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Sesamoid bone

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Bone: Sesamoid bone

Sagittal section of right knee-joint.

they act to protect the tendon and to increase its mechanical effect.1 Injuries and variation 2 In other animals 3 See also 4 Footnotes 5 References [edit] Human anatomy Sesamoid bones can be found on joints throughout the body. knee. including:  In the knee — the patella (within the quadriceps tendon). . and foot. such as the hand. Contents [hide]      1 Human anatomy o 1. a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon. This differs from menisci. Functionally. Latin ossa sesamoidea In anatomy. Sesamoids are found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint. which are made of cartilage and rather act to disperse the weight of the body on joints and reduce friction during movement. Sesamoid bones also prevent the tendon from flattening into the joint as tension increases and therefore also maintain a more consistent moment arm through a variety of possible tendon loads. The presence of the sesamoid bone holds the tendon slightly farther away from the center of the joint and thus increases its moment arm.Sesamoid bones at the distal end of the first metatarsal bone of the foot.

[4] the radial sesamoid is larger than the same bone in counterparts such as bears. 2. The panda's thumb is often cited as a classical example of exaptation. 9. 3. ^ White. White.[2] [edit] Injuries and variation   A common foot ailment in dancers is sesamoiditis. It is primarily a bony support for the pad above it.  In the hand — two sesamoid bones are located in distal portions of the first metacarpal bone (within the tendons of adductor pollicis and flexor pollicis brevis). by Stephen J. A bi-partite sesamoid bone is when the sesamoids are in 2 separate entities — usually congenital. The pisiform of the wrist is a sesamoid bone as well (within the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris). 2000). allowing the panda's other digits to grasp bamboo while eating it. 257-261. Gould [edit] References  Gray's Anatomy (1918) (Bartleby) . In both the giant panda[3] and the red panda. [edit] In other animals In equine anatomy. ^ The Panda's Peculiar Thumb. There is also commonly a sesamoid bone in distal portions of the second metacarpal bone. 199. Nature Magazine Vol. the term sesamoid bone usually refers to the two sesamoid bones found at the back of the fetlock or metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joints in both hindlimbs and forelimbs.the first metatarsal bone has two sesamoid bones at its connection to the big toe (both within the tendon of flexor hallucis brevis). The patella is also a form of sesamoid bone in the horse. Human Osteology. Human Osteology. 1978.[5] [edit] See also   Fabella Cyamella [edit] Footnotes 1.[1] In the foot . Strictly these should be termed the proximal sesamoid bones whereas the navicular bone should be referred to as the distal sesamoid bone. Nov. where a trait evolved for one purpose is commandeered for another. LXXXVII No. but may be related to a history of trauma. 2nd edition (San Diego: Academic Press. 2nd edition. 2005 5. ^ Evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore clarifies the evolution of pandas PNAS December 30. ^ Tim D. ^ Arthro.com: The Panda's Thumb 4. 205.

drug(M5) Bone Fabella From Wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesamoid_bone" Categories: Sesamoid bones | Skeletal system | Horse anatomy M: BON/CAR proc. Gastrocnemius muscle . noco/cong/tumr. GA 2. l)/phys/devp/cell sysi/epon. t/p.0. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. search The fabella (Latin for little bean) is a small sesamoid bone found in some mammals embedded in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle behind the lateral condyle of the femur.or tripartita). injr Retrieved from "http://en. there are 2 or 3 of these bones (fabella bi. TH H3.[hide]v · d · eMusculoskeletal system · connective tissue: bone and cartilage (TA A02. u. It is a variant of normal anatomy and present in humans in 10% to 30% of individuals.wikipedia. It can be mistaken for a loose body or osteophyte. Rarely.86–95) perichondrium · fibrocartilage callus · metaphysis Cartilage cells (chondroblast · chondrocyte) types (hyaline · elastic · fibrous) Ossification intramembranous · endochondral Cycle osteoblast · osteoid · osteocyte · osteoclast Types cancellous · cortical subchondral bone · epiphysis · epiphyseal Regions plate/metaphysis · diaphysis · Condyle · Epicondyle osteon / Haversian system · Haversian canals · Volkmann's canals · connective tissue (endosteum · Structure periosteum) · Sharpey's fibres · enthesis · lacunae · canaliculi · trabeculae · medullary cavity · bone marrow Shapes long · short · flat · irregular · sesamoid anat(c/f/k/f.01.

the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.From Wikipedia. Gray's subject #129 482 . search Gastrocnemius muscle Lateral aspect of right leg.

Herman and Bragin concluded that its most important role was plantar flexing in large contractions and in rapid development of tension. Deep to the gastrocnemius (farther from the skin) is the soleus muscle. while the Medial Head originates from the Medial Condyle of the femur. In a 1967 EMG study. which is involved in "locking" the knee from the standing and posterior tibial vein and the tibial nerve. meaning 'stomach of leg' (modern Latin. this tendon is known as the calcaneal tendon or Achilles Tendon and inserts onto the posterior surface of the calcaneus. nerve roots S1–S2 Actions plantar flexes foot. Some anatomists consider both to be a single muscle. running and jumping. is a very powerful superficial pennate muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg. from Greek γαστήρ (gaster) ‘stomach’ and knēmē ‘leg’. It runs from its two heads just above the knee to the heel. Frequently there is a sesamoid bone called the "fabella" in the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle. [edit] Clinical significance . Its other end forms a common tendon with the soleus muscle. The gastrocnemius is located with the soleus in the posterior (back) compartment of the leg. Along with the soleus muscle it forms the calf muscle. specifically. Its function is plantar flexing the foot at the ankle joint and flexing the leg at the knee joint. the triceps surae. and is involved in standing. flexes knee Antagonist Tibialis anterior muscle In humans. The Lateral Head originates from the Lateral Condyle of the femur. walking. The soleus is superficial midshaft of the tibia. the gastrocnemius (pronounced /ˌɡæstrɒkˈniːmiəs/ or /ˌɡæstrəˈniːmiəs/) muscle. or mountain bone. The plantaris muscle and a portion of its tendon run between the two muscles. referring to the bulging shape of the calf). the bulge of muscle medial to the tibia on the anterior side is actually the posterior compartment. Since the anterior compartment of the leg is lateral to the tibia.Origin superior to articular surfaces of lateral condyle of femur and medial condyle of femur Insertion tendo calcaneus (achilles tendon) into mid-posteior calcaneus Artery sural arteries Nerve tibial nerve from the sciatic.

 Back of left lower extremity. Posterior surface. Fabella sign From Wikipedia. The Gastrocnemius muscle may also become inflamed due to overuse. contraction of the muscle for up to several minutes. Antiinflammatory and physical therapy may be necessary. the painful. the free encyclopedia . involuntary.The gastrocnemius muscle is very prone to spasms.[1] This muscle is prone to injury called torn calf muscle which is disabling. [edit] Additional images  Right femur. Anatomical abnormalities involving the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle results in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.  Cross-section through middle of leg.

search This article is an orphan. On a lateral x-ray of the knee.[1] The fabella is a sesamoid bone located inside the gastrocnemius lateral head tendon on the posterior side of the knee. (February 2009) The fabella sign is displacement of the fabella that is seen in cases of synovial effusion and popliteal fossa masses.[2] . an increase in the distance from the fabella to the femur or to the tibia can be suggestive of fluid or of a mass within the synovial fossa. This is of particular use in radiographic detection of knee effusions. in about 25% of people.Jump to: navigation. suggestions may be available. as the cause for the effusion may obscure the subcutaneous planes on x-ray that can also be used to determine presence of effusion or effusion size. Please introduce links to this page from related articles. It can thus serve as a surrogate radio-opaque marker of the posterior border of the knee's synovium. as few or no other articles link to it.