . .. . .... .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . ... . .. .... .. . .. . increases linearly with depth. . . . . .. .. . . .. . ... . .. ....... . .. .. . . . . η . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .... .. . . . ... . . . .. . . ..... .. . .. . ... . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ... . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . ..... . . .. . . . . . .. H.... .. . . .. . .. . . . It is important to pause at this point and stress that we are dealing with a three-dimensional geometry.. ... .. . .. . .. .... . .. . . ... . . . .. . . .. . but also the moment. . .. ... .... . .. .. . . . ...... . . . ... . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . ... ... .. . . ..... . ... . . ξ into page s. . . .. . ... . . ... . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . .. . .. ... . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ..... .. . ... ... . . .. . .. is normal to the surface and lies in the xz plane. . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . .. ... . . . .. . .. . . .. .. .... . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . ... . . .. . . . . . pabs . . . . . . .. . ... . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .... ... .. . .. .. . . . ... . It is submerged in a liquid of density ρ that has an air-liquid interface. .. .. the surface appears as a straight line from this view. .. .. . . .. .. . ... . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . .. ..... This obviates carrying minus signs throughout the analysis to follow.. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .... . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ... .... .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . .... . . ... ..... we can compute not only the force. . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . ... . .. . . .. . ... .. . H .. . . . . Although its thickness is exaggerated in the figure.... .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . .. ..... .... . .... . ... . . . .. . . ξ . .e...... .. . .. . . .. . ... . .16) yields dpabs = ρg dz (3. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . The figure also shows a front view of the surface in the ηζ plane. ... ... .... . . . i. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. ... .. . . . . .. .. . .... . ... .. . .. ... . .... .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. ... . . . . . .. . . .. . x . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . .H .. . . .. . .. .. . . . . ... . . .. .... . ... . . . . .. ... .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . ... ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. .. ..13.. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . . .. ζcp .. .. .. . .. . . . . and y is out of the page. . . . . . ... .. . .. .. ... . .. . .. . .. . . . . . The force vector. . ...... . . . ... . . . .. . . .. .. . .... . . . . .. . . .. .. . ... .. . . . . ... . . ... . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .s . . . . . . . .. .. ... . . . . .. . the absolute pressure is given by pabs = pa + ρgz 1 In (3.. .. . .... .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . ... .... .. . .... . ........ . . . . . . . . ... . . . ... . . .... .. . . . . . .. . . .. .. .... . . . . . . .. . ζ.. .. ... .. . . . . .... . . . we consider a plane surface inclined to the horizontal at an angle α as shown in Figure 3. . . .. . . . ... . . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. . . .. ... . . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . .... . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. ... . . . . ... . ...... . . . .. .. . . . . .. ... .. .. . .. . . .. .. . ... .. . .. . . ... .. . . .. . . .... . . . . .. .. . . ..... . .. . ... .. .... . .. . . .. . changing the sign of z in Equation (3. ... .. .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. .... .. . .... . .. . . .. .. ... .. . . ζ . .. .. . .. ... . . . . . . . .. . .. ... . . . . . . . .. . . .....H . .. . . .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . ... . ... .. . .. . . ... . . . . ... . . .. . .. . The hydrostatic relation tells us the absolute pressure. . . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . . ... ..... .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... .. . . . . ... . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .... . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. at z = 0... . .. ... ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . ... . .. . . ... . . ... . . . .... . . . ... ... .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . . on the surface. the angle α determines the direction of the force.. .. the xz plane. . . . . . .... . . .. . . .. . .. . ... . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. ... . . ... .. .. . . . .. . . . . . .. ... . . . .. . . . . .. .. ... .... . . . . .. . .. . ... . . . .. .. . .. . .. .. ... . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . ... .... .. . . . . ... . . .. . .. . . . . . . .... . .. dA .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . F. . .. . ... . .. . .... . Note that the coordinates are chosen so that z is positive in the direction of the gravitational acceleration vector. .. . .. . ... . . .. . . ... . . .. . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . .. ... . . ...... ... . .. ... . . ... ... . .. . ... . . . . .. . .. ... .. . .. . .. . . ..... . . . .. . . . . ... . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . ... The figure includes a second set of Cartesian coordinates (ξηζ) aligned with the submerged surface that we will make use of below.. . . . .... η out of page . . . . . .. .. . . . . . ... ..... .. ... . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. .H . . .. . .. ...... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .... . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . ... . . . .. . ..... . . .. .. . . ... .. . . . . . .. .. .. ζ cp . ... . . ..... . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . ... . .. . . . . . . ... .H . .. .. .. . . .. The geometry of the surface determines the magnitude of the force vector. ... if we know the area and the centroid of the submerged surface. ... .. .. . .98 CHAPTER 3.. .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . .. ζ . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .... . .. . .. . . ... . . . ... . . . . ...... . . . .... . .. . . F . ... . . ... ... .. . ..... . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ...... .. .. .. . . . . . .. .... ... . . . ... . . . . . . .. .. . ... ... .. ... .... . . ..... ... ... . .. .. . ... . . .. ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . .... .... . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . .... . . . .13: Submerged surface inclined to the horizontal. . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . .. ... . . . .. . .. .. .... . .... . . ... . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... . . . ... . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . ...... .. . . . . .... . . . .. . ... ..39) If the atmospheric pressure is pa .. .... . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . .. ... . ... . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. Pressure . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . .. ... . . . . . . .. ... . . .. . . .... .. ..H . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . .. .

Because pressure increases with depth. F = ρg(2h)h2 sin(90o ) = 2ρgh3 When forces are applied to an object.7. Hence. they cause the object's \center of gravity" to accelerate. must act through a point a bit deeper than the centroid. the angle is α = 90o . can be expressed in terms of the centroid of the planar surface as follows. (3. Taking moments about the η axis. we have (3. on a surface element dA. the differential force exerted by the fluid to the left of the surface is given by dF = p dA so that the force on the entire surface is given by the following integral.45).45) Since the force is normal to the submerged surface. We will now determine an effective lever arm to go with F that yields the same moment as the distributed pressure. ζ.43) A By definition. Referring to Equation (3. of the planar surface A is ZZ 1 ζ≡ ζ dηdζ A A (3.12 if it is a square of side h and its centroid lies 2h below the surface? Solution. We denote the center of pressure by ζcp (see Figure 3. we have M = rcp × F = ζcp F j (3.42) p = ρgζ sin α Now. the centroid.7 What is the force F on the vertically-aligned planar object in Figure 3.41) p = pabs − pa and note that z = ζ sin α. F.47) . F = |F|.. The point corresponding to this lever arm is called the center of pressure. This will give rise to a moment about the centroid. it should be obvious that the equivalent force. If we know the depth of submergence of the planar surface's centroid and its area. we will work with the gage pressure. in vector form we have F = ρgζA sin α (i sin α + k cos α) (3.46) What we have computed is a single point force equivalent to the distributed pressure acting on the surface. the centroid is given to be ζ = 2h and the area is A = h2 .45).e. The center of gravity and centroid are coincident for a constant density object. thus eliminating the need to do an integral. Example 3. Thus. the magnitude of the force on the inclined surface.44) Hence. HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON PLANE SURFACES 99 To simplify our analysis. we can compute the force from Equation (3. F = ρgζA sin α (3.13). ZZ ZZ F = p dA = ρg sin α A ζ dηdζ (3. p. i.3.

the final result is as follows.52) is known as the parallel-axis theorem.48) Then.55) 2 This moment of inertia is usually denoted by I zz in classical mechanics. Thus. That is. 2 Io = I + ζ A (3..50) A For our purposes. Io . That is.54) Dividing through by ρgAζ sin α. and it is one of 9 components of a 3 × 3 tensor (matrix). the moment of inertia relative to the centroid. PRESSURE Hence. so that2 ZZ Io = ζ 2 dηdζ (3. We accomplish this by shifting the coordinate axes from the free surface to the centroid. we omit the customary subscripts. I.100 CHAPTER 3. we have ζcp F = ZZ ζp dA = ρg sin α A ZZ ζ 2 dηdζ (3. we can eliminate F and solve for ζcp .49) A The integral of ζ 2 appearing in Equation (3.51) Therefore.45). we have   2 ζcp ρgAζ sin α = ρg sin α I + ζ A (3. A and ζ. it is more convenient to reference the moment of inertia to the centroid.50) and (3. . we can express the moment of inertia relative to the surface. since dF = p dA. as a function of I. substituting for F . We denote the moment of inertia by Io .52) Equation (3. the center of pressure must be such that Z ζcp F = ζ dF (3. is given by ZZ I ≡ (ζ − ζ)2 dA A ZZ 2 = (ζ 2 − 2ζζ + ζ )dA A ZZ ZZ 2 = Io − 2ζ ζ dA + ζ dA A 2 A 2 = Io − 2ζ A + ζ A = Io − ζ A 2 (3.52) into Equation (3.53) Then. using Equation (3. ζcp = ζ + I ζA (3. we simply replace ζ by ζ − ζ. viz. Since we are using only one component of the inertia tensor.49) yields   2 ζcp F = ρg sin α I + ζ A (3.49) is the familiar moment of inertia of the planar surface A relative to the η axis. Substituting Equations (3.

.................... 2 .. I = 36 bh3 ........... ..... and ζ.. ..... Hence...... . ............ I and ζ are known. ... moments of inertia and centroids for common geometries. . A= 1 πR4 4 .......................... ........... R A= 4 R 3π b A = πR2 ....... . .. a semicircle a quarter circle and an ellipse. . ...... The same is true of the force.............. 3 b ... ....... 2 h . ........... A....... it is worthwhile to tabulate their values for common geometries..... 1 ...... ... # c# #c # ........ ..... 2h .......... 3 ....... .... ......... ...... ............ .. the centroid of each triangle is 23 h from the common vertex............... .... h .. .... ......... .......... ............... h .. .. ...... .... I = 12 bh3 .. .. ..55) is especially useful because I and A depend only upon the shape of the planar surface in the ηζ plane........... . ...... . .... ............. the moment of inertia is relative to a horizontal axis passing through the centroid.. . .............. b .... .................. ............... ...... ... By symmetry...... ..... ....... 1 first note that for a single triangle.. which is proportional to the area....... the centroid of the double triangle lies at the common vertex..... I= 1 πR2 4 π 16 − I= . .. ..... ............... ......... ... . Since the moment of inertia......... .......... .... I= ..... ..... the area and moment of inertia are A = 12 bh and I = 36 bh3 ........... 1 . Equation (3... .. . ..... a circle...... .......... ...... .............. ... .. ... .. . using the parallel-axis theorem.. ..... ... As shown.. ..... and the only way in which depth of submergence affects ζcp is through the dependence upon ζ........ .. and ζcp → ζ as ζ → ∞.... So..14: Areas..... ....... ... h .......... ...... ...... ..... ........ h ......... doubling this result to account for both triangles.... .... ..... . ....... ............. . 2 .... 2R.............. ... .. ..... ...... ... ...7.......... . .. ........... ........ ............... a rectangle... 4 R ...... ....... ....... 4 ...... . Also. ........ . .. . ....... .... ........ the moment of inertia is I= 1 3 bh 2 . ...... the moment of inertia is twice the moment of inertia of a single triangle....... ........... ... HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON PLANE SURFACES A= 1 bh 2 ....... 2b .. ............ ............ ............ .. ... . .. . .... .......... .. R ... ... .14 includes area. in all cases. ..... ... c # ...... .... .. 3 . shifted by 23 h according to the parallel-axis theorem.. 1 ...... Because our formulas for the force and center of pressure can be easily determined once A... .. .. . ...3... ... ...... ... .. . ........................... ...... .. ......... . .. ..... area and centroid are all positive.... .... 101 4 9π  R ............ . .. .... .. .... ............. .. .... . ....... .......... ...... . .... .. necessarily ζcp lies below the centroid. ... . A = bh . ............. 2R .. .... ................... Example 3. ....... ....... ..... .... ....... ...... h . 1 ........... Io = I + z 2 A = 1 3 bh + 36  2 2 h 3 1 1 bh = bh3 2 4 Thus...... .... 3π .............. ............ Solution.8 Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the moment of inertia for the double triangular geometry shown below......... ....... .... ....... It is completely independent of the fluid........... 1 πR2 2 π 8 − 8 9π  R4 A = πab I= 1 πab3 4 b 2a 4 R 3π Figure 3...... moment of inertia and centroid for a triangle.... ... ........... .... ... Figure 3.. . ...... ......... . ........... . .......... ... c c ....... ........ ........ . ....

.. . . ........ ..... ... ... ....... ...... .... ........ ... RT ............. ...... ................ ... ......... ........... ........ (3.. ... ....................................... . ... ............ .. ........ . . .... ...... ... ...................................... .... . ... . ...................55) to analyze fluid-statics problems.. . . . .... . ... ............. ............. . .......... . ............ we can regard the adjusted pressure....... . .... .... .. ...... ............ .............. . ........................... ........ ...... .......... ..... ........... . .... ........................ .............. .......... .. ........ ... .... ......... ......... ...... . ........................... ..... ........ ... .... .... ... ....... ..... ....... ...........e... ............. ..... .............. ...... ... .. .... . ...... p = pabs − pa .. Turning first to the force F ..... ........45) and (3. .. .. ..... ........... . consider the forces acting on the triangular gate in Figure 3......... ..... . . . ...... ..... ..................... ........... ..................... .15... ......... . ..... .... .... .. . .............. . pabs (z).... ..... η .. ....... ... ........... ... .... ...... ...... ...... .............. ............. ... . .... . ..... .... . ........ ... ..... Equivalently......... ......................... ........ .. ..... .. ............... ............ .......................... .. . ...... .. ............. ... .. . ........ . ... ............... . ........41)]... ........ ........ ... ..... . ........... ... ........ That is. ........ .... ... .... ...... ........ ......... ........ .................. ... .. .. . ... ........... ....... ... ..... ....... .58) s ξ into page .... ...... ..... .. ............ ... . ........ ................. ..... . ....15: Forces acting on a triangular gate. .... .. .. ....... .... . ............... . ... ............... ..... .α. . . ...................... ............ .... .............. .......... RH and RT . ....... Adding these two contributions.... . . .. ... .......... ..........e.. .. ...................... .. ... . ...... ......... ... .............. ...... ...... ... . .. .. ........ i.... ...... w ... ... .. ... .......... .......... . . ...... .... .......... ... ... ....... . Air .... ........... ... . .. ....... ......... .. . . ......... ................. ... .. .. ................. . ......... .... .. ................ .................... ....... as being zero in the atmosphere...... ............ ........... ...... . .... i....... .... .. . .. ....... .... .... ....... ...... ....... ... .. ...... ...... . .. ..... the fluid develops a force of magnitude F that is balanced by the sum of the reaction force at the hinge. ... .... ...................... . ... . . h ..... .. ............... ....... ... ..57) Measuring along the ζ axis. .......... .... ........ . ... the top of the gate is located a distance h/ sin α below the surface.......102 CHAPTER 3. ............... .. ......... . . . . ..... ....... . ... .. ........... ...... ........... ...... .......... ...... ............ . .... ... ........... ρ ............. ......... .. .. .... ............. . ..... .......... ........... .............. ............ ... ..... .......... ........ ........... . .. ζ= η out of page ........ . ............ ........ .... and the reaction force at the top of the gate. .............. .... ....................... ...... ....................... ... .. .............. ........ ..... .... ........45) provides a second.......... ................. . ........... . .. ... ... ..... .. ............. ..... .. ...... .. ..... . . .. ................ . 3 ... ................. .... ........... .... ..... ............. .. ............. ................. .. ... As indicated in the ηζ-plane view of Figure 3..... ...... ... .... ..... ........... .......... . ..... .......... .......... .. . computing the lever arm for the hydrostatic force involves the center of pressure.... ...... ... ...... ... . ........... .. .. . ... ...... .. . ...... ..... ......... .. .................. .......... .............. . .... ................... .. ... . We will return to this point in greater detail below.......... ....... . ....................... . . . .. .. 1 ....... ..... ...... since we reference all pressures to the atmospheric level [see Equation (3........................ .. ...45). ...... ... ........... . ........ .. .........56) is the first of the three.... Air .. . ..45).. .. ... . ... ............. .... ....... . F is the difference between the integral of the absolute fluid pressure from the left........... ....... ... .. .. . ..... .......................... . . . . ...................... RT . ...... .. ..... so that the net force is zero.. ...... ............ .......... ........... ................... . .. .... .... .. ...... ........ ... ..... . .. ........ .... ... ... .......... ... ... .. ... ...... .. ............ To arrive at a third equation........... .. ... .. ........... .... . ..... ... ...... ....... .......... .. .... ... ....... .... . Equation (3. ... . ....... . .. . .... . ... ...... The centroid is an additional 23 h/ sin α below the top of the gate. . As we will see below........................ ........ .. . ............. .... .......... viz. ...... ......... .. ............. ...... .... and the atmospheric pressure from the right. .... ξζ plane ζ ......... .. .. ............. .... ...... .... ... we must determine the area.. ......... .. . ............. ... .... . ... ..... ...... ..... ... .. ....... .......... . ...... ........................ .... .. ......... ........... .... ... ... and the location of the centroid.. ...... ...... ..... .......... . ...... ..................... ............ ...... .. . .... ..... . ....... .... ............ .... . .... .............. .. ....... . ................ .. ........... . Thus.. .. . ..... ... .... ........ .... ......... ... . ........ ...... while Equation (3.. ...... . .... PRESSURE To illustrate how we can use Equations (3.... ... ... ... ..... . . ..... ... ............ ........................ ..... ...... ....... ....... the base of the triangular gate is w and its altitude is h/ sin α... it is given by Equation (3......... ............. .. .... F . . ...................... . ..... which is aligned with the gate....... ....... .... ... ......... .. . ................... we must balance moments about a suitable axis..... ..... ...... ............ ... ..... ......... ................. .... The essence of the problem is as follows..... ........... ........ . ......... . From the left... .. ........ ... ......... Hence...... There are three unknown forces to be determined........ . We thus need three equations to determine the solution.... .......... ... ..... ........... ........... ... ............ ....... .. ..... .... .. ...... .... .............. h 2 h 5 h + = sin α 3 sin α 3 sin α ... ....... .......... . ....... ...... ... ... ... ..... .. h/ sin α ζ .. . RH .. ................................... ........ ............. ........ ........ ...... .. .............................. .... ... . ... .... . . . .. ....... ........ .......... ... ... .. ... ....... ............... the area of the gate is A= 1 wh 2 sin α (3.... ...... .... .. ..... ....... ............... .......... .... ......... pa .................... ........ . . ...... . ... . ... ...... ....... .. ...... ......... .. ..h........ ηζ plane Figure 3............... . ... ....................... we arrive at the following. ... ... .. ............ ..... ................ ....... . .. .F ....... ........ ........56) F = RT + RH There is actually a fourth force acting.. . .... the atmospheric pressure on the right-hand side of the gate....15............ .............. ......... ............ .................. .. ..... ..... ............ ...... ... .. .... . . .. ..... ... . .............. ............. ....... ..... .... ..... ...... . ....... .. .. ..... .. ........................... ... s s (3..... .. ... .. ..... ...... . . ....... .................. ..... ........ ............ ........................... . ........................... . . ..... ...... ξ . ....... A..... .... . ..... ............ ........ .... we implicitly account for this force when we use Equation (3... ... ...... RH .... .............. ... .. ................ ............ ............. . .... ............... .... ...... ......... . ........ ζ. ........ ......... ............ . .. ... .... . h/ sin α . . However.............. ..... . h/ sin α ... .... ...... ................. ... .. ....... ............. ..... ......... .. ......... . .. ........... ........ .... .. ... . ..... . ...... ....... .. ..... .

.... .. ........... .... .. . .............. .... ......... ... ............ ............. ........ ........... .. .... .. .. ... ..... .... ...... ........... . ..... . .... .. ..... .................. . ....ζ.......... . . .... . ....... . . .. ......... .. . .. . .... ....61) .............. ....... .. h/sin α .. ... ...................................... .. . ....... . ................. . . ........... .......... .. ...... ....... RT Lever Arm = (3. . .. . ...... ... . ...... ... ...... .... ......... .... ......... .... ................. .... ....... ......... .... .... ............ ........... Now......... .... ..... .... ......... ............ . ........... .... .. ..... . . .. ........ .. ... ..... .... .. ... ................. . ..... .... .. .. ....... ....... ... .. ........ ... ... . .. . ...... ...... ......... . ........ ........ . .... .. .. ......... ........ .. ... ................ . . .. . As noted earlier.. ......... . we have two of the three required equations for determining the complete solution.... ...... ......... . .. ........ . ... .............. . ................. ................. ..... ξ . ..... ............ .... . ....... ............. ... ........ ... . ......... ..... . .............. ........ .. .. .......... . ....... F . ........ .......... .......... .. .............. .. ..... ....... ... ........ .. ... .. . ....... ...... ............. .......... .. . .45) yields the hydrostatic force normal to the gate......cp .. ......................... . .............. ....... =⇒ RT ζcp = 2− sin α F h (3............. ............... ........ . .......... ....... ... ... .. ................. ...... ................. ........... ... ... ............. ............ .......... ... the center of pressure is located at ζcp  3 h 1 w I 5 h 17 h 36 sin α  = =ζ+ + = 5 h 1 wh 3 sin α 10 sin α ζA 3 sin α 2 sin α (3...14 shows that the moment of inertia is  3 1 h I= (3.. . ......... .... ...................... ............. . .. . . .. .. .. ...... ................... . .. .. ... ... ......... . . ... ... s s H H Figure 3. . ...... ............. .. . ... ............. .... .. .... ........ .. .............. ....... ....... .... ....... .... ... .59) 2 sin α 3 sin α 6 sin α At this point... .. .. .. ...... . . .......... ................... .... ... ... the lever arms for the three forces are  0. ..... . ....... ... . .. ........ . ..... ..... .. ......... .......... ... . ............ . ..... ..... ......... .. ...... ......... ....... ............. ....16. ...... ......... ... .... ...... ... ............ .... .... ....... . ...... .. .................... ..... .. ......H ... .... ........................ .... . ... .. ................... ..... . ............... For the triangular gate........ the center of pressure is given by Equation (3.. ...... ... .. .......... .......... . .. .. . .. ...... ......... . ......... ........... ..... ................. ...... . T ... ...... ....... . ... ... .... ................. ........................ . .......... ... ........... .... ... ...... ..... ..... ..................................... .. ...... ...... .. ... ..... ...... . . ... .... ............. . . .. .. ........... . . .......... ......... ..... .. ............ ........ .. ...... .... ........ .... ... . .... ........... ..... ... ..... .......... ... .. ... ....... . ....... ...... . .............. ..... ....... . ........ ..... .. ..... . ...... ...... ..... ....... . . ... ............... ... .... ... ..... ....... .. . . . . ....... ......... ............. . ............ ...... .. ...... ......... ......................63) ........ .. .... . .. ...... ............ ........... .... ...... ........ ........... ...... .... ........... ...60) sin α      2 h −ζ ............. ....... . ............ ....... ....... ................ ........... .......... ...... ........... ........ ..... .......... . . .... . ....................... ..... .. . .. .... ... ...... .......... . ......... .. ........ ... .. .. . . .... ............... . .......... ... ..... ...... ..... ........ ..................... ..... ... RH      h . substituting Equations (3....... .. .. .. ....... ...... .. . ... ........... . . . ..... ...... turning to the moment calculation. ........ . ................. .............. ... .................. .. .16: Lever arms for the forces.... . .............. ... .. . .... ....... ........... ........ .... ......... ............3.. ....... .. .. .... ... ...... ........ .. .. ... .......... . .. .... . ....... ..... .................... .... ............ . ........... ..... ... ................................. ...... .... .. ... .. ..... ............ balancing moments yields:   h h F 2 − ζcp = RT + RH · 0 sin α sin α H ... ............... ... .. ... .. ............. ... . . . ..... . ..... ....... ... . .... α .......... .. ......... ..... ....... .... ................. .. ..... ... .... .......... ......... ............................. .... ..... reference to Figure 3.. ....... . ... ... .. ....... ............... ........................... ........... .. .... ... . ζ ... .........................62) w 36 sin α Thus........... .. .... . ................ . ......... ...... .. ..... . . ....... ........ . .. ............ ...... ...... ........................... . ..... . . . ..... ....... ..... ..... .............. ........ .57) and (3.... .. ..... .... ....... .. .... ............ ......... ................ ............ .......... .............. . .......... .... . ................. .... . ..... ...... ...... ........... ..... ............ .... ............. ...... . ...... R ...................... . ...... . ... . .. . . .... ........ .. ..... ...... ...... ................. ........... .......... .. . .. . ............. ...... .............. ........ ... As shown in Figure 3........... .. .. ........... . .. ............. ..... ..... . ..... ................ ............... .............................. . . .. ............. .55). ............... ....... ... ............ ...... The third equation required to close our system of equations follows from balancing moments on the gate.................... ....... ... . ........ ............ ........ ....... . .. ....... .. .... .... .... ..... ..... ... Hence.... . ........ ....... ..... .................... . ...... . ..... . . .... ............... ........ ...... ....... . ..... ......... .... . . ... ................ ............ ...... ..... ....... .... ... .......... ....... ........ ...... ... ............ this is as much information as we can extract from balancing forces... ...... ..... ........ .. . .... .... . ........ ..... ................ . . ....... ... ............... . .... .. . ..... . ..... ............. ... ..... ............. ....... ............ . ...... . ....... ............... . .. ...... .. .................. . . .. .. .......58) into Equation (3. .. ................ ..... . .... ..... . . ....... ....................... ..... ...... RH ...... .. . ...... ... ....... .......... it is convenient to take moments about the axis perpendicular to the page passing through the hinge........................ ..... ..... ........... ......... .... ..... . ............................... F cp sin α So........... . ........ ...... 2h/sin α ....... ...... ... ... HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON PLANE SURFACES 103 Therefore. .. viz.... .....7......... .. ........... .....    1 wh 5 h 5 ρgwh2 F = ρg sin α = (3... ... .... . ......... . .. ..... ......... ........... .. ..... ...... ........ ..... ... ...... ..... .. ......... ............. .... ....... .. .......... ... . .. ... ....... . .. ..... .. . ...... ............ ..... .. .... .. ..... .. ... ............

. Hinge . . H .... .. ........... the horizontal force on the vertical face of the gate. ... ..... .. ......... .... . ......... .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. ......... .. . . . . ... ............... ...... .. .... ...... .... . ...... ..... ... ....... . . .... ..... .... .. ................ ... ........ ........ . ............. ....... . ...... ......... .. . the centroid.. . .. ........ ..... ......... ..... .. ... . ....... .. .... ... ... ....... ........... .. .. .... ........ .. .. For the rectangular vertical part of the gate. . ..... ..... . ........ ..... . .. ....... .. .. ...... . .. ......... ... ......... ..... .............. ........... ... . . ... .................... . .... ....... .... . So. . ........ .... . .. . . . ...... ...... . we have RT 3 17 =2− = F 10 10 =⇒ RH 7 = F 10 (3.. . .. z .. ...... . .... . ...... ... .. .. ... .... . .. .. .. .... . ............ . ...... .... . .. .. . .. .......... . ..... ...... 2 12 Hence.. ......... . .. ... .. . . . .... ... ..... .... .. .... .. ...104 CHAPTER 3. . . Thus.. ......... .... ..... Fh............... . and has magnitude.. .. .. ....... . . . . ..... ... .... .............. ............ .. 2 ..... ..... .. .......64) 1 ρgwh2 4 sin α (3. . .... ....... ... the reaction forces acting on the gate are RH = 7 ρgwh2 12 sin α and RT = Example 3. . ............ .... . ........ ... ... ..... . ........... ..... . .. ................ . 1 ... . ........... ... . ..... . ...... H .... . ... . .. ........ .... . ........... ... . . ..... ...... ...... ... . .. ...... ... . .. . ........ ABC....... .......... ..... .. .. .... ... C .. ........ ... ........ ............ .... ... ..... .. .... B ..... .. ....... ....... ........ . Fv .. ...... ... .. ....... .... ... ... ........ ........... ........ .. ....... . .. . . ... .... ........ substituting the forces and center of pressure into the moment equation..... ... . .. ............ ....... .. . ... .. ........ ........ .. .... . ....... .... ... Fh . ..... .. .. ... ............. .... .... .. ....... .... ... .... . ..... ...... . the gate will open when h=  1 H 2 √ 3H  =⇒ h2 = 3H 2 ......... . ... . .. .... . . . . ... ..... ....... . s Solution...... ...... . .... ... .... . ............ ............ ....... .......... . ... .... . ... .......... . .. ... ..... . .. ..... ...... ... .............. .. . ........ ...... ...... . ..... .. . ... . . ... . ... .... . ..... given by Fv = ρghH 2 The gate will open when there is a net clockwise moment about the hinge... At what depth h will the gate automatically open? A Air .. .... .... .. ...... .... .. ........... .. ........ . .... . ..... .... .... ... ........ ... . .... .... ..... .. . ..... . . .... . . ... .. ..... ..... ... ... ...... .. . .... . ..... .......... ......... ...... .. ... ....... .. ....... . ... . ... ....... ........ . .... ... .. ...... .... . .. ........ . .. ... .. ..we find   1 2 ρgh2 H h − h = ρghH 2 2 3 Therefore... . ... . . .. . .. . ...... .. .. . ... . .. You may neglect the weight of the gate............ ... . .............. . ... ... ..... ......... .. ..... ...... ........ ... ...... ....... ... ..... ........ ..... .... . ...... .. . .. ... ..... . ........... . ... ........ .. . . . ....... .......... . .. ....... ....... . ...... .. .. .. . .. . ........ ...... . .. .... . ... ... ρ . . . ....... ... ......... .... ... ... ...... . .... . ... . . . ..... ......... ... . .. .............. ....... .. ........ . .. ...... .... the gate just begins to open when Fh (h − zcp) = Fv 1 H 2  Note that the lever arm for Fv is 12 H because it acts uniformly over the horizontal part of the gate....... . ... .. .. . . ............ ....... ... . ..... . ........ .. .. .......... .............. . ... .... . . ....... ... ... ... ..... .. ... ... .. ...... ... ...... ..... ......................... ........ ....... . ... .. ..... .. .... . F v ......... . . ..... ....... .... .. .. .... ... .... ... . . I= h H z = h... ............... .... ...... ... ............. ......... ....... ........... ..... . .......... . ........ ........... ...... ... .... .... ... ..... .......... ........ .. ....... .. ........ cp .. .. .. ...... the pressure is constant and given by p − pa = ρgh......... .65) Therefore...... .. .... .... .... . .. .. . ....... ...... the vertical force on the horizontal surface points upwards as shown in the figure..... ..... . .. ..... .... . . ..... .... . ... ...... .. .......... . ... ...... h ... ... . .. ........ ...... .. .... . ........ area and moment of inertia are given by 1 3 1 A = hH..... .... taking moments about the hinge......... ...... . ... .. ..... . ...... . . ..... ....... .. . . ... ... ... ....... .. . ....... . .. ........... .. .. .... ................ ..... ............ .. ...... ... ..... .. . The gate has width H out of the page and is free to pivot about the hinge at B... .. .... ... PRESSURE Hence....... .......... ...... ........ . . .. .... ........ .... . .............. ......... .. . ............. .. ... . ...... . shown below...... .. . ... ....9 Consider the L-shaped gate. is Fh = ρgzA = ρg   1 1 h (hH) = ρgh2 H 2 2 Since the bottom part of the gate is horizontal. .. .. ......... .... .. . .... . The center of pressure for the vertical part of the gate is zcp = z + 1 I = h+ zA 2 1 3 12 h H 1 h (hH) 2  = 1 2 1 h+ h= h 2 6 3 So... . . ..................... ........... . ........ . .

. ........... ... ...................... ... .... ......... .. ... ... ..... ........... .... . . ... ......... .... ... . ... ... . .. .. ... .............. . Figure 3.. . . .... ...... ....... .... we have ζ = z).... ......... .7.. pb ..... ... .. .. ..... .... . ...... . ............. .. ....... .. .......................... .. .. .. . ..... ... ........... . . ............ .... .... .............. ..... . .. ................. ... ..... .......... ... . .. ........ ... .... ...... ...... ..... ............ ... ........ . ... pa ... In the left chamber.... we see that the net force is not equal to the hydrostatic force........ ........... ... .......... ..... then the net force. .. ... .. ........ .. ..... ......... .... . ... ... . .. . ...... ... ... . ............... pa .. .................... ......... ... ... . .............. . ........... .......... .. The same is true for the net moment. . ..... ........ ............. . In the right chamber.... ......... .... .. ... .. ........... .. HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON PLANE SURFACES 105 As a concluding comment on the calculation of forces and moments on submerged surfaces.... ...... .......... ..... . .. .... ........................ ..... ... .... ...... ........ ............ .. .... ...... ....... ...... .. . ............ the net force and moment on an object follow from integrands proportional to (pabs − pa )..... .... .. ....... .......... ...... ... ........... ...... .. .... ...... . ... . ................... ... ............ . ..... .... .. ... i.... .......... ... ..... . ....... .. .. ...... . .......... . ... ................. ..... ..... ....... ......... .... . This is sensible because pressure is similar to potential energy in the sense that changes in pressure give rise to forces and motion.......... ... . ...... ...... ..... .. ........ .............. ...... ............ ............. ......... .. ............ is exactly equal to the difference between the reference pressure forces acting on each side of the barrier...... ...... . ...... ... ...... ......... .......... .. .. ........ ....... .......... ... . ................ . . .... ............. . . .......... .. For many applications... ......... ........ . .... ............. ........... .. ....... ... ..... .... ........ .. ........... .... ... . .... .... .. .. .... ...... ...... .... .. ..... .... ......... . ... . .. ........... . ...................... ........ ..... ......... . ........... ...... .... ...... . .............. ........... ....... ...... ......... . ............ ... .. .... . . .. ........ ... . .. ................... . . ........... ..................... ... a reference value can be chosen arbitrarily........ ...... .. ....... ..... by definition.. .. .. ... ...... ..... .. .. .............. .. ..... ρ ... ..... ... ... ...... ............. ... .....................17(a) shows such a configuration.......... ..... ...... ... . ....... ....... ... .......................... .... .......... . ..... ... ......... .. . . . ...... . .... ......... ....... . if different reference pressures occur in a problem...... ........ ... ... .... ........ .... .. ... ......... . . .................... ......... ... .. .. ... ......17(b)..... ...................... .... . ..... ......... .. .. respectively (note that since the barrier is normal to the surface................. ............. ......... .... .. ... .. ............ ........ ....... pa .......... . ... ........ ...... .... ... .. ........... .. . consider the atmospheric pressure.................... is given by F = ρgzA + pa Atot − pa Atot = ρgzA (3... ............ the pressure is pb > pa ... ............ .. and the total area of the barrier is Atot ........ ......... . .......... . ..... . .......... ... ... . ......... . .. . ... ................. .............. .. ..... ....... ........ .................... . .......... .. ....... .. . .. .. ... ....... ...... ..... . ... .... This will be true... ..... ... Atmospheric pressure is a natural reference since it is the value that prevails at the free surface. ...... .... ....... ... ....... .. ... . ... .... ........... . ...... ..... ....... ....... ................. we must account for them in computing forces and moments..... . . ........ ...... ... ..... .. .. . ... ... .. ... . ............... . ......... .... .................... . ............ ....... . ............. ........ .... .................... ..... ...... ......... ......... .... .................. ...... Hence....... . .. ..... ... . .......... ... .. ........ .. . . ...... ... . ............. . .............. ..................... .. ... . .. ............... ........ .... .... Recall from Equation (3. .. ....... .......... ... That is..... .... ............ .... ... ..... for example...... ............... ...... .. .. ..... .. ..... ............. ....... ................................ (pb − pa )Atot ............. ............. .. . ........... . .. .............. For example. ..... ...... . ... ... . ... ................. . .......... ... .......................... ........... . ..... .... .... ................. . ......... .. .. ............ .... ............... .... ...... ................ at z = 0..... .. . .... . . ................... pa ... ... ...... ............. .. ...... . ... .............. .. ................ ... ..... .... ................ .... . .... ... . ...... ...... .. .... .......................... . ... ....... . ...... .............. ....... ... .. .... ...... ρ ............... . . .. .. ....... ........ . ............. ................. . .. .... the air is at atmospheric pressure. If the area and centroid of the submerged part of the barrier are A and z.......... ....... .. .. .............. ......... .. ... . . ...... .... ................. ..... ............ ..... .... ... . ..... .... The moment would also have a non-hydrostatic contribution proportional to the product of (pb − pa )Atot and an appropriate lever arm.. . ..... .. ...... ... ....... .. . .......... ... . ... ..... .. .3. .......... ..... ... .................... p = pabs − pa .... . ... ............. ............ ... .. .... ... . .......... ....... ... ... .. ... ........... ......... . ........... ................... ... ........ . ... ... .... . .... ... ........ ..... ........ ....... ....... .... .... . .. ..... .................. . the contribution from the atmospheric pressure cancels exactly.... ........... ......... ....... ......... . ..... ........ ..... ... . ..... .. ............. . ......... .... . ..... ... . . ....... . .................. .......... .... ........... .... ... ..... .. ............. ....... .. . ..... ..... ....... pa .. ... .... ...... .. . . ... .. .. .. ... . .... .. ..... ... ... .. ...... . . . ........ ... .. ......... .......... . ......................... ..... ... .... ... . .. .. . ......... ..... ....... when we have a liquid on one side of a barrier and air on the other side.... . ..... . ..... .... ........... ...... .. ............. . . .................... ..... .... .. . .......... .............. . ... ...... .. ......... ..... . .. .............. .... pa .. ........ . .. ... .. . .. ..... ..... ....... . ...... .......... . ... ...................... . p is the difference between the absolute pressure....... By contrast. ..... . ......... ....... .... . ........ ...... . .............. ..... .. ....................... . ......... .... . ..... ............. . ........ .............. .......... ... ......... .... ............. . .. .. ... ..... .. ... ...... ..... . ............................. . ..... ............. .. . . . ..... ................. .... ......... ..... ..................... . ....67) F orce f rom the right Because there is a difference in reference pressure.... (a) Single reference pressure (b) Dual reference pressures Figure 3. ....... . .. ........ .......... . .......... .......... ........... ....... ... ................ ... ..... . . .................... . ................ ....... ................... ........... ........... ...... ........ .. The net force on the barrier in this case is F = ρgzA + pa Atot | {z } F orce f rom the lef t − pb Atot | {z } = ρgzA − (pb − pa ) Atot (3..... ....... .... and all that remains is the hydrostatic contribution to the force. ............. .. pabs .. ... .. ..... consider Figure 3... .. .. ...e... . ....... .. .... .... ...... ...... ......... . .. ........ .. . ........ ...... ...................... ..................... .... ............ .... . ................ .... ............ ........... . ................................ ......... ............. . . .. .. ... .. . .... ...... ... ...... .......... .......... ........ . .. .. ........... which corresponds to a closed chamber pressurized on one side............... . ... ...... .... . .. . ...... . .............. ............... . ... ...... . ....................... ... ........ ....... .... ......... . . ..... .... . ........ .. ............... .................. ......... ...... ....... ...66) | {z } | {z } F orce f rom the lef t F orce f rom the right Thus............ . .. .. ......... ... .. ..... ........... .. .. .... . ...... . .. ....... including details of the pressure forces acting on both sides of the barrier.... . .... ......... ......... .................. ..17: Pressure forces on a barrier including reference pressures... . ...... . The additional contribution. .. .... F . . ....... ...... ........................... ...... .. . ........... ......... . ..... . .. ... ...... .. ................ ... ...... .................. ...... ........ ................. ......... .... .. .... .... ........ ................... ... .. ............ ...... ......... ........ . ..... .. ..... . ............ .. .......... .............. .. ....... .... ....... ..... .... ...... ......... .... .... ..... ........ ..... .....41) that we have been dealing with what is referred to as gage pressure.............. ......................... . ... . ........ .... ....... ............. .. . ..... . and the atmospheric pressure........... .. ...... .........

e. Balance forces in the x and z directions to determine Fx and Fz in terms of FH and FV . we can reduce this more-complex problem to one we have already solved.19. The curved-surface methods of this chapter can be used to accurately predict the forces and moments on such a structure.. [Photographs courtesy of United States Department of the Interior. which can prove to be a nontrivial task. FH = ρgzAOA.e. Compute FV . in the x direction..18: Photo and sketch of Hoover Dam on the Colorado River at the southern tip of Nevada. respectively. F = Fxi + Fz k. We must now do an integral on a potentially complex contour. consider the arc AB shown in Figure 3. PRESSURE Figure 3. Similarly.106 CHAPTER 3. FV = ρgVABCD . i. i. Resolve the force vector into its x and z components. Hence.8 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces In principle. To understand how we can accomplish this end. computing the hydrostatic force on a curved surface is more difficult than on a plane surface. Bureau of Reclamation . Fx + FCB = FH + FOD =⇒ Fx = FH where FCB = FOD because CB and OD have the same pressure but opposite unit normals. using plane surface methods. the force on surface OA.Lower Colorado Region] 3. with a little cleverness.e. balancing forces in the z direction shows that Fz = FV . 2. However. Compute FH . where i and k are unit vectors in the x and z directions. i. 3. the weight of the column of fluid above AB from the geometry. We proceed as follows.. 4. 1.

. .......... . ... . .. ..... ... . . .... . . . .... . . ... . .... ... .... ... ... .. .. . .... . . . . ... .. .. .. Because the arc is a straight line segment oriented at 45o to the horizontal........... .... .. ....... .. .. .... ... ........ • . .. ....... ... ...... .... .H ...... ...... . ... . .. ..... ......... ....... ... . .. . ... ... . . .... . .. ... .. ... .. ... . .. . . .. and since F is normal to the arc.. ......... .... .... . .... ... ....... . . ρ .. . ... .. ....... . . . The x component of F is equal to the hydrostatic force on the projection of the gate surface onto the vertical plane... ... . ... ... . . . ... . ... ........... ........... . .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. ......... . ..... .... ... ... ... .... ...... .. ... ..... ... .. . ....... ..• .. ... ..69) 2 2 Hence. . . .. ................ .. ...... .. .... .........x.. . .. ....... .... ... . .. .... x ....... . .. . ... . ... . ................. . . . .. ... ... .. .... . . .. .. . ............... . ... ... .. .. . ..... .. . ........ ....... . . .. . . . .... .... . ... ............ ............... ..... . .. .. . . .. ..... . .. .. .......... . ........... . . ...... ...... .... . .. .. . ..... ... ....... ..... . .. .. . . ... .. .. .... ... . ...... .... .. ...... ... . . .. ...... .. .... ......... .. ........ Air .. ..... .. . . .... ............ .. .......... . . .. .............. ........ ... .. . ..... .. ... .. ......... ...... ... ....... ... .. .. ... . ... . .. ....... . .. .. .... .. ... .... ... ... ... ....... ..... .. ... . .... . ....... . C Figure 3....... .. a rectangle of .. .... .... . . .. . ... . . .. ..... . ....... ...... . ... .... .. . . . . .. .. . .... .... ......... ..... ... ... . ...... .... . .... . ... ..... . .. . .. ..... .. .......... .. .. . . ... . .. ... . . .. ..... .......... .... . ............ ....... . .. ... . .. .. ..... ....... ..... ... . .... . .. . ...... .. ... .. ... . . .. ... . .. .. ..... .......... ..... .. . ..... . ....... ... .. ... ... ... ...... . . ... ... .zcp . .... .. .. ... ........ . .. .. .... . . .. ....... . .. ....... . ... ... ..... .... . . ....... ... . . ..... . . . .. ........... ..... ....3... . ........ .. ..FV .... .. ... . . ..... . .. . ... .. ... ........ . ....• ......... as expected.. . ..... . ... which is 32 H below the surface. .. .. .. ............ we can use Equation (3. .... ..... . ...... .. .... . . . .... .. . ... .... ..... .... .. .. . . ... .... .. .. ... . ......... . ... H .... .. .. . .. ... . ... . ..... . .... . . ...... ... .. .... . ..... .. . . . ... ... ... . .. . . .......... . .. .. .. . . . .. . . .... . ... . ....... .... .... . . ... ......... ... . . ... ...... ........ .. .. .. ... ..... . .. ..cp H Air . ........... ... ...... . ..... . ... ... .. . .. . ... .. .. . ... . . . ...... .. ..... . . . . ... .. . .... ....... . ... . ..... . .8. ...... .. .... . ......... . ...... .. . . .. ...... . .. . .. . ... . .......... .. . ........... ... ..... ...... . .. ... . . ................. ....... we have shown that Fx = Fz . .. . ... .. F ............ .... . . . .... . . ... .......... The projection is a surface of unit width out of the page aligned with arc OA....... ...... .... . ... . ...... . . ... .... ... .... ..... .. ... ........ . .. ... . .... .. . ..... . ..... .... . ... .... ... .. ... Thus.... ....... .. .. . . .. .. . ....... .. ... ............. . .. ... ....... .... .. .. ........ . . . . ..... ......• ...... .. .. ...... • . . .. .. ...... . . ....... .. ..... .. .. .......... . . .. .. . .... .. . . .... . . .. . . A . ... ... .... .... .. . . .. . ...... .. . . . ...... ............ . . ... .. ..... .... ... . ...... . ...... ... . . .. .. . . . ... .. . .. . ..• .. . ... ...... .. .... .. .. . . ..... Therefore. .. .. ..... ..... . ...... .... ..... . .. ... .. ... .... ... ..... ......... . ............. A and I are for the projection of AB onto the vertical plane. .... ... .. .... ..... ... . . .. .... ............... .. .... . .... ...... ..... z ..... . . ... ...... . .. .. ... . . . ... .... . ...... .. . .... ... . .... ... ... . ....... .. . .... . .. .. ......... .. .... .. .... .. ..... . . ... . ... .. .... .... ....... .......... .... ......... .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . .... . ..... . ......... . .... ....19: Force on a curved surface. . .... . . . ... .... ..F . .. ..... .... . ...... ..... .. ... . ... . .. .. ... ........... .... . .... .. .......... . .. . . .. ... .... .. .... . . .. .... . ... . . .. . .. ... .. . . . . ... ...20 separating a fluid of density ρ and air.. ..... .. . .. .. .. . .... .55) where z....... . . .......... .. . . .. ...... . .. . . . .... ... . ....68) 2 The weight of the column of fluid above AB is the sum of the weight of the fluid in OBCD and the fluid in OAB.. ... . . .. .. .. .. ...... .. ... . . The volumes of these columns are VOBCD = H 2 · 1 = H 2 and VOAB = 12 H 2 · 1 = 12 H 2 ......... . .... . .. ........... .. ........... .. ... . .. . .. .. ..x . . ... . . . ... ....... ..... .... ... .. .. .... .. . .. . ......... .... . .... ......... .. . .... .. . ... . ....... .... .. ... ... ....... . .. ... .... ... . . . ......... . . . .. . .. . . .. . .... .. .. • ...... . .. . ... .. .......... ........ .... . .. . .. .. . . ... .. . .. . .... .. .......... . .. . .... . . .. . . ... . . ... . ........ .... . . . .......... .. . .. . .... . .. . .. ... . ....... .. .. .. . .. ... .. .... .... ...... .. .... ... ...... . . .. ... .. ...... . .. .. ...... . .... .. .. .. . . .. ... . ..45) with α = 90o wherefore 3 Fx = ρgH 2 (3.. ..... .. ... ... ρ ... ... . . .. .......... . .. . . consider the rectangular gate of unit width out of the page aligned with arc AB in Figure 3. ..... ... . .... ........... .... ... . . ... ..... . . . .. .. ..... ..... For this gate geometry. .... .... ..... . .... . . ... .. ........ O .. .. ..... . . . ... . .. We will use this problem as a first illustration of the curved-arc methodology.. ...... . .. .......... .. ... .. .. ... ... ... . . . ..... . ... .. ..... . . . . . F . .. .. . ...... ... . ........ ...... . ...... . .. ..... ... ......... .. .. ......... .. ... ..... ... .. .... ... ......... . . ... . .. .... .... . ......... ...... .. . .. i. .. ... .. .... . ......... ... . . .. ... .. . . ....... ..... .. . .. . ............... . . ....... H .. . ................. .. . ... ... ......... .. .... .. .. . .. . .. .. ........ ... .... .. .. ... . ........ .. .. •A .. . ..... .... .... .. .. .. . . . .. .... .. ... ... . . ... ....... .... . .. .. . ... .. ... .. ..... .. ... .... . O . . . ...... . ... ... ....... .. . .. .. .... ... necessarily Fx = Fz . .. ........ .. ..... . .. ... . . ..... . .. ....... Because the projected surface is a rectangle.. ... .. ..... . ... ..... ..... ...... .. ... .... .. .. . .. . ... ... . ........ . ....... Thus. .... .. . . ....... .. ... .. ........ ... ... ..... . ... . . .. the z component of F is as follows.... .... . . ..... ... .. .. . .. . ... .. ... .. ..... ... ..... . B .. . ....... ..... ...... . ... ..... .... . ..• ...... ......... . . . ... . .. . .. ......... . .. .... ... . . ........... .... . ... . ... .. ...... ... ... . . HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES .. .... ... . ... ... .... .. . . ... . .. ..... ... . .. . . .. ... .... ..... . . .. ... . ......... ... . .. ........... .. . .. . ... .. . . . ........ .. ... .. . .. . .. ... .. ... ... . .... . . .. . . .. ...... ... ... .. .... .... .. . . ... .. ....... .. We can use this fact as a check on our computations.. .. . .. . . ... ... . .. ..... ...... .... .. .. ... . ... ..... ..... ........... .. . . .. . . .. . . . . ........ .. .. . .. . .... .... . ... ........ . .... .. .... .. .. ... ... . ... . ....... ... .... .. . . ..... . ....... . .. .. . ................. ............. .. . .. .. . ... . ............ ... . ........ ...... .. the centroid location is z = 32 H and the area of the surface is A = H · 1 = H (the 1 represents unit width).. ......... . . ... . ...... OA is the projection of the arc AB on a vertical plane. ... ......... ...... ... .. . .......... .. .... .. .... ... ....... .. .... ... .... . ..... ..... .... . .... . . ......... .... .. .. .... . ... .......... .... ..... .. .. ... ...... ..... ....... .... ... . . ... ... ....e.... .... . its centroid is 12 H below point O... ..20: Fluid-statics problem|the gate has unit width out of the page... ... .... ... . . ... ... .. .. ... .. .. ........... . .. .... . . .... ... . .... . ... . .. .......... .... .. . .. ... . .. . .. We can compute the center of pressure using Equation (3.... ..... ......... .. . . . ... .. .... .. . . .. .. B ........... ... ...... .... .... . .. .. .. . .. .. . .... .. ......... .. . ..... ...... .. . . . ... . ........... . . . .. . ......... .... ............ .... 1 3 Fz = ρgH 2 + ρgH 2 = ρgH 2 (3. ...... . .. . . ..... . ... ..... .. .... ... ......... ... . ......... ..... . .. ...... . ... .. ...... ....... . . ... ... .... .. To see how this procedure works. z 107 Air C D # ! Figure 3....... .... .......... . ........ . . ... . .... ...... .• .. ........... . .. ....... .. . .. . ... ....... .. .... ... .. ..... . .. .. . .. .... . ......... .. .. .. .. ... ... .... .. . . ..... ... .. Air D. .. .... .... ... .. .... ....... ....... .. .. . ....... . . . . . . .... ... . ...... . .............. ... .. . ..... . . .. ... . . .............. .. ..... .. . .

.. .. . . . ... . . .. . .. .... The contribution to the moment from the combined arc ABC relative to the z axis is the sum of the moments from the weight of OBCD and the weight of OAB...... .H . .. ... . reference to Figure 3. .. ... ... .. .. . . . .. .. . .... .. .. . .. .. .. ... ... . .. . ... ... . .. . . . . . . while the lever arm for OAB (a triangle) is 13 H. .... . . ..... . . ....... ...... the z (3. . .. . ... . . .... ... ..... . B . ....... . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .... . .. ... . .. ....... Assuming.. ..... . we must satisfy Z xcp Fz = x dF (3...... .. . . .. . .. . . . . . .. .. .. ..... ...... . ..21... . .. .. Thus. .. .. .. .. .... . . . .... . . . ... . ..14 shows that I = component of the center of pressure is given by zcp = 1 H3 3 14 H + 312 H = 2 9 H · H 2 1 H 3. .. . Z 1 1 2 xcpFz = x dF = H ·ρg VOBCD + H ·ρg VOAB = ρgH 3 (3. ... •.. ... the moment is xcp = 2H − M = rcp × F = (zcp Fx − xcpFz ) j (3. .. . . . .... . ... . ... .... ... .. . . . . . .. .. ... .. . .. .•. . . ..... .... . ... .... . .. . ........ . . .. . As an example of a straightforward way to evaluate the integral in Equation (3... . . . the lever arm for OBCD (a square) is 12 H relative to the z axis... . .. . . . ... . Hence. . .. . ... .. . . . .. . we again take moments about the y axis.. . . . . . ..... . .. ... . ... . .. .. . . . .. .. . ........ .. . .. . .... .. . .... . ... .... that our surface is symmetric about y = 0... ρgVOBCD ρgVOAB A • Figure 3. . .. . . . . To determine xcp ... . ... . ... to determine zcp . . .. .. .. ... .. ...... .. . ..... . .... .. ... . . . .. ... .. (Note that we have previously considered the surface geometry in the yz plane..... . .... the center of pressure lies on the surface.. ..... ... ... . .. . . .. . ....... . . .. . . . .. . ... .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . ...108 CHAPTER 3..71) 9 9 We cannot assume that rcp lies on the surface for curvilinear arcs. .73) D z O C x •. xcp.. . ... . . . ... . . 12 Thus. .. .. . . ....•. . . As shown in Figure 3. . .. .. for this problem. .. ... . .. ..... ... . . 3 .. .... . .. . .. ...... . .. ... . ..... . .... . .. . relative to point D. . 2 . .. ... .. .. . . . . PRESSURE height h = H and width b = 1. . ..... ...55) on OA.. . .. .. . These are distances of the centroids of these volumes from the z axis in the xz plane.... . ... .... . ... .. . . ...... .... .. . ... . . .. .. the projection of AB on the vertical plane.. .. . .. . . .. . . ..73)... .. ... . .... .. .. the equation of arc AB is x = 2H − z so that 14 4 H= H (3. . . .. . . . .. . ... . . .. ... .. . .. . .70) For planar surfaces. . . .. . .... . . . .......... . . H .. . . . . . . . ... . . .... . . . . . .... . ...21: Moment arms for computing xcp . .. . . .) The moment on ABC must exactly balance the moments on OBCD and OAB. . After all. .. .. . . consider the sample problem.. . . . ... .... . ... .. ... ..... for general curvilinear arcs..... .. . we simply use Equation (3.. for simplicity. . ... ... ... .. .. ..... .. . . .. .. .. . .... . ... To find the x component of the center of pressure. . ... . . ..... ... . .. . ... .. . .. . . . .74) | {z } 3 | {z } 3 2 H2 1 2 2H . . . .. .... ... . . . it is an equivalent lever arm for an equivalent force.... . . . .... . . ... ....72) In general. .... . .. .. . . . . .

..... . ............... ...... ... .. ........ .. ......... . .. .. .......... ..................... ........... . . . .. .... ....................... ....... ... .... ..... ..... ........................ ..................... ........ ... ........................ the centroid....... ............ .............. .......................... .... ........ ....................... .. ..... ..................................... .......................... ...... .......... on the dam and the z coordinate of the center of pressure....... ................................. ..................... ..... ............................ .... .. .. ...... ... The dam is 6h wide (out of the page)....... ......... .... . ............... .. ..... ..... ........ ..... . .8................. ... HYDROSTATIC FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES 109 Combining Equations (3......... ..... ... ............. ........... .................... ..... .. ....... ... ...... ....... the net force on the dam is F = 4ρgh3 (3i + k) Finally........... . ...... . . ............................... ....... ..... ............ .......... .............. ......... .......... ..... .. . ....... Fx and Fz . Air h x z ρ 2h Solution. ....... ... ........... .............................. .. ........... ......... .. ........................... . . .. ... ............ ... .......... . ............. ......................... ......... ... ......... ........... . ................. ..................... .. ..... ................ . ......... is zcp = z + 4h4 1 4 I =h+ = h+ h = h zA h (12h2 ) 3 3 ............. .............................. ... ............ .... ........... .................. ... ...... ................ ... ..................... ............ . ...... ... ..... .......... .10 A dam has a parabolic shape defined by z = 2h(1 − x/h)2 for z > 0... ... ... the vertical force on the dam is Fz = ρgV = 4ρgh3 Combining the results for the two force components.... .............. ..... ........ .74) yields 3 2 ρgH 2 xcp = ρgH 3 2 3 =⇒ xcp = 4 H 9 (3....... . .. .. ..................................... ............ .... ....... .. ...... ............ ..... . ..... . ...................................... ....... zcp . ............... ............. ........ . ................. . . ..... .......... .... ............ ..... ......................... ....... ..................... ............... ............ into vector form... ........ .............. So.. ............. ............. .... ... .. Determine the force...... ..... .... .. ........... ..... ......... ..... ............. ................... ....... ................... . ........ .. ............. ..... . ..... .. ..... ......... .............. ............ ................................ . ... ............ ..................... ... ... . ..... ....... ........ ..... .... ... . ........ .. ...... .......... ...... ... I= 1 (6h)(2h)3 = 4h4 12 Thus.... .. ............ .. . ....... ......... .... ..... .. ... ......... ... ...... . .............................. ............... . ...... ................. ......... .. ............................. . ....... ....... . ... .... .... ....................... ................. .. .... .... ... . ..... ............ .......... ..... ................ . the cross-sectional area of the fluid above the dam in the xz plane is Acs = Z h 0 = = 2 2h Z Z 2h(1−x/h)2 dzdx = Z 0 h 0 1 2 2 (1 − ξ) dξ = 2h 1 2h2 ξ − ξ 2 + ξ 3 3 iξ=1 ξ=0 Z h 2h(1 − x/h)2 dx 0 1  1 − 2ξ + ξ 2 dξ (ξ ≡ x/h) 0 = 2 2 h 3 So................ ........... .......... ..... . .... .. .......... ..... (3...... ............ ............. .......... ................. ...... ... ...... ..... .. area and moment of inertia are z = h......... ........... ... ............. ................75) This matches the result quoted in Equation (3........ ........ . .. .............. .... .. ........ .... ... ....... . ........................... .................... ....... ...... .. ............. .............. .... .................... A = 12h2 .... . . ..... ... .............. . .. ........ ...................... ............................. ...... .... ... ...... .... ....... ........... ......... ......... .. ............................ ........ . ........ ...... ...... ........ ... ................... .......... ........... .. ................... ..... .......... ....... ............ .............. .. ................... ...... .............. . .. ..... . ...... ............. ... ......... .............. ... . ....... . ........................... ...... . ............ .... .....69)...... ......... ..... Example 3............................ ... ...... . .. .. ..... .......... ... .............. ..... .... ............. ....... .... ..... ...... .. .. ......... ....... ...................... .. ................................. ........ . .... .. ............. . ...... . ............... ............... ... ....... ........................................... ..................... . .......... ...... ...... .............. ..... .... . ... ... ............... ............................ ........ . .. ........... ........... .......................... ... ... the horizontal component of the force on the dam is  Fx = ρgzA = ρgh 12h2 = 12ρgh3 Turning to the vertical component..... .... . ......... ...... ... .... .......... . ........ zcp ............................................ ................. .... ..... .... .... ... ...... ................. . . . ....... ........ ....... . .... ............ . .......... .............. .............. .......... . . .. ............ .. . .. ......... .. ..... . .. .... ...... . ........................... ................ ........... ...... . ..... .......................... . ..... ............. ..3....... ........................ .... .. ... .... ................. . ............. .... ........ .. .......... ... . ...... ......................... ............ ... F...... ... .. ............ ... . .......... .................... ..71)....... ........ .. ..................... ... . .. ................ . . ............ ..... ...... ............. ... .............. ........ .... ... ............... .. .. ... ........ .... .... ..... ......... .......................... ......... . ............. ...... .. .......... the vertical component of the center of pressure.. ....... . ..... ......... ............ ..... ................ ..................... ................. ..... .... .. ..... .................. ................ ... . ......... The projection of the dam onto a vertical plane is a rectangle of height 2h and width 6h..... . .......... ..... ........73) and (3. .......... ........... ...... ....... .... the volume of the fluid above the dam is V = 6hAcs = 4h3 Therefore.......... ......... .................... ................ ....... .. .. ....... .... ..... ......... .. ...... ......... .....

.. .. ...... ...... ... . . .... . ..... ...... .. ..... . .. ..... . ....................... .. B F2 .. .. . . .. .... ... . ....... . ... . ... ............... .A. . ..... Air # ! Figure 3. ....... ... ...... . . . ...... . .. ...... .... . .... . . ...... . . ... ....... . ........ ..... ..... ... .............. .... . .. ........... . ... . ... . ...... .. .. .... ......... ...... ....... ... .. . ............ .... .. ........ ............. ........ ...... • ........... ... .. ...... . ..... . ..... .... .. .... .... .. .. ..... ..... ........ .. .... ......... .... ... . .. . . . . . .. . . . ...... . .. ..... .. .. .. ....... .. ...... . ........ ........ . ..... . .................... • .... ....... ... ..... . . .. .. ... ... ... . .. . ...... .... ... ....... .... . ... . .. . . .... ......... .. ... ... . . ... .. ...... . ... . ... ... ... ... ... . ... ..... .. .... ... ... .... .... .... .. .. . .. Hence.......... ....... ....... . . •... .... ... ... ........ . . .. .... . . .... . ... ... ...... ...... . . .. ..... . .. ..... ....... ............... ........ ... ....... .. .. ........ .. .. .. .... . .. .. .. ..... ........ ..... ..... .. . A .. . ..23.. . ..... . ... .. . .. . . ... .. .... ...... .... . ..... .. . ............ ...... .. ...... . ... ..... . . .. . .. ... ....... .... ... ....... .. ... ...... . . .. . . . .............. ...22 with ρ = ρ1 and Problem 2 with ρ = ρ2 . .... .... . ... . ...... .... .. .... .... ............ ... ..8 is ideally suited for problems with fluid above the arc.. .... .. . . . .. . .... ... ...... ..... . Hence. ... . . . .. .... . ........... . . .. .. .... ... .... . ........ . . .... . ...... .... ... .. .............. . We do this by using the principle of superposition.. .. ..... . .. ............ .... .... . .. . .. .... ..... .. . ........ ....... . .. . ... .... .... ... .. ...... ..... .... .... .. ....... . . ............... ..... . . . .... . ..... the magnitudes of the forces acting on the arcs shown in Figure 3.... . . ........... .... . .. .. .. ........ .. . .. ...... .. . . .. ... . .... .. . . . .... . ... .. . . . .......... ..... ... .. .. . . ... ...... ........ ..... .. .... . ... . . . . ... ...... ......... .... . . ... ... . ........ ... .. ... . ... .......... F . .... ... .... ......... .76) This is a useful fact since the method described in Section 3......... .. ..... . .. ................ . . ..... ... .. ...... ... ......... . To solve this problem. .......... ..... . . ..... but requires modification when the fluid is below the arc... .77) Another way of viewing this problem is to say the solution is the difference between Problem 1 with ρ = ρ1 and another Problem 1 with ρ = ρ2 .. ...... .... . .. .. .... ..... ... . ... ... . .. .. . . . ....... .. .. .. ... .. . ....... . .. ... . ...... ............ .... .... .. ...... . . .. . ..... .... ..... .. . ........ . . .. ..... .... if we compute the force vector........... ..... ..... .......... .. . ... . ... ... .... .. . . . ...... . ... . ...... ......... .. . .... . .... ... ... .. .. Again. . ... ...... . .. .. ... ...... . . ... . ... . .. ...... ..... ... .. ....... .. .. ....... ... ............... As an example.. .. ...... .. . .... . ..... Air . ...... ...... . ... . .... . ......... ... ... • . ............... .. . ..... . ... .... .......... 1 . .. . .. . .. . . .. ..... ........... . . ............ ..... . .... ... ... ...... .. .• . .. . ............ ... .. .. .. ..... ... . ..... ............ .... ...... ...... .... .. ..... ...... .. .. .. .... . .. ........... ...... . .. . ........ ... .... ........ .. .. . ......... .. . .. .... .... ...... ........ .... . .. .... ....... ........... . ....... ..... . ... ... .... ................ . . . ........... . . ....... . ...... . ..... ...... ... ... .. . . .. ...... . . . . ..... .... ..... ... .. Air .. Mathematically.... .. .... . ρ . .. .. . consider an arc separating two fluids of different densities as shown in Figure 3................... .. .. . .. ....... .. .... ... ... . ...... .... ..... ..... .. ................... . ... . . .. . ....... . ... ........... ....... .................. ......... ..... .......... ... ... . .. .. ..... ... ...... ... . ... . .. ..... .. .. ..... . .. .... ...... ....... . .. .. ....... ........ . .. . .. . .... .. ....... . .... ........ . ..... ... . . ... . ... ....... .. ............. ........... .... .. . . . . .. ... ... ...... ... . ..... . . ... .... ....... ... .. ...... . .110 3... ..... .... ...... ...... ... . ...... ...... .......... ... . ........ . .. ...... ... . . . ....... . .... ... ... ..... ..... ..... .. .. .. . . .. . ......... ..... ........... ... .... . .. ... .... .. ... .......... ............. .. ......... . . .... .... .......... ..... ....... ... . .. ... . .............. .. .. .. ..... ... . ... .. .... . . . .. . .... .............. ..... .. .. .. . .. ... ..... ..... .... .... ... .. ........ .... . ..... .... ... ... ... . ... .. .. . .. .. .. ....... .. ... ..... . ... . ...... ......... ....... . ... . ...... .. ...... . .. ... .. ... ... . ... . .... . . ... ...... .. . . .. ... .... ........ ... .. ........ . .. . ... .... . .... .... .. ..... ..... ..... . .. ....... ........ ... . .... . .... ................. .... ...... . ... . .. . .. .... ... .... ..... .. ........ ... ..... . That is. A .. . . ...... ... . ....... . ..... .... .. .. .... .. .... .. ... ... .. ..... .. .... . ..... . .. .. . .............. ........... ... .... • ... . .. ... . .......... .. . . . .. .. ............ ............ .... ... ... ......... ... .. ... ........... PRESSURE Equivalent Pressure Fields and Superposition Because pressure varies only with depth........ ....... . . . ... this is identical to solving Problem 1 .. .. ... ........... ........ .. .... ... . .... ....... .... ... . . ...... .. ..... .. . ..... .. ... . ... ... . ... ... . .... .. ....... .. ....... ... .. . . . .. ........... .. ..... . ... ...... .. ....... .... ........ ..... . .. . .. .......... .. .. ..... .... ... ... ... .. ..... . .. . .. . ... ρ ... . .......... .... . . ... . .. . ... ... .. .. .. .. .. ......... ........ .. ........ . ... .... .. . ............. . . . ....... ..... ..... ... .. . ..... . .. ... ............ . ... .. .. . .... ......... .. ..22 are identical. ...... . .. . . .. .... ... ... . . ...... .. .... .. . ........ . . .... .. ...... ... . . ...... . .................. . ....... ...... . ... ..... ..... .. .... ...... ..... .. .... .... . . ....... .. .. ....... ........ ..... ..... ... ..... Another useful technique for solving fluid-statics problems is to replace a given problem with a series of simpler problems.. .. . ........... ............ ..... . . . .. ...... ... ...... ... .. .... .. ....... .... ..... ........ ... ....... . .............. . .... . ... ......... .. ...... . ..... . . . .. ........... ... .. .... ... ........ ..... ... ....... . . . ....... ....... ......... ..... .... . . . .. ... ..... ... . ............ . . ... ... .. .............. ... . ρ2 .......... we can say F2 = −F1 (3......... . ...... . ............. ...... ... .... .. .... . . ..... .... F1..... . .... ... .... ... .. .... . .. ........ . .. .. .. . .... . ...... .. ... ... ... . ... .... .. .......... . .. .... ... ......... . . .... ...... ...... ... ... . ... .. .. .... ..... .. . .. .. ....... .. . ....... . ... . .... ... .. .... ........ .. .......... . ....... .. .. . . .... .. . ........... .. ... . ... .. . . ..... .. ........ ... . ..... .. .. . ... . ... . ... .... .... ...... ........ .. . .. ... ..... . . . ... . ... . ..... . ....... .... . .. .... ... ... ... .... ..... . ....... . .. . .... ..... ...... . . ........ . . .. .. . . ........... ... . ......... .... . . ....... ... . ...... ...... ... ......... . .... ..... . ...... .. ..... .. ....... ... . .............. . . ...... . ........ . . .. .. .. . .... .. . ..... .. . ....... .......... .. .. .. we use superposition. ... . ..... ..... ..... ... . ... ....... .... .......... . ............... ...... ....... we seek replacement problems whose sum or difference has an equivalent pressure field..... . ... . . .. ........ ... . ... . ... . ..... . . ... .. . ... . .. . .. ...... ....... ......... . ........ .. .. . . . . ......... ..... .. ... . ........ . . .. ........ .... ......... .. .... .... ..... ...... ................. ....... .. ......... ....... ....... . .. ... ....... ...... .. .... ... .. clearly the force is −F1 when the same fluid lies to the right of the arc... .. . .... .... ... ..... . .... .. .... .. ... ...... . ..... . ... . ... .. . ...... . . ... .. . . . ... ........ . . .. . . .. with fluid of density ρ to the left of the arc.. ... .... ..... . ... ............ .. ... ... ... ... . ..... .. . ... ... .. ..... . . .. ..... . ... .... .......... . ............... .. ....... ... .. ........ ... .... .... ... . ............ ........ . ......... .. .... . ... .. .... . . ....... .. .... ........ .. .............. .. ..... .... . . ..... ...... ........ .. .... .. ..... ... ...... .... ... . ... . .. ..... .... ..... ... . ........... . ... . ... ........ ... .... .... . .... . . ... ....... ..23 by the sum of Problem 1 of Figure 3. .. ........... . . ....... ... .. .. . .... ....... .. . .... . .... .... ... . .. .. . . ... . . . ... . . ... ................... . ..... . ... . . ... ...... Air . ...... .... . .. ....... . ...... .. .. .... . ... ..... .. ..... ...... . ..... But.. .... ................... ... . ...... ...... ... . ...... ... .. ...... ... ... .......... ... .... ρ ...... .. ... .. .... ..9 CHAPTER 3..... ... . .. . . ........ .... . . . ... .... ..... . .... ... ... ... we first replace the problem in Figure 3. .. .......... . ... . ... .. ........ . . ..22: Equivalent static pressure fields... .. . ...... . ... .... . ......... ... ..... .. . . ......... ...... ... .......... . . ..... .. ..... .. ... . ......... . . ....... ... ... ..... .... .. . .... ... ............... ..................... .... . ................. .... ..... ..... .... ... .... ........ .. ....... ..... . ... ... ..... ........... ....... ...... .... .. ......... .... ... . ......... . .......... .. .. .......... ........ ... . ...... . Problem 1 Problem 2 Air # ! # ! Figure 3... . .. . . ... ..... ........ .. ........ .... .... ..... ... .... .......... .. ... .. . .. .. ... ... ....... ... ....... .. .... . ......... .. .. ...... ........ .. ... ..... .. . . .... .. .... .. . ... ........... .. ...... . .... . ..... ....... ....... The force from Problem 1 points downward while the force from Problem 2 points upward... . .... . ..... ......... . ...... . . .. .. .. ....... ... ........ . ................ . . ....... ..... . ... ... B ........ ........ . ........ .... . .. ....... ......... . . . .. ... .. ...... .......... . . . . .. ......... .... .. ... .... ...... . ... . . ....... ... .... ..... ... ... ..... .. ... .. ... ....... . .. .... .. ................ . .. ....... .. ..... . . .. . ........... ....... . . ... ....... ... B ...... .......... . .. . .............. .... ... ........ ... ....... .... .... .......... ............ .... . ... ...... ...... . ... ... .. ......... ...... ..... ..23: Superposition example...... ...... .. .... .. ........ ....... .... .... ..... .. ..... . .... .. .. .. ... ... . ... .. .. . ........... ...... ........ .... . .... .......... . .. .. . ... . . . .... ... . . ............ .... . ..... ...... ... .... . ...... . ....... .. .... ... . ... .............. . ..... .. .. ... .. . . . ........ . .. . ........... . . ......... .... ... . . .. .. .... ....... ......... ........ the total force will be F = F1 + F2 (3.. .. .... ... . . . ...... . .. . ...... ...... .. . ... ............... .... ........ .. .. .. .. ... . .. ... ... .. ............... ............ .... .......... .. ..... .......... .... . ... ....... . ... ...... . ...... . . ... ............. F1 . . . . . .. .. ...... ... ... .... .. ... ...... .... ...... . ........ ...... .. . .. .. .... .. ... ........ .... ... .... ... .... ..... . ..... ....... .. ... .. .. .... . ..... . ...... .. . ...........

......... ... ........... ....... .................. ... .................................. .............. ............... ......................................... . ................... .................... ....... ............................... ....................... ...... ... ...................................... ... A = 2h2 .............................. ................ .......... . ............ ............ . .................................. . ......... So. . .......... ............ .............. .................... ..... ........ .........11 Consider a container of water (density = ρ) with the shape shown below........ •............ ........ ... ..... ......... ................. .. ... ........................ . x ... ................ the force on the gate for the original problem is F = −ρgh3 [4i + (2 + π)k] Finally.. ..................... .. . area and moment of inertia are z = 2h.. ............. ......... . ... . . ..... .......................... ...ρ....... ........... . .......................................... ...... ... .... • ............. ..... ................. % z/h = 0 z/h = 1 z/h = 3 z/h = 5 Solution.. ... .................. ............• . ......................... . A.. ................ •.. ........................ .. . ......... ............................ ................. ... ... ......... ......................... ... .......... .............................. ...... B . .. .. ....... .. ............ .................... .. .. ... ......... . .................. ... Air ........ .. ....... ......... Air ..... ..... ............... ... ................................................................... ........ .... ... ...... .. Example 3... ................ ... . ........... ...... ....... .... ................... ... ........ . ........ .... . .. .. ............................................... ................................. .............. ... ............. .. ......... ....... ............... .....3....... ..... . .. ................ ........................ .. .......... ............. ............. ................ .............................. .. ........ .............. ... .................... ... ..... ............ ......... .............. ... . ................. ... ... ..... .... ......... .. ................. .......... h ... .. ....... . .... ... .. .. B .......... .... ..... .... To begin... .. ...... .......................... the centroid......... ................................ .... ... . ...... .... . ... ... ....... .... . ........................... ........... ...................... ...... ............ . ............. .... ................. ....... ....................... .......... .................... . ............... .................. .. h ....... .. .... ........ . ................................................ ..... .................. . ..... .. ............. ..... ..... . .... ........ The container has width h in the direction normal to the page...... ..... ......... ....... ........ ..... ............. the pressure at any point on the upper part of the arc is ρ1 gz pushing to the right while the contribution from the lower part of the arc is ρ2 gz pushing in the opposite direction. ... ... ... . .......... ... .... ..... ..... ... ....... . ............................. .. ... ......... ... ................... F. the gate's projection on a vertical plane is a rectangle of height 2h and width h........................... ..... ................................ .... ......... .......... ... ......... • .. ....... ........ . ............... ............. ......... ............................... ................... . ..... .... .............. ....... .......... ..... ......... ...... ................... ............... use superposition as illustrated in the figure below..... . . ...................... ... and pressure is proportional to the density.............. ................ ........................... A ............... ... ............... and center of pressure................ ....... ............ .. ... .... ............. .............. ....... .. ......................................... ................. ................... ...... ...... ...... .. ........ ......... .......... . ..... ... . ............... B ..... .... ..... Original Problem .. ............... .. ...... ...... .. ....... .. .. ................... .. ......... .......... ........... . ........................ ........... ................. .............. ........ .. . ....................... ........................ .... . .... .................... .. ........ .. 2h ................... ... .. ............... .... ......... at a given depth z... ............... ........... ....... .......... ...... .. ... the vertical component of the center of pressure is 2 zcp = z + 4 1 13 I 3h = 2h + = 2h + h = h zA (2h) (2h2 ) 6 6 ... which is exactly the pressure exerted by a single fluid above the arc of density (ρ1 − ρ2 ).... ...... . . ...................• ......... ......... . ........................... ........... ............. .... . ............... ... ................... .. .................. .................... ..... ... ..... ....... . .. .. ........... ........... ..9......... .................. ... ...... ........ ....... ............. .... ...... ....... ........ ..................... .... ..... .. . . ............... .. ..... ................... ............... ........ ........ ................... ....... ................ ............. ..... ................... ..... . . .............. .......... ..... ................... ........ ...... ................ ... .................. . ............. ...... ...... ...... .................. ..... .............. ......................................... ....................... ............. − (Problem A) = For Problem A.. ................. ...... ........ ..... ............. ........ ......... .... .................. .................. ........................ .......... ... ................ ............... .... 2h ........ ............... ....... .... ................ ............................ ........... on the circular arc AB....... .... ............ ......................... . ............... .. .......... ........... .... ..................... ........................... ..... ............ . .............. .......... . . ................ Determine the hydrostatic force........ ........... .. The reason this works is because the pressure depends only upon depth............. ........ .. .. ................. .......... ........ .............. ............ ........... reversing signs.......... .............. ..... .......................... ...... ............ .................. ... .. ........... ..... . .................... ............... ..... .. ...................... ....... ..................... ..... .......... ............. ................. . ................. zcp . .................................. .......... ........ .. .... ..... . ....... .......... ......... ... ............................... ... ............ ..... . ............... ............ ...................... ...... ....... ..... ..... ........... ........ ........................... ................... ................... ........... ........................ .. .................... ................................................................ .... ........................................ .................... .................. ......... ........ ..................................... ....................... ...... ..... ......... .... .......... ............. .... .... ....... ... ............... ..... ..... EQUIVALENT PRESSURE FIELDS AND SUPERPOSITION 111 with ρ = ρ1 − ρ2 ................................ . ... .. .... .......... . ........ . .. A ....... ...... .......................... .... ................. .................. ....................... ........... ..... . ................................ ..... ....... . ....... ..... ... ............................ the force for Problem A is FzA = ρgV = ρg 2h3 + ρg FA = ρgh3 [4i + (2 + π)k] Then.............................. ..... ...... ... .. ....................... ...... . ....................................... ..... ........... .. ....... ....... ... . ... .. ..... . ..... ..................... .. ............... .. ρ .. .. .......... ............ .......................... .......... ... ............. ... ........ .............................. ......... ........... .. ...... .............. ... .. ............. ........ z .. .............. .............................................................. .......................... .............. ............ ............................ ....... .................................. ......... ...... .. ........................ ............................ ... .............. . ................... ........ ... .......................................... ..... ........... ....... ......... Consequently........... .. ...... . ......... ..... ... ....... ......... .............. ....................... .. ...... .. This means the net pressure acting on the arc at a depth z is (ρ1 − ρ2 )gz................ ............ .... ..... ... . ...................... . ... ..... ........................ ................... . ................ ........... ................................... ... ................ .. ..... ....... ......... ... ..... ... . ......... ....... .... ... ..... .... .................. ... ................ ρ ..... ......... ............. ............ ........ .. .. . ............. .. ................ ....... ........... . ....... ........... ........... ... ... ........ .... ............... . .......... ..................... .......... ........................................... . ................ ... ..................... ............. ........................... .... ............ .................. ... ............. ... .... .. ................. .. ... ............. ......... ...... ............................... ....... ...... ...... ..... ...... ........ . ........... ............ I= 1 2 h(2h)3 = h4 12 3 The force components for Problem A are  FxA = ρgzA = ρg(2h) 2h2 = 4ρgh3 and  h i π (2h)2 h = (2 + π)ρgh3 4 Therefore......... ............ .. .... ......... ......... ........... in vector form.... .........

. .. .. . . ... .. . . . . .. . ... .. . .... . . ... .. .. ... .... . then we have ρ1 gV1 = W = ρ2 gV2 (3.. . . If the submerged volumes are V1 and V2 . .. . .. .. . ....... . .. . . .. . . .. . This is known as Archimedes' Principle. .. . . . ... . . . . ..... . .. . . . . .. . . . . .... .. .. . .. . ... . .. . . ... . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . .11) to conclude that the buoyancy force is ZZZ Fbuoy = ρg k dV (3. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . .. . ... .. . . . . . . . . .. we can apply Equation (3..24: Mass Hydrometer.. . . . .. . .. .. .... . . ...... .. . . . ..... ..... . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . ... .. . . the pressure on the bounding surface S would be the same for a solid object as it would be if the object was replaced by fluid of density ρ. .. . . . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . ρ1 > ρ2 . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . ..... . . .24 illustrates a practical application of Archimedes' Principle. Fbuoy . ... . . . .. Thus. . . ... . That is. Since a solid object would. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .... . .80) V where M is the mass of the displaced fluid. . ... . W .. Now. .. ... .. ..78) S where we integrate about the surface bounding the object... . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. We express the buoyancy force mathematically as ZZ Fbuoy = − p n dS (3....79) V where g is gravitational acceleration and k is a unit normal vector directed upwards.. . . . ...... ... . .. . buoy . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ..... . . ... . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . .... . . .. . . ... .. . . .. ... .... .. .... . .. . . . . . . .. . the buoyancy force on an object. with a graded scale to indicate depth of submergence. . . we know that the pressure in a stationary fluid is a function only of depth.. .. .. .. . . . . . So.. . . .. } Figure 3. . .. . is the net pressure force exerted by the fluid on a given object submerged in a non-moving fluid. .. .. ... . buoy = ρ2 gV2 . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. ρ2 . . . .. ... .. .. .. . .. ... .. . ... ... ... ... . . In the figure. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .... . .. . .. .. . ..... .. . ... .. ... .. .. ... . ...... .. . . .. ... . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ρ1 > ρ2 .. . ... If the object is less dense than the fluid.. W . . .. . .. .. ..... .. . . . . . . . . ... . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . .... .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . ... .. . . . . ... . . . ... .. .F .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. ..112 3. . The hydrometer sinks to a greater depth in the lighter fluid because more fluid must be displaced in order to generate a buoyancy force that balances W .81) . ... . . . .. .. ... . .... . . . .. .. . . . . ... .. ρ1 ... .. .. .. . . ... . .. .. . . . If the object is more dense than the surrounding fluid. .. .. } . .. . .. .. .. . . . ... .. .. . . . . ... . . . .... . . . ..... . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . .... .. . . . . . . . . ... . . .. .. .. . .. It is valid for both floating and submerged bodies.. . . .. .. . .. . . .. Note that Fbuoy acts vertically upward. ..... .. . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. Figure 3. .. in fact. . . . . . its weight exceeds the buoyancy force and it sinks. . . . . ...... .... . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . ... .. .. .... . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . ... the integration actually extends over the volume of fluid displaced by the object. Hence. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . ..... . . . ... .. . . . .. .. . . . .. it will float. PRESSURE Buoyancy By definition. . .. . . which is a bottle of known weight. .. . . . .. .. .. . ... . . . W . . . . . . . The figure shows a hydrometer.... . . . since g and k are constant.. .. . . . . .... ... .. . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . F = ρ1 gV1 . replace fluid of density ρ.10 CHAPTER 3. . we conclude finally that ZZZ Fbuoy = g k ρ dV = M g k (3.. . . ... .. ... . . .. . .. . . .. ... . .. . .. ... it makes no difference if the surface bounds a solid object or the fluid itself. . . . ... ...

40)]. 40 ft long and 8 ft high.12 Consider a coal-carrying barge loaded with 100 tons of coal making its way down the Mississippi River. ` = 40 ft and w = 15 ft.94 slug/ft3 . Also. release the absorbed water and return to its original density. the cork sinks. This.000 lb. As a result.94 slug/ft3  250000 lb  = 6. being a porous material. w and d are the length. Also. you increase the pressure we have called pa . or any container with a top small enough to be covered by your thumb. Removing the increased pressure causes the cork to expand. Press down firmly and. Insert a piece of cork in the bottle or container so that it floats.174 ft/sec2 (40 ft)(15 ft) AN EXPERIMENT YOU CAN DO AT HOME To discover for yourself a subtle effect of buoyancy in the comfort of your home. if you have done everything correctly. respectively. Now cover the top completely with your thumb. (3. increases the absolute pressure. `. Example 3.10. Fill it nearly to the top with water or any other readily available liquid. BUOYANCY 113 Consequently. Obtain a soda bottle. width and submerged depth of the barge. the densities stand in the following ratio. The empty barge weighs 25 tons. it sinks. and it returns to the surface. The buoyancy force is balanced by the weight of the barge.3. Remove the pressure. a wine bottle.68 ft 32. in turn. The buoyancy force on the barge. . which reduces its volume and hence the buoyancy force. assume the water density is ρ = 1. Fbuoy . Since the Mississippi River contains fresh water. and becomes more massive. is Fbuoy = ρgV = ρg`wd where ρ is the density of water. what is its depth below the surface of the water? Solution. If the barge is 15 ft wide. d= 1. Thus. experiences two changes. pabs = pa + ρgz [see Equation (3. First it is compressed. wherefore W = ρg`wd =⇒ d= W ρg`w We are given that the combined weight of the barge and the coal is W = 125 tons = 250. try the following simple experiment. it absorbs some of the water because of this increased pressure. Pressing hard enough causes the cork to undergo compression and to absorb a sufficient amount of water that its density becomes greater than that of water. Second. The cork.82) ρ1 /ρ2 = V2 /V1 We can thus calibrate our hydrometer so that by reading a simple graded scale we know the density of a given fluid relative to a known reference density of a fluid such as water. When you press down. The explanation for what happens is as follows.

........ .. chained to a piece of Plutonium... PRESSURE Problems 3.... .... . The temperature is 38o C and the pressure at the bottom of the tank is 200 kPa............................... z..... ..5 m.... ............. .. You can assume the density of Mercury is independent of temperature......... ....... ........... . . .... ............ ............... .......... .... . Determine the pressure as a function of depth......... . ... .. ............ .. Top Liquid ............... . ... . .. ............ ............................. ....... ............................ ...........6 A tank contains three layers of unmixed fluids..... ............ ..... h ....... ..... .. ......... ...... ...... . ............. ........... .......... .. .......... ..... .... . ........ ....... ................... ...... ....... . ... What is the pressure 50 cm from the bottom of the tank if h = 1 meter? 3...... . ............... ........... . ..... the central layer is a fluid of density ρu = 1780 kg/m3 and the top layer is sea water. ......... the central layer is a fluid of unknown density. .. . .............. ..... and the top layer is SAE 10W Oil......... ........ .............. ...... ............... . ......... ..... .............. . ... .. ...... .. What is the density of the unknown fluid.... .............. ...... ... 3.... ............. .114 CHAPTER 3..................... .........8 An empirical formula relating pressure and density for seawater with temperature held constant is p/pa ≈ (α + 1)(ρ/ρa)7 − α......... the tank is open to the atmosphere at the top......... ............ ........... .............. ..... .............. ...... .. ...... If Blofeld...... .. the central layer is a fluid of unknown density... ................. ... ................. .4 A tank contains three layers of unmixed fluids.. . .............. .................................. . . .. .. where z is measured downward from the surface.... ................ 3h .. . ... What is the pressure a distance h from the bottom? Air.... . .......... .......... . The bottom layer is mercury........ ...5. . . At another point 57 mm deeper in the container we measure a pressure of 102.. The temperature is 68o F and the pressure at the bottom of the tank is 2350 psf...7 3............... the central layer is a fluid of density ρu = 1600 kg/m3 and the top layer is ethyl alcohol.. .. .......1 James Bond has just thrown Blofeld into a vat of mercury................ .......... .. . What is ρu if h = 60 cm? ....... . .... .. ............. ρu ... Also...... Mercury .... ...... . . ....... ............. ..... ρa is the density at the surface and zo is a constant.... ... h? 3.....4... The temperature is 16o C and the tank is open to the atmosphere at the top. ............... ........................ ............... .. ......... .. .............. ........ .............. . the tank is open to the atmosphere at the top..... . Also.. .. ......... ............ ..... ...... ............... ..5 A tank contains three layers of unmixed fluids... .......... . where pa and ρa are conditions at the surface and α is a dimensionless constant..... .... ...................... The bottom layer is mercury... . ...10 .... ...... At another point 10 inches deeper in the container we measure a pressure of 2200 psf....... . ...... ...... ...... ... ...................... ............. . as ρ = ρa (1 + 2z/zo )........ .. .. .... ............. .... .... What is the density of the liquid? 3.... Unknown Liquid ...... ..... ... .. ................... ... ................. ........... ............. ...... .............. ........... ......................... .......... ...... 13.......... ...... ............... ..... ............................ Using this formula in the hydrostatic relation.... ..... ..... ...7 kPa... ...... ...... ...... You can assume the density of Mercury is independent of temperature... .. The bottom layer is mercury.... .. . . .. .. .. ... Also. ..... ...10 Consider the two layers of fluid shown....... ......... ..7 A tank contains three layers of unmixed fluids...... What is the layer depth... .... will he have to worry about the bends as he floats back to the surface? 3................ ...... ........ the tank is open to the atmosphere at the top. ... ..3 When we measure the pressure at one point in a container filled with a liquid of unknown density we find that it is 102 kPa..... ...................... .... ...... .......... ....... .... .................. . .......... ... . . . ................ .. ........... ........... ...... .. .. ρ .... Problems 3..... 3.. ... .................... ... ......... ........ ......... ....... . The bottom layer is mercury.. .... ....... ... ...... .......... ...... . .... ................. ...................... 3... ... ........ .. . ......... . . .... h ............ ...... . .. determine the pressure as a function of depth....... ........... ρu ....... 3................ ............ .. ........ ... h . What is the density of the liquid? 3............ . ........ ....... .......... ...... 3.... ........... ... ................. ........ ..... pa z Problem 3.. . .... .... ..............6...... ...... .... ρu ................ ............... h ..... .. The temperature is 20o C and the pressure at the bottom of the tank is 258 kPa.. if h = 3 inches? 3....... .... sinks to a depth of 2...... .... ... .................. ........ .......................... .... ............ ............ .......... and the top layer is kerosene..2 When we measure the pressure at one point in a container filled with a liquid of unknown density we find that it is 2134 psf.... .. . ......... .... .... . .......................... ................ ....................................9 Consider a density-stratified fluid in which the density varies with depth........... .... .. .......... ....5ρ ..

. what is the corresponding power delivered in Denver............................ Using the fact that the speed of sound is a = γRT .................................3 km.................... ...... ............................................................. 3................................ Assuming the U............ .. ............... estimate the height of this building using the U........ 3. ............. The mass-flow rate.1 kPa...... ........................................................................ Estimate the height of the tower using the U............................... .......................... .. is proportional to the atmospheric air density..16 The world's tallest structure is a television transmitting station in North Dakota..... .... ......................................... S.... is 1 atm........................... Malaysia is 96............................ ............ Standard Atmosphere................................................ pa ...... Standard Atmosphere to describe conditions in North Dakota....................................20 If a Cadillac Eldorado delivers 300 horsepower at sea level................................................. ....... .... g................. creating a near vacuum in the top of the tube.....13 Assuming atmospheric conditions are accurately represented by the U... pa pa .............................. R.. ... ........ ...... Assume the U.... Standard Atmosphere to describe conditions in Kuala Lumpur.... .........15 On a day when the surface temperature is 38o C... S......... ... Assuming atmospheric pressure at the surface... determine the pressure and temperature outside a high-altitude aircraft cruising at an altitude of 8 miles...... 3..........................18 Chuck Yeager flew the X-1 at a peak altitude of 43..................17 The Washington Monument in the District of Columbia is 550 feet high................. .............. S...... .... 3.................. in such an atmosphere assuming the temperature at the surface is Ta ... ...... .. Colorado......... Standard Atmosphere......... ................6o F..... Determine the adiabatic lapse rate......................... mercury rises to h = 760 mm..................... ..................... ............................................................................... ................................................ ...... ............................... ... ......................... .............. .... . ................................... determine the pressure and temperature outside a small aircraft cruising at an altitude of 4/5 mile.... and the perfect-gas constant........... ........ S...... S.................... ............... ................ ................................. Standard Atmosphere applies................. which is approximately 1 mile above sea level? Use the fact that the power output of an automobile engine is proportional to the mass-flow rate of the air supplied to the carburetor............................ Assuming atmospheric conditions are as given by the U.. The tube is initially filled with mercury and is turned upside down when inserted in the container..... Recall that it consists of a glass tube closed at one end with the open end immersed in a container filled with mercury......... ................ Standard Atmosphere accurately describes conditions in Denver and at sea level...................................................... ... ... h ....11 Consider the Torricelli barometer........11 3.......... S....... .... S... .......... 3..... S..................................14 Assuming atmospheric conditions are accurately represented by the U.................................................................... ....... ............... ........................... ...... ....19 The White Knight mother ship carried SpaceShipOne to an altitude of 14............................ 3.. corresponding to a Mach number of 1............ .............................. .. Standard Atmosphere............ ................................ ........ ............................ 3................................................................ If the barometer used glycerin instead of mercury......... ....................12 Assuming atmospheric conditions are accurately represented by the U....... ................................. ... .................... the pressure at the top of the spire on the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur........06................ .............. α......... ................. ....................................... estimate the ground temperature on the day of the flight.................... . ........... Standard Atmosphere.... ............... ......................... When the temperature is 20o C and the atmospheric pressure.. Standard Atmosphere applies....... .... ................. ................ ........ what would h be? Express your answer in meters.. On a day when the surface temperature is 50o F..000 ft and a peak velocity√of 700 mph......... .. 3........ ............ estimate the atmospheric pressure in atm and temperature in o C at this altitude. ............. 3................................. Express your answer in terms of γ............................. .................. ..... Assume the U.............. S................ determine the decrease in pressure and temperature|relative to surface values|at the top of the Monument............ . .......... ......................................... determine the pressure and temperature outside an airliner cruising at an altitude of 9 km......... ............ ................... where γ = 1......................................... ............................. ................ .... . ......... ... .................. the temperature at the top of the TV tower is 42........... ............ .......... ... in turn.....PROBLEMS 115 3.............................4 is the specific-heat ratio and R = 1716 ft2 /(sec2 ·o R) is the perfect-gas constant.. ................ ..... ....... Problem 3....21 In an adiabatic atmosphere....................... the pressure varies with density according to p = Aργ where γ is the specific-heat ratio and A is a constant.. ..

... ρ ....... .............. ... .. . .... .. . ... . .......... ∆z........ ...... .......... h ................... ....... . .............. The diameter of the tank.. . .............. ...... .. . ..... ............... pg . ρ ˜ . ........ ... ....... .. .. .... ...................25 An object is resting on top of a piston in a cylindrical tank that is filled with a liquid of density ρ = 1.......... ...     3............ D....................... . .. . ................ ............. ............... ... . of 1000 psf.... . . ....... h ......... ...... ..... . ..... ... .. ...... .. .. ... ........ ........ determine the pressure in the inversion layer as a function of altitude.... ... ... .. .. .. ...... .... .. ....... ........... ............. of 263 psf..... .... ...... ... ......... .. .. ..... ... ........ .. ............. . ............. ......... PRESSURE 3..... ......... ........ ........ ... ..... ........ .. ......... . .. ... ..... ....... .. ....... .... ............ ................ . . ........ . α and z.27... ........ . ... ............ ..... . ......2h ... ............ ........ . ........ ............. .... . ..... .. .... .............. . ... ... ........ 1 3 T /α ≤ z ≤ 10 Ta /α 4 a 3 z ≥ 10 Ta /α (a) Make a graph of the temperature profile... ... ...... ..... ... ............... .... ... . ............ .. ........... pa . ................... ........... ........... ...... .. .. . .... ........ . ... .. . ................. . ......... ..23 A hydraulic jack uses a fluid of density ρ and a lever of length h to lift an object of weight W ....... ...... ........ .. .... ................................ 3.......... .. 3h .... .. ................ ..... .... . .... ....... Area = 5A Problem 3................................ ............... ............. .. .. ........ . .... .... ... ρ .. ........ . ........... . .. If the attached pressure gage indicates a pressure.......72 slug/ft3 .................. .......... . ... D .75 slug/ft3 .............. .............. .......... . ......... ........... .... .......... .. ...... ................... .. ........ .... 3...... ...... ...... ........ .... ............. Area = 1 h ............. .. .... .. ... .. ... ..... ............................. . ................ .. . ....... ........... ... .. . . ...... ............ ... .............. ....... ......... ............ ..... ... ..... ........ ... ..... 6h ....... .. ......... ...... ....... D.. R. . . . .............. .... ............. . ... ..... .... F ....... ............. The attached pressure gage indicates a pressure........ .... . ................... .... .. . ... 3................. ....... ..... ........... Problems 3.. . ......... ............. . .... .... Point A .. ... .. indicates a pressure... . ... .. ..... ...27 For the setup shown... . ............ . .. ... ....... what force... ... . ..... .. ....   3 T + 4 a 4 T ..... . .. . . . ..... . ................ ...... ..... ..24 An object is resting on top of a piston in a cylindrical tank that is filled with a liquid of density ρ = 1... .............. ... ...... ....... ..... ...... . ............ ............... ..... ........... . ......... ...... . ........ ............ ......... .... ........ ....22 Consider an atmosphere with an inversion layer for which the temperature varies according to: T =    Ta − αz. .. ... ....... .......... . ............. .... .... . ...................... ........ what is the pressure at Point A if ρ˜ = ..... ... .. ....... . ... ....... ... .... . . . . ........ ..... ............... ..... .......... ..... ............ .. .. ..... ......... ρ .......... .... ..... .......... ...... . ....... ........ ... 2 ........ .. .... .. ... .........24.... ... .... D.. ..... ... .. ...... ....... . .... ........... is 2 m. .............. ............... .. .... ....... ............. ...... .............. ...... ........... of 6 kPa.. ........ ............... How much does the object weigh if the gage is ∆z = 2 ft above the piston as shown? The tank diameter........ ....... ..... ..... .. .................. .. . .... ...... .. .. .......... .. .23 3. ...... .. .. . ...... ... ....... . ................... ............. ......... . ....... ........... ....... ..... .......... ............ . ...... .... ....26 An object with a weight............. ........ ... ..... .... ....................... ...... .. .. ................ ....... .26 p = pg  3.... ....... .........28 Air. .... ............. . .... ...................... ...... Express your answer in terms of the pressure at sea level....... ......... . .... L ...... ............. .. ... .......... . ... W ... pg ......... ..................  Problems 3. ................ .... where pa is atmospheric pressure? ......... ... ... .. ....... The object weighs 2 tons and the diameter of the tank... ... .. pg . ..... is 4 ft..... . ...... . .. . ...... .... . . .. ................ .... . ... W 5 .. ........... is 3 ft................... ...... .......... ... ... ...... . .. ... .................. .... .... g.... . .... ... .. ....... ..... ................ ................. .. ... ........ ... .......... .... . how far above the piston.. .. ....... ...28 For the setup shown.... . ... ... ρ? 3. is the gage located? .... .............. .................. ... .............. ..... .... ... of 100 kN rests on top of a piston in a cylindrical tank filled with a liquid of density ρ... .. ...... ..... .... ... ... 1 ... ...... ..... ... ... . . .... ......... .................. .......... .......... ... ... ... .. . ..................... .......... ........ ... .. ... .. .. . ...........2ρgh.... . ....... ∆z ..... . A .... . ........ must be applied to support an object of weight W ? F .... ... .. .... ... ... ...... ρ . gravitational acceleration......................... .......... ..... . ...... . . ... ..... ............ .......................... . pa   1 ρ? 4 ... .... . .... . ... ... ............... ..... . .. ...... .. ..... ... ..... ...... . . ........... ..... .. . ...... ... ....... ...25.... .......... ...... ..... .... .............. ... ... ... .............. ....... ................ ..... ... . .... ..... 5 a 0 ≤ z ≤ 14 Ta /α α(z − 14 Ta /α).... .. ........... ... ......... . If the attached pressure gage...... .. ....... ... .............. ...... ......... • ....... W ........ . ... ...... .......... ... ..... .... . ........ ... . .. . ....... . .. . .... ............. . . ...... 3... .. ... . ........... ........... .......................... ........ ... .... ........... .. .......... ..... . .... ... .. .. . ..... .. ............................. ........... . 3.. ..... ... . ................. .......... .. .. .. ..... ........... . ...................... ......... ...... ..... .. ...... ...... ............. ............. ........... .. .... ....... ......... • •.. what is the liquid density.......... ...........116 CHAPTER 3.. located a distance ∆z = 3 m above the piston....... .. . .. If the piston areas are A and 5A...... what is the density ρ˜ if the pressure at Point A is pa + 4... ... ......... ............ . ......... ................ .. (b) Assuming the atmosphere is a perfect gas. ....... . .. .... ........ .................. .. .. .... . .. ..... .. ........... ... ....... ........... . ... .... ... . the perfect-gas constant... .. ........... . . ..... ..... .... . ............ ...... .. .. ....... .. .. .. ........ . ..... .......... . .. .. ... .. . ... .... as well as Ta ... ..... ..........

.. ... ... (b) Suppose h1 = h2 = 1 m.... . ........ ................ ................ .... .. .............. . . .... .. ...33 Compute the pressure at Point A in terms of atmospheric pressure........... ... ........... ............ ..... Alcohol .32 A differential manometer is a device connected between two tanks as shown...... ................. ....... ....... ... ....... . .... . .. .. ρ .. .... ... . . . ...... ..... ...... ......... ............. . . .. ... ... .. ........ . ........... ..... . . .............. .. ..... ............... in the manometer's mercury column......... . p1 = p2 .. .... . ............. ...... ... ..... . ................ ..... . ........ ... .... . . ..31..... where pa = 2116...... . .... ................ . ... . ... .. .. . ........ .... .. ...... . ....... .. ........... . . ... .. ..... . .... ... ............ .. . .. ... ...... .. .. ... ... ....... ...... ..... ..... .... ....... ....... ... ... ..... . ....... ... .......... ... ............ ....... ... .... .... ... .. It is designed to measure the pressure difference p1 − p2 ............ ........... .. .. ............... .. ......... .. .. ....... .... . .. ... .. ....... . . ... .. ........ .... p1 ..... ...... . ..... .. ....... .......... ... ... ........ . ....... . .. ... .. ...... .. . ...... . . ....... ... . ... .. ... .......... . ..... assuming N = 4................... ........... .......75 ft...... . . .... ....... .............. . . ..... . ................... ...... λ ... . . .... .. . .... .. .... The air trapped in the tank is also pressurized at a pressure............... .............. .. ...... .... .. . .. ...... . . ... .. .......... .... .... .. .. ...... . . . h2 ... ......... ............. ... .. ........ .............. ........ It is designed to measure the pressure difference p1 − p2 ...... .. .... .... .... ... ......... ... . .... ........ ... . ......1... ..... .33 . .. .. .... . ... .... ...... . .... ...... .............. .............. ..... Air. ....... ..... ........ p2 ..... .... ... ... ..... ..8 psf is atmospheric pressure....... ... .. . .......... fluid 1 is ethyl alcohol. ......... z = 6h ................ .... .. ............ ....... .. ...... Find pb if the differential difference.... . ...... ....... .. .... .......... .... .. . Some of the air trapped in the tank has been evacuated so that pb < pa ... density of water....... . . . ... ...... .. . ... ......... ... . . ... .. ...... ...... . ..... ........... ...... .. ............ . ........ .. ............. . ... .. . ......... ..... .... fluid 2 is carbon tetrachloride and the temperature is 68o F. pa ...... .... .... ... ..... fluid 2 is glycerin and the temperature is 20o C... h2 = 0......... ....... .. ...... ..... ..... .. . .. ....... ..... ........ ....... ... .....30  3.... (b) Suppose h1 = 1 ft. .... . ......... ρ2 .. ............ .. .... .... ........ . Water has entered the tank and lies at the bottom in a layer of thickness h. ....... . .. .... ......... 3.... ...... ... .......... Mercury ....... . .... ...... ....... .. What is λ? 3........ ......... ... ....... .... .. .. ..... .. ............... .... .... ..... .......... ..... ... ... h = 1 m and pb = 2pa ............... .. ....... ...... .. z = h . .. ...... .. . ..... ........ ..... ......... ....... Problems 3.. and the distance h.... ....... ..... . .. . ... .... . Air.... .. ............. .. . . .... ..... g. .. ............ ..... . .... . ... ............ ..... .... . ..... .... .. ....... . ...... ........ ........ ..... ..... ... .. . ...... . .... ..... ........ ........ ................. ....................... ....... .. ................... ....... .......... . .. ..... ... .. where pa = 101 kPa is atmospheric pressure. Air.......... ..31 A differential manometer is a device connected between two tanks as shown.. .. . ...... ........ g.............. ...... . . ..... ....... .. ...... ...... . . .... . ...... . .................... . . .... ....... ..... ....... ..................... ........... ..... ......... .. ..... (a) Determine the distance λ as a function of ρ1 .... ....... ......... ................. .. ....... .... . Water .... ....... ..........     z = 8h z = 2h ........ . ... ..... .......... ........... .... .... .... . .... .. . .... . .. ................ . ......... .... ..... .... ... ∆z..... ...... . . .... ............ ... ............. .. .. ... . .. ..... .......... ..... ..... fluid 1 is kerosene........ .. ..... . .......... nh Nh h h .... .. h2 .. in the manometer's mercury column is 1 ft........ ... .. .... ... .. ..... .......... ... ..... . ... .. .. ............. . .. .. .. .... ..... .... .. .. . ........ .. .... .. 1 .. . ...... .. .... ..... . .... ... ..... ... ... ...... . ......... ... .. ....... ... . . ... .. ... ... .. . . ........ .. .... ..... .... .. ............. ρ... . .. ... ......................... ..... . ........ ..... ...... assuming N = 10 and h = 2 ft... ..... .. ..... ..... .... . . .. .... h1 ....... .. .. .. .......... ...... ... . ...... .......... .... ... . ...... . .. ..... λ and ρHg .. .......  .. .. .... .. ρ2 ...... .... . .......... .... ......... .......... .... .... . ...... .... ...... . .... ... ...... .. .. . ... ..... ..... . . .......... . ........... .. ........... ...... .... .. .......... ....... . ... .... ..... . ... ..... ...... . ........... ...... ........ ...... .  Problems 3.... .......... ...... .... . . .... ..... ................ ...... .. ....... ....... . .... .............. ....... .. pb .. .. ............... . ........ ...... ... ........ . ....... .......... ... .... ..... ........... . .. . ..... .. . ......... .... ...... .. ... 3.... ...... .... ....... ....32 3.. .......PROBLEMS 117 3..... ...88ρ and ρHg = 13...... . ... ... ...... . .... .... . . .......... .. ..... . .... . ... . ...... .............. .. .. ∆z .........A....... .......... ......... ............ What is p1 − p2 ? . ........... . Mercury ... ... ............ . .. .. ......... ..... ...... .. .. .. ... ...... . . ....... .. .. .... .... .. ................. . ... .... p = pb . .. . ... .... ...... ... ... .......... .. . ... .......... .. ... ..... . g.... p. ..... .... .... ......... . ......... .. ................ . .......... ..... ρOil = 0....... .... ................. ........ ............. .... ..... . . ... ... .. ...... ... ........ ........... ......... ........ ... .. ........ . .. ... . ...... ..... ...... .. ... .. ..... ........ (a) Determine p1 − p2 between the two tanks as a function of ρ1 .... .. .. .......... ............. . ... ........ ......... ... .... ........... .... ....... ... .... .. .. .......... ........ . . ....... . .. ... . ... ...... .......... . ........... .. . ........ .. .... . ... . p2 and ρHg. . ......... ....... ....... ................ Oil H2 O ...... ... ........ . ........ . ...... .......... . ....... ..... .... ......... ............ .................... . .. .... ....... . ........... .......... .... .................. ... ... .... ..... ....... . . ....... .. . h2 ........... .. . .... ... ... ... ... Compute the differential difference.. ..... .. .. ... . ...... .. ρ2 ......... .. . .... ..................... ....... . ... . ..... . ......... ... ....... ........ ................... ..... ... ....... .. ... ........... .... ....... ......... .... ... .. ................ ........... .. ....... .. ....... ......... .. .. ... .... . ... ..... ......... ... .... ........... ...... ...... .... .. ........ .... ......... ..... ....... ....... .30 An open-ended mercury manometer is attached to an ethyl-alcohol tank at 68o F..... ....... z = 3h . ....... .. .. ..29 An open-ended mercury manometer is attached to an ethyl-alcohol tank at 20o C.... .. ................ . ...... ........ .... .... ........... ..... . . . . .. ... ........ .. .... ....... ... ... ..... ... . . ... ......... h1 ... . ..... . gravitational acceleration..... .. . ... ......... ...... ... ...... ..... ................ .... .. . ........... ... ... ... ....... . .... ∆z. . ...... ....... .... .. ... ..... .. ...... .... ............ ..55ρ..... . ........ ... Water has entered the tank and lies at the bottom in a layer of thickness h.... .. .. .... . ......... ..... . .. ... H2 O Hg Problem 3............. ....... .......... 3........ .. .. ..29.... h1 .. . λ = 10 cm............... .. .. ........ .. .................. .. .. . .. . . .... . ......... Use the fact that ρH2 O = ρ... .. ....... ..... .......

..................... ............... ......... ....... .................. where ∆ρ is small compared to ρ..................... ........... ..................................... ............ .........37 An inclined manometer is a large spherical container with an inclined tube of small diameter attached...... .... ..... ... ......... . .... ............ ............. .................................................. . pb 1 ....... ............. . . . . ..... .....01 psi. . ................ ρ ........ . . .......................... 3......................... ..... ∆pb ................ ... ................................................... ρ............. .............. ... .......... .... .... .... compute the angle α required for all 4 of the candidate fluids..... ........... .... . ...... ............... .... ..... ....... ........................... ......... ................ ............ ............ ......... 0...... .34 A micromanometer can be used to measure very small pressure differences..... ρ .............. .... . ... ........ .... ....... ......... We would like each marking to correspond to a change in pressure.. ...... ................. ..... Assume the temperature is 20o C......... ............................. ..................... ....................... .... ....... .......... .. . ..... .........................36 An inclined manometer is a large spherical container with an inclined tube of small diameter attached................ ..... ........ ....... ............ .............. ............. ........................ .............. ...... ............................ . ......... . ...................... .......... Problems 3............................ d h . ... .......... α ... .... of 100 Pa? Assume the temperature is 20o C..................... .................. .... The cylindrical reservoirs are very large (D  d) so that the reservoir levels are nearly equal when fluid moves from the reservoir to the tube and vice versa..... ...................... .. ............................ when the heavier fluid is kerosene with the value when the heavier fluid is SAE 10W oil..... .... ... . ....... ........................ ... ........ ....... .......... .... ...... ................. (b) Assume the pressure difference is p1 − p2 = 12 Pa and that the lighter fluid is ethyl alcohol.. .. . .......................... . ............................ ... ......... .. .... .... ............. ............. 2 ........ ............... .................................. ......... ...... ...................... ....... Problems 3....... ......... ... .... ........34................. .... ................. ................ ....................................... ............................ ......... ..... ......... Assuming the temperature is 68o F................ ................ . what must the angle α be if each marking corresponds to a change in pressure... ..... ..... ... ...... ... .................................... ..... ............. ....... ...36................................ ......... ......... ..... ......................38 We wish to determine the maximum pressure on your hand when you hold it out the window of your automobile on a day when the ambient pressure is 1 atm and the temperature is 68o F.......... d and g....................................... . ..... . .... ........ ........ ..... .......... .................. ............... D .... ρ......... ..... ... ....... . ..................... ...... ....... .. ................. . The device uses two fluids of slightly different densities........... ..... Contrast the height.................... ..... ............ .. ......... ............ ... ... ........................................ ..................... ....................... ...... ........ .... .......... ...... .. ..... ....................................... ....................... ρ + ∆ρ ...... ... ................... If the liquid in the manometer is carbon tetrachloride.... ........ The tube is inclined at an angle α to the horizontal and has a scale with markings separated by 1 in......... ....... ...... .... .. .......... ....... ............ .......... ...... ........ ......... and express your answers in millimeters......... ................... ....... D ................... . ......... .... ....... . The device uses two fluids of slightly different densities....35 3...... ....... ........ .... .......... ∆pb ...... ................ .......... ..... ..... . ............. ...... 3 ... 3..... ... The tube is inclined at an angle α to the horizontal and has a scale with markings separated by 1 cm............ We are considering several fluids including ethyl alcohol.... ....................... ..... 3............... ........... ..... . . ........................... ..... ......... .... ... ...... ....... ............... ................ .............. .. ........ glycerin and mercury. .. ....... ... ...... ........... ....... .......... .......... .................... ................. ...... ............. 4 .............. ........... ............... ...... . .......... ..................... .................. .. . .. . ...... ...................... ................ .. .......... ................. ........ ..................... (a) Cruising along a highway at 70 mph.. ...... ................... ....... ............. p2 . ........ ........... ............. ........ ............ ........ ................................................ ........................ . ....... compute the maximum pressure (in atm) when you are in the following two situations... ....... ................. ... . ............... ... ......................................................... ...................... ......... .. .................. ................. ............................ ... .... ............. ..... ... D.............. ........ .... . .......... p2 p1 .............. ........... ....... ... ......... .................................... ....... ρ and ρ + ∆ρ. ............ ..118 CHAPTER 3....... ....... Develop a formula for h as a function of p1 . ........... .... water............. ............ ........... ........... ..... .................. 5 . ............ ................35 A micromanometer can be used to measure very small pressure differences................. ........ ............. ............................. ... .. . ...... .. ....... ............. ......... where ∆ρ is small compared to ρ....... .. ....... .. . (a) Develop a formula for h as a function of p1 .... . .... ........ .......... .. ................ .. ....... .... . ∆ρ.. ........ ................ ..... .... . ............... ... ..... ... ........................ ......... of 0........................ ... .......... ............. ............................................. .. ....... .............. ................. ............... ................... ....................... ....37 3............... ...... ..... .......................... ........ ... ............... ................................... ..... .... . . .................... ....... .. .. .. .... . .... h................. ...................... (b) Driving your Indy 500 racer at 200 mph.. ................................. . .... ........... ......... ................ Assuming the conditions required for Bernoulli's equation to hold are satisfied. ...... ... .... ....... ρ and ρ + ∆ρ.............................................. d ... ................ ........... ρ .... p2 ..... Assume the fluid levels in the cylindrical reservoirs are equal when p1 = p2 .............................. .......... ..................................... ................ ∆ρ and g... ...................................................... .......... .................... .. ... .... ................... ....... ... ................ ... .... ...... 3... ......... ............... ...... .... ..................... .................. . .............................. ..... ........................ ........... ........................ .... ................................... ........ ...... PRESSURE 3...................

...... ......... Uj .. ........... h................................... .. what is the pressure difference.......... ............... the flow can be assumed to be irrotational..... ................... ..... ......... ... ...................... ..... ........ as well as U and h? Determine the value of p − pa in kPa for water whose density is ρ = 1000 kg/m3 ............ pa ...... .............. ...... ........... .......................... h........... D ............... ................................ ............................................ If the freestream velocity.................. irrotational....... ................................................ g..................... .....43.................... is 1............... ...... ..................... ............................. ....... .......... ..................... .................. g.. r ....... what is the pressure difference...... .............. ................. ................. ............. .. ................. ........ ..... ................. ............ has density ρ and the only body force is gravity.... 3........ ............................ ....... U0 .................. ................... 3. .......... g........... ................... 3. ..... . ..................40 The velocity in the outlet pipe from a large reservoir of depth h = 25 ft is U = 30 ft/sec...................... .. U .... ................ ....... ..................... ... ρ .................... ........ ... .... .. .......... .... . U0 .. ......................... ... the reservoir is so large that the flow is essentially steady........ ......... ....... ................... ... 3... .... has density ρ and the only body force is gravity.................. .. ........................ h and Ui ? Determine the numerical value of pi − pa in psf if ρ = 1.. . ........ ....... ........ ... ...... .... .... ...00234 slug/ft3 and that Bernoulli's equation applies....... U · · 2 Problems 3....... ................. ..... ..........39 The velocity in the outlet pipe from a large reservoir of depth h = 10 m is U = 11 m/sec.......... .............. ....... Due to the rounded entrance to the pipe. .... ... What is the velocity of the jet at the nozzle exit. ....... .......... ... If the jet of fluid rises to a height zmax = 2h.. .................. ................................................................ ... ........ h = 4 ft and Ui = 12 ft/sec.................................... pi 3.................. ..... Ui and pi − pa .. ρ.................................... .. ............. pa Ui ......... zmax .. ......... is 120 ft/sec.. atmospheric pressure....... .............. .... ..... ... ............. at points where the velocities are U1 = 180 ft/sec and U2 = 110 ft/sec? Assume that the fluid density.................. .......... ..... .. . as well as U and h? Determine the value of p − pa in psi for water whose density is ρ = 1.. .. pa .... .. .....43 The figure depicts incompressible flow through a pipe and nozzle that emits a vertical jet. If the freestream velocity............. The flow is steady......... ................... ..... With these conditions.... ... .................... ..................... ..........................39........... ....... ...... ............ .. . Express your answer in psi................................... ......................... ... ........ .. what is the pressure at point A as a function of the fluid density........ h...... Uj ? To what height.. ........ ................... Express your answer in kPa.........................PROBLEMS 119 3. .................. . ....... . ... .... .............. ...... ..... ... ........... . Due to the rounded entrance to the pipe..... ................................ . ............ ..... .. ........ ... ........................... . ................. ............ . ........... gravitational acceleration... ...... .44 .. Also....... . ......... .......... .. U1 ... ............42 The streamlines for inviscid flow past an airfoil are as shown.......... .... .. ................. 3........... ........ ............. . at points where the velocities are U1 = 100 m/sec and U2 = 80 m/sec? Assume that the fluid density.... gravitational acceleration...... ...... .. .. . ................44 The figure depicts incompressible flow through a pipe and nozzle that emits a vertical jet.... ...... .... ................. irrotational..... ............................ . .... ... ..... .............40 3.......... .............. ......... ...... ...98 slug/ft3 ...... ....... what is the value of pi − pa as a function of ρ............... ........................................ ............. ................... ..... ... ............................... .............. ........... ...............41....... ................ ρ....... ................ ........... ............. ................... ............ .................. .... .. .... ................ .................... ... • . ............................ The flow is steady. ... ........ ........................ ................... . g. .... ...... p2 − p1 ............ is 0... Determine the numerical values of Uj and zmax if pi − pa = 60 kPa.... .... With these conditions.... Problems 3........... . ...................... A ...... .. ...................... ........20 kg/m3 and that Bernoulli's equation applies. ............ .. ................... .............................. ........ ............. ............... . ............. ho Problems 3... Ui = 4 m/sec and ρ = 1000 kg/m3 ..... ........ .... ........................ ...... .. ................................. ..... ................ .......... ...... ...41 The streamlines for inviscid flow past an airfoil are as shown....... ...... ρ............. ............... ............ zmax ....... what is the pressure at point A as a function of the fluid density... ............ ρ........................ .... ..... ............................... . atmospheric pressure... . ......... ..... U0 ......... ................. g .............. ..... ........................ ................. .............................. ........ p2 − p1 ......... ..... .... ........ will the jet of fluid rise? Express your answers in terms of ρ................. .............. is 90 m/sec... ...... the reservoir is so large that the flow is essentially steady. ................ ............. Also.. ....... d ........... .. ..94 slug/ft3 .... ...................... ...... h = 1 m......... . . ..... .................................... ........................ ...... ....................42 3.................. the flow can be assumed to be irrotational....

...................... .. throughout the nozzle.... ................ ..... .................................. ..... .................. U ..... irrotational and that gravity is the only body force........ 3............. ..................................... ........ ....2 ...... D ............ ... .... ............. U . .................. ............. U . ................... atmospheric pressure.... ................... ρ............... ................ ............. The student blows a stream of air over one side of a 21 cm by 29......................... pa ......... ................. .49 The figure shows a downward-facing round nozzle that is attached to a hose through which an incompressible fluid of density ρ flows.... atmospheric pressure..... ...... fluid density........... ........ ........................................ ......... .. . ....... ............................50 . ........ ...... Treating the flow as one-dimensional.. ......... ...... pa .............. .................. ... .......... is constant.....47....... ................. ................. ................ .... ......20 m/sec and the paper is in a horizontal position..... .... ... ρ........... ........ .... (a) Find the outlet velocity......... Assuming the stream blows over the entire surface at a velocity U = 1...... .........1 ... pmin . . irrotational and that gravity is the only body force.......................... ..... ρ = 1...............20 kg/m3 ............... . what velocity...... m ˙ = π4 ρ|u|d2 . ....... ...... .... ... .. ............... ...... .................. .. .................. HINT: Use the fact that the mass flux through the tube........................ ............ ....... incompressible.......... ..... and the distances `.............. ...... . The density of air is ρ = 0.. .... g Problems 3............................... ˙ .. .......... Assuming the stream blows over the entire surface........................46 A siphon tube of constant diameter d is attached to a large tank as shown.... ... ........... . z ....................................... ................ ........ 3... ........... h........... ......................................... ........ determine how the nozzle diameter must vary with z in order to have atmospheric pressure....... ................. ....... You can assume the flow is quasi-steady............... .................. .................... .. ...... .................................. .. ....... ..... ............. ............ ...................................48 An eager student performs the home experiment described in this chapter............................. where d is nozzle diameter and w is vertical velocity. . as functions of gravitational acceleration.. The student blows a stream of air over one side of an 8 12 inch by 11 inch sheet of paper weighing W = 0..................... irrotational and the only body force acting is gravity...................47 An eager student performs the home experiment described in this chapter..... .. ... ........ U ..... ...... .. is required to support the weight of the sheet of paper in a horizontal position? What is the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the paper? 3........... ... ............. ................ m ˙ = π4 ρ|u|d2 ............................. The hose diameter is D and the (constant) mass flux is m ˙ = π4 ρ|w|d2..... pmin ..................... ... .. .............................. g......... ..... .... ` ........... ..... .............................................................. ................................ ......... PRESSURE 3. m . ` .0024 slug/ft3 ..... g........ (a) Find the outlet velocity. ............ ................. h1 and h2 .....48 3.... .............. . .......... and the distances `.... ....... ` = 3 m........ d .. ........ ........................ incompressible.... ............... .................. ...... .......7 cm sheet of paper..... ...... ...........94 slug/ft3 and pa = 1 atm...... .... .. 3.......120 CHAPTER 3............ ....... ........... as functions of gravitational acceleration. ...... . HINT: Use the fact that the mass flux through the tube....... . ...................... .......... h1 and h2 ............... ....... ...... You can assume the flow is quasi-steady................ ........................ .. . h2 = 4 m.....................49............ .... . ..... .... ........... ............... ........ .. ...... ..... . .01 lb.. g ........... ........... .................... fluid density.................................................... . ................. ................ .. .. .......................................... ....... . ....... .. ......................................... .. ....................45 A siphon tube of constant diameter d is attached to a large tank as shown.. Assume the flow is steady. ...................... .. ................ ρ = 1000 kg/m3 and pa = 1 atm..........46 3........ ...... (b) Calculate U and pmin for h1 = 5 ft.................................... ` = 3 ft................ what is the weight of the paper in Newtons? What is the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the paper? U Sheet of paper Problems 3.... .... ....... .................. Problems 3. pa ........ .... ............. ...... and the minimum pressure in the siphon tube...... . ......... m ˙ ....................... (b) Calculate U and pmin for h1 = 4 m............................... .................... . ..................... and the minimum pressure in the siphon tube.. ......... ....... h2 = 3 ft........................... ............ h............45. 3............ .................. is constant.... .. ..... ... ............. ....... The density of air is ρ = 1...... ......

.. (a) Determine the pressure.... ............ . Assume the flow is incompressible...................................................... U ............. ............... irrotational and the only body force acting is gravity.... ....... ..................... ............ .................................. Treating the flow as one-dimensional...... .......53 Use the parallel-axis theorem to verify that the moments for a semicircle and a circle quoted in Figure 3..... ................................ ........... ............ . Air.................... h .... ...................... ............. ...................... ....... determine how the nozzle diameter must vary with z in order to have dp/dz = − 14 ρg throughout the nozzle....... 3.................. ..... What is the jet velocity. .... ............ . ... . .....h . ........... A jet of fluid issues from a small hole.... ........ . ... ...55 Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the moment of inertia about the centroid of the doublecircle geometry shown............ ..... ..... .. ........... 2R ... ..... .......... ...... (a) Determine the pressure.... 2R ......... ........ . ............... ......... ..... The quantity g is gravitational acceleration.......... ........ ........... ............. ..... . ...... The hose diameter is D and the (constant) mass flux is m ˙ = π4 ρ|w|d2............ ....................................... pa ... required to increase the jet velocity by 50% relative to the value realized for atmospheric pressure................... ....... ..............54 Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the moment of inertia about the point at which the square and circle touch.......... ............... .................14 are consistent..54 3... ... .... in the upper chamber. U ........ ..... for this pressure? 3. required to triple the jet velocity relative to the value realized for atmospheric pressure.... 3.....PROBLEMS 121 3............. .......... 2R ....... ........................ ...... .... pb ... ............ ..... .. .......... .. ...... .. ..... .. ..... .......... ..... ..52 3. ............. Assume the flow is incompressible... ... . irrotational. h........................ .... ....................... 3............. ......................... ....... ..... .. .............50 The figure shows a downward-facing round nozzle that is attached to a hose through which an incompressible fluid of density ρ flows............... .......... U ............51.. ...... . pa . .... ............. ................... quasi-steady and the only body force acting is gravity. ...... . quasi-steady and the only body force acting is gravity...... . ......................... ......... irrotational.... ........ ..... ...... ...... ..... ............. Assume the flow is quasi-steady...99 slug/ft3 ........................................................... Problem 3... ...52 A large closed tank is pressurized as shown............... ...................... ......................... .......... .. .......... where d is nozzle diameter and w is vertical velocity... . pb ............... Problems 3......................... ......... .......... in the upper chamber..... .... .................. .. A jet of fluid issues from a small hole.... .... .... .. . ........... ................ ............... (b) Compute the value of pb in atm when h = 10 m and ρ = 998 kg/m3 ......................... ......... for this pressure? g ......55 ..... pb .......... .........51 A large closed tank is pressurized as shown........ What is the jet velocity...... .................. ρ . . (b) Compute the value of pb in atm when h = 18 ft and ρ = 1. ........ .................. h= √ πR Problem 3............... ...........

..................... ....... .. ...... .... ... . .... .. ..... ......... ...... .. .......... Fh....... ...................... ....................... ........ ........ ....... .... ........ ....... . hcp .... ....... ......... ........ . ..... .... ........ .............. ...... ............ .............. . ............. ............................................. and moment of inertia....... ...................... ..... ... .. ....... ......... ..................... ...... ...... ........ ... ... Problems 3....... ............60 The circular gate of diameter h shown can rotate about a pivot as shown.. ... ............... ........ ................. ... H....................... .. compute the depth of the gate's top.......... ..........62 3.............. ................................................... hp = 15 32 3.. ............... ......ρ ............... .......... ...........64 Find the magnitude of the force........................ ......................... . .. .. ............. . ... .....59 Consider a square gate of side h that can rotate about a pivot as shown. ............ ............... ......... ... ..... ........... p . . Fh ...... ..... ....... .......... ......... .......... ......... ......... . ..... .... ... .......... ...... ......... . . ... .. ..ρ............ .... .. . .......... ............ ..... ......... Pivot .................................. ... ..... ........ ................. area...... ..... ............ ... ............. . cp . Round F to the nearest MegaNewton (MN)...... I. ........ ....... ............... ... ...... .... ........ . ................ .......... ....... ........ . .. ........ ...... .... .......... . ....64 3........... ... ................ .. . ... ..... . .... ............... ............... .. . . . ............ ... .....56 3. .................... .... ... .............. ........ ................ ........... . .. .. . ..... ..... ... F .. ....... . ........................ ........... .. ...... ...... .... ..... z....... h.......... .......... ............... . ............. .......... ... .......................... is 7/12 times the hydrodynamic force acting on the gate. . . ........... ...................... ............. . ........... ...... ... H.................... .. .... ...... ..... .......... . .... ... ............... ......... . ..... ........ .. .. ..... .... ............ .... .... . ... . ... ... 3....... ... ... ........ ....... α ....... .. ............... ..................... ....... ....... ............ .. .. ................... ..... and the center of pressure on the dam.. ... .. ..................h .. .... ... . . The base lies below the pivot............. .... ...... ..... ...... ............ . . If the gate opens when h........................... .. ...... .............. and the center of pressure on the dam... . ......... ..... ....... Fh ...... ....................... ................ ........ ... ..... ............ ... .... .. ... . . ........... . ..... ... .............. ....... .......... ....... .... ...63............ the dam is 4h wide and α = 50o .. . .............. ................... ...................... .......... ........ ..... ........ ... Stop ......... ........ ...... ..................... .......... hcp ... ... 3.. ........ F .. ........... . .. .......... ................... ...... ......... ...... . ........ ....... . .. .......62 The force on the gate's hinge....... .... ............... . ........... . . ... ...... ........... .....58. ....... ................... ......................... .. .. .............. . h .. .. ........ . .. . ......... . ............................. .... .. ... ............. ... ..................... ......... ... ..... .......... . ................ .... ................. .. ..................... ........ ........... ........... ..56 Use the parallel-axis theorem to compute the centroid location. .. ..... .......................... ...... ...... .. ........ ......... .... ... ...... ... if the 20o C fresh water is h = 9 m deep. ............ . ....... ............ . . . .. ... ....122 CHAPTER 3... ... .......................... .. ... ... 3............ ........ . Determine the depth of the hinge... ... 3.. ..... ...... .............. ..... ........... ....... Air .............. ..................... . ... .. ..... ........... ... ............. ........................ ..... ............. .......... .... . ....... ......... ... .... ........... .. ..... ......... ....... .... .... .............. ....... ....... ...... ......... ..... . ..... .... ............. ........ .................. . .............................. .......... .................... ...... ................... ....... ........ ............... . .... ...... .......... ..... hp .... ...... .... ........ ...... ... Problem 3...... ..... 3................................... ..........F .......... ....... .... ..... ........ ...... ............... .....59....... ...... ................ .. . ...... ......... .. ..... ............ . .. . ... . ............. ................. ........... ............................ •... .. The gate is rectangular and has width w out of the page..... ........... .......... ... ........ ................................. ........ 3.. ................ ....... ...................... ...... ....................... ............ .. ... ... ......... .. .... ................. .... . . ...................... .............. . .. .... ...... ........ ............ ....... ..... . ................ ... .... ... .. ...... ............... ... ...61...... ............... .......... ............................ ................... Determine the hinge depth....... . .......... . ......... 3..... . .. ...... .... ....... .. ..... . . . ........ ...... ..... .................... ................. .. .. ...... ....... . . ........ ......... ......................... ............... ............. ...... .............. ..... ... .......................... .............. . .... ..... ..................................................... .... .... ........ . ... ...... ......... ........... The gate has the shape of an inverted triangle with base 12H at the hinge..... ...... ... .. .... ........ ...... ............... .... .. ... .... ..... ...... ........ ........ .................... . ............ . .. ............... .... ......................... . ........ ......... ...... ........................ .......... ..................... .......... ...... ... the dam is 8h wide and α = 53o ...... .. ........ ..... ....... ... . .. ... ... ............ . for an elliptical gate of width 2h (out of the page) such that it will open when H = h... ..... ........ . .. ........... ......... ......... . ....... .................. @ r Problems 3...................... h.....60 3....... ............... ... . Determine the depth of the gate's top.................. ... ..... .. ........... ...... ......... .................. ............ ............... ......... ... ...H .... ... .... ................ ... h .... .............. .......... ..... ............ @ @ @ @ .. . .... is 3/8 times the hydrodynamic force acting on the gate....... .................... ..... .. Problems 3.............. . .. .................. .............. ........... ....... .............. .... .... ... ..... . ... ................... ...................... ....57 Determine the pivot location........ ................... if the 60o F seawater is h = 5 ft deep.. .............. .. ........... ....... ..57....... .. .... ... ....... ........ ............... .................... ....... ...... ......... . hp ............ ............. F .............................. ...... ... ... Stop ......... . ... . . .... .... ... ....... .. . .............. .......... ............. to the nearest ton....... .... ......... . ........... . ....... ... . .................... ...... .. ... ..................... ......................... .... . ..... ................ ... for the diamond-shaped geometry shown... ......... ........ .... ..... . ..61 The force on the gate's hinge.... PRESSURE 3.. ......... ...... for a triangular gate of base 4h (out of the page) such that it will open when H = h. ..... . ...... h ........................... ............... .. ....... ............... ................... . . . ..... ....... .... .. ..... . 3....... ........ ... .. ............ .............. ..................... ...... .. at which the gate will open if hp = 25 h.......... ... . .. ... ....... ........ ... ..... .......... ............... . .. ........... ........... ... ...... . ................ ........ h .... ... .... ....... ....... ..... . .... ........... H... ................................... ................................ ...... ........ ......... ..... ... .... ................. ................ ....... ....... ............ ...... ........ .............. ................. ..... ..... .................................... . .................. ................ .58 Determine the pivot location............ .......... ........... ........ .................. ... .. ... ......... ....63 Compute the magnitude of the force........ ... .......... .. ..... ............. ... .. ............ .. . ...... ........ ...... .. ... ......... ......... ...... ..... h .. . . .... .... ................. ..... ......................... ....... F ........ ..................... ..... .......... h ... ............... ........ .... ... ... . .. ....... .... . ... ................ ........... ... ...... ................... ...... A........ ..... . Hinge ........ ......F . ......... ......... ............. . ........ .. . ............ .... ................................ ............................... ......... ............. . ................ ... ... .......... ... ..... ...............

. .... . ....... .. ...... .......... .. ..... . .... ......... ... .... .. ......... .. ....... ...... . ... ...... .. .... . B ... .... ..... ... .. . . .. .. .... .. .. . .. . ... . ...... . . ....... ...... ... ....... .. . .. . .. .. ...... ... .. ... ... ..... ... .... ...... . . . .. .. ....... ......... ... ....... .. . .... .. ..... ... ... ............ ... .. .....PROBLEMS 123 3..... .. ......... ..... .......... ..... ...... .... ..... .. ........ ..... ... .. .......... ... ......... ... . .......Hinge ... . . ............ ... . .... .. . .. ... ...... ..... . ... . . .. ..... ..... . .......... .. ... .. . .. ... ... ... .... . ...... ...... .. ....... ..... ............... .. . ... .... .......... . ...... . .. .... ... ... ... .... .... .. ......... .. ... . . ... ........ ...... . . ............... . . ............. ..... .e. ... .. .... . .... .... .. .. . .. . ... .... .. ......... ....65 Determine the force due to hydrostatic pressure acting on the hinge of the gate shown.. .. .. ρ ..... ... . .. .... .... ...... ..... ... Hinge .......... ... .. . . .................. .. Air ... ... ..... . ....... .. ..... ................. . ........... .. ..... .. .. ........ ....... . ...... . ...... . . ... ........... ......................... ............. ... . .... . . .. .. .. .. ...... .............. ......... ....... .. .... .. . ... .. ..... ... .. ............. .. .... .. ........ ........ .... . .... .. .... . .......... ..... .. . Stop ..... . .... ..... ........ ..... .. ...... ... ..... ...... ..... . ...... ......... ............ . ......... ..... ..... ... .. . ......... .. ... ... .L . ..... .... .... .. .. .......... ..... .... ..... .... . .... ... ........ ..... .. ......... .... . . ...... ... ....... .. . ... .. . ....... . ...... .............. ...... .. (b) a triangular gate with base width 4L (the base is at the stop)... ........ .... Apply your result to: (a) an elliptical gate of width 6L........ ... . ....... .. .. .... Stop . . . ..... ............. ..... .. .... . .. . ...... .... .. . ...... . ............... ...... . ........... .... . ....... .... ............. .. ...... ....... . .. .. .......... .. ... ............... ..... .... . . . .. ... ........ .......ρ......... . .......... ....... ...... .. .... ... ...... .... .... ..... .. ... ... .. . ... ......... ... .. ... ..... .......... . ...... ...... ....... . . .. .. ... .67 For the rectangular gate shown. ..... .. ..... .... .... ..... .... .... . . .. .. ........... ... . ... . ......H ... ......... .. .. ........... .... . ..... . ... . .............. ... .... ... .... .... . .. ... .... .. ..... .. ............ .. ........ .. ..... ... ....... ... ... .. . ........ ........ ............ . . ... ... .... .... .... ....... . ... .... .. ... . ................. .. . ...... ....... . ...... .... . ..... .. .. ... ......... .. . ....... .... .... .. .. . .. ... . . ..... . .. .... ... ... . .................. ............... . .. ..66 A circular gate of radius R pivots about a horizontal axis through its centroid..... .... ...... .. ........................ .... .. ............. ..... .. ..... .. Air ........... ..... ........... . .. .. . . .. .... ... ... .. ......... .................... r r . . .. . . ............ ... . .. ............. Problem 3... .... . .. ............ . ... . ..... . .......... ..... . .. ............. . ..... ... . ..... . .. .......... . ....... ...... . ..... ... .... ..... .. The fluid density is ρ and the width of the elliptical gate (out of the page) is 4H....... . .......... . .. . ..... . .. . .. .... ......... ... ........ .... .. ...... and is held in place by a stop.. . . . ..... ..... .. ...... ........ ........... .. .. ... ....... .... ... .... .. .......... .... ..... . ... .... ....... ...... .. .... ............ ........69 .. .. ........ . . ........ . . ......... . . ... .... .. ...... ...... . .. .... .. . ... .... ........ .. . ...... ........ ............. ............ .... ......... ... . . .. ........ . . ....... .... ...... .. ....... .......... ......... ............. . ............ρ . .. . . . .... ... ... . .. .. ... .......... ..... .... .. ..... ..... .. .....66 3. ............ .... .. ..... ......... ............. .. . .... ...... ...... .... . ................. .... .. ..... . . .. .. . .. ......... .. ... H ..... .. ... . ... ... ....... .... . . . ... .............. .. .. .... .......... ............. ... ....... ... .... ......... .... ..... .. .... F .... ........... . .. .................... . . ....... ...... r Problem 3... ..... . ... . .. ....... ... . ....... ........... .. . ........ . . ... ...... ........... Regarding the center of pressure as a function of the depth of the top of the gate.... . . .. . . . .. ... . ... .. .... . ...... ... ........... .. .. .. .. .......... .......... ... ... . ... .......... ........... . ... .. .... .. .... ... ...... ...... ....... ... .. ...... . . i.. ... ........... ... . ... . . ......... . ....... . ... .... . ... .. .. ... ...68 3. • .... . ... ... ........ ... . .. .. ..... .............. . .. Compute the force at point B required to hold the gate closed............ .. .... .. ..... . . . . ........... . . . ....... ... ..... .... . ...... .... ... . .. .. ........... ........ .. ..... ...... .. . .. . . . ... . .68 Develop a general expression for the force on the gate hinge.. .. ... ... ...... . ..... ......... ........... ... . .............. .... ..... ........... .. .. .. .... . . ........... ........... ... ........ .. .... . . .. ......... ............ . ........................ ....... .............. ..... ... ....69 The rectangular gate shown is hinged at point A and its width (normal to the page) is 2H.. ...... .. ......... ...... .. ..... .. ... You may ignore the gate's weight....... .. .. .. ... ............ .. ......... .... valid for arbitrary gate shape..... ..... .. ..H ......H ................... .. .. ... .. .. .... ..... . ...... ......... . . ... . ....... ... ....L . .......... . .. . . .. . .... . .... ....... . .... ..... ....... ... ... .. ...... ... ... .... .......... ....... .. .000 kN..... .. ........ ...... ........ ..... ..... . . ........ ........... ...... .. .. ... ..... ..... . .... .......... .. .... .............. .... ..... .. ....... . .... ..... .... .......... .... . .. ....... . .. ........ ... .. .... . .. .... .... ... ........... ........ . . ... .. . . ...... . ........ .... .... ...... ........ .. .... . . .... ........... . .... . . ...... .... .................... ..... .... ... ................. .... .. ..... .... . ...... . .. Air .... ..... .. ...... .... Stop .. ... ..... ..... ....... . ...... . ...... . .. .... ... . ..... ...... .... ... ........... Hinge ..... ... ....... ..... ............ Air .......... . ... ..... . ...... .. .. ......... ....... . . .... ........ .......... ..... . ...... ...... . ............ . . ....... ..... . . ... .. ... . .... .. . ... . ........... .. . .... .... ......... . .. ....... ................ .. ........... ........ .... .. ...... . ........... .. ......... .. H . . ...... . .... .. . .. .. ......... ....... ... ......... . . ...... .. . .... ......... ..2H.... .. .... Problem 3........ .. . .... ......... . . . .. .. .. ..... ..... . . ... . . ............. ... ..... . .... ......... ............. .. ........ .... ............ .......... ... ...... .. .... ....... .. . ..... ................ ...... .. ..... ...... . . . ......... .. . .......... . . ....... ............. ...... ............ . . .. .. ...... . R ..... ρ . ...... ..... .... ........ ....... ... ...... ... .. ... . ......... .. ....... .. . . ...... .. ... ... ...... ....65 3. .. . ..... . . . .......... .. ... ........ .... . Air .... ....... @ @ Problem 3. ................ ....... .. ........... ... . .... ... .... ...... .. .... ... . ..... .. .... ....... .. .................. ... ......... .. . ... .. ..... .. .. ........... .. . ..... .. ..... ..... ... ............ ... ... ...... .. ... .... H ...... .... ... .... ... ....... ............ .. .. .... .. . ..... ..... ...... ... .. . .. ........ ... .. . ..... . ..... .. ..... .. ... .. .. .. ............. ...... ...... .... ..... .... .... ........... . ... . .. . .. . ..... ........... .. ...... ............. ...... ....... .... r Problem 3............... ... ....... .. ...... . ....... ...... ........ HH H ...... .... .......... ... .... ........ .. ... .... ............ ... . ...... .. ..... . ..... . . . .... .. . ............... .. ...... .. .. . .. ... . .... .. . . . . ... ...... ... ............ .... . ....... . ...... . . ....... ... .... ........ ...... ...... ....... . . .. .............. . ... ... ....... ....... ... .. ....... ... .... ............. .. .. .. ..... . .. ...... ........ . ........ . ...... ....... .. . . .. ............ .. .... ................. ......... . .. .. . . . .. ... . . .. ... ....... .. ........ ... ..... .... .... .. ......... . . . .... . . ..... . ... . ............ .......... compute the ratio of zcp for H = R to its value for H = 0. ..... .... . .... . ....... .. . . ......... . .. .. .. ............. . ... ...... . .. ..... . .. ...... .......... .. .... . .ρ. ... .. . . .. . .... Stop . .. .. .. . . . ... .... . . ....... ... ... .... . ... .... .......... .... ..... ........ ............ ............... .... ............... . . .. ... . ........ ........ ... ...... ..... ........... ..... . .. .... .. ...... . ....... . ... ...... ...... .......... ... ...... ....... ... .... . . .... ....... ... ..... . . .67 3......... ......... ... ........ . . ...... ... ......... . .. ... ....... ...... .. . .. ... . . . zcp = zcp(H)... . .. ...... .. .. For what depth H will the stop fail if h = 4 m and the liquid is 16o C seawater? ... . . ..... ..... ..... ....... . . ..... ... ......... ... ........... ...... .. ..... Hinge ...... ... ... . . ... .......... ... ........... .... ... ..... . ... . .. ..... . . . ...... .. . .............................. .. . ... ...... ... .. .. . ... .. . •....... .... ..... . ................ .......... ....... ..... .. ...... .... ...... . . . ...... .... ...... .. the stop can resist a force of up to 5. . . ... .. . The gate is 4h wide (out of the page)..... .... .. h .. ..... ................ . .... . ..... .. . .. ... ........ . ... .. . .... . ................. ... . .. .. ..... . ... . . ... .... Air Air .. ... A .... .. ... . ..... .. ...... .. ... .. ... ...... .. ........ .... .. .. . . .. .... . ............. .2R ........... . .. ...... ....... ........... .. ... ...... .... . ...... .... . .. ... .. .... .... ...... .... ... . .... . ... .. .. .... . . ..... ... .. ... .. . ... .... . ... ........ . .... .. . .. ...... . ... . . ... ..... .

......... ..... .. .. . ....... ........ .... .. ..... .... . ...... . . .. .. ....... ... . .. . ........ ... . .... .... .... . .... ........ . . . . . . ..... . ........ ... ....... .. ..... . . .. . .... ... . ... ..... .. .. . .. . .. .. ...... .... . ...... ...... ..... .... . ........ . ...... .. . ......... ..... . .... ......... ................ .. ... ..... ......... ..... ....... . .......... ............. ..... .. .. .. ..... . . ........ . 3 Problem 3... . ........ ........... ........ ... . .. ....... . ............. ....... ..... . . .. ...... . Air ..... ... .. ... .. ...... Hinge .. . ..... . ............ ...... ............... . . ... ............. . ....... 2R ..... . ... .. ...... .. ...... .. ..... ..... .. .... . ......... . . . ...... ...... ... ........... ... ........... where L is the distance (measured parallel to the gate) from the bottom to the fulcrum..... .... ..... ... ... ...... . . ........... ....... .... . . ......... ... .124 CHAPTER 3.. . ....... ... ... ..... ....... .... . .. . .......... and is held in place by a stop... ....... ...... .. ... . .. ........... .... .. .... .... ............ . ........... . ............ . . ....... ...... .. ........... . ........... ... . ................ ... . . .... .. . .. ......... .. .. . ... .. ... .. ............. .. . .. ..... . 1 h .. ........ .. ............... .... ..... . .. . ............. .............. . ......... .. ............ ... ... ........... ........... . ... ....... . . C  . .... The weight is a cube with side s and density 5ρ....... ... . ... ......... ............ ..... .. .. ............... .. . ... . . ρ .... . ..... ...... .. .......... ........ . .......... . ........ compute the force needed at the upper tip of the access port to prevent it from opening. . . ....72 Consider the hinged gate with a weight connected through a pulley arrangement as shown.... .. ......................... ...... . .......... . ... .. ......... ........ .......... ..... . . .......... ... . ...... . ..... ...... ...... ..... .... .... ............. ....... ... . ..... ..... ... .. . ...... .....70 A circular gate of radius R pivots about a horizontal axis through its centroid. . ..... ...... . .. ..73 (a) Compute the height H to which a fluid of density ρ must rise in order to tip over the gate..... ............ ... ... .... .. .... ........................ ..... ... ............... .. . . ... ... .. . .. . . . .... .... .. ..... .... . . ........ ........ ... .... . ........ ... .. ..... . ...... . ... ........... . .. .. .. ... .. . .... .. φ ................ .. at what depth... .... ......... ....... . . ...... ....... ..... . .. . ..... ... . ... .......... .. . .... . . . .... ..... . . .... ........ ...... .. . .... .. .......... ......... ... .... . ..... .. ...... ..... ...... . . ........... . .. . ............ .... .. ..... ....... ...... .... ... ...... ....... . . ... . .. g.... ....................... ............... . . ... . . . .... . .... ... . .. ........ .............. ... ...... C  C Problem 3........... ..... h......... ...... ........... . ....... .. ..................... ... . .. .................... ........ . . ..... ...... . .... ............ ..... ..... Air . .. ....... ... .......... Express your answer in terms of L and φ..... .... . . ... ...... .73 The width of the rectangular gate (normal to the page) is 3L... Hinge . .. .... . ............. ..... .. ...... ...... .... ..... R. . .... . ...... ........ ...... (b) What is the force normal to the gate when the gate is just about to tip over? Express your answer in terms of ρ...... .... . . ... ....... ........... ... .......... ... ...... . ...... . .... ...... ...... .. .. ....... hinged as shown below. ... ............ ..... . . . . ... .......71 A triangular access port...... ......... . ...... . ..... ... . .... . ........ . .. ..... Air ..... . h ..... . ................. . . .. ... ..... .... ........ . .... ...... ........ . .. .. ....... .. ....... .......... . ..... . The gate is square with side H.. ...... . ..... ... ...... ... .. .... .... ....... PRESSURE 3..... ... .. .... .... ...... .. . ...... . What force must be applied to the bottom of the gate by the stop to hold it closed? .... .. .... ... .. ... .. 2 ... . ..... .. .... .. ......... ... . ...... ... ... .... ...... ....... . ...... ...... ......... . . . ... . ...... . ... . ... ......... ....... ......... .... .. .. .. . ....... .. ....... . ...... .. .. .. .. .... .. ... . ..... . .. . .. .... ................... . .... .......... ....... .......... ... ........ .. ..... ..... ... .. . . ...... . . ....... ............ .... ........ Determine the hydrodynamic force exerted on the access port by the concrete..... . .... ... ....... ... .. .. ...... ...... .. . .. ..... Also. ...... ....... . ............ . .. . ...... ..... ... Stop .. ..... .. .. . ..... •h . .. .. . . . ....... . . ....... .. .. .. .. ...................... .... .... ... . . ... .. .... ... .... ....... .. .. .. . ....... ..... . .... ......... ... . ................. .. . .... . .............................. ....... . ....... . ..... ........ .... ... ... . ....... ... . ... .. .... . . . ... ...... ..... .... . ....... ...... . .. .. ........ ..... . .. . ..... .... ... ..... .. h ........ . . ..... ... . ... ... .... .. . .. .. ..... .....72 3. ... .... . . . .... ............ . .... .... ..... . ........ ....... .. ........ ....... .. . . .... ....... . .. . ... . .. ..... .......... Air ..... ..... ρ .. ... . .... ... . ... . ...... ........ .............. ..... ..... .. .. ..... .. .... .. ..... .... ... .. . .. .... ..... .... . .. . ... ..... .. .. . ... . .... ..... .. . .............. ..... . . ... ... ..... ......... ..... . . ... ........ ..... ..... .. .... .... .. .. ..... .. ... ......... .. . ... ... . ..... . ........ ......... ......... ..... Air ... . ........... .... ... . .... .. .. ....... . ............... ... ... ..... . ........ ................ ...... .... ... .. . .. . ....... ....... . .. ..... ... ..... .... ... ..... α .... . . . ...... ... . ........... .. . . .. ..... ..... ............... .. . . .. ... . .... .. .. ........... .. You may ignore the gate's weight and any friction that might develop in the pulley. .... .... ..... .......... .............. .. ....... C  C . ... ............. ... .. ... ..... ... . . ............ .. .. . .. .... ... .. . . .......... .... .. ............. .. .... . ..... . . .. .. . .. ... ..... .. .. ...... . ...... . . ..... . ......... .. . ..... ....... . .. ....... .... ..... . ...... .... .... . ...... .... . .. . .... . .......... . . ... ...... ....... .............. ............. ...... ... . ....... ... . H .. .. .... . ........ ..... ...... .. .... . .... ... ....... ...... r .. ...... which has density ρ............. .. .. . . . ..... ............... . . ........ . .................. .. ....... ........ .. ..... . .. .......... ... ..... .... .. . ........... ... ........ ....... ....... .. ............. .. . .. .. ... ... ..... . .... .... .......... .... . . ρ ... .. R ... ........... ...... . .... .................. .... ..... ........... .. .. . . .... .............ρ.. ....... . ............ . ..... ..... .......... .. .. ..... . .. ..... . ......... .. .. ............ ..... .... .... .. ...... .......... ...... r Problem 3. . . . ........ . ......... ...... . ... .... ........ .. ........... .. . H . .. .. ..... ...... .. ..... For an angle α = 36o . ....... ..... . . ...... .... .. ........... ........ ... ...... . .. ... .... ........ .... ........ . . .... .. . .................. ....... ....... .... ..... . .. .. ... ....... . . .. ... ...... ...... . ... ..... .. . .. . . ... . ... .............. ... h ....... .. .... .. .... ... . ...... ........ .... .. ................. . ... . ......... . . . .. ... . . . ...... .. . . .. .71 3. .. ....... ... s. .. .. .............. . ..... . will the fluid cause the gate to rotate in the clockwise direction? ..... .... . ... .... . . .... ........... . ......... ............. ..... ... ...... .... . ........ ........ ....... .... . . ............. .. ....... ...... ............... . . ........ . ............... ......... ...... . .. ... ....... .. . ......... . .. ..... . ..... .. ......... ........ ... .. .... .. . . .... .. ... ... .. ..... .. .. .. .... ... .. .... .... .... ... ...... . . . ..... ... .. ...... ...... . .....L .. .. .............. ..... ...... . ..... .. ... .. .. ....... ......... . ..... .. ....... ..... ... ... .. ....... .. ....... .. ... .................... ..... ...... ...... .... ... .. h.. . ..... . . . . ....... .... . .. ... . .. .. .... ... ......... ....... ...... Stop .. .. . ... ................... . .... . ..... ... .... . .......... .. . ... . .. ... .. .. .......... ... . ... ........... .. ...... ..... . . . ...... .. .. 1.. . ... .... ...... ...... .. . ........ ....... . ... .......... ..... ..... ... .. ... .. ....... ......... ... .. ....... ....... . .... .......... .. .. ....... ... .... .... . .. ... ... .................... .. .... L and φ. .. is provided in the side of a form containing liquid concrete.... ..... ..... ... .. . .... ... .. .. . ..... . .. . . ... . . .. ......... . ...... . ............ ... .. .. .... . ................ ..... .. . .. . . ...... . ........... . .. ............. ..... . .... q s Problem 3. ... ...... ................. .................. . .. . .. ...... .. . ........... .... .. . ..... ..... ..... ..... .. .. ... . ..... ............ ... .. .... ... ... ..... ... . . . ...... . .. ... . .... .... .... . ....... .... ....... 5ρ .. ............... .. . . ... .. .......... ..... ........•.......70 3... ...... ... .. . .... .... ..... ....... ... ....... .. You may neglect the gate's weight. ...... ......... ... .. ........ ....... ..... .... ........... ...... ... . ........ .. .. . ... .......... ... .. ....... .................... .. ... . ....Hinge . .... .. . Air ....... ... .. ... ............ .. .. .............. . . .. ..... . .. .. .. ....... ... .... ..........

........ . .................. ρ . . ............................. h/n .......... ........... ....... .... ...... ......... . .... ... . ...... . .......... . ..... .......... ............. . . h .......... ... .. ... . ... .... The width of the steps (out of the page) is 6h... ... ..... ......... ..... ........ .. .... . .... ........ .. ...... . .... .... ............... ..... ... .. ........ ... . ... ... ....... ........ ....... ........ .............. ..... . H ... .. .......... . ... ... ..... .. .... ... .. ...... ......... ... ...... ...... ............... . ............ ... ............ ........ ... .. .... ... ............. ... .. .76 3........... . ......... ............................... ....... . ........ ......... . . ............... ...... ............. ......... h ... ........... .. .. ..... ... .... ........... ...... ............ ..... ......... .. ..... ... .... ...................... .... ...... ..... . ................ ..... . . ...... ............................................ .. ... .. ..... ........ . ....... ...... .... ........... ..................... ........ ........ . ... . ............ .... .. . .. .. ............ ................. ....... .... ..... ............... ..... ......... .. .............. ........ ..................... ........ Problem 3.... .. ................................... ......... .... ........... ... . . . .......... . . ... ....... .. ..................... ............... . ... .... .............. ..... .. ........... ..... ........ . . . . .. ...... .... ...... ... ...... .. .......... . .. .. .. . ............ .. ................. ........... ........ ................. ...... .......... ....... ....... ...... .. ................... .......... .............. ....... .......... H .... .......... ................ .............................. ... ..... ................... ......... ...... ...... .............. . .. ..... ................. ..... ...... ... .......... .... .. .. ........................ ............................. ............... .... ...... ... .... Each step has a horizontal and vertical length of h/n..... ................. .. zcp .......... ..... ... .... ........... ....... ...... . ........... ............. .. .. . ... ... ... ..... . ...... .... ... ...... .... ... The gate side view is a quarter circle of radius H.......... ..... ......... ......... ................... . . ............. .. .................. . ........ .. ......... . .. Air ............. .......... ...... .............. ...... ... ... ... .. .... ........... Neglecting the weight of the gate.... ..... ... .. . ...... . .... The dam has a parabolic shape and is 6h wide (out of the page)...... ........................ .. ...... . ... .. . ................ ......... ........ ....76 The dam shown below is 8h wide (out of the page).....•.... ............ .................. ............... . ......... ... .......... ............. . .. .... . ......... ...... .............. and it is 4H wide (out of the page). .. .... ............ ......... . ........ ..... ....... ....... ... .... .... .................... ... ... .. ...... .......... ......... ρ . .... .............. .. on the dam and the z coordinate of the center of pressure............. ................. •. . ....... .......... ... .. ..... ................ ......... . . ..... ............ .......... ................. ..... .. ...... ........... ......... ... .. ..... ... ......... .. ..... . ....... . ... F .... .. .. ...... .. ... ............ . . ..... ...... ..... ..... . ...... ........... .... ...... ....... .. ...... ... ............ .............. . ....................... .... ..... .. ........... ................. ....... ..... ....... . .......................... .. ........ ............. ..................... ... ....... . . ... ....... .......................... . .. Air H/3 Problem 3...... ...... . ... ..................... ................ ..... . ... ......... .... ......................... ......... .......74 3...................... ........... ...... ..................... ... ... .... .. .... Problem 3........... ... ..... ..... .. .. . ............. ........... ..... ...... ........... ............ . ..... ........ ............ .......... ................................................ ......... .. ........... . ...................... .... ..... .. .. ..... ...... .... ................... required to hold the gate closed....... ... ..... ........ ............. ............ ........ ........ ... ...... ......... .... ......... . ..... ..... .....75 Determine the force.. .. ................... .. ............. . ... ... ... .... . .. . ......... ... .. ....... .......... ........................... Find the force.. h . .. ..... ....... .. ........... . .............. . .... ...... ....... ..... ....... ...... . ................... ........... ....................................... .......... ρ . ............... ....... ... ......... .............. . .......... ............. .............. ................. ... ........ ... .................... .. .............. ........ ............... ... .... ... ... ... . .............. ............ ....... . ... .......... ........ . .. .. .... .... ... ... ........... .......... . ..................... .. ... ...... .. .. ............. .. .... . ... ... .. ............ .......... ... . ...... Compute the hydrostatic force on the set of steps....... ...... ............. ............. .. .. .... .......... ...... . .... .. .......... .... ......... ........ ................ ....... ......... . ....... ..... .......... ........... ... ...... . ............. ......... ............ ... ..... ................. ........ .......PROBLEMS 125 3... ........................... ..... . .. ........ .. ... .................. .. ... ........................ ... . .......... . .. . ... .... .............. .................. ....... ..... ........... ........... ...... ...................... .. .... ........ ....................... .. ........ .. ...... .......... .. ..... ........ ... ........ ......... ............ ................. ......... ....... .............................. ......... . . . .................. ......... ........ ......... ..... ... ............. .......... ......... .... . .. . ... ............... . ....................... ............... ................. ......... ........ . ... .. ............ ........ .... .. ...... . ........... ................... ........... ... ............................. ........... .... .......... ....... ............ ..................... .. .. ......... ...... ..... .. .. ...... .... ........ ...... ........................ .. .. on the dam shown below and the z coordinate of the center of pressure. .. ............ .. .... . .................. . .. ....... .... ........ ................ compute the applied horizontal force..... .. .... . .. ....... ... .... ... .. F.. ................... ............78 HINT: Use the fact that n X i=1 i= n(n + 1) 2 ....... ........ . ...... ....................................... . ..... ... ........ ........ ......74 A rectangular gate of width 3H (out of the page) is designed to open and release fresh water when the tide goes out... ...... . ............................ .. F........ ............. . ... . ........ ......... h .............. . ..... ... .. ............ . .. .....................75 3. ....... .......... .... ................... . . .. .... ....... ............ ............. ......... .......... .................... . ...... .................. . . ..... .. ...... ............ .. ... ......... ......... ............................. .. .. ............ . ........... . .. . ...................... . ....... .... ......... ... .................... ............ ............... .......... ... ... ............. ...... .................... . ..... ............ ... ................ .... ........ ... .... .......... ....... ..... h...... ................... ........ .................... .. .......... ρ . .... . . . ... ........... ... ..... ............. . ................. ..... ........... .. ..... . .... ............ ...................... ............. .............. .... .... ....... . ...... .. ...... .. . ..... ... .... .... ........ ......... . ...... ....... ...... ............. . ... .... . ....... . ... ....... ... . .. ..... .....78 A swimming pool has a set of n steps at one end. .. ...... h .... .. .............. ............... ...... . .. .. .. ............ . .... . The density of fresh water is ρ and the density of ocean water is (1 + )ρ.... .. . ...... Hinge ................................ ...... ........................ . .......... ................. ......... ........... Hinge . ................ Stop . .. Air ... .. .... .... ... .......... .. ..................... ............. ...... ................... ... .. where h is the total depth.... .. . .... .......... .......... ... .. ......................... Air .................. ........ . ...... ............. ... .... ..... ... ... ....... ....... ......... . ...... ....... .......... ....... .. . .. ......... ........ . ....... ... ......... ........................ ... ............... ............ . . ................. .... .... .. ................. ... ........... ..... . ... ......... .... . ..... ... ........ ........... .................... ..... ..... .. ....... .. ... ... ........... .............. ........... .. .. ....... ............. ................ ........ .... . .... . . ..... ...... ............... .. .... . .......... ..... ..... ...... ...... ..................... Problem 3. ....... .... ......................... ........... .... h/n .... ........ ........ ...... . ...... ........ .... . ............................... ...... ........ .. ........ ...... ... . . ..... . ... ................ ..... ........ . .......... ..... .... .......... ........ .. ..................... ..... . .. ... ... .............. ..... ............. ............................... .. ....... ....... .. ...... ....... .................. ........ ............... α. ............. .... .... .. .. α......... ..... ......... .......................... .. .... ................. The cross-sectional area of the region between the dam and the surface is 23 h2 ..... .. .. .. ........ . ... ...... ....... . ......... . .. ... .... . ..z.. . .. .............. .. .. ....... ............. ......... ........ ............ ..... .......... .. ... ........ ............. .... ......... ................. ............... ... ..... .... ......... ..................................... . ....... ........................ .. ..... ..... . .. .... at which the gate will open can be determined from a cubic equation for h/H. ................ .. ............ .......... . . ..... .................... . ..... .............. ........... verify that the ocean level....... .......... ...... ..... ..... x .......... ........... ...... ............................ ......... ....... ................ ... ....... ....... . ....... .............. ................. ... .. .... ................ . .............. .... . .. ...................... . .............. . .......... ......... .. .. .............. ................ .. ........... .. .... ................. ........... .. ....... . ................. . ............. .. .......... ..... ......... .. .......................... Problem 3....... ... ... ............... .......... ... ... ....................... ... ... ....... .. ...... .. ...... ......... ........... .. ................. ......... ....... .... .. .... ........ ...... ...... ... .... ........ ............... ... .. ... ..... .... ...... .............. ..... ....... . It is made up of three linear sections with α = tan−1 (1/2)................ . . ..... ................... ............. .... . .... ............ ............ ... ........ . ..... . . ... ... ... ... ......... .. .. . .. ......... . .. .......... ......... .. ...... . ... .... ..... ........... ........... ..... .................. .. ....... .... ..... ........ .. .. .. . ... .. .... .............. ..... .. . ............. ... h ....... ..................................... ....... ....................... .... .. ..... ........ ..... ...... ................................. .. . .. .............. ...... ......... . .. ......... ..... ........ .. .... .... .............. ............ .............. ..77 3........... ......... zcp .... .. ... ... .. ... ................. ............... ... .. . ... .... ......... .. ........... . ............ .......... ........ ........ . . .. ... .................... ............ ......... . ............ F ......... .......... ................ . .......... ........ ............... . .. .. ...... . ......... ... . ................ ..... .. ......... ....... ..... . ..... . .. ... ρ ... .... ......... ....... ....... .............. . ... ... ... ............. ...... ........... ....... ..... .. ............ ....... ......... . ..... .. . ................. . ................. ..... .......... ... .. ....... .......... ... .... ...... . .... .... .. Air ... ........ ..... . ............. .................. .......... . ....... ... .. ....... ..... ... .... ........ . ...... .... ....... ...... .. ..................... .. ... Air ......... ............................ ........ ... .. ................... ............. ........... .. ....... .. ......... ......... ... . ..... . ...... ... . ... ........... h .. ................ ......... ........ . .... ....... . .. ...... ..... . ...... . ............ .. ............. ........ .. ....... ... ...... ..... .............. ............... ......... .. . . ....... . ............................................ ... (1 + )ρ ....... . ................ . ... . ......... . .... . .. . . ....... . .... . .................................. ........... . ..... ... .. ....... ...... .. .. .............. ....... ............. ........ ..............77 Ignoring the weight of the gate...... ..... ....... ... ........... ..................................

. ...... . ...... ....... .... . ...... ...................... ...... ............ .... ............. ............... ... ....... ... ... ................ ..... ...... ............ .. ........ ..... ................ • ......... O ........ ...... ........ .... ......... ... ............. ........ on the dam below and the z coordinate of the center of pressure. . ... ............. ...... .......... ........ ..... .... . ..... ....... ........ . ............ .. ..... .... ... ....... . ........................... .... Air ..... .................. ............. ............................ ....... .. .. .... ..... ...... ............................................... A murky liquid of density 32 ρ lies beneath a clean liquid of density ρ...... .... ....... ...... .................. ... ......... .................................. ..... ..82. H . .......H ....84 L H 3 +3  L H  −1=0 Air .... ............ ... ...... .. . .. ....... ..... ....... ................. ...... ........ ....... ............... H............. ............................ ....... . .....  . ......................... ............. .. ... ....... .. . . .. .......... ..... ρ2 ... ........ ... ................ ... ............ .. . ...... . ......................... ... . . .......... ........................ . ........ . ......... ...... . ....... .. ..... .. ........ B . .. ................. ...... ... ........ ...... .. ................... .... ....................... ............... ... .... ............... . ...... ............... ................................... .. ....... . .. satisfies the following cubic equation............... .... .....81 A gate AB of constant width... ... ....... ....... . ... .... .... .. . ... ...... ................. .. ................. ............. ..... . .......... ... .................... .............. ......... .... ...... ..... ............ . .... . ...... .......... . ... ... .. ... .. ...... The gate has width H (out of the page).......... . .... ... ... .. ...... . ......... ...... ........... .. the arc has width 8H (out of the page)... You may neglect the gate's weight.... . ....... ........ .... ........ ..... . ....... ..... .................... .................. . ............... . ρ2 /ρ1 (b) For the density ratio determined in (a)........... ... . x .. ............ ............................... (a) Determine the density ratio............... . ........ ........... ..... ... ...... . ............ ... .................... ...................... ... ..... .. ...... ............ ......... .... ........ ....... .. .. . .......... . .....................79 3.. ............ . . ... . ............ .. ..... ... ...... ...... .......... . ...... ............. .. .... ......... ......................... ...... . .. . 45o ....... ..... ......... . ...... ... ... .. ................... Air .. ...... ....... Verify that the height to which the clean fluid must rise in order to tip over the gate............................. .. ...... .. ....• ... ........... . z ... .. .. ... .......... zcp .. ... .. ...... ..... ................. ................... .... .. ............... ..... ............ .............. .. .... .... ....... . . .................... .. ρ ... ... ........ ......... ... ................ ........ ......................... ....   Problems 3..... .... .......... ............ ............. Air . . ... .... ... ......... .. ..... ... .. .. ...... . ..... ..... ... ... is zero...... . . .... ... ........ .......................80 Determine the depth h as a function of H such that the net force in the x direction vanishes on arc AB separating two liquids of density ρ1 and ρ2 as shown.... . . . ............. . . . .... ..... .. .......... ... and L is the distance (measured parallel to the gate) from the bottom to the fulcrum................ . ................ H/ 2.... ..... .. ............... h = 34 H... ........................A ....... .. .... ........... Fz ...... ..... .. .. . ...................... .... .. h ... ..... ............................... ..................... ............. ............ 3......... .. ....... ..... ..... . .. ... .. ...... . ........ ...... .. ........ .......... ...... ... ........... .......................... ... ... ........... .................. . ..... ......... ..... .. . ...... .... ... . ................ ...... ... ..... . ................. .. .. ..82 Compute the net force on the arc AB.... ..... ...... . ........ . ........ ........ .. .83 Compute the net force on the arc AB... ................ . ............. . ....... ..................... .......... .............. ......... .. ................. .... ....... ...... .. ........ ............ ... ... ................. . .. ........................ ...... ............ .... .. .............. ...... ................ . ... .................. ......... ................ ... ..... ... ....... . 2 .. .. ... ...... ......... ..... .... ....... . ... .... . .. 3...... ......... ....... ..... .. .. ... ........... ..... .... .... .. ....... .... .................... .... ............... ..... ...... .......................... ............ ........ . .. .. .. .......... ...... ..... ..... ..... .. ........ ...... .......... ...... ........... . .... .. ... ... .... ......... ...... ....... ...... .... ..... what is the vertical force on the arc assuming its weight is negligible? The area of OAB is 58 H 2 .... . ................ ......................... ....... . ....................... ρ1 = ρ and ρ2 = 4ρ..... ................ ρ ..... ....... .... ............... . ..... . ........... .. ............ . h ... ... ........... ..... . ....... .................. ..... .......... .. ........................ ... . ............ ............................... .. ....... ......... ...... ... .. ... ρ . ............. ...... . .. ... ... ...... . .......... .. .. .. ... ..... ............ . ....... ....................... . ............ . ........ ... .... ........ .. ..................... .. .. . .... ....... .... ..... ......... . ... ........... ... ........ ...... ................ .. ......................... . ................ 3 ρ . ................... .. Problem 3................................ .......... ........ ...... ......... .......... . . ... ... .... ........ ......... . .. .......... .......... Air .... ...... ..................... ..... .... ...... 2 H 2.................. . .. ... . . .. .......... assume unit width (out of the page). . ..... ............ ..... . .......... .. .. .............. .. ...... ....... ........................ ...................... ......... ...... .. ..... ......... ...... ..... . . .. ....... .. .. .................... .. ........ ............. .... .... ..................... . ........... .... ... .......... . .. .. ......................... . .... .......... .................. ...... ..... ....... ..... . .......... .... ......... . . .... ................. ......... ... ........ .... ................. ... .............. .......... ..... ...... .. . ...... .... ........81........ .............. .... . ............... . ............... .. .. . ........... ........ ... 3.......... .. ....... .... .......... ......... .... .. ........................ ........................... . .... . .................. . ....... ..... .... ......... .... .......................... ....... ..... •..... .. .. . . . .. ... ..83 3.. .... ...... ..... 5 ρ1 = ρ 3.. .. ...... ...... ...... . ... Also... . ....... .. ... ..... . ....... .......84 The width of the rectangular gate (normal to the page) is w.. . ....... .. ...... ... .. .... . .. .. ....... ................... . ....... ............. .......... ..... .... ........ . .. ....... ............. ............ .......... .............. .............. ......... .... 2 ........... .... ......... .................... . ........... . Fx ........ ... .. ............. .... .126 CHAPTER 3... ...... . ........... ........... PRESSURE 3............ .... Assume the area of OAB is 13 H 2 and h = 13 H. ... ........ .................... ..... . .......... .................... ....... ... ... ... . .....H ......... ...... ................ . . .......... .......... ..... ....... .. .......... ..... .......... ..... ............... .. ...... ... ....... ...... .......... ................. ....... .... .. ...... ............... ... ... ...... .......... . .. ........... .. ............. ....... ............. .. ... ...... ..... ................ ........ ............. ....... . Problem 3. .. .. . .... ... .. ....... .............. .. ..................... ... .... ......... . ......... ..... ......... . .......... .. ............ . For this value of h.... ....... ... 3... .......... . . .......... ......................... ...... .... ............... .. ... ..................... ...... ................. ......... ........... ............... .... .. ....... ..... ......... . ..... ............ ... ......... ...................... .. . . ............................... ..... ................................ ...... ... .... .... .. ................ ... assuming that the area of OAB is 12 H 2 .................... (out of the page) separates two liquids of density ρ1 and ρ2 ............ ...... .. .... . .................. .... ............. .. F. ... ................... ........... . .. . ..... ........... ........... .... ... ........ .......... ... ............. ..................... . ........ ... ....................... .. ...... .. ........ ......... ............ ... . ... h ........ ....... ..... .. ........... ...... ........ .. .. ......... ............... ..√ H/.... ................ .. 1 ....... ....................... .. ... ....... ....... The net vertical force on the gate......... . .... . . ..... ...... ...... .... ....................... The dam has a quarter-circle shape and is 5h wide (out of the page). ........ ........................... ... .. ....... ........ .... ... ... .... .............. .. .... . ..... ..... ...... .... .. compute the horizontal force.. ..... .... ..... ...... ............... ...... . .... .... ..... .... .... .... . . . . ........... . ........... assuming that the area of OAB is and ρ2 = 52 ρ... ..... . ... ..... ........ ........... ... ......... ........ ... ... .. ... ...... ... .................... ..................................... .... .... ....... . .... ...................... .. ........ ...................... ....... ...... ...... ...... ........... .. ........... ...... ρ1 = ρ and ρ2 = 2ρ.. ...... 3..... ........................ .. ... .. ........... .......... ........... ...... ........... ......... .. .. . z ......... .. ... .. ............... ......................... ................ ..... ............... ........... . ... . . ..... .......... ......... .... .. ....... .. .. 5 h= 1 h.......... .. ... .80. .......... ... .... .... ... . .. .... . ..................... ......... .... ............. .. ........................ .......... .. .... ................ .... ................... with the interface between the liquids at the same depth as the top of√the fulcrum. . .. ..... ....79 Determine the force............... . ............ .. .......................... ... .... .. x ........... ....... .......... ............. . .......... ..... ...... ... .. ... . ................... ......... ... . ........... . . . ..... .... . .. .. .. ............... . ................. . ..... ... .... .. ...... ...... ...... ............ ... ....... .. ............. ... ..... L ............ . ...... .... ......... .................. ... .. .. ......... ............. ...... C  CC . ............... .............. ..... .... .. ... ...................... .... .. ............ ........................... .. ...

... ................. ............... . ......... ...... ............... .. .... ... .. ......... .... .. .... . ...... . .... ........ ... ...• ....... . ......... ... .. . ... . .......... ........... H . . .. ........ Problem 3.. ... ... . .. .......... ... ............ ....... .... . ........) ..... ....... ....... ... .... ...... . ..... . . .. ..... .. ..... .. ........... ........ . . .. .. .......... . 1 . ....86 3... ....... ..................... x .......... . zcp .......... ... .............. . ...... ........ ....... ................ ................ ... ... ......... .. .. . . ............ ` .. (Take moments relative to OA. ........ ........................ ............. ....... ..... x ......... ........ .. .... ...... ..... ...........89 One fourth of an object of density ρa and volume V is submerged in a fluid of density ρ............... .... ..... ......................... ............... .. .. ............ .... .. ................... . ...... ....... . ................ .... ....... . ................... .. ......... ..................... . ...... ... ........... ......... ....... ..... ............. .. .. (a) Compute the hydrostatic force components.... The area of OAB is 23 H 2 ...... .. . ..... . ... ................ .... .. .. ............ ..... ....... . . ... ... ... ..... ................. ... .. .......... ...... ....... ............. .................. ... . . ...... . .. .......... . ........................ A .......... .......... .............................................. ...... ......... ......... . ......... ............... .... ......... ....... ... ........ ................. ........ .................... . .......... . ... ... ..... .... ... ............. .. ..... .. .... . ..... (c) Compute the horizontal location of the center of pressure.. ......... ..... ....88 3. ................ ........... . .. ... ..... .. .......PROBLEMS 127 3......... .... . .. ............. ... ... . .. ....... .......... ..... ......... ..... . ... .... ...... The arc has width H normal to the page.. ....... ............ .................... . . ....... . ...... . .......... ............... ..... .. ρ ..... ...... ................ .. ........ ........... ... ....... ..... . .... ...... ........ .. ...... ...... . ...... . ... . Air ...... ....... ............... . ........... ....... .. ..... .............. .. ..... .... ..   Problem 3........ ........ . . ..... ..... ........ ... .................. .. . ... ........... ............ ......... ...... ........ ρ .. ........ ...... .......... ..................... ..... ..... . ....... .... ........ ... ... .... ...... .. ... ...... ............. ............. ........ . ..... ... . ...... ...... ....................... .......... ........ ............ .......... ................ .. ........... ...... ...... ......... ..H ....... . .... ...... ............ ..... .......... ..... ..... .... .... ........... ...... .... .... . . ............ . ..... .. .. .. ....... ... ..... ............... .... ..... ............ . .. ....... ... ....... ...................... ................. ....... . ... .... ... .... B ........... . ............ .... xcp . ..... . ...... ........ 2 . . .......... ......... .. ..... . .. . .. ....... .. ..... .... . .... ...... ..... ... . ....... ..... .... .... ..... ........... . ............... ....... ............ ........................ .. ... .... .............. ......... . ....... ......... . ... . . .. .... ...... ..... . ...... ... ........ . ... . ...... . . ............... ............. ...... .. .. ............... ................. . ..................... ....... ..................... ..... ..... .. ... . ...... .. ..... ρ ... ............ .................. . ... . . ......... ...... ... ... .. ..... ..... .. ..... .... ...... .....H ... ... ... . ........ . . . ....... ........... ................. ......... ...... ...... .. ......... ... . .. . Is your answer sensible for the limiting case ρ1 = ρ2 ? (b) Compute the vertical location of the center of pressure....... ... . ..... . . ............. .......... .. ... .... ...... ...... .. ...... ....................85.... ................... ......... ... ........ .. ....... .................. . ... .............. ... ........... ...... ..... ... . ...... .. The gate is rectangular and has width 3H (out of the page)..... ....... .. ....... .... .............. . .... . . .................. ... ....... ...... ... ............... . ... ...... .... ....... ......... .... .. .. .. .... Fx and Fz . ..... A .. ............. ... ... .. . ... ...... . ... .. .... . ...... ...... 3............. ..... ... . ....... `.. ................ ........... .. ....... ......... ...... .... What is the magnitude of the buoyancy force on the object? 3. ......... ..... ... . ...................... ......... ........ ............. • ....... . ρ .. .... ......... .. ........ ............................. .. .. .. ...... .. B ........ .... .............. ............. . 1 .... zcp ............... .. and the centroid of OAB lies at x = 14 H.... ..... ......... ... ....................... acting on the arc AB...... .. .... ................. ................ ... .... ................. .............. .. .......... ... .. ....... The gate is rectangular and has width H (out of the page)..... ... ...... ...... ...... .. ....90 A cube of balsa wood (density............. .............. .. ................ . ... ... . .. ......... .................. ......... .. .88 Arc AB separates fluids of density ρ1 and ρ2 . ..................... .... .................... ........ ....... .... . .. ..... ... . .... (c) Compute the horizontal location of the center of pressure..... .......... ...... ............ ............... ........... ..... ...... ............ . . ....... .... ............ ............. .. ................. ....... ....... ... ... . .... .. . ........ ... ........ .. ....... ........... . ................. .. z ...... . ............ ................. ............. .. ................ ......... .............. ...... .... ..... ...................... ...• ....... ... .......... .......... ............ . ............. ................ .. .. ... ... ......................... .... . ............ ........... ........ . . ..... ...... .. ..... .. .. ............... .... ..... .... ....... ... ......... ........... ................ ........ B ... ...... . ............. . ........ ...... .... ......... .... ...... .... ..... .... ........ .. ........ ............... ..... ........... .... ..... . ...... ....... .. . ......... .. ..... . ... ........ ........ ........ ..... .... ................... .. ............................ . ............... .. . . ............. ............... . ρ2 .... ....... ... ............ ... .. ............. .. ........ ..... ...... ............. .... . . .. .... H .................... ......... ................. ... . ...... ........ . .. . .. . ... . . . ......... ... .. .. ......... (b) Compute the vertical location of the center of pressure. ... ......................................... .......... . ............ .. .... .... .. .... ........................ x ......... .. ................... .. ... . ......... ... .... ..... .... ....... ............ ......... .......... ..87 The width of the circular-arc gate shown is 4` (out of the page).......... ................... ...... (a) Compute the force components.. ...... ......... .......... ........... . . ........ .... .......... . ....... ...... .... . ... ..... .......... . .............. ............. ............... ... .. . .A ..... ........... ............ ............ .. Express your answers in terms of ρ... .... .............. ..... Problem 3........ . ................ . . .............. . .... .... ... .....• ........... ....... . ........ .............................. . ... ... •....................... ...... .... . .. . . ................. ..... ....... ............... ......... .. .. .... . ............ . . ... . ........... . ....... .. .. ....... ..... ........ ..... ... .. . z ................ ..... Air ..... ........... . . ............. ... ... ............... .... ....... .. ......... .. .... ........ ........ ...... ..... ......... ... .. . . . .. .... ........... ....... g and `... ... ............... .... ........... . ............ .. ..... . . ........... .. ... . ............... ... ....... ...... .. .. ...... .......... ......... .... .... What force is required to hold it in place completely submerged in seawater at 16o C? .... ........ ......... .. ............................ ...... H ................... .. z ... .. ..... ρb = 124 kg/m3 ) measures 15 cm on its sides..... ... ............ .... .... ... ... .............. ............................... . ......... ..... .. ............. . ... .. . . ....... ... ..... ........ O ....... ... H Air . ... .............. ..86 Determine the force on the gate AB if the upper layer of fluid has density ρ1 = ρ and the lower layer has density ρ2 = 2ρ..... . . .... ....... .......... ...... .. ........... ... ............... .... .... ....... ... .. acting on the arc AB.. . .......... . .. •... . .. ..... .........87 3... ......... .. . .... ....... ............. ........ ....... ..... ...................... ..... .... ... .. ......... ....... .... ... ...... ............ ............ . .......... ................. .......... ....... ............ . ... ... ...... .... .......• ................ . . .......... .......... ........... Air Air ......... ..... .... ..... ...... .............. .. Fx and Fz . . .. . . .. . ........... . 3........ ....85 Determine the force on the gate AB if the upper layer of fluid has density ρ1 = ρ and the lower layer has density ρ2 = 4ρ.... . ......................... ....... .. ........ .. ..... ............ ..... .. .. .. ... xcp .... ....... .. ..... .... ..................... ......... . .. ... ... ....

... ............... .................... ........... . ..... .. ............... ................ ............................ ... ............. ... If the object has constant cross-sectional area........... What is the volume of the object? What is its density? 3... ... ... ..................... ........ ................. ......... ................................. ................................ ..... .... he suspected that other metals had been used in its construction... ... . ... ............................... ............ ...... .................... Now....... assuming gh/RT  1............ ............ ....... 2ρ .................. ................... .. ........... ... ... The density of the cube is ρc = 1. ...... ......................... Problem 3..................... ................ .. ............ .... .... ... ............ . at which the cube shown below will float in the two-liquid reservoir.................... ............ ........ . ................. ................................ . . ......... ρ .. by weight.............................................. ................... . ................... ......... ............... .............. ............. . ................ .......... .. .................... .... ........ . .. . . ... ........... .......... ................... . .... ... .............. .. .......... ... ............................... .............. .... ......... ........ .............. ......................... ....... .............. ................. .......... ............... ..................... .. .................. ... . .................. . .. ................... .......................... .......................... ........ . ........................ ............ .......... ............ ... ..... ... .... ........ ... ................. ................... ........ .. . .......... ...............94 3............................ ....... was gold? 3.................... ..... ................ ...... a force of 4..... ............... .......... ............ ............ ....... ...... ...... . . .... ............. ...... ....... ...... ... ......... ............................ ....... 5 ...................... ........97 ρHe x   ........................... .... .............. .. y ....... ............... ...... .......... .......................... ......................................95 The density of the block shown below is ρb = 35 ρ and it has width 5L out of the page................................... ..... .... ............................ ........... .......... . . ρ............... ................................ ...... ............... ........................... ............... ... .......... .. ....... ................. ............ .............. ..... . .................. At what depth....... 4ρ ............................... how much of the object's volume lies in the lower layer? ....................... ..... .......... ................. .... ...... ........... .... . ............. ...... .. .......... . .......... ................. ......... ........ When it is submerged in a tank filled with water at 50o F........ ... .......... ..... ......... ......... .. ................................. . ..... ...................................45ρ.... ...................... . 2L ........ ................ ..... . ....... .. ......... .... ........... ...... ....... ..... ...... .. ....... .................................... ... ............................... ........ ........... ... . .. ................... ................ ..................... ......... .....96 Compute the depth......... ..... ......... ...... .. .... ..... ... ........... 2ρ .. .... .. .. .......... ........ .....91 In air..................... .............. . ............... ................................ ........ ........................... ........................ ................ . ... .......................... ....... . ..... ........ .. .............. ..................... ......... ... ......... ..... . ........ .......... ...... ..... 3L .................... ..... ............... .... ............................ ...................................... ...97 A cube-shaped \balloon" filled with helium (density ρHe) rises through the stratosphere for which the density is ρ = ρa exp(−gz/RT )...... ......................... ...... .... ................ ............................................... .. .. .................. .......................... ......... .... ............................... ...... ....... ... ......... ..... ...... ...................................... Archimedes found that...... ................ .......... .... .................... ......... ..... .............. ..... ............. ........ ..... ........ ..................... .. ........ ........ ........ What is the volume of the slab? What is its density? 3.... ....... ... .. .................... .......... ....... 2L ........... .......... .. .... .. . ............ z ................................... .............. .... ........................ ........... ... ..... .............. ... ............................ ..... ... ............. .......... .................... ............ .. ................... ........... . .......... ............. ........................... . . .............. .... ...................... ...... . ...... ........ .... ..... ... .. ...... ..................................................... .. ............ . ..... ... ......... ........ ................. ....... ......................... .... ... .... ............. The \balloon" is designed so that ρHe and h remain constant for all z............. When it is submerged in a tank filled with water at 20o C.................................... ....... ........ ................ the crown's weight was 91% of its actual weight............................................... ... .. . h........................ .. .. ................... ..................................... .................. will it float in the two-liquid reservoir? ...... L . ........ .............. . ..... ..... ...... ....94 Consider the object of density 2ρ immersed in a two-layer fluid as shown............................. ..... ..... ............ ............ ........... ............. . ................................ ....................... ........... ....... ....... ..... ... .. ......... .................. what percentage. ..... A (out of the page)................................ .................. ... ........ ...................... ............ The lower face is located at z and the upper face at (z + h).......... . .. ...... . ... ..... ........ .... ....... ................. ........ ............ ....... ... . .... .95 3................ . a force of 33 N is required to lift it from the bottom of the tank......... ...... ........... ... .............. ...... . ... ` ........................ .. ............................ ............ ... .. ............... .............. ......... an irregularly-shaped object made of copper weighs 5 tons......... ...... ...... .... ................. ...ρ............... ..... PRESSURE 3................................. ... ...... .. ... . . ....... . .................. ... .............. ........ .. ......... .................... ...... Problem 3..................... When he received the crown................ ...... . .... ................. ....... ........92 An irregularly-shaped cement slab weighs 51 N in air.................. ....... .................. . . .... . ............... ...... ............... ...................... ..... ........... ρc ........ ..................... ............. ...... .................................... .. . .............. . .. ........... ...... ........ ..... ................................. .....93 King Hiro ordered a new crown to be made of pure gold...... ................................................................ . ............. 6L .................. .. ...... .........3ρ)........ ........ . .... ....................... ............... b .. ..... ............ .......... ...................... .................... ... ......... ................................. ...................................... ..................................96 3.. ........ .......... ..................................................... `.......... ...................... ................................ ... ....... ................... ........ . ........................... ............ . ............................ ............. ...... ............. . ....................................... . ...... ...... ........... .... .... ρ ................. ... ............. .................. .......... . ..... ........ .... ........... ............. ............. .......... ....... .. .......... ....................... ..... 7 .......... ...... . .. ......................... ....... ......................... ........................................ ........ ... .. ............... .......... .......... ................ ........... ..... ........... ...... ................................... .. ..................... .. to what altitude will the balloon rise?     ....... ................ ....... .... ........... ................. .......... ......... ....................................... ............. . ...................... ................ .. ..... ........ .................. ........ .......... .................................... ......................... ........ ................... ............................ ..... ............... ....... ....................... ... .................................................... ..... .. .................... ..... ................. .... when immersed in water (density ρ)........ . ..... ... ...... ................................... ................. ................... . ...... .. .... ........ .. .................. ........ ..... .... .....8ρ) and gold (density 19. .... ........ ............ .............................. ..................... .... ............... .. .............. ............. .......... ................. ... ...... ........................................... ..... ....... .. ....................................................... ............ .... ........ ................... .. .... ....... ... ........... ................... ................ .... ................... ......... ... ....... ........... .......... .. ... ..... ...... .......... ................. ............... .......128 CHAPTER 3................................. ............... .. ...L ................... ....................... .. ................. . ............ .......... ............ ........... ......................... ... ............. ... ............ ............. . .... ....... . ..................... . ............. .......... Assuming the crown was made of a mixture of steel (density 7..... .... .......... ......... ... .......... ... .............. .......... ... ... .............. ........... . .... .... .. ............. . . ............... ... . ....... Problem 3................... .... .......... . ... ...... .. .. ...................... ... .............. .. ................. .. Problem 3...... ............ ...... .... ................ .............. ... ... .5 tons is required to lift it from the bottom of the tank.................... .... .... ....................... ............................. ........... .......... ............................ ...... ................ .. ....... ....... .......... ...... ........ .......... .... ................................. .. . ............. ... ........ ......... ........................ ... ........................ .............. `. . ........ ... ..... Compute the buoyancy force on the balloon.. ....... ................ ... ....... ... ..... ............ ....... ........................... ...... ............... ................ . .. ........... . ..... ........ `........... ... . ρ ... . ....... ........ ....... ..... .................................... ..... .................... ....... .... ............... ................. ............................. .... ......... ...................... .............................

.. .. .... ........ .... ....... ........ .......... ...... ............ . ....... ...... ... . . ...... ........ ..... ... .... ..................... .... ..... ..............102 .... .. .... .... . ............. .. . . . ....... . ..... . ................ . .... . ..... ...... .. Problem 3. ... ... .. .. .. ......... ... .. ..... .. . . ................... ...... ........ ..... ....... ............ .... ... .. ρ.. . .......... ......... .. ......... . .... . ...... .. . .... .. ............ ... . ....... ... .... . ......... ...... ...... .. .. ......... . ... ............................... ... ......... ...... ... ........ ...... ........... ..... . .......... ....... .. .. ....... ............. .. ... . . .. ....... . ...................... . . ...... 1 D................ ... .... ................. ... .................... ..... ...... ... .... ........ ...... ... .......... ................ ... . ................ .... ...... .... ............ . ... ..... . . ... .. .. . ..................... . .H ...... .... ......... . .... .......... .......... . 2 ..................... ......... ...... ....... ....... .......... .. compute the force required to hold the prism in place.... .. . ..... . ...... ...... . . ........................ ... .............. ............ ..... ..... .............. . .. ....... .... ..... .. ...... . .. .................. ......... ............H ............ . .He ... .. ........ ......... ...  .... ..... ....... . ........ . . .... ........... ................ ρ .... . ................... ........ .. . ........... ............ ......... . .............. .. .............100 A cylindrical barrier holds water (density ρ) back as shown. ..... .. .... ........ ...... . . . .... . .......... .. The balloon has diameter 9 m.. ... .... ...... ........... .... ......... ... ......... ....... ..... ..... ..... . ............ .. ..... .... ... ...... .. ........ .. .... . ..... ........ ....... ... .. Determine the force components needed to hold the dome in place. . .. .................. 2H .. ........ .. ..... .. ....... ............................ ................ .R ..... ... ............... ...... ... ...... . ....... ............... .. ..... . ..... .. ............. 2R.. ............. . ............. .. .... ... ... A prism of height H out of the page is attached to the wall as shown....... ........ . ...................101 The figure below depicts a cylindrical weir... .. ... .. .... .......... ... . .............. . .. ....... .................... . ........................... ... . and has a width w (out of the page). ... ........ .. ......... ρ.. ... ..... ... ................... .... ............. ..... . . ..... .. is filled with helium and is pressurized to 124 kPa.... .................. ...... . ........ ......... .... ...... weir .... ......... . ..... ..... ...... .. .................. . ............. ... ... ...... .......... ....... ................. ............... . .... ..... ......... ........... . ... ... .......... ... . ..... .... . . ..... ... ........... ...... .................. .. ........................ . .. . ........... . .... . .. ........ .. ............ ... .... ......... . ... .... . ... ... ........ ........ ... .... ... ........ .. .. . ........ .. .. ... .... ... . ..... .............. ....... .... ....... ....... .. ............ . . . .. ............. ... ............ .......... . If the length of the cylinder is L (out of the page) and its radius is R... . .... .. . ............ ..... .... ... . ....... ... . z Air . .... ....... ... ............... . ....... . ............. . ........ ....... .. ...... ......... ........ ....... ...... ... .. ... .... ... ............ ...... .. ..... . ....... ......... . .. ....... ... ...... ......... .......... .... ........... .......... .... ............. . .. ............ .... ... ... . ............................. .... ......... ............ . .......... ....... ...... .. ........... .. .......... ...... .. ........... .......... ... .......... .. ...... . .. ................. . ... .. .... ........ .. ... . ...... . . ...... ....... . .... .... ... ... . ........................................ .. ...... .... x .... ..... . ......... ..................................98 3..... . . .. ... .... ........ ..... ........ Ignore the weight of the material from which the balloon is constructed... ................ .... ...... ................ ......... ........ .....100 3.. .................. ....... ..... .... ........ ............ . ... .....................99 The fully enclosed tank shown below is divided into two independent chambers by a thin wall of negligible thickness. The surrounding air is at 1 atm and 25o C.. Determine the hydrostatic force acting on the weir. ..... ........ ... .................................. . . .......... . ........................... ..... ...... ..... . ................ . ..... ... ..... ..... The weir separates two reservoirs containing a fluid of density ρ as shown..... .... .............. ... .......... . .. ..... ..... . .. ... Air ....... ........... ... .. . ....... ....... ..... ... . ................ . . .... . .............. .... . ........ ....... Assuming the density of the prism is 2ρ... .......... ...... . ......PROBLEMS 129 3.... .......... . ........... ..... .99 3....... ...... ......... . ..... . . ...... .......... below the surface of a liquid of density................... .. .... . Mooring line ..... ...... R..... .......... .... ... ... ....... . ....... .. ............ ......... ...... .... .. . . ........ .... ... .............. ........ . .... ... ..... .. .. ... ....... ... . ........ ..... . ..... ....... ....... ........ . ............. ................... .. ............. ...... ...... .. ....... . . . . ..................... ........ ........ .......... .. ......... . . ................ ........... ................ .. . ........ ... ............... .... ....... . .............. ... ..... ... . . ... ........ ....................... . . ... ........ ..... ..... ..... .... .... ... . . .................. ...... . ....... ......................... . ........ ....... ....... Air .............. ... ρ ... .......... .... . ... .... ... ........... ... ..................... ...... ............. ......... ...... . .. .. ............. ... .. ....... ............. .......... . ............... . . ............... .... ... .. ... ....... .. . ...... ..... . .............. ..... of diameter D. ........... ..... .. ... ........... ... ..... . ...... ........... ...... .... ........ . .... 2ρ ... ......... ....... .... .. ... ....... ......... ........ ....... .............. ..... .. .. One chamber contains a fluid of density ρ while the other contains a fluid of density 3ρ.. ........ ........ ... ......... ....... ...... .... ........ ... .... ....... ....... ............................ ............ .. .. ... .... ...... .... ... ..... .. . ............ .......................... . ... ...... .................. ....... .................. . .... .............. . . ......... . . .. ... . ..... ... ...... ..... . .......... .. . ...... ... ... ... .. ... .......... .. . ... .. ...... ..... . .. .. .. .... ρ ............ ... .. .............. ......... . ..................... ... ......... . .... ... ........ .. ............. . ... . ............. ............ ...... .............. . .... .. ..... .... ... ............. .. .... ......... . ................. .... ......................... .... ...... .... .... .......... .. ..... .. . R ....... .... ..... ...... ...... .... ............ .. ......... ......... ...... .. .. .................. . ...... ........... .......... Problem 3............ .. ... ........ .. .... .... or low dam................. .... ......... .. ........... .......... ........ .... .... ......... ........ .. . . ...101 3.. .. .. .. ... ....... ................. . .... ............ .. ..... ..... . . ..... . . ...... .... .. ............... .... ...... . . ... and the vertical coordinate of the center of pressure...... ...... ............ .. . . . .. ......... ..... ...... ...... ........ ..................... . ............... .. .......... ....... . ... .. .... . ...... .... ........ ........... .... ... .. .. ..... 3ρ ......... .... .... . . ... ..................... ............ . zcp...... ....... ........... .......... .... ..102 A hemispherical dome is located one dome radius... ......... ............. .. ... .. ........ .. .... . ........ . ..... .. ... ............ ..... . ........ Air .... .............. .. . ..... ... A  A Problem 3.... ... . .......... ....... .. Problem 3.. ...... . ........... ....... .......... . .. .. ............. ...... . .... .. .... ............ ............. ...... ... ... ... .. .D ............ ..... ........ ..................... ...... ........ .. Air ... ............ ... .............. . ....... . ......... ....... ... . ......H ..... ...... ..... .. ...... .. .... ..... ... ...... ............. ...... .. ... ... ..... ... ..... .... ........ . ...... ..... ..... . .. ............. ........ ......... ........... ................. .... ..... ..... .... .. ...... . .. .......... ....................... ..... . ........ .... .. ... ... ...... ............ ... ..... ............ ... .......... .. .......................... ... . ... ............ ....... .. . ......... ... ..... ... ..... ...... ... . ..... .. . .... ....... ..... .......... ..... ..... ....... ........ ..... .. .. ........ . ... ...... ........ . .................... ........... . .. . ... ......... . . .... .... .......... .... .... ....... .. . ..................98 Compute the tension in the mooring line on the spherical balloon............. .. .. .............. ... ........... ....... . .. ........ .. . ........ ......... ..... ..... ....... ... .... ......................... . ................. ........ .......... . .... .... .. ................... .... . ... .... ....................... . .............. . ........ .............. .... . .. ... ....... . ρ ....... ..... ... .................... ...... . .... .... ....... ...  Problem 3. ... .. . ... .. . ...... .... .. ................. . ..... . ....... .... ..... ....... . . . ... . .. .... ...... ........... . . .... .. . ...... .... . ..... ....... ... .. .. .. ....... ..... . determine its weight and the force exerted against the wall.... ... ... .. ... . .......... .... ... .. ............... ........... .......... .. ........ ..... .... .............. ........ .... .. .. .. . . ....... .......... ........... ........... ..... . .... . ... ............. . ..........

.. .... r Problem 3....... ..... ........... ..... ... .. ........... 8ρ ... .......... ...... ....... ........ .... ..... ...... ... ............. .... . ............. .... ....... ... ...... ... ... ..... ..... ...... . . .. . ........ . ........ .. .... ....... ..... . .... ... . ..... ... . ρ ρ ............ . ... ........... ........ ..... ........ ............. .. .............. ... . .. .. ....... .... ........ ........... .......... ... ...... it uses a gate that opens... . .. . ............... ............ ............ ....... .. . ................... .. ....... . .... ........ ... . ......... ......... ....... ..... .............. .... . .. . ....... ... . ......... ........... ..... ......... ρ .... ........ .... . .... ...... . . .... ....... ....... . ... ... .... ....... ........ ... ...... .... . ....... 2ρ .............105 A wooden block with square cross section is in equilibrium when immersed in a fluid of density ρ as shown... ~ @ @ Problem 3...... ... . .. ...... .. .... . ........................ ........ .... .... .. .............. .......... ..... . .......... ................. ...... .. ...... .... ......... ........ .. ..... . ... ...... ...... ............ ... ...... ..... ..... ..... ...... ....... .. ... ................ ....... ρ ..... .... .. . . ...... .... ... . . ...... .. .. ....... ......... . ... .. .. ........ .... ....... ....................... ......... ...... ...... pb . .. ........ ... .... ... ... ... ........ ... .... .......... .............. ...... . . .... . .......... ..... .... .... ... . .................. .......... .......... ....................... ............... ..... ........... ... The gate separates fluids of density 2ρ and ρ........... ...... .... ............. ............ .. ...... ............... ......... .. ...... ......... . ...... .. ............. ........ ... .. .............. .... ....... ............. ... . . ....... ...... .. ......................................... ... ..... .... .. ... .................. . ............ . .......... .... ................ ....... .... . .. . ....... . ............. ...................... ... ...... ......... ..... ........................ ...... .................. .. ..... ....... .................. ............ ..... ........ . ..... ... .... Air ... ........ . ..... .................................... . .......... ............... ... .......... .... . ............ ........ . ... .... .... ......... .... .... ..... .... . .... ......................... ..... ... ...... ............ ..... ...... ................. ... ........................ . ........ .. ................ .... . . ... .......................... . .... .... . what is the value of N ? ..... .. .... ....... .. . .. .... .... ... . ...... . . ..... ... ...... ..... . .. .... ......... . .. A cube of density 8ρ and side 12 H is connected to the gate through the point indicated with a pulley arrangement so that the cable tension exerts a force normal to the gate. .......5 .... .............L .... ......... .. .... . ..103 A liquid of density Nρ lies below a liquid of density ρ............. .. . ...... .. ...... ......... ..... ....... . .... . ..... ... ..... .... .. . ...... ... .... ..... ... .. .... .. ....... .. ...... 2H. ..... .... ............................. .......... ..... .. . ........ .... ...... . ...... .. . .... ..... .. ...... ........................... ... ..... . ... .......... .... .. . ..... ...... ................ .............. .......... ... ... . .............................................. .... with a pulley attachment as shown............ ....... .....104 A compressor is used to regulate the air pressure in an enclosed storage tank that is designed to take water in from a reservoir when the water becomes too deep...... ... Find the minimum pressure differential........ ... ................ ............ ... ........ ....... ... .... ......... ... .. ...... .. Air....... ....... ..... ... ............... .... .. .... ........ The width of the block is H out of the page.... ... ............. . .. ... ..... ... ............. ...................... ... . ........... .. .. . .. .. ....... ... .. .. .. .... ................... .. ............ ..... ... ......... ...... ......... .... ... ... . ...... ............ ....... .......... .. . ... .... ...... ......... . .. ....... ....... ....... .................... .. ....... ...... ......... ... required to keep the gate closed when water with depth 2L is in the tank.............. .......... ....... .. .. . .. . ............... ... .... ... ........ ...... ............. .............. ........................... 2.... ........ .... ......... .. ..... ..... .............. .... ..106 t . 3 .... ......... .....ρb... ............ ............... .... .. ... .. .... .... .. . ............. . .......... ........ .....130 CHAPTER 3........ ... ..............Hinge... ............ ... .. ....... ... . .................. ........... .. ... .... ... .. ........... . . .... ........ ... . ........... .. . .. ..... . ....... ... 2L .. .... ... .. ........ ........ ...... .......................... .... .. ................. .......... ............. ....... .... ... ... .... ................. ...... .... .. . ..... 2H ........ ... .. .... ................... .Reservoir .......... . .... ......... .... ............ ......... ... ....... ..... ...................... ... . . .. .... ...... ....... ....... ... ... .. .. . ....... ... .... ............. . . ............ ... ......... . .......... ..... . 2H . ...... ......... ..... ............ ................ ............................... .... .. . ....... ... ...... .... ..... .. .. ............ .... ....... .... .......... ........... ..... ... .......... ............. ......... . .. ....... .. .... ........... ... ... ........... ........................ ........... ..... .. . ... What must the width of the gate be in order to have zero net moment about the pivot? ........ . ........ .......... ..... ...... ..... .... ..... ... pb − pa .......................... . ........... .... ...... ... ..... . ....2........... .. .. .......... .. . ....... ... .............. ... ............. .... . .... ..... . .. .. .... .. .......... .... . ... .. ... ..... ............ .. . .. ........... .. ..... ............ . .. ................. .......... . .. ... . ............... ......... ..... ........ x . Air....... . ..... .......... .... .. .... . ... .......................... ..... . . . . ..... . ......... .... ..... ......................H . ........ ... ..... ...... . .......... ............ . .. .. ...... .... . ......... ........ ...... ........ .... .... ... .... . .. ......... ......... ..... . ... ....................... . .. ............. .. .. ............... ........ ..... ..... . ................ .......... . ........ . . .......... . . .. .. .... . ....... ....... .... .......... . .... . .............. ........... ................ .......... .................. .. ...... ...... ...• . .... ... ... ... ... ...... .. .. ... ........... .. .. Air ............ . .. .. .. .. ............ ....... ....... . .... .... .............. ........... . .... ......................... ..... ....... ............. ............. .. ....... ............... ... .... . .. .. ................... . A rectangular piston √ of width H out of the page is attached to a totally submerged object of density 13 ρ and volume 4 2H 3 .. ................. ..... .. ................. ...... .... ....... .... .. ............ .. ... ..... . .. 3 H...... ................ ............................. .. ........... ...... ..... ......... z .... ............ ... ..... ........... .... . .......... . ........ ......... . .. ... ..... .............. ........... ............ ... ................. .. . ........... ....... .... ..... ....... .. .. .. ... ....... .......... ... .... ......... .......... .................... ..... ..................... ..... ...... . ... .... ...... ...... ....... .... ......... .. ......... ...... ........ .... .... ....... ............. .. .... ............ .... .... ........ .................. . .... ............... .... .... ...... . .. ........... s Problem 3........ ....... ..... . .. .. .............. H . .. . .. ... .. . ......... ... ... ..... ......103 3. ..... ........... ....... ... ... . ... L... Air Air ...H ............... ........ Ignoring any effects of friction in the hinge... ... ................. ..... If there is zero net force on the piston...... ........ ..... ... ... ... .. .. .... . ......... ....... ....... ............. ................ .......... ... ... . ... . ..... ... .. ..... .. ..... . .... ............ . . .... ....... .......... .. ................ ........ .... ...... . ....... ......... ...... ....... .... ........ .......... ........ ................... .... ... . ..... .. ..... ................ ....... .... ......... . .. . ... .. .... ........ . .... .... ......... ..... The pulley cable makes a right angle with the piston....... .. .. ........ . ........ ......... ..... ........... .. .. ........ .. .... .. ... ........ . ......... ..... ..... . ......... . . ... ..... ....... ...........4L ..... .... H . ............ .. ..... .. .... ... .... ... ... . ................... ............ ..... .... . .. ........ . .... ....... .. ......... . .. .. .... ............... .. . .... ... ..... ..... ....... .... ................. ....... .... . ............... ... ............. ..... ............ .... . ............... ... .......... .. ...... ....... ......... .... . ........ ........... . .................. .................... ........ ..... ...... ...... .. ....... . . .. . ... .. ................. ... . .. ........ ................ ...... ... ............ ..... .... . ..... ..... .. .. .... .... ....... ..... ...... ....... . . .. ..... ............. .. ........ .. ........ ........ ............. ..... ..... ........ .. .. ..... ............ .... . Hinge .. ..... ..... . . .. . ........ ... .. ............. ..... . .......... ..... ...... r Problem 3...... .............. and the side of the cross section is L.............. .. ................... ......................... . ........... ....... . .. ........................ ... determine the density of the block.. ...... ....... ........ . ... ..... . ............... .................... ... ... .. ....... ... .. ρ............. and the pressure below the piston is atmospheric... ...... . PRESSURE 3........ ...... .. . ... . ... .. ... . ....... ................. .. .. ........ ..... ................................. ..... .......... . . .... ...... ...... ..... ..... ..104 3...... The gate is hinged at the top......................................... . ......... ....... .....105 3. ..... ............ ................ ..... ....... . . ................. ..... . ........ . .. ..... .. ............ ..... ... ... ...... .... . .............. .......... . .... ....... ... .. .................106 A rectangular gate of width w out of the page has a pivot at its center as shown. ... .... .... ...... .. ........ .... . ... .... ... . . ........ .. To do this.. .. ......... ... .. ...... ........ ........... ρb .. ................. . 2L .. ......... ........ .. .......... ............. .... .......... .... ..... ... ...... ....... .............. .... ... . ...... ................. .. ............... . L ......... ............... ... ..... ..... .... ........ ......... ........ ... . ... 1 ρ . .. . ............. .............. . . ............................... . ....... .. . . is 6L high and 6L wide (out of the page).. ....... .... ...... .. ..... . ... ... ......... .. pa ...................... . .... ................ ........... ............ . ......... .... ....... .... ... .. ... ... .. ....... ............ ...... .... .............. .... ..... ..... ... ......... ... ..... ........... ...... .. ........ ... ........ ..... ... ...... .. ....... ..... ....... ... ............ ..... .. ....... .. .. . .. ......... ...... ....... ....... .............. ..... .... ..... ...... ..... . ... ..... .... ........ ......... .. .. which is always at a 45o angle to the horizontal... .. ............................. ... ..... ........... .. .... ....... .. .. ...... ... ... ..... Tank ........... . . ... ...... ..... Nρ .. ...................... ...... .. ... . .

... .... .................. .... ...... ...... .. 1 L .... ....... .. .. ....... .. .... .. ..... Determine the threshold value for ρb. . .... ...... ... ... .. .. ..... ..... ....... ............. •h .. ..... ..... . ... . ....... ........ ..... .... ..... .... .. ..... .. ..... ..... .. . . .... .. ........... ..... .... . ...... ... . ..... . . ... .... ..... .......... .......... .. .... ....... . ... . .. . ..... .108 3. . ... . .... .... .......... ...... .... . ....... ... ρ .... ..... . ........ . .. ..... . .. .... ................... .... . ......... ..... ....... .. . ......... . .... . ..... ...... . ...... Air . ..... . ... ........ ...... .......... .......... ........ ..... .... . ...... ........... . . .. ... ......... .... ...... ..... ... .. . ..... ... .. 3. ... . ..... ..... ........ ... .......... ... ........ ........ .. ....... . ........ ....... 3L ... ....... ... ..... ............ . ......... .. .. ...... ........ .... .. .. . . ....... .. ...................................... .. .......... .......... ... ....... .. .... ... .. . ..... . .. .. ...... ....... .. .... ..... ... ..... ............ .. . . .... .......... . ..... ....... ... .. . ........ ... . Problem 3..... . .. . .......... .. . .... ... .. ..... ........ . .. . . ... .... .... ... ............ . ... . ..... .... Air ... ... .. ............ .... ........ .. ............ ....... .......111 Determine the minimum volume of steel-reinforced concrete needed to keep the rectangular gate shown in a closed position.. ..... .. ρ . ... . ... . .... .. . ....... ......... 3L ..... .... ........ .. .....107....... . ...... .. ..... t h Problem 3........ Air ....... drops below 2h..... . . .. .. .. . .. ..... .... .......PROBLEMS 131 3.. .. . .. ... .. ρb ...... .... .. .......... ... . .. .. ρ .. .......... .... .. . ..... ...... ..... ............. .......... .. ........ .. ... ... ..... .. .. ..... Problem 3.... ........ ......... . ρ ..... A cube-shaped weight of density ρb is connected to the gate to regulate its motion.. . ... ..... .... . .. .. . .... . .. .. A .... ......... .... ... . .. .... .. ............ ....... .. .. .. .............. . ..... ......... . ....... ... . ... ..... ... . ... ` 4 ........... .. .... ..... . .. .... . .. . .. ...... ........ .......... ..... ... ...... .. .. .. ....... . ....... . ... .. .. .. ..... ........... ... . . .......... .. .. . ....... .... ... ...... .... . . ... ......... ..... ... ... the density of water is ρ and the density of the concrete block is 3ρ..... .... . ..... .................... ...... ............ .... .. ......... ......... ... . ........ ... ... . .... ..... ... ..... .... ..... .. ..h.......... . . . ... . ... .... . .. ....... . .............. ....... .. . .. . .. ... .......... .. . Neglecting the weight of the gate. . . . ..... • ..... .... .......... ... ........ ...... .c. . ..... ........ ............. ...... ....... . ......... .......... .... .. .. ..... .... ... . ......... .............. . .... ... .... . ..... .. .......... .... ....... ........ ..... . . .... . .. ........ ... ..... . . . .... ..... ... ... .. ....... . .... ...... ...... ... .... ..... ... ..... .. .... ............. .. ........ ..... .. ..... . . ... .. .... ... . . .... . ........ .... . ...... .... ... ... . ... . .. . ... . ........ ......... .... ...... . ........... ...... .... . . ... ..... ............ ....... . . ................ . ...... ......... . .. ........ . . . ........... . ....... ........ ..... . ....... ............ ... ..... ..... ........... ... ......... .... ......... .. .... .. ... ..... . ....... .......... ......... . .111 1 ................. . ... ... .. ......... . ... . ... .. .. .... ...... .... . ... . . . ........ . ...... ... ... .. ...... ....... .... ....... ..... ... .. ... required to hold the gate closed. . .... .. .. ....... .... ... . ..... .. . ... ........ ..... ... .. .... . . .. ......... . ........ . ....... . . . ....... . . .. ......... . .. r r        S r Problems 3... ....... ..... ... . ....... ......... . . . ...... . .... ...... ...... . ...... .... .. The width of the gate out of the page is 3`...... . ........ ....... .. ρ .... ......... ....... ..... .... .. . .... . . .. . ........ ..2h ... .......... ...... .. ... ..... .. ............ ..... ... .... ......... Stop t ... . .... ..... ... .. ... . . . ... .. ... ........ .. .... ......... .... .. . ................... ....... ... ... . . ..... ................... .. ... . ......... ..... .................... ... ... ............... .. ρo ... ... ....... ........ ... . .... . ........ .... . ............ ...... .. . . . .... . .............. .. .. .. ........ ..... ..... .......... . ....... . .. . ...... . . ...... . .... ......... .................. ..... ... ..... ...... ... . . .... .............. ....... .. . ........... . . .... .... ..... . .. ............. .. .......... ... ... . ...... ........... ... ....... . .. ....... ..... . . .. ..... .... ....... ....... . ............. .... determine the minimum force... ... .... ..... ........... Determine ρo /ρ and the corresponding value of the force borne by the hinge when the gate is just about to open.... . .... .... . Neglecting the weight of the gate..... .. ... .. . ..... Stop ......... . . ........ ... .. ..... .......... . ... ........ ...... ..... ... . ... .. . ... . ..... ... . ......... ................. ...... .. .... . .. . ....... . .. .... ..... . ..... ... .. .. . .. . .... .... . ... ...... A cube of density ρc = 5ρ and side 12 L is connected to the gate through its centroid with a pulley arrangement so that the weight exerts a force normal to the gate.. ..... .. . ...... .. .. .......... . . .... .... ..... . . ...... .. ...... ............... .. ..... ...... ...... ..... ..... ........ ... .............. ... ..... ..... ... ....... ... . .................. ....... ....... 2 . . ... ....... .. ... . .. ..... ... .. .. . ......... P . .... .............. ..... ... ... .. ..... . ...... ......... .. .. .... .. .. . .. The effective density of the flotation device is ρo ..... ... ...... ..... ... . ....... .... .............. .... .... . ........ ..... . ..... ....... ... ......... ... .. ........ .......... . . . .. .. . .......... . .. .. ....... .. . . ...... . .... . . . ........ ... . . ... . .... ......... . . ........ .......................... ... .... .. ... .... ... .... ..... . .. ............ .... .. ... ........ .. ... .. H. ......... . ..... ..... . ........ . ........ . . .... . .. . .... .. .. . . . ..... ............ .......... .. ..... .. ....... . ... .... ... . ... . .. .. ... .. ... . ..... ... ..... . .. ...... ..... .... .... .......... .... ... ..... . . .................... . ....... ... •h . ..... h .. ..... ... . ..... .... ....110 3........ . ... .. ..... ... .. .. ........... ......... . . .. ....... .... . .. .. .. . ... . .... ... .25ρgL3 ..... .. . .... .. . . . ... . ... .... . ... . ... ` .... . .... . .... ...... ... ... ....107 A rectangular gate of width 2L out of the page is hinged at point A and holds back a fluid of density ρ as shown. ............... ..... .... . .. ...... . ..... . ........ ........ .. . .......... . . ......... ......... . .......... 2h . ........ . . ... ... ... . ......... .... . ...... ..........108 A rectangular gate of width 6L out of the page is hinged at point A and holds back a fluid of density ρ as shown. ....... ..... . ... .............. . ........ ...... .. .. .. .. ......... ... .. ... . ..... required to hold the gate closed is P = 12....... .. .. .. ......... ...... .. ....... .. ...... ........ ............ . . The gate is on the brink of opening when the depth of submergence of the flotation device is h/2....... .... . .. ..110 A large hollow cube-shaped flotation device holds a gate closed through a cable and pulley arrangement connecting the cube to the bottom of the gate.. ......... ..... . . .... .... 3........ ...... ........... . ..... ... ........... .. . ..... .................... ............ ....... . .. . .. ... . . .. .... ...... .. . ...... . .......... . ...... ....... .. .... . ... ...... . .. .. .. ............. ............ ... . .... .... 4L .... ........ ..... ..... .. ........ ... .... . . .......... .. .... . ..... ...... ... . .. ..... . .. .... .... ... .... .. ......... . .. ... ... . . .. ... .... .... ... .. .. .. .. .. .................. ... . ............ .......... .. ........ ... ... ... . ..... .. ... .. ....109 t 3. ... .. .... .. .. .... . .... .......... ........ Air ........... . .. ... ... ... ... .. ..H.. . . ...... . .. .. P . The minimum force... ..... ... ... ............. . . ......... ... ... . .... .... ... ... ............... ......... .......... . .. . ...... . .. ..... ... . .. ... ...... . ....... .. .. .... . ... ... .... ..... ... . . .... . . ..... . . 4h . ... . . Hinge . ...... .... . The density of the fluid is ρ and the gate has width 2h out of the page. . ..... . ... ......... .. ..... . ......... . .. ... . Hinge .... ... ..... .... . .. .. .......... ..... ... ............. ...... ......... ... . ... . . ....... .... ...3ρ..... . .. . .. ... . ..... ........... .............. ... . ...... . ... ........ ... ... .... . .............. ...... ... . . . .. .................. ....... .. ..109 The rectangular gate of width 3h (out of the page) shown below is designed to open when the water level. ........... ....... ... 2h ... ... ... .... ...... .... ... .. .. . ........ ......... ... ... .. ...... .... .. . . .... .. . . .... .. .......... .............. .. .. .. ................. . ..... .. ... ............ .... . .. ....... ... . ....... ....... ...... . .... .... .. .......... ..... ............... .... .... .. ... . .. .. .... . determine ρc . ..... ... ...Hinge.... ...... .... . ............ . ..... ........ .... . ........... . .... .. .. .... P .. .... .. . .. .. A cube of density ρc and side 12 L is connected to the gate through its centroid with a pulley arrangement so that the weight exerts a force normal to the gate. ...... ... .... . ....... . .. ..... .. .. ... .... ................. ...... ... ...... ........ . . .... .... .. .. .. ....... .... .... .... ..... . .... .... ......... .... ... ............. ....... .. ....... .. ........... ............... .. .. ........ .. . ............. .... ... ... .... ... ... .. .... ... ....... ... . .... . ........ ..... .... .. ....... ........ ...... .. . ... ........... .. .............. ...... .... ...

. ........113 Consider the gate AB for a fluid in which the density is given by ρ(z) = ρa (1 + αz/H)......... ..... .. ... .. ... ............................. ..................................... ... ............ ............. .................. on the vertical wall below.... ....... .. ........ . is submerged? What is the minimum ρm /ρa for which the object is totally submerged? ..... .......... ..... ............. .......................... y .............................................. Problem 3. . .   Problem 3.... .. .... ........... ............. .... ....... . ............ . ........................... .......... . . .. .............. ......... ..... . ....... ......................... ........ .... . .... ...... . .............. ................ ..... .... ......... .. ......... .......... .................. ....... ..... ............. ......... ............... ............ ............ .............. . ............. x . PRESSURE 3................... ................ .. height........... ............ ...... ......... .............. .............. ... ... ....... ............. ............ . ................. ......... . ......... ........... ........... ... ......... . ...... ........ . ........... .. .................. . ........... ... .................................. .......... .............. . .................. .................... .h........... h .............. ............. ..................... zcp .. .. .... ............................... . .......... . ................... .......... ............ .......... ................ ............... .. .. ................ .. ..... ...... ...... .. .... .. ........... ............. ............... ... ..... ............... ......... .......... .. z ....... ...... ........................................................... .......... ............... ........ .......... ...... . ..... ........... ........................ ... ....... ......... .... .... .................... . .. ..... ................ = A ... .... ................. ..... .......... ........ . .. . ... .. ............. ρm ............. .... ............... ....................... . ........ . .......... ........... . ......... Does your answer make sense in the limit α → 0? ........ and density.... ......... ......... ......... ............... ......... ....................... ............. .... ........................Area . .. .................. ................. ............... ........... .... ...... . ...... .. ..... ................................... .. ........................ .. .... .... ....................... ....... ............ ......... .. ...... ............ . .......s........ .......................... ... ... .. ......... .. .. ......... ... .... NOTE: The formulas developed for constant density do not apply to this problem............. ......... .. ................ ... ...... .... ............... ...... ............... ......... ......... ..... ........ ............... .......... .... .... ........... ........ .... ......................... ........ .............. .......... ................. .............. ........... .............. ............... ....................... .. ...... ................ ........................ ... ........................ ....... .... • ..... .. ........ ...... ..................... hs /h........ ................................... ...... ... ..132 CHAPTER 3.................. ......... ............. ................... .............. ........... ..... . ... .... .. ... .. ....... x ...................................... ........ ... ..................... ..... .................................... ........ ........... .. ................ ........................ .......... .............. .... ..... . .................... ........... ................................ ...... . ............. ...... ... .......... ............ .............. ......... .... . ..................... ............112 Compute the force.. ............... ......... ..... .......................... .............. ....... ... ............. ............... ...... ........ ..................... ............. .................. . ........... ...... • A . .................. ... .... ....... ...... ... ....... . ............ .. ...... ............................... ...... ......... ............... ........................ ...... .............. If ρm = 3ρa............. . . ............ ........ ....... ......... ...... ......... .... .... ........... ... . .... F... ...... . ........................... ................. ..................... ............. .......112 3................ . ... ... ................. ..... .. .. ............................... h . . .. ... .... ...... ..... ......... ... .. .... ........... ............ .... .... ....... . .......... z .. ................. ... ....... ..... . ...... ........... ..... ......... ... ...... ..... .. ................. ..... ......... ....... ... .. .................. .......... .......... ... .................. .... ..... ............. ........... . ...... ........ .....ρ .............. . ... ............. ................................... ...... .............. .... .... ............. ..................... ... . .............................................. . . . ................... the weight of the fluid in OAB is 14 ρa gH 3 (1 + α/2)......... .............. .. ....... ............ .................... .... ............... . .... ..... ............... .............. ............... .. ......... ..... ..... ........ ......... ...................... ....... .... ................ ................ ................. ........... . .......... .... .. ....... . ... .... and center of pressure... ... . ....... ....... .................. . .. .......................... .. .... ...... .............. .................... . . ........ ............... ..... .......O... .. .. ........................................ ........ .... The projection of gate on OA is rectangular and has width H (out of the page).. .............. ....... .. .. .... ........ .................... Compute the force on the gate.. ........................... . ... .......................... what fraction of the object.....Air ..... . ................ ........ . Also............... .. ............................ ... ...... .......... ............................ ...... ..... ........................... .. . .....• ... ...................... .............. ... . ....... . ........ ......... ....... ............. . .. ........................ ... ...... ... ................... ... ...... . ... . ........ ........ ....... .... ... ..... ... .. ..... ........... . .. .. ....... . is floating in a fluid whose density varies with depth as ρ = ρa (1 + 8z/h). ... ......... . .. . ...... ................... ... .. ..... . . .................114         .... ............ .... .. ....................... . . Air ... ....... ....... ... ............. .. ......... ... ......... .... ............... ................. . .......... ...... ...... ...................... ............................. ..... . ... ....... . ................ .... ............... .......... ......... .. .. ...... .... ... ...... ... ...... ............................. ..................... ...... .......... ... .. .. .......... .................... ..... .. ... x ... . .............. ........... ....... ..... .. ......................... ................ ........ ....... .... ... . ρ(z) .... ............... .......... . ... . .............. ........ . ................................. ........... .. . ...= ........... ........ .......... ................... ...... ..... . ..... ... ................ρ.... ............... . ....... . . . ....... ...... ...... ... ............. ........ .... Air H ...... ......... ..................................... ..... ......... ....................... .......... ....... .............. . . ............................................................... .......... ............ .... .......... . ........ ............... ............. .................... ........ ............ .. ..... ... ......... .. .. ..... .......... where α is a constant..... .. ..... Air ............... ................ .... .. ....... .. ..... ......... ... ..... ... ........................................ .. ..... .............. .............. ............... . .......      Problem 3... .... .. ......................... ....... ........ ............... ... .... ........ ................ ..... ................... . .. ............ ........ . .... .. .................................. ................ .. .................. ............... . . ............... .. ........ ........ . ...... . .... .......... ................. . ... ........ ...... .. ...... ......................... H ............... . ...... ..... B ........ ...... ......... .......... .. ........ ....................................... .. ..... .... .. ................................ ............ ........ ................ ........ ......... ..... ........ ............... ............................. ........ ..... ... ................... .. .... ..... ... . ..... .. .... .......... ...... .................... ...... ............... . ............... ........ . ........ ............. ........ .. ............. ..... . .. ........... ....... ...... assuming width 2h (out of the page)..... ......... .................................... ρa ez/h ........ ..... .......... .... ............ .............. . ... ... . ... .............. .. ......... . ............................ ..... ........... ......... .. ............... ... ........................... .. ... ........... ............... ........... ....... .............. .. . .............. ...... ... ... . ....... ............ . .113 3... ........... ......... . . .......................... ...... ....................... ...114 An object of cross-sectional area........... ... ........................ .............................. ............ .......... H ................... .......... .... .......... ................................ . .. ... ... ... .............. ... ........ ..... ....... .... m ...................... .... . A.. ... .......... ... ..... ......... ..................... ...................... ..... ... ................ .. .............. .. z .. ............. ........... . ....... .... .............. .............. h....... ..... ............ .. ....... ......... . ...... .. .... ... .. ........... ..................................... ... ......... ............. ....... ............................. .......................... ....................