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# Code No: X0222/R07

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, May 2010 FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) State Newton’s equation of viscosity and give examples of its application. (b) An oil of viscosity 5 poise is used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve. The diameter of shaft is 0.5 m and it rotates at 200 rpm. Calculate the horse power lost in the oil for a sleeve length of 100 mm. The thickness of the oil ﬁlm is 1.0 mm. [8+8] 2. (a) What do you mean by turbulence ? (b) What do you mean by one, two, three dimensional ﬂow? (c) Derive the continuity equation for one dimensional ﬂuid ﬂow. 3. (a) Derive an equation for discharge of a venturimeter. (b) Explain why Cd of a venturimeter is more than that of oriﬁce meter. (c) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet and throat diameters 300mm and mm respectively is used to measure the ﬂow of water. The pressure intensity at inlet is 130KN/m2 . While the vaccum pressure head at the throat is 350mm of mercury. Assuming that 3% of head is lost in between inlet and throat, ﬁnd Cd of venturimeter and rate of ﬂow. [6+2+8] 4. (a) Derive an expression for the force exerted by a jet striking the curved plate at one end tangentially when the plate is symetrical. (b) A jet of water 120 mm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 25m/sec strikes normally on a ﬂat plate. Determine the power developed and the eﬃciency of the system when i. the plate is stationary ii. the plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec in the direction of the jet. And iii. the plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec towards the jet. [7+9] 5. (a) Write what you understand by hydroelectric power station? What are its types ? Discuss the type where water is recycled. (b) What power can be developed at a hydropower plant site given the following details.Drainage area = 600 Km2 Uniform rainfall over drainage area = 200 cm. Water loss in run oﬀ = 15 cm Expected net head at the plant = 50m. Eﬃciency of turbine = 98% [8+8] 1 of 2 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark. [2+6+8]

Code No: X0222/R07

Set No. 1

6. (a) What are the functions of a draft tube in a reaction turbine ? Derive the equation for its eﬃciency. (b) A mixed ﬂow reaction turbine has a draft tube of inlet diameter 1.5 m and is set 2 m above tail race level. A vacuum gauge connected to the draft tube indicates a reading of 5.2 m of water. Find discharge of the turbine. Assume the draft tube eﬃciency as 85%. [8+8] 7. (a) What is governing of turbines ? How can you govern a reaction turbine ? Explain the governing mechanism for reaction turbine with a neat sketch. (b) A turbine operates under a head of 45m at 280 rpm. The discharge is 10m3 / sec and eﬃciency is 87 %. Find i. Power developed ii. Speciﬁc speed. [10+6] 8. (a) Discuss i. ii. iii. iv. v. Manometric eﬃciency Mechanical eﬃciency Volumetric eﬃciency Overall eﬃciency and NPSH of a centrifugal pump.

(b) Explain how the number of pumps can be decided to be connected in series to deliver the water to a required height at required rate. [10+6]

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Code No: X0222/R07

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, May 2010 FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) State Newton’s equation of viscosity and give examples of its application. (b) An oil of viscosity 5 poise is used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve. The diameter of shaft is 0.5 m and it rotates at 200 rpm. Calculate the horse power lost in the oil for a sleeve length of 100 mm. The thickness of the oil ﬁlm is 1.0 mm. [8+8] 2. (a) Distinguish between: i. Steady and Un-steady ﬂow. ii. Uniform and Non-uniform ﬂow. iii. Compressible and incompressible ﬂow. (b) A 400 m long pipe has a slope of 1 in 100 and tapers from 1.2 m dia at high end to 0.6 m dia at the low end. The discharge is 100 lit/sec. If the pressure at high end is 100 kN/m2 , ﬁnd the pressure at the low end. Neglect friction. [8+8] 3. (a) Derive the Darcy-weisbach equation for friction head loss in a pipe. (b) Water is ﬂowing through a horizontal pipe line 1500m long and 200mm in diameter. Pressures at the two ends of the pope line are respectively 12Kpa and 2Kpa. If f = 0.015, determine the discharge through the pipe in litres per minute. Consider only frictional loss. [8+8] 4. (a) Derive an expression for force exerted by a jet on stationary inclined ﬂat plate. (b) A nozzle of 50mm diameter delivers a stream of water at 20m/sec perpendicular to a plate that moves away from the Jet at 5m/sec.ﬁnd i. the force on the plate ii. work done and iii. the eﬃciency of jet.

[7+9]

5. (a) What is mass curve? Give the step wise procedure of constructing the same? What are its features and applications (b) Deﬁne gross head and net head associated with working of turbines. What losses are to be considered in ﬁnding the net head from gross head ? List the eﬃciencies of turbines. [8+8] 6. (a) What are single jet and multi jet impulse turbines ? Draw neat sketches and explain. 1 of 2 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.

Code No: X0222/R07

Set No. 2

(b) Show from fundamentals that hydraulic eﬃciency of a Pelton wheel is given [6+10] by η= 2[V1 −u][1 + KCosφ]u/V2 with usual notation. 1 7. (a) What do you mean by selection of turbines ? What are scale ratios ? Explain with neat sketches when geometric similarity is achieved between model and prototype? (b) A Pelton wheel turbine develops a power of 1000 Kw under a head of 75m. If the head becomes 25m, what will be the power developed by the turbine. [10+6] 8. (a) What do you understand by pumps in series and pumps in parallel ? How do you decide whether the pumps shall be used in series or parallel. (b) A single acting reciprocating pump running at 60 rpm delivers 0.53 m3 of water per minute. The diameter of the piston is 200 mm and stroke length 300 mm. The suction and delivery heads are 4m and 12m respectively. Determine i. ii. iii. iv. Theoretical discharge Coeﬃcient of discharge Percentage slip of the pump and Power required to run the pump.

[8+8]

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Code No: X0222/R07

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, May 2010 FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Enunciate Newton’s law of Viscosity. Explain the importance of viscosity in ﬂuid motion. What is the eﬀect of temperature on viscosity of water and that of air? (b) A glass tube 20 mm in diameter contains a mercury column with water above the mercury. The surface tension of mercury in contact witht water is 0.36 N/m. Datermine the capillary depression of the mercury. Take θ= 1300 .[8+8] 2. (a) Deﬁne the equation of continuity. Obtain an expression for continuity equation for a one- dimensional ﬂow (b) A pipe of diameter 40 cm carries water at a velocity of 25 m/s. The pressures at the point A and B are given as 29.4 N/cm2 and 22.56N/cm2 respectively while the datum head at A and B are 28 m and 30 m. Find the loss of head between A and B. [8+8] 3. (a) Derive an expression for head loss due to sudden enlargement of a pipe (b) An oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.85 and viscosity 5CP ﬂows through a pipe of diameter 400mm at the rate of 50 lit/sec. Find the head lost in friction in this pipe of length 1000Km. Assume that f = 0.079/RN where RN is Reynolds Number. [8+8] 4. (a) Derive an expression for the force exerted by a jet striking the curved plate at one end tangentially when the plate is symetrical. (b) A jet of water 120 mm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 25m/sec strikes normally on a ﬂat plate. Determine the power developed and the eﬃciency of the system when i. the plate is stationary ii. the plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec in the direction of the jet. And iii. the plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec towards the jet. [7+9] 5. (a) What are the types of hydroelectric power stations? Write about each of them. (b) At the site where hydroelectric plant is proposed the following details are available. Calculate the power that can be developed. Available head = 28 m Catchment area = 420 Km2 Yearly rainfall = 140 cm Rainfall utilization rate = 68% Penstock eﬃciency = 94% 1 of 2 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.

Code No: X0222/R07 Turbine eﬃciency = 80% Generator eﬃciency = 84%

Set No. 3
[8+8]

6. (a) What is draft tube and what are its functions in a reaction turbine. (b) Derive the equation for work done in Pelton wheel turbine from fundamentals. [6+10] 7. (a) How is geometric similarity obtained between model and prototype ? Explain with sketches and give examples. (b) A Francis turbine works under the following conditions. Estimate its performance when the head drops down to 45 m. The head = 60m, Speed = 1200 rpm, Discharge = 12 m3 / sec, Eﬃciency = 88 % [8+8] 8. (a) What are the components of a reciprocating pump ? Explain its working with a neat sketch. What is the use of providing an air vessel ? (b) The diameter of piston of a reciprocating pump is 15 cm and stroke length is 30 cm. The suction pipe diameter, length and suction head are 5 cm, 5m and 2.5 m respectively. The cavitation occurs at 2.0 m of water (abs) and atmospheric pressure is 10 m of water (abs).What is the maximum speed of the pump without cavitation ? [8+8]

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Code No: X0222/R07

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, May 2010 FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Enunciate Newton’s law of Viscosity. Explain the importance of viscosity in ﬂuid motion. What is the eﬀect of temperature on viscosity of water and that of air? (b) A glass tube 20 mm in diameter contains a mercury column with water above the mercury. The surface tension of mercury in contact witht water is 0.36 N/m. Datermine the capillary depression of the mercury. Take θ= 1300 .[8+8] 2. (a) What is continuity equation? Derive the equation. (b) Derive Euler?s equation of motion along a stream line. State assumptions made in the derivation. [8+8] 3. (a) Describe the principle and working of oriﬁce meter with the help of a neat sketch. (b) In a calibration test of an oriﬁce meter of with oriﬁce diameter 4cm is inserted in a pipe of 10cm diameter the mercury diﬀerential U-guage connected to the meter gives a reading of 38cm when 7.5 lit/sec of water ﬂows through the meter. Compute the coeﬃcient of discharge. [8+8] 4. (a) Derive an expression for the force exerted by a jet striking the curved plate at one end tangentially when the plate is symetrical. (b) A jet of water 120 mm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 25m/sec strikes normally on a ﬂat plate. Determine the power developed and the eﬃciency of the system when i. the plate is stationary ii. the plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec in the direction of the jet. And iii. the plate is moving with a velocity of 8m/sec towards the jet. [7+9] 5. (a) What are the types of hydroelectric power stations? Write about each of them. (b) At the site where hydroelectric plant is proposed the following details are available. Calculate the power that can be developed. Available head = 28 m Catchment area = 420 Km2 Yearly rainfall = 140 cm Rainfall utilization rate = 68% Penstock eﬃciency = 94% Turbine eﬃciency = 80% Generator eﬃciency = 84% [8+8] 1 of 2 Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.

Code No: X0222/R07

Set No. 4

6. (a) What is an axial ﬂow turbines ? What are its parts ? Explain with sketches. (b) Derive the equation for work done on the runner of an axial ﬂow turbine from fundamentals. [6+10] 7. (a) What do you mean by selection of turbines ? What are scale ratios ? Explain with neat sketches when geometric similarity is achieved between model and prototype? (b) A Pelton wheel turbine develops a power of 1000 Kw under a head of 75m. If the head becomes 25m, what will be the power developed by the turbine. [10+6] 8. (a) Draw a neat sketch of an indicator diagram for a single acting reciprocating pump and explain its features. (b) A reciprocating pump has a 20 cm diameter cylinder and a stroke of 120 cm. The pump delivers 5000 litres / minute of water at a static head of 80m. Friction losses in suction and delivery pipe are 2m and 18m respectively. The slip of pump is 2% and eﬃciency is 90%. Determine the speed of the pump and power required neglecting velocity head in delivery pipe [8+8]

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