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TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

PART I

THE CATHODE
Chapter 1 -CONST~UCTION

RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
RAY OSCILLOSCOPES
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8
8 8 11 13 15 18 20 21 23 28 30 32

OF CATHODE

Chapter 2 -THE
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13

CATHODE RAY TUBE

The cathode . Electrode arrangement -electron optics . Deflecting the beam . Calculating the beam deflection . Two-dimensiona1 deflection of the beam . Connecting the deflection plates . Load due to deflection plates . Influence of electron transit time on deflection sensitivity. The luminescent screen . Post-acceleration . Cathode ray tubes with a post-acceleration helical electrode . Data. ; . Cathode ray tubes with particularly high deflection sensitivity y -plates for wide-band oscilloscopes . 2.14 Multi-beam tubes -High-performance tubes .. 2.14.1 Mu1ti-beam tubes . 2.14.2 High-performance tubes 2.15 Special luminescent screens . 2.15.1 Extremely short persistence screen . 2.15.2 Dark-trace tubes . 2.16 Viewing storage tubes . 2.16.1 Secondary emission . 2.16.2 Construction of a viewing storage tube . 2.16.3 The writing 2.16.4 Erasing the screen picture . 2.16.5 Types of viewing storage tubes. . 2.16.6 Precautions in the use of viewing storage tubes .

of the .33 35 35 35 38 38 38 39 40 42 44 45 45 46

Chapter 3 -POWER
3

SUPPLY UNIT

48 48

Construction

15 4.9 4.5 Stabilized E. 3.19 4.7 4. Flyback time Improved time base generator circuit with thyratron . Time base circuits using a thyratron . Transitron-Miller circuit . section .11 4.14 4. Generating the time base voltage .16 4. supply. 3.5 Synchronizing .12 4. Linearizing the sawtooth voltage by means of a pentode .3. 4.4 4. 4. Blanking the return stroke .2 4. Triple pentode circuit .18. 4.18 4. 3.21 4.18.18. 3. 4.18.8 Zero position adjustment.9 Screening the cathode ray tube .VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS 3. Multivibrator circuit .3 Triggered operation . Time base deflection in general .H.6 Simplifications of the circuit in the E.5 4.9 Trigger-pulse shaper .10 Example of a power supply unit for a high-performance oscilloscope 4 -TIME BASE UNIT .18.2 Self-oscillating operation . 3.H.10 4.3. . High tension unit and electronic stabilization .20 4.1 Fundamental circuit .2 Triggering . Upblanking circuits in oscilloscopes with triggered time base units Load on the time base generator and linearity.18. 3.18.17.1 4. Maximum time base frequency and thyratron load. 4. Blocking oscillator circuits .17 65 65 66 67 70 70 74 75 77 78 80 81 83 88 90 93 95 95 95 96 100 100 102 103 105 107 108 108 III 115 118 123 123 127 4. Time base generator for self -oscillating and triggered operation . Synchronization Further circuits for linearizing the sawtooth sweep . 4.18.H.17.22 The display of a variable quantity. 3.3 Anode voltage for the cathode ray tube. Smoothing . supply with a medium-frequency oscillator .1 High tension unit in general. Required time base amplitude .4 Measures for ensuring the linearity of the deflection sawtooth 4. 48 53 53 53 56 57 58 58 59 60 62 Chapter 4.1 Free-running time base circuits and triggered circuits 4. 4.2 3.4 Electronic stabilisation of the E.2 Electronic stabilizing 3.3 4.13 4. Triggered circuits . Dependence of amplitude on frequency control. T. Time base unit of the "OM 5650" oscilloscope . Astigmatism . 4. 4. 3.6 4.8 Adjusting the time coefficients .6 Hold-off circuit for the prevention of picture jittering in triggered operation .T. T.18.7 Stabilisation of the heater voltage .8 4.7 Complete circuits of the time base generator .

type 185 B/ 187 B . 4.31 4. Screening the time base voltage sources . Time base ~pansion unit .9 Loss of . AMPLIFIERS 170 .28.30 4. an oscillogram limit.8 5. of the range distortion .28.28.1 5.23 4.29 4.2 5. Scale down of time coefficient by amplifying deflection voltage . Phase-delayed triggering of the time base . .32.12 5. lower end of the characteristics 5.32 4.6. Calibrating the time scale 139 140 145 149 153 154 154 159 164 Chapter 5 -DEFLECTION 5.1 5.4 5. Frequency Non-linear Noise Summary Amplification 5. Feedback 5.1 5.15 5.18 Unit step of an amplifier .33 Permissible ripple of the anode voltage in the time base generator .28 4.3 5.16 Loss Phase of upper upper frequency frequency frequency curve limit limit at the . with Representation gain at at the valves frequency of frequency shifts frequency on The Phase influence shift of phase the lower ofa-complex waveform 170 170 173 175 177 177 178 179 182 185 187 189 190 5.26 4. 4.TABLE OF CONTENTS IX 128 128 129 132 132 136 136 137 4. Characteristics of time base . amplifier curve an amplifier .18. Sampling oscilloscope (Stroboscope oscilloscope) .7 5.27 4..4 Phase-delayed triggering in arbitrarily chosen time ranges The Schmitt-trigger circuit . networks for alternating voltages 5. capacitors at the . upper frequency limit by 192 194 197 Improving L-resonance 5.28.32.18.5 5.13 Limitation Influence Improvement frequency frequency and screen limit grid .2 Importance Changing of feedback the of feedback properties in of the a deflection deflection amplifier amplifier .2 Hewlett-Packardoscilloscope.. Rating the coupling components for the time base voltages . 4.14 5. response the the design component lower cathode amplifier of coupling .1 Fundamental method of operation of a sampling oscilloscope 4.24 4. 4. .25 4. .6 General. by means 198 202 204 204 206 .17 5. requirements thermionic of lower for a deflection generally-gain response limit. 4.10 The having quantitative a direct of of the the of range gain shift at at gain . Special time deflection process .1 Necessity for phase-delayed triggering .2 Delayed triggering of time base deflection by means of a phase shifter for sinusoidal voltages . .3 Delayed triggering of the time base by adjusting the trigger level.11 5.

18. Some DC voltage amplifiers .2 Coupling the individual stages of a DC voltage amplifier . 5.27 5.8 Amplifier output resistance with negative feedback . signal delay networks . 208 209 210 215 215 216 217 219 221 223 225 227 229 230 232 236 236 237 240 243 243 245 249 250 250 251 PART II GENERAL Chapter 6- MEASURING TECHNIQUE UP AND 255 255 255 257 257 OPERATING THE OSCILLOSCOPE -SETTING PRELIMINARY ADJUSTMENTS. Delay lil:\es.27.24 5. Setting the deflection amplitude .27.29. 259 260 261 ~ . brilliance and focus adjustment.18.5 Reduction of distortion by negative feedback .9 The cathode follower .x TABLE OF CONTENTS 5. 5.23 5.1 Voltage divider probe .27.1 6. Circuits for balancing the output voltage .2 6. 5.5 Procedures for ensuring the required stability and for reducing interference voltages . 5. 5. Astigmatism.4 6.7 6. 6.6 Frequency-dependent feedback .3 Balanced DC amplifiers -difference amplifier . Probes 5.28 5. Picture width -picture height.258 Choice of the most suitable relationship between input frequency and time base frequency.29.18.18.18. 5. ". DC voltage amplifiers .2 Demodulator probe . Switching on. Some examples of AC amplifiers . 5.19 5. 5.5 6. 5.8 Setting up the oscilloscope.20 5.22 5. Synchronization (self-oscillating time sweep) . Output voltage requirements . 5.18.3 Influence of phase shift caused by coupling networks on the frequency response of amplifiers with feedback .27.29. 5. "Corrected" cathode follower .4 The stabilizing effect of negative feedback .7 Amplifier input resistance in negative feedback operation .25 5. 5.3 Cathode follower probes. Triggering Electric magnification of the pattern on the screen.6 6. 5.1 Requirements .4 Adjusting the gain .27.26 5.3 6.21 5.29 5. Measuring the response time of the time base unit and the delay time in the y -channel Transmission line amplifier (distributed amplifier) .18.

..16 7. 7.2 7.11.4 Correction of the phase relationship between bridge voltage and horizontal deflection voltage .7 7. 8. 8.281 Resistance measurements Power measurement. 8.1 9.1 7.1 The measuring process.284 Capacitance measurements 275 276 278 279 280 283 284 Chapter 8 -NULL-INDICATION 8.TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 7.3 Null-indication by means of a rotating trace produced by horizontal deflection with the bridge voltage . 8..12 7. Special applications Pr~~ti~~l fnrm nf plp~trnni~ "Ulit.10 Bridge circuit for sorting core plates . XI 265 265 265 265 266 267 269 270 271 273 7.15 7. 286 286 287 287 Simple null-indicator . 8.272 Alternating voltage measurements. Digital oscillogram interpretation . Reading of the display.9 7. Determining the voltage amplitudes of an oscillogram with any waveform by displacement of the pattern and measurement of the direct shift voltage 7.9 Impedance measurements by voltage comparison . Relation between deflections due to direct voltages and those due to alternating voltages Direct voltage me~urements .17 Nature of display. Influence of amplifier on linearity of display. Phase-dependentindication by synchronizing the time base with the bridge voltage .14 7.11.6 7.3 7.2 Improving the accuracy of reading by increasing the signal amplitude and suppressing the zero point. Accuracy of the display and limits of measurement Linearity of the display. Accuracy of reading. 7 -AMPLITUDE MEASUREMENTS.5 Bridge sensitivity. 8.13 7. 8.7 The measurement of complex impedances .1 8. 8. Determining the voltage amplitude and the time scale by shifting the image Plotting the amplitude with an electronic switch. Chapter 9.2 q ~ 9 -THE ELECTRONIC SWITCH 288 288 290 290 292 292 294 295 Method of operation .8 7.. .8 Direct reading of the loss angle without balance .5 7.10 7. Dependence of display sensitivity on mains voltage.11.h 295 298 't(\(\ .2 IN AC BRIDGE CIRCUITS .6 Direct measurement of bridge unbalance .4 7.

time marking . 332 Frequency measurement by comparison with time base frequency.11 12.tensity modulation of a circular trace with the second frequency 356 Intensity modulation of a line pattern .1 11.5 12. Chapter 11. 345 Frequency measurement with cycloids on a circular trace. 339 Frequency comparison with Lissajous figures .7 12. frequency comparison. 356 In. 348 Circuits for frequency comparison with cycloids .358 . The use of square waves for assess.3 12. Short brilliance markings without gaps or short blank-markings .6 11.2 10.4 10. Synchronous intensity modulation . Phase measurement on a circular scale .6 12.5 10.2 11.8 12.336 Frequency comparison by double oscillogram.1 12.341 Lissajous figures with elliptical base line.337 Frequency comparison by anode-voltage modulation of a circular trace 338 Frequency comparison by mixing the voltage of unknown frequency with the comparison frequency voltage.349 Practical circuit arrangement for cycloids .4 11. Investigation of circuits with lagging phase .ingthe properties of electrical transmission systems . Phase measurement by Lissajous figures (ellipses) .5 11. Electrical differentiation .12 12.6 10 -USES TABLE OF CONTENTS OF INTENSITY MODULATION . Electrical integration . The distortion of a square wave by phase shift .11 11. "Switching" the brilliance . 332 Frequency measurements. Measurement by means of a phase mark .3 10. Intensity modulation proportional to deflection speed (automatic brilliancy control) .348 Interpreting cycloid patterns . Measuring the phase with a bent sine wave .16 MEASUREMENTS.2 12. .14 12.1 10..12 11. 332 Frequency division 336 Frequency measurement with line traces .3 11.7 11.XII Chapter 10. Determining the sign of the phase angle .9 11. 302 302 304 305 306 308 309 Rating the circuit components. Chapter 12 -FREQUENCY 12.4 12.10 11. Further applications of intensity modulation .15 12.354 Frequency measurement by intensity-modulating the oscillogram of the voltage with the unknown frequency.10 12.13 12. Phase measurement with half-wave rectified voltages . Phase measurement with rectangular voltages .9 12.8 11.13 11 -PHASE MEASUREMENTS 310 310 311 313 316 319 320 323 324 327 328 328 330 331 Phase measurement by multiple oscillograms .

17.5 17.2 13. PART III PRACTICAL Chapter 14 -RECORDING CURRENT EXAMPLES OF LUMINOUS FLUX. Diode characteristics.1 Delaying Delayed release el~ments of in the the input amplification voltage pulses.388 383 383 383 384 .17 Absolute frequency measurement with rotating pointer . LAMPS 371 371 371 373 374 control376 THE W A VEFOR~S AND VOLTAGE OF FLUORESCENT 14. 12..2 Circuit 12.387 Displaying the characteristic curve indicating variation of gm .385 Characteristic curves of transistors . 14.2 Incandescent and fluorescent lamps.1General 14.TABLE OF CONTENTS XIII 360 360 360 361 362 363 364 12.17. 12.5 Lamp current and luminous flux waveforms of electronically led lamps.17.5 Simultaneous measurement of several frequencies . Characteristics of amplifier valves . The oscillograms and how they are evaluated . 12. 14.6 Special advantages and applications of this method Chapter 13 -RE~RESENTATION SHAPED DELAYING VOLTAGES ELEMENTS OF WITH THE RISING OSCILLOSCOPES FLANK OF PULSE WITHOUT AMPLIFIER IN THE VERTICAL 'th. 14.3. TRANSISTORS AND ELECTRONIC VALVES 17.2 17.~7.1 Method of measurement .1 17.4 Choice of measuring ranges . 12. system.4 Fluorescent lamps connected in duo. Chapter 15 -SWITCHING PHENOMENA WITH ELECTRiC ~ LIGHT BULBS.4 17.17.6 Demands on the .3 17. 366 ~fifi 13.3 Current and voltage waveforms of fluorescent lamps. 12.oscilloscope Measuring technique.17. ~77 Chapter 16 -THE DISPLAY OF HYSTERESISLOOPS 380 Chapter 17 --RECORDING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CRYSTAL DIODES.

2 20.. Investigations on television receiver . .3.6 Checking the transmission characteristics of a television system during the programme by studying test-Iine oscillograms .1 18.3.438 20.441 20.428 Displaying the voltage waves by means of oscilloscopes 429 20.1 Influence of cable damping and of demodulator characteristic 434 20.3 Circuit Methods Oscillo~rams Measuredresu1ts.3 Wave range and the decimetre range in general. Choice of oscilloscope . Recording the passband curves of HP circuits and AM radio receivers Recording the passband curves for ultra-short wave and television receivers.2 19.4 21..6 Determining the contraction factor.1 21..2 21.XIV Chapter 18- TABLE OF CONTENTS RECORDINGTHEPASSBANDCURVESOPHPCIRCUITS. RADIO 18. PULSEVOLTAGES for of the measurement.3.3. .1 Measurement with ultra-short wave wobbulator and along transmission line.3 Matching receiver input circuits. .1 20.429 Some practical examples with oscillograms . .. . 400 Chapter 19 -INVESTIGATION' 19..3. 405 405 405 407 41? Application of the oscilloscope in TV engineering . .4 Matching systems with particularlywide-bands (television antennas) 439 20.195 Measuring arrangement .438 20. .. Time-expanded oscillograms when comparing with selected lines of the picture .7 Measuring the cable damping.434 20.3.3. 391 .2 18.A.3.5 Matching measurements with narrow-band networks 441 20.8 Location of faults in cables 442 Chapter 21 -MEASURING TRANSIT TIME AND INVESTIGATING MATCHING CONDITIONS IN CABLES BY MEANS OF 21.2. 19.2 Limits of error of this method.442 20. .. with measuring a relativelv device. 1onl! rectanl!ular nul~e -- 443 443 443 444 A.5 IN TELEVISION ENGINEERING.3 19. Measuring processesand voltage sources . 424 Chapter 20 -INVESTIGATING URING BAND BY MEANS MATCHING IN CONDITIONS THE AND MEASWAVE LINE 428 IMPEDANCES ULTRA-SHORT OF A LONG "TRANSMISSION 20.3 AND TELEVISION RECEIVERS .1 19.~ .4 19.

449 22. Chapter 25 -ADJUSTMENT VOLTAGE METRICAL 25.457 'METHODS OF MEASURING THE AMPLITUDE ..1 22.:N~E SQUARE .. .4 The characteristic qualities of resonant circuits and their measurement 449 Generating the pattern of the decaying voltage..2 25. . .480 Adjustment of compensated wideband voltage dividers with symmetrical square voltages.484 Chapter 26. 461 461 4(\? Chapter 23 -SOME 23. . .2 The pattern of decaying oscillation in coupled circuits and the determination of the coupling factor.456 22..478 Adjusting compensated voltage dividers with pulse voltages..1 26 -RECORDING LOW-FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTIC 485 485 Methode CURVES measurement. Modulation in general and measuring the amplitude modulation . ..2 MODULATION OF HF VOLTAGES. .. .3 Recordings the frequencyspectraof modulatedvoltages.4 25.2 22. Various circuits for measuring amplitude modulation . .482 Compensation and adjustment of specially high impedance wideband voltage dividers ..2 Circuit for representingthe frequency spectrum of an amplitudemodulatedHF carrier 24.456 22. 24.451 Interpreting the oscillograms in simple resonant circuits.. Chapter 24 -REPRESENTATION OF THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF MODULATED HF VOLTAGES AND OF THE FREQUENCY PANORAMA OF TRANSMITTERS. of .1 Modulation and frequencyspectrum.1 25.477 Waveform of the output voltage of a wideband voltage divider at various adjustments..TABLE OF CONTENTS xv Chapter 22 -DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC QUALITIES OF RESONANT CIRCUITS AND BANDP ASS FILTERS FROM THE PATTERN OF THE DECAYING OSCILLATION AFtER SHOCK EXCITATION.452 Measuring the coupling factor in coupled circuits. .4.4 Panoramicreceiversand panoramicoscillograms.477 WIDEBAND OR SYM- 470 470 472 474 P"ULSES VOLTAGES High impedance wideband voltage dividers.. 470 24. of 24.3 25.5 OF DIVIDERS SQUARE HIGH BY IMPED). .4.3 22. ..1 23.1 Coupled circuits and the coupling factor.

Chapter 29 -RECORDING THE WAVEFORMS OF THE LUMINOUS FLUX AND IGNITION CURRENT OF FLASHBULBSAND INVESTIGATING THE WORKING OF SYNCHRONOUS CONTACTS.3 Examples of application and typical oscillograms . Electrodynamic pickup for measuring the absolute Value of mechanical oscillations .00 PRAC.2 Measuring the opening time by recording a spot trace of known speed Recording the action-time function of the shutter . synchronizers and luminous bulbs . 30. . Chapter 27 -SOME TICE EXAMPLES .2 30. . Oscillograms of variations in sound pressure .2 Calibration Examples of application . 29.4 Observing non-electrical phenomena in general. differentiation and calibration of the signal voltage 30.XVI TABLE OF CONTENTS 26. Magnetic vibration pickup .2 293 Luminous flux . 30.3. 30.1 The frequency-dependent network and the rectifier 26.0 0 ELECTRO-ACOUSTIC 0 0 0 0 0 . to electro- Chapter 28 -MEASURING THE ACTION OF BETWEEN-LENS SHUT- TERSOFCAMERAS 28.1 30..2.1.1..1 29..1 Action and properties . 30. 0 0 Possible applications of the cathode ray oscilloscope acoustics .Electrodynamic pickup for measuring relative vibrations .3.1 Action and properties .3 Examples of applications and oscillograms .2 Reaction of the pickup on the vibrating part .1 28. Shutter action.2 Integration.2.0 FROM .3. 30. Ignition current waveform . flux waveform of flash- Chapter 30 STUDY OF MECHANICAL VIBRA TIONS BY MEANS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC AND ELECTRODYNAMIC PICKUPS. 30.2.

.6 32 -PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORDING OF THE PICTURE SPOT TRACE 545 32.strain gauges Measurement of dynamic strain without static components.526 Relative elongation.577 . materia} tension and dynamic measurements using .. Equipment for photographic recording.556 Measuring the maximum writing speed ..572 32.6 31.584 33...4 31...566 32.7.559 Exposure .TABLE OF CONTENTS XVII Chapter 31 -STUDY OF DYNAMIC STRAIN PROCESSES AND OBSER..569 Processing the photographs . .3 Enlarging ..5 Strain gauges .7. projection screen and viewers .572 32.2 31..1 Single pictures . .574 32.2 Developing .576 .576 .. "Writing speed" and the influence factors governing it.1 Need for enlarged reproduction of oscillograms .4 Retouching.579 . 33.9 534 536 537 539 541 PART IV PHOTOGRAPmC RECORDING AND LARGE PROJECTION OF OSCILLOGRAMS Chapter 32.7.. . .1 Handling the photographic material. 33.572 32... .2 32.3 Cathode ray tubes . 31..~ Chapter 33 -LARGE-PICTURE PROJECTION OF OSCIL. 33.7.531 Examples of oscillograms recorded during the investigation of the movement of a leaf spring and pressure rolleL on an excentric cam drum. Measuring dynamic strain with static components~ .. Spectral energy distribution of the light of the screen and properties of the photographical material .7 31.2 Optical systems for projection .4 32.LOGRAMS .7 Importance of photographic recording and the special conditions governing it. Measuring the torsional oscillations of shafts. 33..576 .5 32. .566 32.1 31. Simultaneous observation of the strain at several points. 526 527 530 31. V A TION OF MECHANICAL OS:CILLA TIONS BY MEANS OFSTRAIN GAUGES..4 Projection screen . Examples of oscillograms when switching over to ten measuring points The use of strain gauges asa measuring element for special tasks. 545 545 552 "7" ~ ..6.3 31..6.3 32.1 32. .2 Moving film recording .5 Placing the oscilloscope..8 31.

6 Enlarged reproduction sion apparatus . TABLE OF GONTENTS of oscillograms by means of industrial televi- Conclusion Bibliography Tnt1py .XVTTT 33.