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Automatic Traffic Control System Using Solar Photovoltaic Panel

S.Raja1, C.Sharmeela2, G.Kumaresan3.


1

M.E. Energy Engineering, Mechanical Dept., CEG, Anna University, Chennai Email: citraja@gmail.com

Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai. Emai : sharmeela20@yahoo.com
3

Assistant Professor, Institute of Energy Studies, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai

Abstract This traffic control system provides the


solution to predominant problem of traffic at places were traffic light controls the traffic. Its adjusting Green and Red Traffic light duration to control the traffic. This is an adaptive system which senses the traffic and then adjusts the traffic light durations accordingly. This design of traffic control system is based on single chip microcontroller. With the core of single chip microcontroller (SCM) AT89S52, infrared receiver receives the infrared signal coming from launcher. The paper introduces total scheme and system structure, also the hardware design of the system. The designed was achieved with the help of 12V automated solar energy power supply, single chip microcontroller, infrared sensors. This model is capable of eliminating the inefficiency and likely error associated with human traffic controller by minimizing accident and unnecessary traffic jams at the junction. Keywords: Traffic control, Microcontroller, Solar PV panel, Traffic jam.

controller is the most important component in the traffic for management the system, Intelligent especially

Transportation System, where the traffic controller works as the brain for the entire system. Basically, controllers collect data from the infrared detector system, which are preinstalled in the roadway, and then process these data with a specific algorithm to make the decision about when and how to switch from one phase to another phase. Both hardware and software are needed to make the controller running effectively. Under ordinary conditions, traffic signals control has some defects. When the traffic lane waits until the green light, time setting is almost same and fixed. A road was always crowded with vehicles and go-ahead time is short. So, vehicles cant pass through in the time allowed. It is a fully Microcontroller
controlled system. This system senses the

I.

INTRODUCTION

The traffic light controller is a device that manages free flow of traffics along three, or more road junctions. Traffic

vehicle 25meters ahead of the signal using

an IR beam .As the vehicle crosses this beam the output of IR receiver goes low momentarily and is detected by the microcontroller connected to it. Microcontroller in traffic unit keeps a count of vehicles crossing 25m line in each direction and thus monitors the amount of traffic in each road direction. Using this information it changes the Green and Red light timing on each road. Its gets lesser green light ON time if there is few number of vehicles and also it can be increased for more number of vehicles. The system has several benefits such as simple structure, high reliability, low costs, good real-time, easy installation and maintenance and so on. So, the system owns a broader application prospect. The uninterruptible solar power supply is intended to take these small standby loads off the grid, and power them directly from solar panels. This design consists of 12V rechargeable battery and solar PV panel.

chip controller through infrared receiver so as to control traffic lights and waiting time. In addition, the vehicle-flux detection apparatus in east and west, south and north direction is used to read signal which is treated by single-chip microcontroller. The set of red-green alteration and waiting time of traffic lights is realized by programming technique of single-chip microcontroller.

III.

SYSTEM DESIGN

A. INFRARED TRANSMITTER Infrared LED is used to transmit the signal. The block diagram of transmitter is given in Figure 1.

Number of Vehicles

Microcontroller II. DESIGN SCHEME Zigbee MAX Stream Antenna

The hardware assembly of this system consists of vehicle-flux detecting circuit, infrared remote transmitter/receiver circuit, and single-chip controller. Signal light control of each crossing is realized by infrared remote control apparatus. Encoded signal emitted by Infrared transmitter is loaded to single-

Figure 1 Infrared Transmitter

Infrared sensors are used which measures the number of vehicles count and transmits the information to analog to digital converter and then to microcontroller. B. ZIGBEE MODULE It is a transceiver, which is used to transfer data or information from one node to another. The advantages are low cost, low power, high reliability; it is more suitable for this application. It works with the principle of Wireless Mesh Networking. The Schematic diagram of Zigbee module is shown in Figure 3.

k diode is connected with solar panel to avoid reverse current. The circuit is powered by a 12V dc adapter, which is given to LM7805voltage regulator by means of a forward voltage protection diode and is decoupled by means of a 0.1 f capacitor. The voltage regulator gives an output of exactly 5V dc supply. The 5V dc supply is given to all the components including the Microcontroller, the serial port, and the IR transmitters and sensors. The AC supply which when fed to the step down transformer is levelled down to 12 volts AC then fed to full wave rectifier which converts it in to 12 volts DC and passed to a filter to remove the ripples. Then it is fed to a voltage regulator that converts 12 V to 5 V stable voltages and currents. D. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure 3. Schematic Diagram of Zigbee Module C. POWER SUPPLY A Solar PV panel is used as an optional power supply for traffic control system. A 40 watt Solar PV panels with voltage and current rating of 12 volts, 2.2 ampere is used for power supply. Here 10

The single chip microcontroller of this system chooses IntelAT89S52chip of MCS-51 series. The hardware circuit of system is designed and manufactured by Protel DXP. To improve anti-interference and reliability of system communication, output pins form microcontroller is connected through 10 k ohm resistances. So over-current surge is also avoided. When transient disturbance occurs

between

the input and

ground, the

power supply is used as an optional power supply for traffic control system. The Infrared Sensors measure the number of vehicles on the road junctions and send the data to ADC0809. The ADC0809 converts the analog data into digital data. The clock pulse is given to ADC using NE555 TIMER. The ADC is interfaced to microcontroller which stores information temporarily and transmits using ZIGBEE. In Receiver side Zigbee transceiver is placed which receives the transmitted data. Depend upon the number of vehicles count from the Zigbee receiver the waiting time of green light may increase. V. RESULTS

affection of thunder weather to system communication is avoided by discharge of lightning proof tube. Although this part adds complexity of nodes, guarantees effectively stability and security of communication. The circuit diagram of Traffic Control system is given in Figure 4.

The traffic signal operation starts Figure 4 Circuit Diagram of Traffic Control System IV. WORKING PRINCIPLE The circuit is powered by a 12V dc adapter, which is given to LM7805 voltage regulator. The voltage regulator gives an output of exactly 5V dc supply. The 5V dc supply is given to all the components including the Microcontroller, the serial port, and the IR transmitters and sensors. A 40 W solar PV panel is used for power supply along with rechargeable battery. Here solar by the traffic lights illuminating in red for 1 second in all directions. Then the traffic signal starts illuminating in the clockwise direction of the magnet compass. This means that it start operating in the Up direction, then right, then down, then left and goes back to up direction. After the starting condition, the sensor checks the up direction condition.

used to reduce the traffic along road junctions. In this system Sensor measures the number of vehicles count to increase the delay time of green light. Solar PV Panel is introduced in this design for uninterrupted Electrical Power supply. It also has some advantages over Depending upon the output from the sensor the green lights glows for 5 second or 7 second. After the green signal finishes the illumination timing, the yellow signal illuminates for 1 second and then finally the red signal will illuminate. After that, the traffic signal will wait for 1 second before it goes to Right direction condition where the same check is performed before going to that direction. The same routine will be continued for remaining direction. In current traffic control system the waiting time of green light is fixed for peak hours and normal hours. The traffic jams usually high during the peak hours. In this model the waiting time of green is depending upon the traffic density. So the traffic jams will be normal among all durations. VI. CONCLUSION electrical power such as it is free in nature, easy to maintain, relatively cheap, less hazardous and the problems of pollution in electrical power has been eliminated in the solar energy. REFERENCES [1] Zhang Yuye Yan Weisheng, Research of Traffic Signal Light Intelligent Control System Based On Microcontroller on Education International Workshop

Technology and Computer Science 2009 [2] Yuji Wakasa, Kenichiro Hanaoka and Kanya Tanak, Modelling for Control of Traffic Signal Systems Proceedings of the 2005 [3] IEEE Wensheng of Conference LI, Urban on Control Chunjian, Signal Applications 2005. DENG Design Power Traffic and

Controller International Conference on Electronics Intelligent Transportation System 2009. [4] Tavladakis K., Kostalias K., Dollas A., Kalaitzakis K.,Voulgaris N. C., 1997. Development of a microcontroller-based, distributed, adaptive traffic control

In this paper an Automatic Traffic Control System Using Solar PV Panel is designed on the basics of programming technique in Microcontroller, which is

system.

Proc.

8th

IFAC/IFIP/IFORS

Symposium on transportation systems, Chania Crete. [5] Khalil M. Yousef, Jamal N. Al-Karaki and Ali M. Shatnawi, Intelligent Traffic Light Flow Control System Using Wireless Sensors Networks Journal Of Information Science And Engineering 26, 753-768, 2010.