Organizational Communication Chptr10 | Instant Messaging | Email

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Three (3) Formal Small-Group Networks N.

B  no single network will be best for all occasions  the effectiveness of each network depends on the dependant variable that concerns you. 1. CHAIN  Rigidly follows the formal chain of command  This network approximates the communication channels you might find in a rigid three-level organization  Best if accuracy is important 2. WHEEL  Facilitate the emergence of a leader  Relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all the group’s communication  It stimulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader. 3. ALL-CHANNEL  Network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other  Most characterized in practice by self-managed teams (in which all group members are free to contribute  No one person takes on a leadership role  Is best if you desire high member satisfaction INFORMAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK (GRAPEVINE)  Important source of communication (e.g whether job applicants join the organization)  Word of mouth info from peers  75% accuracy in transmitting transmission  It gives managers a feel for the morale of the organization, identifies issues employees considers important, helps taps on employees’ anxiety.  It gives employees a sense of closeness and friendship among those who share info (small talk)  3 main characteristics i. Not controlled by management ii. Employees perceive it as more believable and reliable than formal communiqués issued by top management iii. Largely used to serve the interest of the people within it.  Conditions/elements that foster active grapevine i. Rumors emerge as a response to situations that are important to us ii. When there is ambiguity iii. Under conditions that arouse anxiety  Secrecy and competition encourage and sustain rumors in grapevine.  Suggestions to limit/minimize the negative consequences/impact of rumors (limit the range & impact) i. PROVIDE information – rumors thrive in the absence of formal communication. ii. EXPLAIN actions and decisions that may appear inconsistent, unfair or secretive. iii. REFRAIN from shooting the messenger – rumors are a natural fact of organizational life, so respond to them calmly, rationally and respectfully.

MAINTAIN open communication channels – constantly encourage employees to come to you with concerns, suggestions and ideas. ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION  71% a medium of communication  Includes: i. E-MAIL ADVANTAGES: a. uses the Internet to transmit and receive computer-generated text and documents b. Can be quickly written, edited and stored c. Least cost in printing, duplicating and distributing d. Can read at their own convenience DRAWBACKS: a. Misinterpreting the message b. Communicating negative messages c. Time consuming nature of email – strategies:  Don’t check email in the morning  Check e-mail in batches  Unsubscribe  Stop sending emails  Declare email bankruptcy d. E-mail emotions e. Privacy concerns – 2 privacy issues:  Often monitored – don’t write anything, you don’t want public  Exercise caution in forwarding email ii. INSTANT MESSAGING and TEXT MESSAGING  Use electronic media like email. Unlike email, IM & TM either occur in real time (IM) or use portable communication devices (TM).  TM is flexible  IM is preferable for one or two line messages  DRAWBACKS: a. IM and TM users find the technology intrusive and distracting. b. Concerns about security iii. VIDEO CONFERENCING  Permits employees in the organization to have meetings with people at different locations.  Allows interacting (see, hear and talk) meeting without the necessity of being physically in the same location. MANAGING INFORMATION Two important challenges:  Dealing with information overload – to think much more strategically, take breaks from digital information a day.  Information Security BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION iv.

FILTERING  How a sender purposely manipulates information so the receiver will set it more favorably.  More vertical levels in the hierarchy, the more opportunities for filtering.  Also occurs wherever there are status differences.  Factors such as fear of conveying bad news and desire to please the boss often lead to distortion. ii. SELECTIVE PERCEPTION  Receivers project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them.  We don’t see reality; we interpret what we see and call it reality. iii. INFORMATION OVERLOAD  When information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity  Tend to select, ignore, pass over or forget information.  May put off further processing until the overload situation is over.  Cause of lost and less effective communication iv. EMOTIONS  Interpret same message differently (e.g angry or distraught)  Strong emotions likely to hinder effective communication (e.g jubilation & depression)  Most prone to disregard rational & objective thinking processes & substitute emotional judgments. v. LANGUAGE  Word means different things to different people  Age & context are 2 of the biggest factors that influence such differences. vi. SILENCE  Absence of information  Silent employees may experience psychological stress.  Silence regarding discrimination, harassment, corruption & misconduct means top management cannot take action to eliminate this behavior.  NO SILENCE when minority opinions are treated with respect, workgroup identification is high, and high procedural justice prevails. vii. COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION  5%-20% of the population suffers debilitating communication apprehension  People experience undue tension and anxiety in oral/written communication or both. (especially face to face or by telephone)  Oral apprehensive avoid situations like teaching;  High oral apprehensive distorts the communication demands of their jobs in order to minimize the need for communication CULTURAL BARRIERS  Barriers caused by SEMANTICS a. Word means different things to different people. b. Some word does not have an equivalent.  Barriers caused by CONOTATION a. Words imply different things in different languages.


Barriers caused by TONE DIFFERENCES a. Some cultures, language is formal & to some it’s informal. b. In some cultures, the tone changes depending on the context  Differences in tolerance of conflict & methods of resolving conflict CULTURAL CONTEXT i. HIGH CONTEXT CULTURES  E.g China, Japan, Korea & Taiwan rely on NON-VERBAL & subtle situational cues (person’s official status, place in society,age & reputation) in communicating with others  Managers tend to make suggestions than give orders  Communication implies considerable more trust by both parties  Desire to build a relationship ii.       LOW CONTEXT CULTURES E.g Europe & N. America Rely on spoken/written words to convey meaning Body language & formal titles are secondary Enforceable contracts tend to be in writing, precisely worded & highly legalistic Value directness Managers are expected to be explicit & precise in conveying meaning.

RULES IN ASSESSING CULTURAL CONTEXT  Assume differences until similarity is proven  Emphasize description rather than interpretation/evaluation  Practice Empathy  Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis

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