This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Hossein Movasati

June 2, 2008

ii

Contents

0 Introduction 1

1 Elliptic curves in Weierstrass form 3

1.1 Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.2 Elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.3 Elliptic curves in Weierstrass form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.4 Real geometry of elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.5 Complex geometry of elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.6 Congruent numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.7 The group law in elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.8 Weierstrass form revised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.9 Finite ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.10 Elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.11 Mordell-Weil Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.12 Zeta functions of elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.13 Nagell-Lutz Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.14 Mazur theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.15 Riemann zeta function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.16 Dedekind Zeta function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

1.17 Discriminant revised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

1.18 One dimensional algebraic groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.19 Reduction of elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1.20 Zeta functions of curves over Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1.21 Hasse-Weil conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.22 Birch Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

1.23 Congruent numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

1.24 p-adic numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2 Modular forms 25

2.1 Elliptic integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.2 Weierstrass uniformization theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.3 Picard-Lefschetz theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.4 Schwarz function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.5 CM elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2.6 Full modular forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.7 Fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.8 The algebra of modular forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

2.9 The discriminant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

iii

iv CONTENTS

2.10 The j function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2.11 Hecke operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2.12 Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Chapter 0

Introduction

Modular forms and elliptic curves are ﬁrmly rooted in the fertil grounds of number theory.

As a proof of the mentioned fact and as an introduction to the present text we mention

the followings: For p prime, the Fermat last theorem ask for a non-trivial integer solution

for the Diophantine equation

a

p

+b

p

+c

p

= 0

For a hypothetical solution (A, B, C) = (a

p

, b

p

, c

p

) of the Fermat equation, Gerhart Frey

considered the elliptic curve

E

A,B,C

: y

2

= x(x −A)(x +B)

From this one construct a modular form f

A,B,C

and a Galois representation with certain

properties and then one proves that such objects does not exist. During this passage

one encounters the Modularity conjecture which claims that every elliptic curve over Q

is modular. Roughly speaking this means that every elliptic curve over Q appears in the

Jacobian of of a modular curve of level N. Another formulation of modularity property is

by using L functions which generalizes the famous Riemann zeta function

ζ(s) :=

∞

n=1

1

n

s

Riemann hypothesis claims that all the non-trivial zeros of ζ lies on '(s) =

1

2

and it has

strong consequences on the growth of prime number. For the L functions associated to

elliptic curves one has the Birch-Swinnerton Dyer conjecture which predicts the rank of

an elliptic curve to be the order of vanishing of the corresponding L-function at s = 1.

It is assumed that the reader has a basic knowledge in algebraic geometry of curves

and complex analysis in one variable.

1

2 CHAPTER 0. INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1

Elliptic curves in Weierstrass form

Throughout the present text we work with a ﬁeld k of arbitrary characteristic and not

necessarily algebraically closed. By

¯

k we mean the algebraic closure of k. The main

examples that we have in mind are

k = Q, R, C, F

p

:=

Z

Z/pZ

a number ﬁeld and function ﬁeld. A number ﬁeld k is a ﬁeld that contains Q and has ﬁnite

dimension, when considered as a vector space over Q. A function ﬁeld k(t

1

, t

2

, . . . , t

s

) over

a ﬁeld k is the ﬁeld of rational functions

a(t

1

,t

2

, ,ts)

b(t

1

,t

2

,...,ts)

, where a and b are polynomials in

indeterminates t

1

, t

2

, . . . , t

s

and with coeﬃcients in t

1

, t

2

, . . . , t

s

. Later, we will also use

the ﬁeld of p-adic numbers.

1.1 Curves

Let k be a ﬁeld and k[x, y] be the space of polynomial in two variables x, y and with

coeﬃcients in k. The n dimensional aﬃne space over k is by deﬁnition

A

n

(k) = k k k, n times

and the projective n dimensional space is

P

n

(k) := A

n+1

(k) −¦(0, 0, , 0)¦/ ∼

a ∼ b if and only if ∃λ ∈ k, a = λb

We will consider the following inclusion

A

n

(k) →P

n

(k), (x

1

, x

2

, , x

n

) → [x

1

; x

2

; ; x

n

; 1]

and call P

n

the compactiﬁcation of A

n

. The projective space at inﬁnity is deﬁned to be

P

n−1

∞

(k) = P

n

(k) −A

n

(k) = ¦[x

1

; x

2

; ; x

n

; x

n+1

] [ x

n+1

= 0¦.

For simplicity, in the case n = 1, 2 and 3 we use x, (x, y) and (x, y, z) instead of x

1

, x

2

, . . ..

Any polynomial f ∈ k[x, y] deﬁnes an aﬃne curve

C(k) := ¦(x, y) ∈ k

2

[ f(x, y) = 0¦.

The most famous Diophantine curve is give by f = x

n

+y

n

−1. We denote it by F

n

.

3

4 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

Remark 1.1. The set C(k) may be empty, for instance take k = Q, f = x

2

+ y

2

+ 1.

This means that the identiﬁcation of a curve with its points in some ﬁeld is not a good

treatment of curves. One of the starting points of the theory of schemes is this simple

observation.

For f ∈ k[x, y] we deﬁne the homogenization of f

F(x, y, z) = z

d

f(

x

z

,

y

z

), d := deg(f).

F deﬁnes a projective plane curve in P

2

(k):

¯

C(k) := ¦[x; y; z] ∈ P

2

(k) [ F(x, y, z) = 0¦.

Note that

∀c ∈ k, (x, y, z) ∈ k

3

, F(cx, cy, cz) = c

d

F(x, y, z).

One has the injection

C(k) →

¯

C(k), (x, y) → [x; y; 1]

and for this reason one sometimes says that

¯

C(k) is the compactiﬁcation of C(k). Let

g be the las homogeneous piece of the polynomial f. By deﬁnition it is a homogeneous

polynomial of degree d. The points in

¯

C(k) −C(k) = ¦[x; y] ∈ P

1

∞

[ g(x, y) = 0¦

are called the points at inﬁnity of C(k). The set of points at inﬁnity of

¯

F

n

is empty if n

is even and it is ¦[1; −1]¦ if n is odd.

Remark 1.2. From now on we use the notation C or ¦f = 0¦ instead of C(k). We are also

going to use the notion of an arbitrary curve over k form algebraic geometry of schemes.

Roughly speaking, a curve C over k means C over

¯

k and the ingredient polynomials of C

are deﬁned over k. The reader who is not familiar with those general objects may follow

the text for aﬃne and projective curves as above. The set C(k) is now the set of k-rational

points of C.

Deﬁnition 1.1. We say that an aﬃne curve C is singular if there is a point (a, b) ∈

¯

k

2

such that

f(a, b) = f

x

(a, b) = f

y

(a, b) = 0.

where f

x

is the derivation of f with respect to x and so on. Using other charts of P

2

one

can deﬁne a singular point of a projective curve.

Exercise 1.1. Give an algorithm with the input f ∈ k[x, y] and the output ∆ which is a

polynomial in the coeﬃcients of f such that

¦f = 0¦ is singular ⇔ ∆ = 0.

Let C be a smooth projective curve of degree d in P

2

, i.e. its deﬁning polynomial is of

degree d. Its genus is by deﬁnition

g(C) :=

(d −1)(d −2)

2

1.2. ELLIPTIC CURVES 5

The main objective of the Diophantine theory is to describe the set C(Q) for the curves

deﬁned over Q. The most famous example is the Fermat curve given by the polynomial

f = x

n

+y

n

−1. The machinery of algebraic geometry is very useful to distinguish between

various types of Diophantine equations. For instance, one can describe the rational points

of genus zero curves. Genus one curves are called elliptic curves and the study of their

rational points is the objective of the present text. For higher genus we have a conjecture

of Mordell around 1922 which is proved by Faltings in 1982:

A non-singular projective curve of genus> 1 and deﬁned over Q has only ﬁnitely many

Q-rational points.

In fact, the above theorem is true even for number ﬁelds. For instance the above theorem

says that the Fermat curve F

n

has a ﬁnite number of Q-rational points. However, it does

not say something about the nature of F

n

(Q). Mordell’s conjecture for function ﬁelds was

proved by Y. Manin in 1963, see [12] .

Exercise 1.2. Collect information on rational points of quadratic polynomials of degree

two and in two variables.

1.2 Elliptic curves

We are ready to give the deﬁnition of an elliptic curve:

Deﬁnition 1.2. An elliptic curve over k is a pair (E, p), where E is a genus one complete

smooth curve and p is p is a k-rational point of E.

Therefore, by deﬁnition an elliptic curve over k has at least a k-rational point. A

smooth projective curve of degree 3 is therefore an elliptic curve if it has a k-rational

point. For instance, the Fermat curve

F

3

: x

3

+y

3

= z

3

is an elliptic curve over Q. It has Q-rational points [0, 1, 1] and [1, 0, 1]. However

E : 3x

3

+ 4y

3

+ 5z

3

= 0

has not Q-rational points and so it is not an elliptic curve deﬁned over Q. It is an interesting

fact to mention that E(Q

p

) for all prime p and E(R) are not empty. This example is due

to Selmer (see [3, 20]).

1.3 Elliptic curves in Weierstrass form

An elliptic curve in the Weierstrass form E is the aﬃne curve given by the polynomial

E

t

2

,t

3

: y

2

−4x

3

+t

2

x +t

3

, t

2

, t

3

∈ k,

∆ := t

3

2

−27t

2

3

,= 0, char(k) ,= 2, 3

In homogeneous coordinates it is written in the form

zy

2

−4x

3

+t

2

xz

2

+t

3

z

3

= 0.

It has only one point at inﬁnity, namely [0; 1; 0], which is considered as the marked point

in the deﬁnition of an elliptic curve. It is in fact a smooth point of

¯

E which is tangent to

the projective line at inﬁnity of order 3 and [0; 1; 0] is the only intersection point of the

line at inﬁnity with

¯

E. If char(k) = 2, 3 then the curve E

t

2

,t

3

is always singular and it can

be easily shown that ∆ = 0 if and only if the corresponding curve is singular.

6 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

-2.4 -1.6 -0.8 0 0.8 1.6 2.4

-1.6

-0.8

0.8

1.6

Figure 1.1: Elliptic curves: y

2

−4x

3

+t

2

x +t

3

= 0

1.4 Real geometry of elliptic curves

For a projective smooth curve C deﬁned over R the set C(R) has many connected com-

ponents, all of them topologically isomorphic to a circle. We call each of them an oval.

For an elliptic curve E deﬁned over R we want to analyze the topology of E(R). For

simplicity (in fact because of Proposition 1.2 which will be presented later) we assume

that E = E

t

2

,t

3

is in the Weierstrass form. For (t

2

, t

3

) ∈ R

2

let ∆ = t

3

2

− 27t

2

3

be the

discriminant of the elliptic curve E. We have:

1. If ∆ > 0 then E(R) has two connected components, one is a closed path in R

2

, which

we call it an aﬃne oval, and the other a closed path in P

2

(R). We call it a projective

oval.

2. If ∆ < 0 then E(R) has only one component which is a projective oval.

3. If ∆ = 0 and t

3

< 0 then E(R) is an α-shaped path in R

2

(∞-shaped path in P

2

(R)).

In this case, we say that E has a real nodal singularity.

4. If ∆ = 0 and t

3

> 0 then E(R) is a union of a point and a projective oval. In this

case, we say that E has a complex nodal singularity.

5. If t

2

= t

3

= 0 then E(R) look likes a broken line in R

2

. In this case, we say that E

has a cuspidal singularity.

Note that E(R) intersects the line at inﬁnity only at [0; 1; 0]. To see/prove all the topo-

logical statements above, it is enough to take an example in each class and draw the

corresponding E(R). Note that in the (t

2

, t

3

)-space each set deﬁned by the above items

is connected and the topology of E(R) does not change in each item (see Figure 1.1 and

1.7, the correspondence between the values of t

2

, t

3

and E

t

2

,t

3

(R) are done by colours).

1.5 Complex geometry of elliptic curves

Let C be a smooth projective curve of genus g over a subﬁeld k of C. It can be shown

that C(C) is a compact (Riemann) surface with g(C) wholes (a sphere with g handles).

1.6. CONGRUENT NUMBERS 7

-5 -2.5 0 2.5 5

-2.5

2.5

Figure 1.2: The curve t

3

2

−27t

2

3

= 0 and points (t

2

, t

3

) = (±4, 0), (4, ±

8

3

√

3

)

Exercise 1.3. Give a proof of the above statement using the followings. 2. Any compact

Riemann surface is diﬀeomorphic to a sphere with some handles. 2. Riemann-Hurwitz

formula.

In genus one case, therefore, the set C(C) is torus.

Exercise 1.4. For a smooth elliptic curve E over R and in the Weierstrass form describe

the real curves E(R) inside the torus (Hint: Use the Riemann-Hurwitz formula).

1.6 Congruent numbers

A natural number n is said to be congruent if it is the area of a right triangle whose sides

have rational length. In other words we are looking for the Diophantine equation:

C

n

: x

2

+y

2

= z

2

, n =

1

2

xy

in Q, where x, y and z are the sides of the triangle. Consider the aﬃne curve C

n

/Q in A

3

deﬁned by the above equations. It intersects the projective space at inﬁnity in 4 points:

[x; y; z; w] = [0; ±1; 1; 0], [±1; 0; 1; 0].

Let

C : y

2

= x

4

−n

2

, E

n

: y

2

= x

3

−n

2

x.

We have morphisms

C

n

→ C, (x, y, z) → (

z

2

,

x

2

−y

2

4

)

and

C → E

n

, (x, y) → (x

2

, xy)

deﬁned over Q.

Proposition 1.1. A necessary and suﬃcient condition for the point (x, y) ∈ E

n

(Q) be in

the image of C

n

(Q) → E

n

(Q) is that

1. x to be a square and that

8 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

2. its denominator be divisible by two

3. and its numerator has no common factor with n.

The proof is simple and is left to the reader (see [9]).

Exercise 1.5. Let

¯

C

n

be the projectivization of C

n

in P

3

. Is

¯

C

n

smooth? If yes determine

its genus.

Exercise 1.6. Ex. 1,2,3,4 of Koblitz, page 5.

1.7 The group law in elliptic curves

Let C be a smooth cubic curve in P

2

. Let also P, Q ∈ C(k) and L be the line in P

2

connecting two points P and Q. If P = Q then L is the tangent line to C at P. The line L

is deﬁned over k and it is easy to verify that the third intersection R := PQ of C(

¯

k) with

L(

¯

k) is also in C(k). Fix a point O ∈ C(k) and call it the zero element of C(k). Deﬁne

P +Q = O(PQ)

For instance, for an elliptic curve in the weierstrass form take O = [0; 1; 0] the point at

inﬁnity. By deﬁnition O +O = O.

Theorem 1.1. The above construction turns C(k) into a commutative group.

Proof. The only non-trivial piece of the proof is the associativity property of +:

(P +Q) +R = P + (Q+R)

The proof constitute of three pieces:

1. Let P

i

= [x

i

; y

i

; z

i

] be 8 points in P

2

(

¯

k) such that the vectors (x

3

i

, , z

3

i

) ∈

¯

k

10

of

monomials of degree 3 in x

i

, y

i

, z

i

are linearly independent. A cubic polynomial F passing

through all P

i

’s corresponds to a vector a ∈

¯

k

10

such that P

i

a = 0 and so the space of

such cubic polynomials is two dimensional. This means that there is two cubic polynomial

F and G such that any other cubic polynomial passing through P

i

’s is of the form λF +µG

and so it crosses a ninth point too.

2. We apply the ﬁrst part to the eight points O, P, Q, R, PQ, QR, P + Q, Q + R and

conclude that (P +Q)R = P(Q+R). Note that from these 8 points it crosses there cubic

polynomials: C, the product of lines through (0, PQ, P+Q), (R, Q, QR), (P(Q+R), P, Q+

R) and the product of the lines (0, QR, Q+R), (PQ, Q, P), (P +Q, R, (P +Q)R):

_

_

P +Q PQ O

R Q QR

(P +Q)R, P(Q+R) P Q+R

_

_

(each column or row corresponds to aline).

3. The morphisms C C C → C, (P, Q, R) → (P + Q) + R, P + (Q + R) coincides

in a Zariski open subset and so they are equal.

1.8. WEIERSTRASS FORM REVISED 9

Exercise 1.7. ([22] p. 60) On the elliptic curve

E : y

2

= x

3

+ 17

over Q. We have points

P

1

= (−2, 3), P

2

= (−1, 4), P

3

= (2, 5), P

4

= (4, 9), P

5

= (8, 23)P

6

= (43, 282)

P

7

= (52, 375), P

8

= (5234, 378661)

verify:

P

5

= 2P

1

, P

4

= P

1

−P

3

, 3P

1

−P

3

= P

7

,

Prove that E(Q) is freely generated by P

1

and P

3

and there are only 16 integral points

±P

i

, i = 1, 2, . . . , 8 (see [19]).

Exercise 1.8. [9], p. 35, Problem 4b: For the elliptic curve E

n

: y

2

= x

3

− n

2

x ﬁnd an

explicit formula for the x coordinates of inﬂection points.

Exercise 1.9. [9], p. 36, Problem 7: How many elements of E

n

(R) or of order 2, 3 and

4? Describe geometrically where these points are located.

Exercise 1.10. [9], p. 36, Problem 9: For an elliptic curve over R prove that E(R) (as a

group) is isomorphic to R/Z or R/Z Z/2Z.

Exercise 1.11. [9], p. 36, Problem 11:

1.8 Weierstrass form revised

In this section we prove that any elliptic curve can be realized as a certain curve in P

2

.

The following proposition is proved in [22], III, Proposition 3.1.

Proposition 1.2. Let E be an elliptic curve over a ﬁeld k. There exist functions x, y ∈

k(E) such that the map

E →P

2

, a → [x(a); y(a); 1]

give an isomorphism of E/k onto a curve given by

y

2

+a

1

xy +a

3

y = x

3

+a

2

x

2

+a

4

x +a

6

, a

1

, , . . . , a

6

∈ k

sending O to [0; 1; 0]. If further char(k) ,= 2, 3 we can assume that the image curve is given

by

y

2

= 4x

3

−t

2

x −t

3

, t

2

, t

3

∈ k, t

3

2

−27t

2

3

,= 0.

We call x and y the weierstrass coordinates of of E.

Proof. For a divisor D on a curve C/

¯

k deﬁne the linear system

L(D) = ¦f ∈

¯

k(C), f ,= 0 [ div(f) +D ≥ 0¦ ∪ ¦0¦

and

l(D) = dim¯

k

(L(D)).

10 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

We know by Riemann-Roch theorem that

l(D) −l(K −D) = deg(D) −g + 1,

where K is the canonical divisor of C. We have deg(K) = 2g−2 and so for deg(D) > 2g−2,

equivalently deg(K −D) < 0, we have

l(D) = deg(D) −g + 1.

For g = 1 and D = nO we get l(D) = n. For n = 2 we can choose x, y ∈ k(E) such that

1, x form a basis of L(2O) and 1, x, y form a basis of L(3O) (discuss the fact that we can

choose x and y with coeﬃcients in k). The function x (resp. y) has a pole of order 2 (resp.

3) at O. Now L(6O) has dimension 6 and 1, x, y, x

2

, xy, y

2

, x

3

∈ L(6O). It follows that

there is a relation

ay

2

+a

1

xy +a

3

y = bx

3

+a

2

x

2

+a

4

x +a

6

, a

1

, , . . . , a

6

, a, b ∈ k.

(discuss the fact that the coeﬃcients are in k). Note that ab ,= 0, otherwise every term

would have a diﬀerent pole order at O and so all the coeﬃcients would vanish. Multiplying

x, y with some constants and dividing the whole equation with another constant, we get

the desired equation. The map induced by x and y is the desired map (check the details).

If char(k) ,= 2, 3 we make the change of variables x

t

= x, y

t

= y −

a

3

x

2

and we eliminate

xy term. A change of variables x

t

= x −

a

2

3

, y

t

= y −

a

3

2

will eliminate x

2

and y terms. In

order to obtain the coeﬃcient 4 of x

3

we replace y with

1

2

y.

Now we can state what is the moduli of elliptic curves.

Proposition 1.3. Assume that char(k) ,= 2, 3. Two elliptic curves E

t

2

,t

3

and E

t

2

,t

3

are

isomorphic if and only if there exists λ ∈ k, λ ,= 0 such that

t

t

2

= λ

2

t

2

, t

t

3

= λ

6

t

3

The isomorphism is given by

(x, y) → (λ

4

x, λ

3

y).

Proof. Let (x, y) and (x

t

, y

t

) be two sets of Weierstrass coordinate functions on an elliptic

curve E

t

2

,t

3

. It follows that ¦1, x¦ and ¦1, x

t

¦ are both bases of L(2O), and similarly

¦1, x, y¦ and ¦1, x

t

, y

t

¦ are both bases for L(3O). Writing x

t

, y

t

in terms of x, y and

substituting in the equation of E

t

2

,t

3

we get the ﬁrst aﬃrmation of the proposition. The

second aﬃrmation is easy to check.

Combining Proposition 1.2 and Proposition 1.3 we conclude that the moduli space of

elliptic curves over a ﬁeld of characteristic ,= 2, 3 is

/

1

(k) :=

_

A

2

(k) −¦(t

2

, t

3

) [ t

3

2

−27t

2

3

= 0¦

_

/ ∼

where

(t

2

, t

3

) ∼ (t

t

2

, t

t

3

) if and only if ∃λ ∈ k, λ ,= 0, (t

t

2

, t

t

3

) = (λ

4

t

2

, λ

6

t

6

).

1.9. FINITE FIELDS 11

If k is algebraically closed then this is the set of k-rational points of the weighted projective

space P

2,3

(k) mines a point induced in P

2,3

by ∆ = 0. In this case the j-invariant of elliptic

curves

j : /

1

(k) →A(k), j[t

2

; t

3

] =

1728t

3

2

t

3

2

−27t

2

3

is an isomorphism and so the moduli of elliptic curves over k is A

1

(k). However, note that

if k is not algebraically closed then j has non-trivial ﬁbers. For instance, all the elliptic

curves

y

2

= x

3

−t

3

, t

3

∈ Q

are isomorphic over

¯

Q but not over Q.

If j

0

,= 0, 1728 consider the elliptic curve:

E

j

0

: y

2

+xy = x

3

−

36

j

0

−1728

x −

1

j

0

−1728

.

It satisﬁes j(E) = j

0

.

Exercise 1.12. Write the following elliptic curves in the Weierstrass form:

y

2

= x

4

−1, O = [0; 1; 0]

x

3

+y

3

= 1, O = [0; 1; 1]

1.9 Finite ﬁelds

A ﬁnite ﬁeld, as its name indicates, is a ﬁeld with ﬁnite cardinality. By deﬁnition of a

ﬁeld and ﬁniteness property, the characteristic of a ﬁnite ﬁeld is a prime number p > 1.

Finite ﬁelds are completely classiﬁed as follows:

1. The order of a ﬁnite ﬁeld of characteristic p is p

n

for some n ∈ N.

2. There is a unique (up to isomorphism of ﬁelds) ﬁnite ﬁeld with p

n

, n ∈ N elements.

3. For a prime number the ﬁnite ﬁeld with cardinality p is simply the quotient

F

p

:=

Z

pZ

.

4. For q = p

n

, n ∈ N the ﬁnite ﬁeld with cardinality p

n

is denoted by F

q

. It is the

spliting ﬁeld of the polynomial x

q

−x over F

p

.

5. Every ﬁnite integral domain is a ﬁeld and in particular

6. Let f(T) be a monic irreducible polynomial of degree n in F

p

[T]. Then the quotient

F

q

[T]/¸f) is a ﬁnite ﬁeld with p

n

elements.

7. Let f(x, y) ∈ F

p

[x, y] be a polynomial and I be a non zero prime ideal of R :=

F

p

[x, y]/¸f). Then the quotient R/I is a ﬁnite ﬁeld.

For more on ﬁnite ﬁelds the reader is referred to [6].

12 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

1.10 Elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds

In this section we want to analyze the torsion points of

E

n

: y

2

= x

3

−n

2

x

By deﬁnition of the group structure of E

n

we know that

O, (0, 0), (0, ±n)

are 2-torsions of E

n

. Following the lines of [9] p. 44 Proposition 4, we want to prove:

Proposition 1.4. We have

E

n

(Q)

tors

= ¦O, (0, 0), (0, ±n)¦

and so #E

n

(Q)

tors

= 4.

Proof. Let us ﬁrst give the strategy of the proof. Let E/Q be an a elliptic curve in the

Weierstrass form and let p > 2 be a prime number which does not divide the discriminant

of E. By a linear change of variable (x, y) → (a

2

x, a

3

y) we can assume that the ingredient

coeﬃcients of E are in Z. Let

¯

E/F

p

be the elliptic curve obtained from E by considering

the coeﬃcients of E modulo p. The main ingredient of the proof is the reduction map

E(Q) →

¯

E(F

p

),

which is a group homomorphism. Note that by our assumption on p,

¯

E/F

p

is not singular.

This is an injection of E(Q)

tors

inside E(F

p

) for all but ﬁnitely many p and so for such

primes m := #E(Q)

tors

divides #E(F

p

). In fact, we have not yet proved that E(Q)

tors

is ﬁnite (a corollary of Mordell-Weil theorem). Therefore, we take a ﬁnite subgroup G

of #E(Q)

tors

and prove that the reduction map restricted to G is an injection and so

m := #G divides #E(F

p

). From another side, we prove that for E = E

n

:

(1.1) #E

n

(F

p

) = p + 1, ∀p prime p ≡ −1 mod 4

Therefore, for all but ﬁnitely many primes p ≡ −1 mod 4 we have p ≡ −1 mod m. This

implies that m = 4. Therefore, every ﬁnite subgroup of E(Q)

tors

is of order 4. Since all

the elements of E(Q)

tors

are torsion, we conclude that #E

n

(Q)

tors

= 4.

Now let us prove that the reduction map induces an injection in a ﬁnite subgroup G

of E(Q)

tors

. Two points P = [x; y; z], Q = [x

t

; y

t

; z

t

] ∈ E(Q) are the same after reduction

if and only if

(1.2) xy

t

−x

t

y, xz

t

−x

t

z, yz

t

−y

t

z

are zero modulo p. For all pairs P, Q in G, the number of numbers (1.2) is ﬁnite and so

there are ﬁnitely many primes dividing at least one of them. For all other primes p, we

have the injection of G in E(F

p

) by the reduction map. The proof of (1.1) is done in the

next proposition.

Proposition 1.5. Let q = p

f

, p ,[2n. Suppose that q ≡ −1 mod 4. Then there are q + 1

F

q

points on the elliptic curve E

n

: y

2

= x

3

−n

2

x.

1.11. MORDELL-WEIL THEOREM 13

Proof. Consider the map

f : F

q

→F

q

, f(x) = x

3

−n

2

x

f is an odd function, i.e. f(−x) = −f(x), and −1 is not in its image (this follows from

the hypothesis on p). It follows that the index of the multiplicative group F

2

q

− ¦0¦ in

F

q

− ¦0¦ is two and so for all x ∈ F

q

− ¦0¦ exactly one of x or −x is square and so

for all x ∈ F

q

− ¦0, n, −n¦ exactly one of f(x) or f(−x) is square. Each such a pair

(x, y), y = f(x) gives us two points (x, y), (x, −y) ∈ E

n

(F

q

) and so in total we have

3 + 2

q−1

2

points in E

n

(F

q

).

Proposition 1.6. The natural number n is congruent if and only if E

n

(Q) has non-zero

rank.

Proof. If n is a congruent number then by Proposition 1.1, E

n

has Q-rational point with

x-coordinate in (Q

+

)

2

. The x coordinates of 2-torsion points in the aﬃne chart x, y are

0, ±n. The fact that n is square free and Proposition 1.4 implies that such a rational point

is of inﬁnite order.

Conversely, suppose that P is a rational point of inﬁnite order in E

n

. Then by Exercise

1.13, the One can

Exercise 1.13. ([9], p. 35, Ex. 2c) If P is a point not of order 2 in E

n

(Q), then

the x-coordinate of 2P is a square of rational number having an even denominator. By

Proposition 1.1, 2P comes from a point in C

n

(Q) and hence n is a congruent number.

Exercise 1.14. ([9], p. 49-50) Ex. 4,5,6, 7,9.

1.11 Mordell-Weil Theorem

We have seen that for an elliptic curve over Q the set E(Q) is an abelian group and so

E(Q)/E(Q)

tors

where

E(Q)

tors

:= ¦x ∈ E(Q) [ nx = 0, for some n ∈ N¦,

is a freely generated Z-module.

Theorem 1.2. For an elliptic curve E over a number ﬁeld k the group E(k) of k-rational

points is ﬁnitely generated abelian group.

The above theorem for k = Q was proved by Mordell. Its generalization for an arbitrary

number ﬁeld was proved by Andr´e Weil and it is known as the Mordell-Weil theorem. For

the proof see [10, 5].

Let us take k = Q. The above theorem implies that the set of torsion points E(Q)

tors

of E(Q) is ﬁnite and there is a number r ∈ N such that

E(Q)

∼

= Z

r

⊕E(Q)

tors

.

The non-negative integer r is called the rank of E(Q).

14 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

1.12 Zeta functions of elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds

Let V be an aﬃne or projective variety deﬁned over F

q

. The zeta function of V is deﬁned

to be the formal power series in T:

Z(V, T) = exp(

∞

r=1

#V (F

q

r )

r

T

r

)

Theorem 1.3. Let E be an elliptic curve deﬁned over F

p

. Then

(1.3) Z(E, T) =

1 + 2a

E

T +pT

2

(1 −T)(1 −pT)

.

where a

E

is an integer depending only on E. Moreover, the Riemann hypothesis holds for

E, i.e. the only zeros of

ζ(C, s) := Z(E, q

−s

)

are in the line '(s) =

1

2

.

Let

1 −2a

E

T +qT

2

= (1 −αT)(1 −βT)

and so

(1.4) α +β = 2a

E

, αβ = q

Note that α and β are algebraic integers:

α, β = a

E

±

_

a

2

E

−q.

We take the logarithmic derivative of both sides of (1.3) and one easily ﬁnds the equalities

#E(F

p

r ) = p

r

+ 1 −α

r

−β

r

, r = 1, 2, 3, . . .

For r = 1 we obtain

#E(F

p

) = p + 1 −2a

E

We conclude that for elliptic curves over a ﬁnite ﬁeld F

q

the number of F

q

-rational points

determine the number of F

q

r -rational points.

Concerning the Riemann hypothesis, we note that it is equivalent to the inequality:

(1.5) [#E(F

p

) −p −1[ < 2

√

p.

The Riemann hypothesis holds if and only if [α[ = [β[ = p

1

2

. If these equalities happen

then

[#E(F

p

) −p −1[ = [2a

E

[ = [α +β[ < 2

√

p.

(the equality cannot occur because p is prime). Conversely, if (1.5) happens then a

2

E

−p < 0

and so the roots of the polynomial 1 −2a

E

T +qT

2

are complex conjugate, β = ¯ α and so

[α[ = [β[ = p

1

2

.

The general reuslt as in (1.3) was conjectured by Andr´e Weil [25] and was proved by

P. Deligne (see for instance [8] for an exposition of Deligne results).

Let us now state the result for the elliptic curve E

n

related to the congruent numbers.

The Legendre symbol is deﬁned for integers a and positive odd primes p by

_

a

p

_

=

_

_

_

0 if p divides a

1 for some x ∈ Z, a ≡ x

2

mod p

−1 otherwise

1.13. NAGELL-LUTZ THEOREM 15

Proposition 1.7. In the zeta function of E

n

: y

2

= x

3

−n

2

x deﬁned over F

p

, p a prime

p ,[2n, we have:

α =

_

i

√

p if p ≡ 3( mod 4) in this case a

En

= 0

2k +

_

n

p

_

+ 2ki if p ≡ 1( mod 4) in this case a

En

= 2k +

_

n

p

_

In the second case k is determined by the fact that α¯ α = p

Exercise 1.15. ([16], Ex. 19.12) Let E be the elliptic curve

E : y

2

= x

3

−4x

2

+ 16

Consider also the formal power series given by

F(q) = q

∞

n=1

(1 −q

n

)

2

(1 −q

11n

)

2

= q −2q

2

−q

3

+ 2q

4

+

1. Compute N

p

= #E(F

p

) for all primes 3 ≤ p ≤ 13.

2. Calculate the coeﬃcient of M

n

of q

n

in F(q) for n ≤ 13.

3. Compute the sum M

p

+N

p

for p prime p ≤ 13.

4. Formulate a conjecture on the sum M

p

+n

p

. Can you prove it?.

1.13 Nagell-Lutz Theorem

In this section we state Nagell-Lutz theorem which gives a ﬁnite set of of possibilities for

a torsion point of an elliptic curve.

Theorem 1.4. (Nagell-Lutz Theorem) Let E be an elliptic curve with the Weierstrass

equation:

y

2

= x

3

+t

2

x +t

3

, t

2

, t

3

∈ Z, ∆ := 4t

3

2

+ 27t

2

3

,= 0.

Then for all non-zero torsion points P = (a, b) ∈ E(Q) we have:

1. The coordinates of P are in Z, i.e. a, b ∈ Z.

2. If P is of order greater than 2, then b

2

divides ∆.

3. If P is of order 2 then b = 0 and a

3

+t

2

a +t

3

= 0.

A proof can be found in [22], p. 221 or in [23] p.56.

Exercise 1.16. [16], Exercise 8.11. For four of the following elliptic curves compute the

torsion subgroup.

y

2

= x

3

+ 2,

See the reference above for the list of elliptic curves.

16 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

1.14 Mazur theorem

Theorem 1.5. (Mazur, [13, 14]) Let E be an elliptic curve over Q. Then the torsion

subgroup E(Q)

tors

is one of the following ﬁfteen groups:

Z/NZ, 1 ≤ N ≤ 10, or N = 12

Z/2Z Z/2NZ, 1 ≤ N ≤ 4

Note that the above theorem implies that for an elliptic curve over Q we have always:

#(E(Q)

tors

) ≤ 16.

It is natural to conjecture that: If E is an elliptic curve over a number ﬁeld k, the order of

the torsion subgroup of E(k) is bounded by a constant which depends only on the degree

of k over Q. This is known uniform boundedness conjecture (UBC). It is proved by S.

Kamienny in [7] for all quadratic ﬁelds and by L. Merel in [15] for all number ﬁelds.

For the proof of all the statements above one needs the notion of modular curves X

0

(N)

and modular forms which will be introduced in the forthcoming chapters.

1.15 Riemann zeta function

In this section we are going to study the ﬁrst of all Zeta function, namely Riemann zeta

function:

ζ(s) :=

∞

n=1

1

n

s

Proposition 1.8. The series ζ(s) converges for all s ∈ C with '(s) > 1 and

ζ(s) =

p

1

(1 −p

−s

)

.

where p runs over all primes.

Proof. We have [n

−s

[ = n

Ts

and so it is enough to prove the proposition for s ∈ R, s > 1.

We have

∞

n=2

1

n

s

≤

_

∞

1

x

−s

=

x

−s+1

−s + 1

[

+∞

1

=

1

s −1

if s > 1

Again we assume that s is a real number bigger than 1. We have p

−s

< 1 and so

(1 −p

−s

) =

∞

m=0

p

−ms

.

By unique factorization theorem

p≤N

(1 −p

−s

)

−1

=

n≤N

n

−s

+R

N

(s).

Clearly

R

N

(s) ≤

∞

n=N+1

n

−s

.

Since ζ(s) converges we have R

N

(s) → 0 as N → ∞ and the result follows.

1.16. DEDEKIND ZETA FUNCTION 17

There are many generalizations of the Riemann Zeta function. One of them is already

used in ¸1.12. Bellow we explain how the zeta functions of a curve over a ﬁnite ﬁeld is a

generalization of the Riemann zeta function.

Consider a plane aﬃne curve C : f(x, y) = 0, f ∈ F

p

(x, y) deﬁned over the ﬁeld F

p

.

In analogy with the Riemann zeta function we deﬁne

(1.6) ζ(C, s) =

p

1

(1 −(Np)

−s

)

.

where p runs over all non-zero prime ideals of F

p

[C] := F

p

[x, y]/¸f(x, y)). Here Np is the

order of the quotient F

p

[C]/p. Since such a quotient is a ﬁnite integral domain it is a ﬁeld

and hence it has p

n

elements. We deﬁne deg(p) := n. This allows us to redeﬁne the zeta

function as follows:

Z(C, T) =

p

1

(1 −T

deg(p)

)

.

with ζ(C, s) = Z(C, p

−s

).

Proposition 1.9. Let C be a curve ove the ﬁnite ﬁeld F

p

. We have

Z(C, T) = exp(

∞

r=1

#C(F

p

r )

r

T

r

)

For a proof see [16] p. 90.

Exercise 1.17. Calculate the zeta functions of A

1

and P

1

.

Exercise 1.18. Calculate the zeta function of degenerated elliptic curves:

y

2

= x

3

+ax +b, 4a

3

+ 27b

2

= 0.

1.16 Dedekind Zeta function

In this section we give a summary of Dedekind Zeta functions. Let k be anumber ﬁeld

and O

k

be its ring of integers.

Theorem 1.6. The integer ring of a number ﬁeld is a Dedekind domain, i.e every ideal

a ⊂ O

k

in a unique way can be written

a = p

α

1

1

p

α

2

2

p

αs

s

,

where α

1

, . . . , α

s

∈ N

0

and p

1

, . . . , p

s

are prime ideals.

A character χ on O

k

is a map from the set of non-zero ideals of O

k

to C such that it

is multiplicative:

χ(a

1

a

2

) = χ(a

1

)χ(a

2

).

We mainly use the Character χ ≡ 1. Formally, the Dedekind Zeta function is deﬁned in

the following way:

ζ

k

(s) =

a

χ(a)

N(a)

s

=

p

1

1 −χ(p)N(p)

−s

, N(a) = #(O

k

/a),

where the sum is running in non-zero ideals of O

k

and the product is running in the prime

ideals of O

k

.

18 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

Exercise 1.19. Discuss the convergence of the Dedekind Zeta function (put χ ≡ 1).

Exercise 1.20. Discuss the fact that the integer ring of a number ﬁeld is not necessarily

a unique factorization domain/principal ideal domain. Give examples of irreducible but

not prime elements. Hint Q(

√

−5)

2.3 = (1 +

√

−5)(1 −

√

−5)

¸6) = ¸2, 1 +

√

−5)¸2, 1 −

√

−5)¸3, 1 +

√

−5)¸3, 1 −

√

−5)

Exercise 1.21. The ring of Gaussian integers is Z[i]. Prove that the prime ideals of Z[i]

are of two types:

p = ¸p), ifp ≡ 3(4), = ¸a +ib), if a

2

= b

2

= p ≡ 1(4).

In the second case we say that p splits in Z[i]. Show that the only units of Z[i] are ±1, ±i.

Show also that the only ideal which ramiﬁes is p = ¸1 +i), i.e. p

2

= ¸p).

1.17 Discriminant revised

Deﬁnition 1.3. Let us be given a polynomial f ∈ Z[t][x, y, . . .], where t = (t

1

, t

2

, . . . , t

s

)

is a multi parameter and (x, y, . . .) a multi variable. The discriminant of f is an element

∆ ∈ Z[t] such that

∆ = fa

1

+f

x

a

2

+f

y

a

3

+ , for some a

1

, a

2

, . . . ∈ Z[t][x, y, . . .]

and no factor of ∆ satisfy the mentioned property.

Exercise 1.22. The discriminant exists and is unique up to multiplication by ±.

We have calculated the discriminant of

(1.7) f = y

2

−x

3

−t

4

x −t

6

−t

2

x

2

+t

1

xy +t

3

y.

∆ = (t

6

1

t

6

− t

5

1

t

3

t

4

+ t

4

1

t

2

t

2

3

+ 12t

4

1

t

2

t

6

− t

4

1

t

2

4

− 8t

3

1

t

2

t

3

t

4

− t

3

1

t

3

3

− 36t

3

1

t

3

t

6

+ 8t

2

1

t

2

2

t

2

3

+ 48t

2

1

t

2

2

t

6

− 8t

2

1

t

2

t

2

4

+30t

2

1

t

2

3

t

4

− 72t

2

1

t

4

t

6

− 16t

1

t

2

2

t

3

t

4

− 36t

1

t

2

t

3

3

− 144t

1

t

2

t

3

t

6

+ 96t

1

t

3

t

2

4

+ 16t

3

2

t

2

3

+ 64t

3

2

t

6

− 16t

2

2

t

2

4

−72t

2

t

2

3

t

4

− 288t

2

t

4

t

6

+ 27t

4

3

+ 216t

2

3

t

6

+ 64t

3

4

+ 432t

2

6

).

a

1

= 432x

3

− 432y

2

+ (−432t

1

)xy + (432t

2

)x

2

+ (−432t

3

)y + (432t

4

)x + (−t

6

1

− 12t

4

1

t

2

+ 36t

3

1

t

3

− 48t

2

1

t

2

2

+72t

2

1

t

4

+ 144t

1

t

2

t

3

− 64t

3

2

+ 288t

2

t

4

− 216t

2

3

− 432t

6

)

a

2

= −144x

4

+ (−48t

2

1

− 192t

2

)x

3

+ (−t

4

1

− 8t

2

1

t

2

− 120t

1

t

3

− 16t

2

2

− 240t

4

)x

2

+ (−t

5

1

)y + (6t

4

1

t

2

− 20t

3

1

t

3

+

24t

2

1

t

2

2

− 40t

2

1

t

4

− 80t

1

t

2

t

3

+ 32t

3

2

− 160t

2

t

4

)x + (t

4

1

t

4

+ 4t

3

1

t

2

t

3

+ 8t

2

1

t

2

t

4

− 16t

2

1

t

2

3

+8t

1

t

2

2

t

3

− 64t

1

t

3

t

4

+ 16t

2

2

t

4

− 64t

2

4

).

a

3

= −432x

3

y + 216y

3

+ (−144t

1

)x

4

+ (324t

1

)xy

2

+ (54t

2

1

− 432t

2

)x

2

y + (−3t

3

1

− 120t

1

t

2

− 216t

3

)x

3

+

(324t

3

)y

2

+ (108t

1

t

3

− 432t

4

)xy + (−t

5

1

+ 4t

3

1

t

2

− 21t

2

1

t

3

+ 8t

1

t

2

2

− 96t

1

t

4

− 216t

2

t

3

)x

2

+ (t

6

1

+ 6t

4

1

t

2

− 18t

3

1

t

3

+ 24t

2

1

t

2

2

−36t

2

1

t

4

− 72t

1

t

2

t

3

+ 32t

3

2

− 144t

2

t

4

+ 162t

2

3

)y + (−t

5

1

t

2

+ t

4

1

t

3

+ 2t

3

1

t

4

+ 4t

2

1

t

2

t

3

+ 8t

1

t

2

t

4

− 27t

1

t

2

3

− 216t

3

t

4

)x

+(−t

5

1

t

4

+ t

4

1

t

2

t

3

− 4t

3

1

t

2

t

4

− t

3

1

t

2

3

+ 8t

2

1

t

2

2

t

3

+ 14t

2

1

t

3

t

4

− 8t

1

t

2

2

t

4

− 36t

1

t

2

t

2

3

+ 32t

1

t

2

4

+ 16t

3

2

t

3

− 72t

2

t

3

t

4

+ 27t

3

3

);

This modulo 2 is:

∆ = t

4

1

t

2

t

2

3

+t

5

1

t

3

t

4

+t

6

1

t

6

+t

3

1

t

3

3

+t

4

1

t

2

4

+t

4

3

a

1

= t

6

1

, a

2

= t

4

1

x

2

+t

5

1

y +t

4

1

t

4

1.18. ONE DIMENSIONAL ALGEBRAIC GROUPS 19

a

3

= t

5

1

x

2

+t

3

1

x

3

+t

6

1

y +t

5

1

t

2

x +t

4

1

t

3

x +t

2

1

t

3

x

2

+t

4

1

t

2

t

3

+t

5

1

t

4

+t

3

1

t

2

3

+t

1

t

2

3

x +t

3

3

For the case

(1.8) f = y

2

−x

3

−t

4

x −t

6

−t

2

x

2

.

we have

∆ = 2(4t

3

2

t

6

−t

2

2

t

2

4

−18t

2

t

4

t

6

+ 4t

3

4

+ 27t

2

6

);

a

1

= 2(27x

3

−27y

2

+ (27t

2

)x

2

+ (27t

4

)x + (−4t

3

2

+ 18t

2

t

4

−27t

6

));

a

2

= 2(−9x

4

+ (−12t

2

)x

3

+ (−t

2

2

−15t

4

)x

2

+ (2t

3

2

−10t

2

t

4

)x + (t

2

2

t

4

−4t

2

4

));

a

3

= −54x

3

y + 27y

3

+ (−54t

2

)x

2

y + (−54t

4

)xy + (4t

3

2

−18t

2

t

4

)y;

Modulo 3 this is:

∆ = t

2

2

t

2

4

−t

3

2

t

6

−t

3

4

a

1

= t

3

2

, a

2

= t

2

2

x

2

+t

3

2

x +t

2

t

4

x −t

2

2

t

4

+t

2

4

, a

3

= t

3

2

y.

For

(1.9) f = y

2

−x

3

−t

4

x −t

6

;

we have

∆ = 2(4t

3

4

+ 27t

2

6

), a

1

= 2(27x

3

−27y

2

+ (27t

4

)x + (−27t

6

)),

a

2

= 2(−9x

4

+ (−15t

4

)x

2

+ (−4t

2

4

)), a

3

= −54x

3

y + 27y

3

+ (−54t

4

)xy.

Remark 1.3. The reader may has noticed that by this slight modiﬁcation of the deﬁnition

of discriminant if we take an elliptic curve (1.9) with all t

i

in Z, it is singular reduced mode

p if and only if p [ ∆.

1.18 One dimensional algebraic groups

We follow [16] p. 23. When elliptic curves degenerate we ﬁnd the following algebraic

groups:

1. The additive group G

a

:= (A

1

(k), +).

2. The multiplicative group G

m

:= (A(k), ).

3. Twisted multiplicative group G

m

[a].

Exercise 1.23.

G

m

[a]

∼

= G

m

[ac

2

], a, c ∈ k −0,

Exercise 1.24.

G

m

[a](F

q

) = q + 1.

By Bezout theorem a cubic curve E in P

2

has a unique singular point (if there are two

singularities then the line connecting that points meets the curve in 4 points counted with

multiplicities). The singular point is deﬁned over k because it is ﬁxed under the action of

the Galois group Gal(

¯

k/k). Let S be the singular point of of E and

E

ns

(k) := E(k)¸¦S¦.

The same deﬁnition of group law for elliptic curves applies for E

ns

and it turns out that

E

ns

as a group and:

20 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

Exercise 1.25. If the elliptic curve E is given by the Weierstrass form

y

2

= x

3

+t

4

x +t

6

, t

2

, t

3

∈ k, ∆ = 2(4t

3

4

+ 27t

2

6

) = 0.

then E

ns

is isomorphic to the three one dimensional group described above:

E

ns

(k)

∼

= G

m

(k) or G

m

[c](k), or G

a

(k)

mentioned in the lectures. Does we need char(k) ,= 2, 3?

Exercise 1.26. For char(k) = 3 (resp. char(k) = 2) we have to consider the case (1.8)

(resp. (1.9)). Discuss the reduction modulo 2 and 3 in such cases.

1.19 Reduction of elliptic curves

We take an elliptic curve in the Weierstrass form

y

2

= x

3

+t

4

x +t

6

, t

2

, t

3

∈ Q, ∆ := 2(4t

3

4

+ 27t

2

6

) ,= 0.

and by change of coordinates (x, y) → (c

2

x, c

3

y), c ∈ Q we assume that [∆[ is minimal.

For p prime diﬀerent from 2 and 3 we have the curve E/F

p

and the reduction map

E(Q) → E(F

p

).

1. Good reduction. If p does not divide ∆ then E/F

p

is an elliptic curve.

2. Cuspidal reduction/additive reduction. The reduced curve E/F

p

has a cusp as a

singularity and so its non-singular part is an additive group. If char(k) ,= 2, 3 this

case happens if and only if p [ ∆, and p [ 2t

4

t

6

.

3. Nodal reduction/split multiplicative. The reduced curve E

ns

/F

p

is a multiplicative

group.

4. Nodal reduction/nonsplit multiplicative. The reduced curve E

ns

/F

p

is a twisted

multiplicative group.

Exercise 1.27. Reduction moulo 3 of the above elliptic curve in Weierstrass form is

singular if and only if t

4

= 0. In the singular case it is always a cusp. In reduction modulo

2 the elliptic curve E/F

2

is always singular and its singular point is S = (t

4

, t

6

). Find the

four groups E

ns

(F

2

) corresponding to the four choice of (t

4

, t

6

).

Exercise 1.28. Let E/Q : y

2

+ y = x

3

− x

2

+ 2x − 2. Show that 1. the primes of bad

reduction for E are p = 5 and 7. 2. The reduction at p = 5 is additive, while the reduction

at p = 7 is multiplicative. 3. N

E/Q

= 175.

1.20 Zeta functions of curves over Q

We follow [16] p. 102. The non-complete zeta function of a smooth curve E : f(x, y) =

0, f ∈ Z[x, y] is deﬁned to be

ζ

S

(E, s) =

p,∈S

ζ(E/F

p

, s).

where S is a ﬁnite number of prime numbers such that E/F

p

is singular.

1.21. HASSE-WEIL CONJECTURE 21

Exercise 1.29. Can you justify the deﬁnition of the zeta function of a variety over Q by

interpreting it as a Euler product, the one similar to (1.6).

In the case of elliptic curves it is natural to deﬁne

L

S

(E, s) :=

p,∈S

1

1 + (#(E(F

p

)) −p −1)p

s

+p

1−2s

and so we have

ζ

S

(E, s) =

ζ

S

(s)ζ

S

(s −1)

L

S

(E, s)

Proposition 1.10. The product ζ

S

(E, s) and hence L

S

(E, s) converges for '(s) >

3

2

Proof. It is direct consequence of the Riemann hypothesis for elliptic curves over ﬁnite

ﬁelds and the convergence of the Riemann zeta function(see [16] p.102).

We we want to deﬁne the complete L function by adding bad prime numbers p ∈ S.

We deﬁne

L

p

(T) =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

1 + (#(E(F

p

)) −p −1)T +pT

2

p good

1 −T modulo p we have split multiplicative reduction

1 +T modulo p we have non-split multiplicative reduction

1 modulo p we have additive reduction

We have deﬁned this in such a way that

L

p

(p

−1

) =

#E

ns

(F

p

)

p

Now we deﬁne the L-function of an elliptic curve E over Q:

L(E, s) =

p

1

L

p

(p

−s

)

.

1.21 Hasse-Weil conjecture

The conductor of an elliptic curve over Q is deﬁned to be

N

E/Q

=

p bad

p

fp

where f

p

= 1 if E has multiplicative reduction at p, f

p

= 2 if p ,[2, 3 and E has additive

reduction at p. For the case in which we have additive reduction modulo p = 2, 3 we have

f

p

≥ 2, f

p

∈ N and f

p

depends on wild ramiﬁcation in the action of the inertia group at

of Gal(

¯

Q/Q) on the Tate module of E.

Exercise 1.30. Discuss the case p = 2, 3 in the above deﬁnition. [16] is also talking

about a formula of Ogg f

p

= ord

p

∆ + 1 −m

p

using N´eron models. Can you obtain some

information on this.

Deﬁne

Λ(E, s) := N

s

2

E/Q

(2π)

−s

Γ(s)L(E, s)

22 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

Theorem 1.7. (Hasse-Weil conjecture for elliptic curves) The function Λ(E, s) can be

analytically continued to a meromorphic function on the whole C and it satisﬁes the func-

tional equation

Λ(E, s) = ±Λ(E, 2 −s).

This theorem was ﬁrst proved for CM elliptic curves by Deuring 1951/1952. It is

proved in its generality by the works of Eichler and Shimura, Wiles, Taylor, Diamond and

others.

1.22 Birch Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture

For the functional equation of L the value s = 1 is in the middle, i.e. it is the ﬁxed point

of s → 2 −s.

Conjecture 1.1. (BSD conjecture) For an elliptic curve E over Q, the function L(E, s)

is holomorphic at s = 1 and its order of vanishing at s = 1 is the rank of the elliptic curve

E.

A weak form of this conjecture is not also proved:

Conjecture 1.2. (weak BSD conjecture) L(E, 1) = 0 if and only if E has inﬁnitely many

rational points.

For papers on BSD conjecture see [4, 1, 2, 24, 11] [21], [17].

1.23 Congruent numbers

The bad prime numbers for the elliptic curve E

n

: y

2

= x

3

− nx are those which divide

2n. For p [ 2n, p ,= 2 or p = 2, 2[n we have an additive reduction. For p = 2 and p ,[n

we have apparently a multiplicative reduction: y

2

= x

3

+ x. The singular point in this

case is S = (1, 0) and E

ns

(F

2

) = ¦O, (0, 0)¦ which is isomorphic to (A(F

2

), +) and so it is

additive.

The conductor of E

n

is:

N

En/Q

=

_

2

4

n

2

if n is even

2

5

n

2

if n is odd

In Theorem 1.7 the root number ± is determined in the following way:

_

+1 if n ≡ 1, 2, 3 (8)

−1 if n ≡ 5, 6, 7 (8)

Reformulating Proposition 1.7 and using Exercise 1.21 we have:

(1 −T)(1 −pT)Z(E

n

/F

p

, T) =

p[¸p)

(1 −(α

p

T)

deg(p)

)

where

α

p

=

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

i

√

p if p = ¸p)

a +ib if p splits, where a +ib is the unique generator of p

which is congruent to (

n

p

) mod 2 + 2i.

0 p [ 2n

1.24. P-ADIC NUMBERS 23

The L function of E

n

is

L(E

n

, s) =

p⊂Z[i] prime

(1 −(α

p

)

deg(p)

(Np)

−s

)

−1

Now Z[i] is a Dedekind domain and so we can deﬁne a unique map χ from the ideals of

Z[i] to C such that χ

n

(p) = α

deg(p)

p

. Therefore

L(E

n

, s) =

p⊂Z[i] prime

(1 −χ(p)(Np)

−s

)

−1

=

a⊂Z[i]

χ

n

(a)(Na)

−s

where the sum is taken over all non-zero ideals.

1.24 p-adic numbers

By deﬁnition a p-adic integer is an element in the inverse limit of

→Z/p

3

Z →Z/p

2

Z →Z/pZ.

One can show that a p-adic integer is identiﬁed with a formal series

a

1

p +a

2

p

2

+a

3

p

3

+ , a

i

∈ ¦0, 1, 2, . . . , p −1¦.

The set of p-adic integers is denoted by Z

p

:

Z

p

:= lim

∞←n

Z/Zp

n

.

Z

p

is a ring without zero divisor, i.e. if ab = 0, a, b ∈ Z

p

then either a = 0 or b = 0. The

ﬁeld Q

p

of p-adic numbers is the quotient ﬁeld of Z

p

. The ring Z of integers is a subring

of Z

p

in a natural way and so Q

p

is a ﬁeld extension of Q, Q ⊂ Q

p

.

Exercise 1.31. Show that the Diphantine equation x

3

+y

3

−3 = 0 has not a solution in

Q

3

and hence it has not a solution in Q.

There is another way to deﬁne p-adic numbers. Any non-zero rational number a can

be expressed in the form a = p

r m

n

with m, n ∈ Z and not divisable by p. We deﬁne

ord

p

(a) := r, [a[

p

:=

1

p

r

, [0[

p

:= 0

We have

1.

[a[

p

= 0 if and only if a = 0

2.

[ab[

p

= [a[

p

[b[

p

, a, b ∈ Q.

3.

[a +b[

p

≤ max¦[a[

p

, [b[

p

¦ and so ≤ [a[

p

+[b[

p

24 CHAPTER 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM

Therefore,

d

p

(a, b) := [a −b[

p

is a metric on Q. The ﬁeld Q

p

of p-adic numbers is the completion of Q with respect to

d

p

. We have a cononical matric, call it again d

p

, on Q

p

which extends the previous one

on Q ⊂ Q

p

(this inclusion is given by sending a ∈ Q to the constant Cauchy sequence

a, a, . . .). The same construction with the usual norm of Q, i.e. d(a, b) = [a −b[ yields to

the ﬁeld of real numbers R.

Exercise 1.32. Prove that the two deﬁnitions of Q

p

presented above are equivalent. Prove

also

Z

p

= ¦a ∈ Q

p

[ [a[

p

≤ 1¦ = the closure of Z in Q

p

Chapter 2

Modular forms

The objective of this chapter is to introduce modular forms and their relations with elliptic

curves.

2.1 Elliptic integrals

We follow partially [22] Chapter VI ¸1.

Let us take t

2

, t

3

∈ C in such a way that the polynomial f(x) := 4x

3

− t

2

x − t

3

has

three distinct roots. In other words 27t

3

2

−t

2

3

,= 0. During the history the mathematicians

understood that the elliptic integral

_

I

dx

√

4x

3

−t

2

x −t

3

,

where I is a path connecting two roots of f, for generic numbers t

2

, t

3

is a new integral

and cannot be calculated by previusly known numbers. For simplicity one can take t

2

and

t

3

real numbers in such a way that f has three real roots. Then one can take I the interval

between two roots of f. One can write them, up to ±1, in a modern way as

_

δ

dx

y

, δ ∈ H

1

(E

t

, Z)

where E

t

: y

2

= 4x

3

−t

2

x −t

3

is an elliptic curve (see the introduction of [18]).

Exercise 2.1. Justify the topological cycle δ ∈ H

1

(E

t

, Z) described in the course.

Exercise 2.2. By algebraic geometric methods show that

dx

y

restricted to E

t

has no poles

even at inﬁnity.

2.2 Weierstrass uniformization theorem

We follow partially [22] Chapter VI ¸3. A lattice Λ in C is a Z-submodule of Z generated

by two R-linear independent elements ω

1

and ω

2

in C. Without loss of generality we can

assume that ·(

ω

1

ω

2

) > 0. For a lattice Λ ⊂ C the Weierstrass ℘-function is

℘(z, Λ) =

1

z

2

+

ω∈Λ, ω,=0

(

1

(z −ω)

2

−

1

ω

2

)

25

26 CHAPTER 2. MODULAR FORMS

and the Eisenstein series of weight 2k are

G

2k

(Λ) =

ω∈Λ, ω,=0

1

ω

2k

Proposition 2.1. Let Λ ⊂ C be a lattice. The Eenstein series G

2k

is absolutely convergent

for all k > 1. The Weierstrass ℘-function converges absolutely and uniformely on every

compact subset of C −Λ.

Proof. See Theorem 3.1 of [22].

Exercise 2.3. Show that

ω∈Λ, ω,=0

1

(z−ω)

2

does not converge.

Let L be the space of lattices Λ = Zω

1

+Zω

2

⊂ C.

Exercise 2.4. Show that L has a natural structure of a complex manifold. More precisely,

show that L can be obtained by a quotient of a complex manifold by SL(2, Z).

Theorem 2.1. (Weierstrass uniformization theorem) Let

E

t

: y

2

= 4x

3

−t

2

x −t

3

, t

3

2

−27t

2

3

,= 0.

The map given by

p : C

2

¸¦t

3

2

−27t

2

3

= 0¦ → L

(t

2

, t

3

) →

_

H

1

(Et,Z)

dx

y

is well-deﬁned and it is a biholomorphism which satisﬁes

p(t

2

λ

−4

, t

3

λ

−6

) = λp(t

2

, t

3

).

Its inverse is given by the Eisenstein series:

Λ → (g

2

(Λ), g

3

(Λ))

where

g

2

:= 60G

4

, g

3

= −140G

6

Moreover, for a ﬁxed t

2

, t

3

the Abel map given by

E

t

→C/Λ, a →

_

∞

a

dx

y

is a biholomorphism and homomorphism of groups and its inverse is given by

z → [℘(z, Λ); ℘

t

(z, Λ); 1],

where Λ = p(t).

Exercise 2.5. Ex. 6.2, 6.4,6.6,6.7,6.14 of [22].

2.3. PICARD-LEFSCHETZ THEORY 27

2.3 Picard-Lefschetz theory

We consider again the familly of elliptic curves

E

t

: y

2

= 4x

3

−t

2

x −t

3

, t

3

2

−27t

2

3

,= 0.

Let us put

T := C

2

−¦(t

2

, t

3

) ∈ C

2

[ t

3

2

−27t

2

3

= 0¦

By Ehresmann’s theorem the ﬁbration E

t

, t ∈ T is a C

∞

bundle over T, i.e. it is locally

trivial. This is the basic stone for the Picard-Lefschetz theory (see for instance [?] and

the references there). It gives us the following linear action:

π

1

(T, b) H

1

(E

b

, Z) → H

1

(E

b

, Z)

where b ∈ T is a ﬁxed point In order to calculate it we proceed as follows: First we choose

two cycles δ

1

, δ

2

∈ H

1

(E

b

, Z). For the ﬁxed parameter t

2

,= 0, deﬁne the function f in the

following way:

f : C

2

→C, (x, y) → −y

2

+ 4x

3

−t

2

x.

The function f has two critical values given by

˜

t

3

,

ˇ

t

3

= ±

_

t

3

2

27

. In a regular ﬁber E

t

=

f

−1

(t

3

) of f one can take two cycles δ

1

and δ

2

such that ¸δ

1

, δ

2

) = 1 and δ

1

(resp. δ

2

)

vanishes along a straight line connecting t

3

to

˜

t

3

(resp.

ˇ

t

3

). The corresponding anti-

clockwise monodromy around the critical value

˜

t

3

(resp

ˇ

t

3

) can be computed using the

Picard-Lefschetz formula:

δ

1

→ δ

1

, δ

2

→ δ

2

+δ

1

( resp. δ

1

→ δ

1

−δ

2

, δ

2

→ δ

2

).

It is not hard to see that the canonical map π

1

(C¸¦

˜

t

3

,

ˇ

t

3

¦, b) → π

1

(T, t) induced by inclu-

sion is an isomorphism of groups and so the image of the monodromy group written in

the basis δ

1

and δ

2

is:

¸A

1

, A

2

) = SL(2, Z), where A

1

:=

_

1 0

1 1

_

, A

2

:=

_

1 −1

0 1

_

.

Note that g

1

:= A

−1

2

A

−1

1

A

−1

2

=

_

0 1

−1 0

_

, g

2

:= A

−1

1

A

−1

2

=

_

1 1

−1 0

_

and SL(2, Z) =

¸g

1

, g

2

[ g

2

1

= g

3

2

= −I), where I is the identity 2 2 matrix.

Exercise 2.6. Discuss the Picard-Lefschetz theory as above for the Legendre family of

elliptic curves:

y

2

= x(x −1)(x −λ)

2.4 Schwarz function

Let us take the Legendre family of elliptic curves and consider the Schwarz function

λ →

_

δ

1

dx

y

_

δ

2

dx

y

∈ H

It is multivalued beacuse of the choice of δ

1

, δ

2

. In order to get a one valued function we

restrict λ to H and choose cycles δ

i

, i = 1, 2 such that the projection of δ

1

(resp. δ

2

)

28 CHAPTER 2. MODULAR FORMS

Figure 2.1: Fundamental domain

to the x-palne is a cycle around 0 (resp. 1 )and λ. In this way the Shwarz function is a

biholomorphisim. Its analytic continuations around λ = 0, 1 corresponds to the Picard-

Lefschetz transformation of δ

1

and δ

2

.

Exercise 2.7. Show that the image of the Schwarz function is the region depicted in 2.1

1

.

The analytic continuations of the Schwarz map gives us the trianglization of H.

2.5 CM elliptic curves

Recall that L is a complex manifold whose points are lattices Λ = Zω

1

+Zω

2

. In fact one

can reinterpret it as follows:

Exercise 2.8. L is the moduli of triples (E, ω, p), where E is a Riemann surface of genus

one, p ∈ E, and ω is a holomorphic diﬀerential form on E. The canonical action of a ∈ C

∗

on L corresponds to the multiplication of ω with a

−1

.

Deﬁnition 2.1. The endomorphisim group of an elliptic curve E = E

Λ

is the set of all

holomorphic maps E

Λ

→ E

Λ

which are in addition homomorphisims of groups. It is in

one to one correspondance with

End(E) = ¦α ∈ C [ αΛ ⊂ Λ¦

We have Z ⊂ End(E) and we say that E is CM if the inclusion is strict.

Later, we will encounter two spcial CM elliptic curves as follows:

Exercise 2.9. Classify all elliptic curves E with α ∈ End(E) which is not multiplication

by ±1 and is an isomorphism. More precisely show that we have only two such elliptic

curve

E = E

¸z,1)

, z = i,

−1 +i

√

3

2

.

Exercise 2.10. Ex. 8,9,10,12 of Koblitz.

1

Reproduced from Wikipedia

2.6. FULL MODULAR FORMS 29

2.6 Full modular forms

Let us consider a point z ∈ H and the lattice ¸1, z) ⊂ C. The Eisenstein series restricted

to such a lattice gives us the following series

G

2k

(z) :=

(n,m)∈Z

2

−¡(0,0)¦

1

(nz +m)

2k

, k = 2, 3, . . .

which we call them again Eisenstein series. It is easy to show that G

2k

is a modular form

of weight 2k for the group SL(2, Z):

Deﬁnition 2.2. A holomorphic function f : H →C is called a modular form of weight k

for the group SL(2, Z) (full modular form of weight k) if

1. f has a ﬁnite growth at inﬁnity, i.e.

(2.1) lim

.z→∞

f(z) = a

∞

∈ C

2. f satisﬁes

(cz +d)

−k

f(

az +b

cz +d

) = f(z), ∀,

_

a b

c d

_

∈ SL(2, Z), z ∈ H.

The group SL(2, R) acts on H in a canonical way:

_

a b

c d

_

z :=

az +b

cz +d

,

_

a b

c d

_

∈ SL(2, R), z ∈ H

The fundamental domain of the action of SL(2, Z) is depicted in Figure 2.1. It is useful to

deﬁne the slash operator on holomorphic functions f in H:

f[

k

(z) := (cz +d)

−k

f(

az +b

cz +d

),

_

a b

c d

_

∈ SL(2, R), z ∈ H.

Exercise 2.11. Modular forms of weight k are in one to one correspondance with holo-

morphic functions f on L such that

1. For all Λ ∈ L and a ∈ C

∗

, f(aΛ) = a

−k

f(Λ).

2. f(¸z, 1)) has ﬁnite growth at inﬁnity as in (2.1).

2.7 Fourier series

Since for a full modular form we have f(z + 1) = f(z) we can write the Laurant series of

f in e

2πiz

:

f(z) =

∞

i=0

a

i

q

i

, q := e

2πiz

This is called the Fourier series (q-expansion) of f.

30 CHAPTER 2. MODULAR FORMS

Proposition 2.2. Let k > 2 be an even integer. The q-expansion of G

k

is as follows:

G

k

= 2ζ(k)(1 −

2k

B

k

∞

n=1

σ

k−1

(n)q

n

), q := e

2πiz

where the Bernoulli numbers B

k

are deﬁned by:

x

e

x

−1

=

∞

k=1

B

k

x

k

k!

= 1 +

−1

2

1!

x +

1

6

2!

x

2

+

−1

30

4!

x

4

+

1

42

6!

x

6

+

1

32

8!

x

8

+

5

66

10!

x

10

+

and

σ

k−1

(n) :=

d[n

d

k−1

Proof. [9], p. 110.

It is sometimes usefull to deﬁne the normalized Eisenstein series:

E

k

=

1

2

n,m∈Z, (n,m)=1

1

(nz +m)

k

= 1 −

2k

B

k

∞

n=1

σ

k−1

(n)q

n

2.8 The algebra of modular forms

Let us denote by M

k

:= M

k

(SL(2, Z)) the vector space of full modular forms of weight k.

The set

M = ⊕

k∈Z

M

k

form a graded C-algebra.

Proposition 2.3. The C-algebra M is freely generated by the Eisenstein series G

k

, k =

4, 6.

Proof. The proposition follows from the Weierstrass uniformization theorem as follows:

Let us consider the map

H →C

2

, z → p

−1

(¸z, 1))

It factores through H → D − ¦0¦, z → e

2πiz

and so using Proposition 2.2 we obtain the

holomorphic map

α : D →C

2

, α(q) = (60G

4

(q), −140G

6

(q)).

Moreover, we can check that α(0) is a regular point of ∆ = 0 and the image of α at α(0)

is transeverse to ∆ = 0.

We consider a modular form as a holomorphic function on L as it is asked in Exercise

2.11. Pulling back f by the period map p we get a holomorphic function g in T :=

C

2

−¦∆ = 0¦ which satisﬁes

g(λ

−4

t

2

, λ

−6

t

3

) = λg(t

2

, t

3

)

and g restricted to the image of α is holomorphic in α(0). Conversely, a holomorphic

function g in T with these properties corresponds to a modular form f. It follows that g

is holomorphic in all points of ∆ = 0 and so it extends to a holomorphic function in C

2

.

Writting the taylor series of f with homoheneous pieces in C[t

2

, t

3

], deg(t

2

) = 4, deg(t

6

) =

6 we conclude that g is homogeneous polynomial of degree k in the mentioned ring.

2.9. THE DISCRIMINANT 31

2.9 The discriminant

Recall that

ζ(4) =

π

4

90

, ζ(6) =

π

6

945

,

We deﬁne

∆ := t

3

2

−27t

2

3

= g

3

2

−27g

2

3

= (2ζ(4)60E

4

)

3

−27(2ζ(6)140)

2

E

2

6

=

(2π)

12

1728

(E

3

4

−E

2

6

)

and we have

(2π)

−12

∆ =

1

1728

(E

3

4

−E

2

6

) = (

∞

n=1

τ(n)q

n

= q−24q

2

+252q

3

−1472q

4

+4830q

5

+ = q

∞

n=1

(1−q

n

)

24

τ(n) is called the Ramanujan function of n.

Exercise 2.12. Exercise 4, p. 123 of Koblitz. The third part of the exercise says that

τ(n) ≡ σ

11

(n)( mod 691)

Also Ex. 3

2.10 The j function

We have

j = 1728

t

3

2

t

3

2

−27t

2

3

= 1728

E

3

4

E

3

4

−E

2

6

=

1

q

+744+196884q +21493760q

2

+864299970q

3

+

There is so called Monstrous Moonshine conjecture, proved by Brocherd, relating the co-

eﬃcients of the q-expansion of j with the minimal dimensions needed to represent monster

groups.

2.11 Hecke operators

So far, we have interpreted modular forms as functions in theree spaces: the Poicar´e upper

half plan H, the space L of lattices and the aﬃne space A

2

C

representing the parameters

t

2

and t

3

. In this section for each natural number n we want to deﬁne the Hecke operator

T

n

: M

k

→ M

k

which is a linear map. It is given by one of the following equivalent deﬁnitions:

1. For f : H →C a modular form of weight k we have

T

n

(f) =

s

i=1

f[

k

A

i

,

where ¦[A

1

], [A

2

], [A

s

]¦ = SL(2, Z)/Mat

n

(2, Z).

32 CHAPTER 2. MODULAR FORMS

2. For f : L →C a modular form of weight k we have

T

n

(f)(Λ) =

Λ

f(Λ

t

),

where Λ

t

runs through all sublattices Λ

t

⊂ Λ of index n. This means that #(Λ/Λ

t

) =

n.

3. For f a homogeneous polynomial of degree k in C[t

t

, t

3

], deg(t

2

) = 4, deg(t

3

) = 6

we have

T

n

(f)(t

2

, t

3

) =

t

f(t

t

),

where t

t

= (t

t

2

, t

t

3

) runs through all parameters for which there is an isogeny α :

E

t

→ E

t

such that α

∗

(

dx

y

) =

dx

y

and deg(α) = n.

Exercise 2.13. Prove the equivalence of the above deﬁnitions.

Exercise 2.14. Prove that each equivalence class in SL(2, Z)/Mat

n

(2, Z) is represented

exactly by one of the matrices

_

d b

0

n

d

_

, d[n, 0 ≤ b <

n

d

.

Exercise 2.15. Can you show by algebraic geometric methods that for ﬁxed t ∈ C

2

¸¦∆ =

0¦ the set of parameters t

t

with

α : E

t

→ E

t

, α

∗

dx

y

=

dx

y

, deg(α) = n

is ﬁnite.

Let A be an element in the group generated by GL

+

(2, R) and ¦

_

λ 0

0 λ

_

[ λ ∈ C

∗

¦

∼

= C

∗

.

Let also ω =

_

ω

1

ω

2

_

∈ T. Then

Aω ∈ T.

Using the map p in Weierstrass uniformization theorem, we can translate the above process

to the (t

2

, t

3

)-space. Namely, for each t ∈ C

2

− ¦∆ = 0¦ and a basis of the homology

δ

1

, δ

2

∈ H

1

(E

t

, Z) with ¸δ

1

, δ

2

) = 1 and A as above we have a local holomorphic map

t → α(t). If we choose another basis of H

1

(E

t

, Z) obtained by the previous one by an

element B ∈ SL(2, Z), then we have a new period matrix ABω. This is equal to Aω in L

if and only if

ABA

−1

∈ SL(2, Z).

We conclude that if we choose representatives for the quotient

(A SL(2, Z) A

−1

∩ SL(2, Z))¸(A SL(2, Z) A

−1

) = ¦[A

i

] [ i = 1, 2, . . . , s¦

then to each A

i

we have associated a local map α

i

(t).

Exercise 2.16. Let A

i

= AS

i

A

−1

, S

i

∈ SL(2, Z). Show that

SL(2, Z)/Mat

n

(2, Z) = ¦[AS

i

] [ i = 1, 2, . . . , s¦

and vice-versa.

2.12. GROUPS 33

Exercise 2.17. For two natural numbers n.m and Hecke operators T

n

, T

m

∈ M

k

→ M

k

prove that

T

n

◦ T

m

=

d[(n,m)

d

k−1

T

nm

d

2

.

The above formula is summarized in the following formal equality:

∞

n=1

T

n

n

−s

=

p

(1 −T

p

p

−s

+p

k−1−2s

)

−1

Let f be a modular form with the Fourier expansion:

f(z) =

∞

n=0

a

n

q

n

, q = e

2iπz

.

For m ∈ N, we have T

m

f(z) =

∞

n=0

b

n

q

n

, where

b

n

=

d[ gcd(m,n)

d

k−1

a

mn/d

2.

Exercise 2.18. Let n ∈ N. Are there polynomials p

n,i

(t

2

, t

3

), i = 2, 3 such that p

n

:=

(p

n,2

, p

n,3

) leaves ∆ = 0 invariant and

T

n

(f)(t) = f(p

−1

n

(t)), f ∈ M

k

,

where f(X) =

x∈X

f(x).

2.12 Groups

We have seen that SL(2, Z) appears as the monodromy group of the Weierstrass familly

of elliptic curves. In this section we work with subgroups of SL(2, Z). Let N be a positive

integer number. Deﬁne

Γ(N) := ¦A ∈ SL(2, Z) [ A ≡

_

1 0

0 1

_

( mod N)¦

It is the kernel of the canonical homomorphism of groups SL(2, Z) → SL(2, Z/NZ). A

subgroup Γ ⊂ SL(2, Z) is called a congruence subgroup of level N if it contains Γ(N). Our

main examples are

Γ

1

(N) := ¦A ∈ SL(2, Z) [ A ≡

_

∗ ∗

0 ∗

_

( mod N)¦

Γ

1

(N) := ¦A ∈ SL(2, Z) [ A ≡

_

1 ∗

0 1

_

( mod N)¦

Let Λ ⊂ C be a lattice. The N-torsion subgroup of the complex elliptic curve E = C/Λ is

E[N] := ¦p ∈ E [ np = 0¦ = (

1

N

Λ)/Λ.

34 CHAPTER 2. MODULAR FORMS

and

µ

N

:= ¦e

2πik

N

[ k ∈ Z¦.

The Weil pairing

e

N

: E[N] E(N) → µ

N

is deﬁned as follows: let Λ = Zω

1

+Zω

2

, ·(

ω

1

ω

2

) > 0. For p, q ∈ E[N] write

_

p

q

_

= A

_

ω

1

N

ω

2

N

_

, A ∈ SL(2, Z).

Deﬁne

e

N

(p, q) = e

2πi det(A)

N

Exercise 2.19. Prove that the above deﬁnition is well-deﬁned.

Proposition 2.4. Let

Y

0

(N) := Γ

0

(N)¸H, Y

1

(N) := Γ

1

(N)¸H, Y (N) := Γ(N)¸H.

1. The set Y

0

(N) is the moduli space of pairs (E, C), where E is a complex elliptic

curve and C is a cyclic subgroup of E of order N.

2. The set Y

1

(N) is the moduli space of pairs (E, p), where E is a complex elliptic curve

and p is a point of E of order N.

3. The set Y (N) is the moduli space of pairs (E, (p, q)), where E is a complex elliptic

curve and (p, q) is a pair of points of E that generates the N-torsion subgroup of E

with Weil pairing e

N

(p, q) = e

2πi

N

.

The item 2 is proved in the lectures.

Exercise 2.20. Prove 1 and 3 above.

Bibliography

[1] B. J. Birch and H. P. F. Swinnerton-Dyer. Notes on elliptic curves. I. J. Reine Angew.

Math., 212:7–25, 1963.

[2] B. J. Birch and H. P. F. Swinnerton-Dyer. Notes on elliptic curves. II. J. Reine

Angew. Math., 218:79–108, 1965.

[3] J. W. S. Cassels. Diophantine equations with special reference to elliptic curves. J.

London Math. Soc., 41:193–291, 1966.

[4] J. Coates and A. Wiles. On the conjecture of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer. Invent.

Math., 39(3):223–251, 1977.

[5] Dale Husem¨oller. Elliptic curves, volume 111 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics.

Springer-Verlag, New York, second edition, 2004. With appendices by Otto Forster,

Ruth Lawrence and Stefan Theisen.

[6] Nathan Jacobson. Basic algebra. I. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, second

edition, 1985.

[7] S. Kamienny. Torsion points on elliptic curves and q-coeﬃcients of modular forms.

Invent. Math., 109(2):221–229, 1992.

[8] Nicholas M. Katz. An overview of Deligne’s proof of the Riemann hypothesis for

varieties over ﬁnite ﬁelds. In Mathematical developments arising from Hilbert problems

(Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., Vol. XXVIII, Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, Ill.,

1974), pages 275–305. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, R.I., 1976.

[9] Neal Koblitz. Introduction to elliptic curves and modular forms, volume 97 of Grad-

uate Texts in Mathematics. Springer-Verlag, New York, second edition, 1993.

[10] Serge Lang. Elliptic curves: Diophantine analysis, volume 231 of Grundlehren der

Mathematischen Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Sciences].

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978.

[11] Serge Lang. Sur la conjecture de Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer (d’apr`es J. Coates et A.

Wiles). In S´eminaire Bourbaki, 29e ann´ee (1976/77), volume 677 of Lecture Notes in

Math., pages Exp. 503, pp. 189–200. Springer, Berlin, 1978.

[12] Ju. I. Manin. Rational points on algebraic curves over function ﬁelds. Izv. Akad.

Nauk SSSR Ser. Mat., 27:1395–1440, 1963.

[13] B. Mazur. Modular curves and the Eisenstein ideal. Inst. Hautes

´

Etudes Sci. Publ.

Math., (47):33–186 (1978), 1977.

35

36 BIBLIOGRAPHY

[14] B. Mazur. Rational isogenies of prime degree (with an appendix by D. Goldfeld).

Invent. Math., 44(2):129–162, 1978.

[15] Lo¨ıc Merel. Bornes pour la torsion des courbes elliptiques sur les corps de nombres.

Invent. Math., 124(1-3):437–449, 1996.

[16] J. S. Milne. Elliptic curves. Lecture notes, www.jmilne.org, 1996.

[17] L. J. Mordell. Diophantine equations. Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 30.

Academic Press, London, 1969.

[18] Hossein Movasati. Moduli of polarized hodge structures. Bull. Bras. Math. Soc.,

39(1):81–107, 2008.

[19] Trygve Nagell. Solution de quelques probl`emes dans la th´eorie arithm´etique des

cubiques planes du premier genre. Technical report, Skr. Norske Vid.-Akad., Oslo

1935, No.1, 1-25 , 1935.

[20] Ernst S. Selmer. The Diophantine equation ax

3

+by

3

+cz

3

= 0. Acta Math., 85:203–

362 (1 plate), 1951.

[21] Jean-Pierre Serre. Lectures on the Mordell-Weil theorem. Aspects of Mathematics,

E15. Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1989. Translated from the French and

edited by Martin Brown from notes by Michel Waldschmidt.

[22] Joseph H. Silverman. The arithmetic of elliptic curves, volume 106 of Graduate Texts

in Mathematics. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992. Corrected reprint of the 1986

original.

[23] Joseph H. Silverman and John Tate. Rational points on elliptic curves. Undergraduate

Texts in Mathematics. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992.

[24] J. B. Tunnell. A classical Diophantine problem and modular forms of weight 3/2.

Invent. Math., 72(2):323–334, 1983.

[25] Andr´e Weil. Numbers of solutions of equations in ﬁnite ﬁelds. Bull. Amer. Math.

Soc., 55:497–508, 1949.

ii

Contents

0 Introduction 1 Elliptic curves in Weierstrass form 1.1 Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Elliptic curves in Weierstrass form . . . . . . . 1.4 Real geometry of elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Complex geometry of elliptic curves . . . . . . 1.6 Congruent numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 The group law in elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . 1.8 Weierstrass form revised . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 Finite ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.10 Elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds . . . . . . . . . 1.11 Mordell-Weil Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.12 Zeta functions of elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds 1.13 Nagell-Lutz Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.14 Mazur theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.15 Riemann zeta function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.16 Dedekind Zeta function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.17 Discriminant revised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.18 One dimensional algebraic groups . . . . . . . . 1.19 Reduction of elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . . . 1.20 Zeta functions of curves over Q . . . . . . . . . 1.21 Hasse-Weil conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.22 Birch Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture . . . . . . . 1.23 Congruent numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.24 p-adic numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Modular forms 2.1 Elliptic integrals . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Weierstrass uniformization theorem 2.3 Picard-Lefschetz theory . . . . . . 2.4 Schwarz function . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 CM elliptic curves . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Full modular forms . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 The algebra of modular forms . . . 2.9 The discriminant . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 3 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 25 25 25 27 27 28 29 29 30 31

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

iii

iv

CONTENTS 2.10 The j function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.11 Hecke operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.12 Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Chapter 0 Introduction Modular forms and elliptic curves are ﬁrmly rooted in the fertil grounds of number theory. During this passage one encounters the Modularity conjecture which claims that every elliptic curve over Q is modular. Gerhart Frey considered the elliptic curve EA.C : y 2 = x(x − A)(x + B) From this one construct a modular form fA. As a proof of the mentioned fact and as an introduction to the present text we mention the followings: For p prime. C) = (ap . the Fermat last theorem ask for a non-trivial integer solution for the Diophantine equation ap + bp + cp = 0 For a hypothetical solution (A. 1 . Another formulation of modularity property is by using L functions which generalizes the famous Riemann zeta function ∞ ζ(s) := n=1 1 ns 1 Riemann hypothesis claims that all the non-trivial zeros of ζ lies on (s) = 2 and it has strong consequences on the growth of prime number. Roughly speaking this means that every elliptic curve over Q appears in the Jacobian of of a modular curve of level N . bp . cp ) of the Fermat equation.B. It is assumed that the reader has a basic knowledge in algebraic geometry of curves and complex analysis in one variable. B. For the L functions associated to elliptic curves one has the Birch-Swinnerton Dyer conjecture which predicts the rank of an elliptic curve to be the order of vanishing of the corresponding L-function at s = 1.C and a Galois representation with certain properties and then one proves that such objects does not exist.B.

2 CHAPTER 0. INTRODUCTION .

0)}/ ∼ a ∼ b if and only if ∃λ ∈ k. By k we mean the algebraic closure of k. ∞ For simplicity. The main examples that we have in mind are k = Q. in the case n = 1. (x1 . The n dimensional aﬃne space over k is by deﬁnition An (k) = k × k × · · · × k. xn . . The projective space at inﬁnity is deﬁned to be Pn−1 (k) = Pn (k) − An (k) = {[x1 . Later. .1 Curves Let k be a ﬁeld and k[x. 1] and call Pn the compactiﬁcation of An . We denote it by Fn . 1. y) and (x. C. x2 . y] deﬁnes an aﬃne curve C(k) := {(x. x2 ..t2 . xn+1 ] | xn+1 = 0}. n times and the projective n dimensional space is Pn (k) := An+1 (k) − {(0. z) instead of x1 . y) ∈ k2 | f (x. . · · · . A number ﬁeld k is a ﬁeld that contains Q and has ﬁnite dimension. The most famous Diophantine curve is give by f = xn + y n − 1. . . · · · . . ts ) over s a ﬁeld k is the ﬁeld of rational functions a(t1 . . y) = 0}. . we will also use the ﬁeld of p-adic numbers. y and with coeﬃcients in k. ... . ts and with coeﬃcients in t1 . R. t2 .. xn . when considered as a vector space over Q. (x. xn ) → [x1 . . y. . . t2 .. Fp := Z Z/pZ a number ﬁeld and function ﬁeld.ts )) . .t indeterminates t1 .··· . t2 . y] be the space of polynomial in two variables x. where a and b are polynomials in b(t1 . x2 . Any polynomial f ∈ k[x.Chapter 1 Elliptic curves in Weierstrass form Throughout the present text we work with a ﬁeld k of arbitrary characteristic and not ¯ necessarily algebraically closed. A function ﬁeld k(t1 . · · · . x2 . a = λb We will consider the following inclusion An (k) → Pn (k). · · · .t2 . 0. ts . 3 . 2 and 3 we use x. .

b) ∈ ¯2 k such that f (a. z) = 0}. y] we deﬁne the homogenization of f x y F (x. We say that an aﬃne curve C is singular if there is a point (a. One has the injection ¯ C(k) → C(k). By deﬁnition it is a homogeneous polynomial of degree d. The set C(k) may be empty. y] ∈ P1 | g(x. Its genus is by deﬁnition g(C) := (d − 1)(d − 2) 2 . b) = fy (a. y. i. Let C be a smooth projective curve of degree d in P2 .2. For f ∈ k[x. y. y. y] and the output ∆ which is a polynomial in the coeﬃcients of f such that {f = 0} is singular ⇔ ∆ = 0. Note that ∀c ∈ k. cy. One of the starting points of the theory of schemes is this simple observation. Give an algorithm with the input f ∈ k[x. Remark 1. its deﬁning polynomial is of degree d. We are also going to use the notion of an arbitrary curve over k form algebraic geometry of schemes. The reader who is not familiar with those general objects may follow the text for aﬃne and projective curves as above.1. z] ∈ P2 (k) | F (x. Deﬁnition 1. The set of points at inﬁnity of Fn is empty if n is even and it is {[1. b) = 0. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM Remark 1. −1]} if n is odd. y. Using other charts of P2 one can deﬁne a singular point of a projective curve.e. 1] ¯ and for this reason one sometimes says that C(k) is the compactiﬁcation of C(k). where fx is the derivation of f with respect to x and so on. ¯ Roughly speaking.1. ). z) ∈ k3 . (x. cz) = cd F (x. The set C(k) is now the set of k-rational points of C. Exercise 1. for instance take k = Q. Let g be the las homogeneous piece of the polynomial f .4 CHAPTER 1. y.1. z) = z d f ( . y. b) = fx (a. The points in ¯ C(k) − C(k) = {[x. z z F deﬁnes a projective plane curve in P2 (k): ¯ C(k) := {[x. y) → [x. (x. F (cx. f = x2 + y 2 + 1. This means that the identiﬁcation of a curve with its points in some ﬁeld is not a good treatment of curves. a curve C over k means C over k and the ingredient polynomials of C are deﬁned over k. From now on we use the notation C or {f = 0} instead of C(k). d := deg(f ). y) = 0} ∞ ¯ are called the points at inﬁnity of C(k). z).

However. For higher genus we have a conjecture of Mordell around 1922 which is proved by Faltings in 1982: A non-singular projective curve of genus> 1 and deﬁned over Q has only ﬁnitely many Q-rational points. The machinery of algebraic geometry is very useful to distinguish between various types of Diophantine equations. It has only one point at inﬁnity. 1.2. For instance. 1. Manin in 1963. ELLIPTIC CURVES 5 The main objective of the Diophantine theory is to describe the set C(Q) for the curves deﬁned over Q. the above theorem is true even for number ﬁelds.2. 0] is the only intersection point of the ¯ line at inﬁnity with E. . The most famous example is the Fermat curve given by the polynomial f = xn +y n −1. by deﬁnition an elliptic curve over k has at least a k-rational point. However E : 3x3 + 4y 3 + 5z 3 = 0 has not Q-rational points and so it is not an elliptic curve deﬁned over Q. Mordell’s conjecture for function ﬁelds was proved by Y.t3 is always singular and it can be easily shown that ∆ = 0 if and only if the corresponding curve is singular.2 Elliptic curves We are ready to give the deﬁnition of an elliptic curve: Deﬁnition 1. In fact. it does not say something about the nature of Fn (Q). It has Q-rational points [0. An elliptic curve over k is a pair (E. the Fermat curve F3 : x3 + y 3 = z 3 is an elliptic curve over Q. which is considered as the marked point ¯ in the deﬁnition of an elliptic curve. 0. 3 2 3 An elliptic curve in the Weierstrass form E is the aﬃne curve given by the polynomial In homogeneous coordinates it is written in the form zy 2 − 4x3 + t2 xz 2 + t3 z 3 = 0.1. This example is due to Selmer (see [3. p). ∆ := t3 − 27t2 = 0. namely [0. t2 . 1]. Collect information on rational points of quadratic polynomials of degree two and in two variables. If char(k) = 2. 1. 20]). t3 ∈ k. For instance the above theorem says that the Fermat curve Fn has a ﬁnite number of Q-rational points.2. A smooth projective curve of degree 3 is therefore an elliptic curve if it has a k-rational point. Genus one curves are called elliptic curves and the study of their rational points is the objective of the present text. 1] and [1.3 Elliptic curves in Weierstrass form Et2 . It is in fact a smooth point of E which is tangent to the projective line at inﬁnity of order 3 and [0. where E is a genus one complete smooth curve and p is p is a k-rational point of E. see [12] . Therefore. 3 then the curve Et2 . It is an interesting fact to mention that E(Qp ) for all prime p and E(R) are not empty. 0]. Exercise 1.t3 : y 2 − 4x3 + t2 x + t3 . 1. one can describe the rational points of genus zero curves. char(k) = 2. 1. For instance.

For an elliptic curve E deﬁned over R we want to analyze the topology of E(R).6 0. which we call it an aﬃne oval. If ∆ > 0 then E(R) has two connected components.5 Complex geometry of elliptic curves Let C be a smooth projective curve of genus g over a subﬁeld k of C. t3 and Et2 . For simplicity (in fact because of Proposition 1. 3.t3 is in the Weierstrass form. For (t2 . To see/prove all the topological statements above.t3 (R) are done by colours).4 -1. We call it a projective oval.6 CHAPTER 1. 4. one is a closed path in R2 . ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM 1. We call each of them an oval.8 1. If ∆ = 0 and t3 < 0 then E(R) is an α-shaped path in R2 (∞-shaped path in P2 (R)).6 -0. In this case.1 and 1. In this case.4 -0.4 Real geometry of elliptic curves For a projective smooth curve C deﬁned over R the set C(R) has many connected components. .8 -2. all of them topologically isomorphic to a circle. and the other a closed path in P2 (R).7. 1.6 Figure 1. We have: 1. 2. In this case. 1.6 2. If t2 = t3 = 0 then E(R) look likes a broken line in R2 . 0]. t3 ) ∈ R2 let ∆ = t3 − 27t2 be the 2 3 discriminant of the elliptic curve E. Note that in the (t2 . it is enough to take an example in each class and draw the corresponding E(R). It can be shown that C(C) is a compact (Riemann) surface with g(C) wholes (a sphere with g handles).2 which will be presented later) we assume that E = Et2 . we say that E has a cuspidal singularity.1: Elliptic curves: y 2 − 4x3 + t2 x + t3 = 0 1. If ∆ = 0 and t3 > 0 then E(R) is a union of a point and a projective oval. If ∆ < 0 then E(R) has only one component which is a projective oval. t3 )-space each set deﬁned by the above items is connected and the topology of E(R) does not change in each item (see Figure 1. we say that E has a complex nodal singularity. Note that E(R) intersects the line at inﬁnity only at [0.8 -1. the correspondence between the values of t2 . 5.8 0 0. we say that E has a real nodal singularity.

1. 0. In genus one case. 1. Consider the aﬃne curve Cn /Q in A3 deﬁned by the above equations. therefore. t3 ) = (±4. y and z are the sides of the triangle. Riemann-Hurwitz formula. z) → ( . y) ∈ En (Q) be in the image of Cn (Q) → En (Q) is that 1.5 -5 -2. xy) deﬁned over Q. w] = [0.2: The curve t3 − 27t2 = 0 and points (t2 . It intersects the projective space at inﬁnity in 4 points: [x.3. 1. (4. A necessary and suﬃcient condition for the point (x. 2 4 and C → En . the set C(C) is torus. En : y 2 = x3 − n2 x. x to be a square and that . In other words we are looking for the Diophantine equation: 1 Cn : x2 + y 2 = z 2 . 0]. where x.5 8 Figure 1. Give a proof of the above statement using the followings. 2. Exercise 1. 1. y. y) → (x2 . z. (x. ±1. Any compact Riemann surface is diﬀeomorphic to a sphere with some handles.6. We have morphisms z x2 − y 2 ) Cn → C.4. (x.6 Congruent numbers A natural number n is said to be congruent if it is the area of a right triangle whose sides have rational length. Let C : y 2 = x4 − n2 . 0). Proposition 1. CONGRUENT NUMBERS 7 2.5 5 -2. [±1. y. 2. n = xy 2 in Q.1. For a smooth elliptic curve E over R and in the Weierstrass form describe the real curves E(R) inside the torus (Hint: Use the Riemann-Hurwitz formula). 0]. ± 3√3 ) 2 3 Exercise 1.5 0 2.

Deﬁne P + Q = O(P Q) For instance. 2. (P Q. P. zi are linearly independent. 1. Note that from these 8 points it crosses there cubic polynomials: C. P ).1. yi . Proof. Q. Ex. The above construction turns C(k) into a commutative group. R. yi . P + (Q + R) coincides in a Zariski open subset and so they are equal. Theorem 1. A cubic polynomial F passing through all Pi ’s corresponds to a vector a ∈ ¯10 such that Pi · a = 0 and so the space of k such cubic polynomials is two dimensional.5. (P. P. Let Cn be the projectivization of Cn in P3 . The morphisms C × C × C → C. Q + R).8 CHAPTER 1. 1. R) → (P + Q) + R. 0] the point at inﬁnity. its denominator be divisible by two 3. Fix a point O ∈ C(k) and call it the zero element of C(k). 3. Q+ R) and the product of the lines (0. If P = Q then L is the tangent line to C at P . Q. Q ∈ C(k) and L be the line in P2 connecting two points P and Q. . Exercise 1.6. QR. the product of lines through (0. 1. (P (Q+R). Q + R and conclude that (P + Q)R = P (Q + R). We apply the ﬁrst part to the eight points O. Q. for an elliptic curve in the weierstrass form take O = [0. This means that there is two cubic polynomial F and G such that any other cubic polynomial passing through Pi ’s is of the form λF +µG and so it crosses a ninth point too.2. (P + Q)R): P +Q PQ O R Q QR (P + Q)R. zi ] be 8 points in P2 (k) such that the vectors (x3 . zi ) ∈ ¯10 of k i monomials of degree 3 in xi . ¯ ¯ Exercise 1. QR. The proof is simple and is left to the reader (see [9]).7 The group law in elliptic curves Let C be a smooth cubic curve in P2 . · · · . Is Cn smooth? If yes determine its genus. P Q. P + Q. By deﬁnition O + O = O. P (Q + R) P Q + R (each column or row corresponds to aline).4 of Koblitz. The line L ¯ is deﬁned over k and it is easy to verify that the third intersection R := P Q of C(k) with ¯ L(k) is also in C(k). Q.3. page 5. P +Q). P Q. QR). (R. and its numerator has no common factor with n. Let Pi = [xi . ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM 2. R. The only non-trivial piece of the proof is the associativity property of +: (P + Q) + R = P + (Q + R) The proof constitute of three pieces: 3 ¯ 1. Let also P. (P + Q.

a1 .8. 60) On the elliptic curve E : y 2 = x3 + 17 over Q. .2. 35. t2 . Proposition 1. . 23)P6 = (43. ([22] p. 282) P7 = (52. a6 ∈ k sending O to [0. Problem 7: How many elements of En (R) or of order 2. [9]. P5 = (8. p. . t3 − 27t2 = 0. There exist functions x. . The following proposition is proved in [22]. 3 we can assume that the image curve is given by y 2 = 4x3 − t2 x − t3 .8 Weierstrass form revised In this section we prove that any elliptic curve can be realized as a certain curve in P2 . 0]. Exercise 1. . i = 1. ¯ Proof.1. Problem 4b: For the elliptic curve En : y 2 = x3 − n2 x ﬁnd an explicit formula for the x coordinates of inﬂection points. 2. Exercise 1. t3 ∈ k. [9]. . 3P1 − P3 = P7 . P4 = (4. ¯ . For a divisor D on a curve C/k deﬁne the linear system ¯ L(D) = {f ∈ k(C). 36. · · · . 3 and 4? Describe geometrically where these points are located. 36. 5). P3 = (2. p. 8 (see [19]). 2 3 We call x and y the weierstrass coordinates of of E.9. WEIERSTRASS FORM REVISED Exercise 1. P8 = (5234. P4 = P1 − P3 . 36. Exercise 1. Problem 9: For an elliptic curve over R prove that E(R) (as a group) is isomorphic to R/Z or R/Z × Z/2Z.7. 9 Prove that E(Q) is freely generated by P1 and P3 and there are only 16 integral points ±Pi . If further char(k) = 2. [9]. P2 = (−1. Exercise 1. p. 378661) verify: P5 = 2P1 . We have points P1 = (−2. III. Proposition 3. 1] give an isomorphism of E/k onto a curve given by y 2 + a1 xy + a3 y = x3 + a2 x2 + a4 x + a6 . Let E be an elliptic curve over a ﬁeld k. [9]. f = 0 | div(f ) + D ≥ 0} ∪ {0} and l(D) = dimk (L(D)). 9). 3).1. a → [x(a). 375). y ∈ k(E) such that the map E → P2 . Problem 11: 1. . 1. 4).8.11. .10. p. y(a).

Now L(6O) has dimension 6 and 1. It follows that {1. 2 Now we can state what is the moduli of elliptic curves. λ6 t6 ). The function x (resp.10 CHAPTER 1.t3 . y. 3 we make the change of variables x = x. For n = 2 we can choose x. (t2 . y } are both bases for L(3O). and similarly {1. y) has a pole of order 2 (resp. y ) be two sets of Weierstrass coordinate functions on an elliptic curve Et2 . x form a basis of L(2O) and 1. 3 is M1 (k) := A2 (k) − {(t2 . y) and (x . λ = 0 such that t2 = λ 2 t2 . A change of variables x = x − a2 . y and substituting in the equation of Et2 . a.t3 and Et2 . . y) → (λ4 x. x . y ∈ k(E) such that 1. Multiplying x. . x. We have deg(K) = 2g−2 and so for deg(D) > 2g−2. Let (x. Proposition 1. y = y − a3 will eliminate x2 and y terms. x. x3 ∈ L(6O). 3) at O. It follows that there is a relation ay 2 + a1 xy + a3 y = bx3 + a2 x2 + a4 x + a6 . λ = 0. x. we have l(D) = deg(D) − g + 1. x} and {1. If char(k) = 2. equivalently deg(K − D) < 0. y 2 . b ∈ k. . t3 ) = (λ4 t2 .2 and Proposition 1. Two elliptic curves Et2 . Combining Proposition 1. x2 . y form a basis of L(3O) (discuss the fact that we can choose x and y with coeﬃcients in k).t3 are isomorphic if and only if there exists λ ∈ k.t3 we get the ﬁrst aﬃrmation of the proposition. where K is the canonical divisor of C. a1 . · · · . Note that ab = 0. Assume that char(k) = 2. y with some constants and dividing the whole equation with another constant. λ3 y). t 3 = λ 6 t3 The isomorphism is given by (x. . Proof. otherwise every term would have a diﬀerent pole order at O and so all the coeﬃcients would vanish. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM We know by Riemann-Roch theorem that l(D) − l(K − D) = deg(D) − g + 1. x } are both bases of L(2O). t3 ) ∼ (t2 . t3 ) if and only if ∃λ ∈ k. a6 . Writing x . 3. y in terms of x. y = y − a3 x and we eliminate 2 xy term. y} and {1. For g = 1 and D = nO we get l(D) = n. In 3 2 order to obtain the coeﬃcient 4 of x3 we replace y with 1 y. t3 ) | t3 − 27t2 = 0} / ∼ 2 3 where (t2 . The map induced by x and y is the desired map (check the details). . The second aﬃrmation is easy to check. xy. we get the desired equation.3 we conclude that the moduli space of elliptic curves over a ﬁeld of characteristic = 2.3. (discuss the fact that the coeﬃcients are in k).

In this case the j-invariant of elliptic curves 1728t3 2 j : M1 (k) → A(k).3 by ∆ = 0. t3 ] = 3 t2 − 27t2 3 is an isomorphism and so the moduli of elliptic curves over k is A1 (k). all the elliptic curves y 2 = x3 − t3 . j[t2 . For q = pn . For more on ﬁnite ﬁelds the reader is referred to [6]. y]/ f . For instance. 0] x3 + y 3 = 1. Let f (x. is a ﬁeld with ﬁnite cardinality. There is a unique (up to isomorphism of ﬁelds) ﬁnite ﬁeld with pn . FINITE FIELDS 11 If k is algebraically closed then this is the set of k-rational points of the weighted projective space P2. For a prime number the ﬁnite ﬁeld with cardinality p is simply the quotient Fp := Z . Then the quotient Fq [T ]/ f is a ﬁnite ﬁeld with pn elements. . If j0 = 0. Finite ﬁelds are completely classiﬁed as follows: 1. 2. Exercise 1. 3. Write the following elliptic curves in the Weierstrass form: y 2 = x4 − 1. However. 1728 consider the elliptic curve: Ej0 : y 2 + xy = x3 − It satisﬁes j(E) = j0 . The order of a ﬁnite ﬁeld of characteristic p is pn for some n ∈ N. 5. t3 ∈ Q ¯ are isomorphic over Q but not over Q.1. Then the quotient R/I is a ﬁnite ﬁeld. Every ﬁnite integral domain is a ﬁeld and in particular 6.3 (k) mines a point induced in P2. note that if k is not algebraically closed then j has non-trivial ﬁbers. pZ 4. y) ∈ Fp [x. O = [0. j0 − 1728 j0 − 1728 1. y] be a polynomial and I be a non zero prime ideal of R := Fp [x. 7.12. n ∈ N elements. 1. the characteristic of a ﬁnite ﬁeld is a prime number p > 1.9. It is the spliting ﬁeld of the polynomial xq − x over Fp . By deﬁnition of a ﬁeld and ﬁniteness property.9 Finite ﬁelds A ﬁnite ﬁeld. n ∈ N the ﬁnite ﬁeld with cardinality pn is denoted by Fq . as its name indicates. O = [0. 1. Let f (T ) be a monic irreducible polynomial of degree n in Fp [T ]. 1] 1 36 x− .

we have not yet proved that E(Q)tors is ﬁnite (a corollary of Mordell-Weil theorem).2) xy − x y. Then there are q + 1 Fq points on the elliptic curve En : y 2 = x3 − n2 x. Therefore. Let E/Q be an a elliptic curve in the Weierstrass form and let p > 2 be a prime number which does not divide the discriminant of E. ±n)} and so #En (Q)tors = 4. we prove that for E = En : (1. In fact. Note that by our assumption on p. ∀p prime p ≡ −1 mod 4 Therefore. The proof of (1. We have En (Q)tors = {O. . Let E/Fp be the elliptic curve obtained from E by considering the coeﬃcients of E modulo p. Q = [x . every ﬁnite subgroup of E(Q)tors is of order 4. we want to prove: Proposition 1. For all pairs P. This implies that m = 4. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM 1. Now let us prove that the reduction map induces an injection in a ﬁnite subgroup G of E(Q)tors . Let q = pf .1) #En (Fp ) = p + 1. (0. we have the injection of G in E(Fp ) by the reduction map. ¯ which is a group homomorphism. Two points P = [x. z ] ∈ E(Q) are the same after reduction if and only if (1. we conclude that #En (Q)tors = 4. Proof. Proposition 1. (0.10 Elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds In this section we want to analyze the torsion points of En : y 2 = x3 − n2 x By deﬁnition of the group structure of En we know that O. yz − y z are zero modulo p. 44 Proposition 4. we take a ﬁnite subgroup G of #E(Q)tors and prove that the reduction map restricted to G is an injection and so m := #G divides #E(Fp ). for all but ﬁnitely many primes p ≡ −1 mod 4 we have p ≡ −1 mod m.12 CHAPTER 1. From another side. ±n) are 2-torsions of En . xz − x z. 0). y . Since all the elements of E(Q)tors are torsion. y. Therefore. (0.1) is done in the next proposition. The main ingredient of the proof is the reduction map ¯ E(Q) → E(Fp ).5.4. z]. 0). Q in G. Let us ﬁrst give the strategy of the proof. Following the lines of [9] p. y) → (a2 x. By a linear change of variable (x. For all other primes p. (0. a3 y) we can assume that the ingredient ¯ coeﬃcients of E are in Z. Suppose that q ≡ −1 mod 4. the number of numbers (1. p |2n. E/Fp is not singular.2) is ﬁnite and so there are ﬁnitely many primes dividing at least one of them. This is an injection of E(Q)tors inside E(Fp ) for all but ﬁnitely many p and so for such primes m := #E(Q)tors divides #E(Fp ).

49-50) Ex. 1. If n is a congruent number then by Proposition 1. Theorem 1.11. Consider the map f : Fq → Fq . 2P comes from a point in Cn (Q) and hence n is a congruent number. y). the One can Exercise 1.1. It follows that the index of the multiplicative group F2 − {0} in q Fq − {0} is two and so for all x ∈ Fq − {0} exactly one of x or −x is square and so for all x ∈ Fq − {0. 2c) If P is a point not of order 2 in En (Q).5. 35. i.13. For e the proof see [10. 4. Its generalization for an arbitrary number ﬁeld was proved by Andr´ Weil and it is known as the Mordell-Weil theorem. for some n ∈ N}.1. Proof. then the x-coordinate of 2P is a square of rational number having an even denominator.9. Exercise 1. By Proposition 1.e. f (−x) = −f (x).14. p. Let us take k = Q. The natural number n is congruent if and only if En (Q) has non-zero rank. −n} exactly one of f (x) or f (−x) is square. .13. Ex. = The non-negative integer r is called the rank of E(Q). The above theorem implies that the set of torsion points E(Q)tors of E(Q) is ﬁnite and there is a number r ∈ N such that E(Q) ∼ Zr ⊕ E(Q)tors . n. The fact that n is square free and Proposition 1. Then by Exercise 1. The x coordinates of 2-torsion points in the aﬃne chart x. (x.6. f (x) = x3 − n2 x 13 f is an odd function.4 implies that such a rational point is of inﬁnite order. y). For an elliptic curve E over a number ﬁeld k the group E(k) of k-rational points is ﬁnitely generated abelian group. The above theorem for k = Q was proved by Mordell. En has Q-rational point with x-coordinate in (Q+ )2 .2. 7.6. p. Each such a pair (x. −y) ∈ En (Fq ) and so in total we have 3 + 2 q−1 points in En (Fq ). ±n.1. and −1 is not in its image (this follows from the hypothesis on p).11 Mordell-Weil Theorem We have seen that for an elliptic curve over Q the set E(Q) is an abelian group and so E(Q)/E(Q)tors where E(Q)tors := {x ∈ E(Q) | nx = 0. y = f (x) gives us two points (x. Conversely. ([9]. y are 0. suppose that P is a rational point of inﬁnite order in En . is a freely generated Z-module. 5]. ([9]. 2 Proposition 1. MORDELL-WEIL THEOREM Proof.

Let E be an elliptic curve deﬁned over Fp . 2 Note that α and β are algebraic integers: α. Concerning the Riemann hypothesis.14 CHAPTER 1. T ) = 1 + 2aE T + pT 2 .3) and one easily ﬁnds the equalities #E(Fpr ) = pr + 1 − αr − β r .4) α + β = 2aE . (the equality cannot occur because p is prime).3) was conjectured by Andr´ Weil [25] and was proved by e P.3) Z(E. the Riemann hypothesis holds for E. a ≡ x2 mod p = p −1 otherwise 1 . i. q −s ) are in the line Let 1 − 2aE T + qT 2 = (1 − αT )(1 − βT ) and so (1. . Conversely. Then (1. The Riemann hypothesis holds if and only if |α| = |β| = p 2 . s) := Z(E.5) happens then a2 −p < 0 E and so the roots of the polynomial 1 − 2aE T + qT 2 are complex conjugate.e.3. if (1.12 Zeta functions of elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds Let V be an aﬃne or projective variety deﬁned over Fq . The zeta function of V is deﬁned to be the formal power series in T : ∞ Z(V. For r = 1 we obtain #E(Fp ) = p + 1 − 2aE We conclude that for elliptic curves over a ﬁnite ﬁeld Fq the number of Fq -rational points determine the number of Fqr -rational points. we note that it is equivalent to the inequality: √ (1. (1 − T )(1 − pT ) where aE is an integer depending only on E. . αβ = q (s) = 1 . . Let us now state the result for the elliptic curve En related to the congruent numbers. If these equalities happen then √ |#E(Fp ) − p − 1| = |2aE | = |α + β| < 2 p.5) |#E(Fp ) − p − 1| < 2 p. T ) = exp( r=1 #V (Fqr ) r T ) r Theorem 1. The Legendre symbol is deﬁned for integers a and positive odd primes p by if p divides a 0 a 1 for some x ∈ Z. E We take the logarithmic derivative of both sides of (1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM 1. 3. β = aE ± a2 − q. the only zeros of ζ(C. r = 1. β = α and so ¯ 1 |α| = |β| = p 2 . Deligne (see for instance [8] for an exposition of Deligne results). 2. Moreover. The general reuslt as in (1.

A proof can be found in [22]. 2 3 Then for all non-zero torsion points P = (a. In the zeta function of En : y 2 = x3 − n2 x deﬁned over Fp . 2.15. · · · See the reference above for the list of elliptic curves.12) Let E be the elliptic curve E : y 2 = x3 − 4x2 + 16 Consider also the formal power series given by ∞ F (q) = q n=1 (1 − q n )2 (1 − q 11n )2 = q − 2q 2 − q 3 + 2q 4 + · · · 1. a.11. b ∈ Z. p a prime p |2n. t2 . Compute Np = #E(Fp ) for all primes 3 ≤ p ≤ 13. ∆ := 4t3 + 27t2 = 0. Formulate a conjecture on the sum Mp + np . ([16]. Ex. The coordinates of P are in Z. 4.13 Nagell-Lutz Theorem In this section we state Nagell-Lutz theorem which gives a ﬁnite set of of possibilities for a torsion point of an elliptic curve. For four of the following elliptic curves compute the torsion subgroup. we have: √ i p α= 2k + n p if p ≡ 3( mod 4) in this case aEn = 0 + 2ki if p ≡ 1( mod 4) in this case aEn = 2k + n p In the second case k is determined by the fact that αα = p ¯ Exercise 1. 221 or in [23] p. (Nagell-Lutz Theorem) Let E be an elliptic curve with the Weierstrass equation: y 2 = x3 + t2 x + t3 . Calculate the coeﬃcient of Mn of q n in F (q) for n ≤ 13. 2. b) ∈ E(Q) we have: 1. p.4.7. Can you prove it?. 1. NAGELL-LUTZ THEOREM 15 Proposition 1.13. 3. [16]. Exercise 8. i. 3. If P is of order greater than 2.16.56. Theorem 1. If P is of order 2 then b = 0 and a3 + t2 a + t3 = 0. then b2 divides ∆.e. t3 ∈ Z. Compute the sum Mp + Np for p prime p ≤ 13. 19. . Exercise 1.1. y 2 = x3 + 2.

. [13. 1 ≤ N ≤ 10. Kamienny in [7] for all quadratic ﬁelds and by L.16 CHAPTER 1. 1. It is proved by S. 1 ≤ N ≤ 4 Note that the above theorem implies that for an elliptic curve over Q we have always: #(E(Q)tors ) ≤ 16. (Mazur. We have ∞ ∞ 1 x−s+1 +∞ 1 ≤ |1 = if s > 1 x−s = s n −s + 1 s−1 1 n=2 Again we assume that s is a real number bigger than 1. the order of the torsion subgroup of E(k) is bounded by a constant which depends only on the degree of k over Q.15 Riemann zeta function In this section we are going to study the ﬁrst of all Zeta function. The series ζ(s) converges for all s ∈ C with ζ(s) = p (s) > 1 and 1 . Then the torsion subgroup E(Q)tors is one of the following ﬁfteen groups: Z/N Z. n=N +1 Since ζ(s) converges we have RN (s) → 0 as N → ∞ and the result follows. We have |n−s | = n s and so it is enough to prove the proposition for s ∈ R. We have p−s < 1 and so ∞ (1 − p−s ) = m=0 p−ms . 14]) Let E be an elliptic curve over Q. or N = 12 Z/2Z × Z/2N Z. (1 − p−s ) where p runs over all primes. namely Riemann zeta function: ∞ 1 ζ(s) := ns n=1 Proposition 1. It is natural to conjecture that: If E is an elliptic curve over a number ﬁeld k. For the proof of all the statements above one needs the notion of modular curves X0 (N ) and modular forms which will be introduced in the forthcoming chapters.8. s > 1.14 Mazur theorem Theorem 1. Merel in [15] for all number ﬁelds. This is known uniform boundedness conjecture (UBC). Proof. By unique factorization theorem (1 − p−s )−1 = p≤N n≤N ∞ n−s + RN (s). ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM 1.5. Clearly RN (s) ≤ n−s .

. . This allows us to redeﬁne the zeta function as follows: 1 Z(C. 1. . . p−s ). y]/ f (x. Theorem 1. Exercise 1. f ∈ Fp (x. 90. . In analogy with the Riemann zeta function we deﬁne (1. The integer ring of a number ﬁeld is a Dedekind domain.1. N(a) = #(Ok /a). ps are prime ideals. Calculate the zeta function of degenerated elliptic curves: y 2 = x3 + ax + b. Consider a plane aﬃne curve C : f (x. Calculate the zeta functions of A1 and P1 . s 1 2 where α1 . Formally.6) ζ(C. Let k be anumber ﬁeld and Ok be its ring of integers. y) = 0. i. s) = Z(C. One of them is already used in §1. DEDEKIND ZETA FUNCTION 17 There are many generalizations of the Riemann Zeta function. s) = p 1 . αs ∈ N0 and p1 . We deﬁne deg(p) := n.6. We have ∞ Z(C. y) deﬁned over the ﬁeld Fp . (1 − (Np)−s ) where p runs over all non-zero prime ideals of Fp [C] := Fp [x.12.16.e every ideal a ⊂ Ok in a unique way can be written a = p α1 p α2 · · · p αs . Proposition 1. 1 − χ(p)N(p)−s where the sum is running in non-zero ideals of Ok and the product is running in the prime ideals of Ok . . . .16 Dedekind Zeta function In this section we give a summary of Dedekind Zeta functions. T ) = . Bellow we explain how the zeta functions of a curve over a ﬁnite ﬁeld is a generalization of the Riemann zeta function.17. We mainly use the Character χ ≡ 1. Here Np is the order of the quotient Fp [C]/p. (1 − T deg(p) ) p with ζ(C. y) .9. Exercise 1. the Dedekind Zeta function is deﬁned in the following way: ζk (s) = a χ(a) = N(a)s p 1 . Let C be a curve ove the ﬁnite ﬁeld Fp . Since such a quotient is a ﬁnite integral domain it is a ﬁeld and hence it has pn elements.18. . 4a3 + 27b2 = 0. T ) = exp( r=1 #C(Fpr ) r T ) r For a proof see [16] p. A character χ on Ok is a map from the set of non-zero ideals of Ok to C such that it is multiplicative: χ(a1 a2 ) = χ(a1 )χ(a2 ).

17 Discriminant revised Deﬁnition 1. 1 − −5 3. . The ring of Gaussian integers is Z[i]. 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 5 This modulo 2 is: ∆ = t4 t2 t2 + t5 t3 t4 + t6 t6 + t3 t3 + t4 t2 + t4 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 4 3 a1 = t6 .18 CHAPTER 1. .] and no factor of ∆ satisfy the mentioned property. 1 − −5 Exercise 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM Exercise 1. ∈ Z[t][x. 1 + −5 3. Discuss the convergence of the Dedekind Zeta function (put χ ≡ 1). Hint Q( −5) √ √ 2. . . t2 . . In the second case we say that p splits in Z[i]. i.21. . p2 = p .20. if a2 = b2 = p ≡ 1(4). y.19.3.22. Discuss the fact that the integer ring of a number ﬁeld is not necessarily a unique factorization domain/principal ideal domain.e. . ts ) is a multi parameter and (x.) a multi variable. a2 = t4 x2 + t5 y + t4 t4 1 1 1 1 . y. 1. = a + ib . Let us be given a polynomial f ∈ Z[t][x. . Give examples of irreducible but √ not prime elements. . Exercise 1. Exercise 1. . Prove that the prime ideals of Z[i] are of two types: p = p . The discriminant exists and is unique up to multiplication by ±. ∆ = (t1 t6 − t1 t3 t4 + t1 t2 t3 + 12t1 t2 t6 − t1 t4 − 8t1 t2 t3 t4 − t1 t3 − 36t1 t3 t6 + 8t1 t2 t3 + 48t1 t2 t6 − 8t1 t2 t4 +30t1 t3 t4 − 72t1 t4 t6 − 16t1 t2 t3 t4 − 36t1 t2 t3 − 144t1 t2 t3 t6 + 96t1 t3 t4 + 16t2 t3 + 64t2 t6 − 16t2 t4 2 −72t2 t3 t4 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 4 2 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 − 288t2 t4 t6 + 2 4 27t3 + 2 216t3 t6 + 3 64t4 + 2 432t6 ). where t = (t1 .7) 6 5 f = y 2 − x3 − t4 x − t6 − t2 x2 + t1 xy + t3 y. a3 = −432x y + 216y + (−144t1 )x + (324t1 )xy + (54t1 − 432t2 )x y + (−3t1 − 120t1 t2 − 216t3 )x + (324t3 )y + (108t1 t3 − 432t4 )xy + 2 3 2 5 (−t1 3 3 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 4 2 3 4 2 2 2 5 4 3 2 3 2 + 3 4t1 t2 2 − 2 21t1 t3 + 2 8t1 t2 4 − 96t1 t4 − 216t2 t3 )x + 3 2 2 6 (t1 + 4 6t1 t2 − 2 3 18t1 t3 + 24t1 t2 2 2 −36t1 t4 − 72t1 t2 t3 + 32t2 − 144t2 t4 + 162t3 )y + (−t1 t2 + t1 t3 + 2t1 t4 + 4t1 t2 t3 + 8t1 t2 t4 − 27t1 t3 − 216t3 t4 )x +(−t1 t4 + t1 t2 t3 − 4t1 t2 t4 − t1 t3 + 8t1 t2 t3 + 14t1 t3 t4 − 8t1 t2 t4 − 36t1 t2 t3 + 32t1 t4 + 16t2 t3 − 72t2 t3 t4 + 27t3 ). 1 + −5 2. a2 . y. .3 = (1 + −5)(1 − −5) √ √ √ √ 6 = 2. . . ±i. Show also that the only ideal which ramiﬁes is p = 1 + i . for some a1 . ifp ≡ 3(4). We have calculated the discriminant of (1. Show that the only units of Z[i] are ±1. . 6 4 3 2 2 a1 = 432x − 432y + (−432t1 )xy + (432t2 )x + (−432t3 )y + (432t4 )x + (−t1 − 12t1 t2 + 36t1 t3 − 48t1 t2 +72t1 t4 + 144t1 t2 t3 − 64t2 + 288t2 t4 − 216t3 − 432t6 ) a2 = −144x + (−48t1 − 192t2 )x + (−t1 − 8t1 t2 − 120t1 t3 − 16t2 − 240t4 )x + (−t1 )y + (6t1 t2 − 20t1 t3 + 24t1 t2 − 40t1 t4 − 80t1 t2 t3 + 32t2 − 160t2 t4 )x + (t1 t4 + 4t1 t2 t3 + 8t1 t2 t4 − 16t1 t3 +8t1 t2 t3 − 64t1 t3 t4 + 16t2 t4 − 64t4 ). . . The discriminant of f is an element ∆ ∈ Z[t] such that ∆ = f a1 + fx a2 + fy a3 + · · · .].

The multiplicative group Gm := (A(k). When elliptic curves degenerate we ﬁnd the following algebraic groups: 1. 2 2 2 4 a3 = −54x3 y + 27y 3 + (−54t2 )x2 y + (−54t4 )xy + (4t3 − 18t2 t4 )y.23. a3 = −54x3 y + 27y 3 + (−54t4 )xy. The additive group Ga := (A1 (k).18. 1.18 One dimensional algebraic groups We follow [16] p. +).9) with all ti in Z. 2 Modulo 3 this is: ∆ = t2 t2 − t3 t6 − t3 2 4 2 4 a1 = t3 .3. 4 6 a2 = 2(−9x4 + (−15t4 )x2 + (−4t2 )). a2 = t2 x2 + t3 x + t2 t4 x − t2 t4 + t2 . The reader may has noticed that by this slight modiﬁcation of the deﬁnition of discriminant if we take an elliptic curve (1. Let S be the singular point of of E and E ns (k) := E(k)\{S}. Exercise 1. 4 f = y 2 − x3 − t4 x − t6 .24. a3 = t3 y. The singular point is deﬁned over k because it is ﬁxed under the action of the Galois group Gal(¯ k/k).1. 2 2 4 4 6 a1 = 2(27x3 − 27y 2 + (27t2 )x2 + (27t4 )x + (−4t3 + 18t2 t4 − 27t6 )). 23. = Exercise 1. Gm [a](Fq ) = q + 1. 2 2 2 2 4 2 For (1. ONE DIMENSIONAL ALGEBRAIC GROUPS a3 = t5 x2 + t3 x3 + t6 y + t5 t2 x + t4 t3 x + t2 t3 x2 + t4 t2 t3 + t5 t4 + t3 t2 + t1 t2 x + t3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 For the case (1. 3. it is singular reduced mode p if and only if p | ∆. 19 Remark 1. Gm [a] ∼ Gm [ac2 ]. f = y 2 − x3 − t4 x − t6 − t2 x2 . a1 = 2(27x3 − 27y 2 + (27t4 )x + (−27t6 )). 2 a2 = 2(−9x4 + (−12t2 )x3 + (−t2 − 15t4 )x2 + (2t3 − 10t2 t4 )x + (t2 t4 − 4t2 )). 2. By Bezout theorem a cubic curve E in P2 has a unique singular point (if there are two singularities then the line connecting that points meets the curve in 4 points counted with multiplicities). Twisted multiplicative group Gm [a]. c ∈ k − 0. The same deﬁnition of group law for elliptic curves applies for E ns and it turns out that E ns as a group and: . ·).8) we have ∆ = 2(4t3 t6 − t2 t2 − 18t2 t4 t6 + 4t3 + 27t2 ).9) we have ∆ = 2(4t3 + 27t2 ). a.

4 6 then E ns is isomorphic to the three one dimensional group described above: E ns (k) ∼ Gm (k) or Gm [c](k). Nodal reduction/split multiplicative. . In the singular case it is always a cusp. t3 ∈ Q. s) = p∈S ζ(E/Fp . c3 y).20 CHAPTER 1. t6 ). The reduced curve E ns /Fp is a twisted multiplicative group. ∆ = 2(4t3 + 27t2 ) = 0.8) (resp. (1. and p | 2t4 t6 . ∆ := 2(4t3 + 27t2 ) = 0. For p prime diﬀerent from 2 and 3 we have the curve E/Fp and the reduction map E(Q) → E(Fp ). 3 this case happens if and only if p | ∆.20 Zeta functions of curves over Q We follow [16] p. t6 ). s). The reduction at p = 5 is additive. 3. The reduced curve E/Fp has a cusp as a singularity and so its non-singular part is an additive group. y] is deﬁned to be ζS (E. t3 ∈ k. Good reduction.9)). 1. char(k) = 2) we have to consider the case (1. Nodal reduction/nonsplit multiplicative. Cuspidal reduction/additive reduction. y) = 0. The non-complete zeta function of a smooth curve E : f (x. 3? Exercise 1. If p does not divide ∆ then E/Fp is an elliptic curve. f ∈ Z[x. If the elliptic curve E is given by the Weierstrass form y 2 = x3 + t4 x + t6 . 4. y) → (c2 x. In reduction modulo 2 the elliptic curve E/F2 is always singular and its singular point is S = (t4 .19 Reduction of elliptic curves y 2 = x3 + t4 x + t6 . Show that 1. 2. where S is a ﬁnite number of prime numbers such that E/Fp is singular. 2. the primes of bad reduction for E are p = 5 and 7. or Ga (k) = mentioned in the lectures. For char(k) = 3 (resp. t2 . Reduction moulo 3 of the above elliptic curve in Weierstrass form is singular if and only if t4 = 0. 4 6 We take an elliptic curve in the Weierstrass form and by change of coordinates (x.27. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM Exercise 1. NE/Q = 175. Find the four groups E ns (F2 ) corresponding to the four choice of (t4 . Let E/Q : y 2 + y = x3 − x2 + 2x − 2. Does we need char(k) = 2.25.26. Exercise 1. Exercise 1. 102. 1. If char(k) = 2. Discuss the reduction modulo 2 and 3 in such cases. c ∈ Q we assume that |∆| is minimal.28. 3. The reduced curve E ns /Fp is a multiplicative group. t2 . 1. while the reduction at p = 7 is multiplicative.

In the case of elliptic curves it is natural to deﬁne LS (E. 3 we have fp ≥ 2. Can you obtain some e information on this. s) := p∈S 1 1 + (#(E(Fp )) − p − 1)ps + p1−2s ζS (s)ζS (s − 1) LS (E. Can you justify the deﬁnition of the zeta function of a variety over Q by interpreting it as a Euler product.29. The product ζS (E. the one similar to (1. It is direct consequence of the Riemann hypothesis for elliptic curves over ﬁnite ﬁelds and the convergence of the Riemann zeta function(see [16] p. [16] is also talking about a formula of Ogg fp = ordp ∆ + 1 − mp using N´ron models. s) and hence LS (E. Deﬁne 2 Λ(E.102). fp ∈ N and fp depends on wild ramiﬁcation in the action of the inertia group at ¯ of Gal(Q/Q) on the Tate module of E. HASSE-WEIL CONJECTURE 21 Exercise 1.6).10. fp = 2 if p |2.21. Exercise 1. s) converges for Proof. Lp (p−s ) 1. 3 in the above deﬁnition. p we have split multiplicative reduction p we have non-split multiplicative reduction p we have additive reduction Now we deﬁne the L-function of an elliptic curve E over Q: L(E. s) s . We we want to deﬁne the complete L function by We deﬁne 1 + (#(E(Fp )) − p − 1)T + pT 2 p good 1−T modulo Lp (T ) = modulo 1+T 1 modulo We have deﬁned this in such a way that Lp (p−1 ) = #E ns (Fp ) p adding bad prime numbers p ∈ S. 3 and E has additive reduction at p. s) = Proposition 1.1. For the case in which we have additive reduction modulo p = 2. s) := NE/Q (2π)−s Γ(s)L(E. s) (s) > 3 2 and so we have ζS (E.30. Discuss the case p = 2.21 Hasse-Weil conjecture The conductor of an elliptic curve over Q is deﬁned to be NE/Q = p bad pf p where fp = 1 if E has multiplicative reduction at p. s) = p 1 .

Taylor. Conjecture 1. s) can be analytically continued to a meromorphic function on the whole C and it satisﬁes the functional equation Λ(E. 24. 11] [21]. T ) = p| p (1 − (αp T )deg(p) ) where √ if p = p i p a + ib if p splits. the function L(E. 1) = 0 if and only if E has inﬁnitely many rational points. p 0 p | 2n . 0)} which is isomorphic to (A(F2 ). 1. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM Theorem 1. A weak form of this conjecture is not also proved: Conjecture 1. +) and so it is additive. For p = 2 and p |n we have apparently a multiplicative reduction: y 2 = x3 + x. [17]. Diamond and others. (BSD conjecture) For an elliptic curve E over Q. (Hasse-Weil conjecture for elliptic curves) The function Λ(E.7. p = 2 or p = 2. s) is holomorphic at s = 1 and its order of vanishing at s = 1 is the rank of the elliptic curve E. The singular point in this case is S = (1. 6. 2|n we have an additive reduction. 1. i. (0. It is proved in its generality by the works of Eichler and Shimura. For p | 2n. This theorem was ﬁrst proved for CM elliptic curves by Deuring 1951/1952.7 and using Exercise 1. 3 (8) if n ≡ 5. For papers on BSD conjecture see [4. Wiles. 7 (8) Reformulating Proposition 1.22 Birch Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture For the functional equation of L the value s = 1 is in the middle.1. it is the ﬁxed point of s → 2 − s. 2 − s). 0) and E ns (F2 ) = {O.22 CHAPTER 1. 2. 1.e.23 Congruent numbers The bad prime numbers for the elliptic curve En : y 2 = x3 − nx are those which divide 2n.21 we have: (1 − T )(1 − pT )Z(En /Fp . s) = ±Λ(E.7 the root number ± is determined in the following way: +1 −1 if n ≡ 1. where a + ib is the unique generator of p αp = which is congruent to ( n ) mod 2 + 2i. 2.2. (weak BSD conjecture) L(E. The conductor of En is: NEn /Q = 24 n2 25 n 2 if n is even if n is odd In Theorem 1.

The ﬁeld Qp of p-adic numbers is the quotient ﬁeld of Zp . i. We deﬁne n ordp (a) := r. |a|p := We have 1. ai ∈ {0.31. 3.24 p-adic numbers By deﬁnition a p-adic integer is an element in the inverse limit of · · · → Z/p3 Z → Z/p2 Z → Z/pZ. |ab|p = |a|p |b|p . P -ADIC NUMBERS The L function of En is L(En . . b ∈ Zp then either a = 0 or b = 0. b ∈ Q. p − 1}.1. Q ⊂ Qp . s) = p⊂Z[i] prime 23 (1 − (αp )deg(p) (Np)−s )−1 Now Z[i] is a Dedekind domain and so we can deﬁne a unique map χ from the ideals of deg(p) Z[i] to C such that χn (p) = αp . The ring Z of integers is a subring of Zp in a natural way and so Qp is a ﬁeld extension of Q. One can show that a p-adic integer is identiﬁed with a formal series a1 p + a2 p2 + a3 p3 + · · · . ∞←n Zp is a ring without zero divisor. . Therefore L(En . 1. |b|p } and so ≤ |a|p + |b|p 1 . |a + b|p ≤ max{|a|p . . if ab = 0. Show that the Diphantine equation x3 + y 3 − 3 = 0 has not a solution in Q3 and hence it has not a solution in Q. . 2. Exercise 1. There is another way to deﬁne p-adic numbers. |0|p := 0 pr . |a|p = 0 if and only if a = 0 2. a.e. Any non-zero rational number a can be expressed in the form a = pr m with m. n ∈ Z and not divisable by p. a.24. The set of p-adic integers is denoted by Zp : Zp := lim Z/Zpn . s) = p⊂Z[i] prime (1 − χ(p)(Np)−s )−1 = a⊂Z[i] χn (a)(Na)−s where the sum is taken over all non-zero ideals. 1.

. Prove also Zp = {a ∈ Qp | |a|p ≤ 1} = the closure of Z in Qp .24 Therefore. CHAPTER 1. .). . i. b) = |a − b| yields to the ﬁeld of real numbers R.32. The ﬁeld Qp of p-adic numbers is the completion of Q with respect to dp .e. b) := |a − b|p is a metric on Q. The same construction with the usual norm of Q. ELLIPTIC CURVES IN WEIERSTRASS FORM dp (a. d(a. a. We have a cononical matric. on Qp which extends the previous one on Q ⊂ Qp (this inclusion is given by sending a ∈ Q to the constant Cauchy sequence a. call it again dp . Prove that the two deﬁnitions of Qp presented above are equivalent. Exercise 1.

Justify the topological cycle δ ∈ H1 (Et . In other words 27t3 − t2 = 0. in a modern way as dx . For a lattice Λ ⊂ C the Weierstrass ℘-function is 2 ℘(z.2 Weierstrass uniformization theorem We follow partially [22] Chapter VI §3.1 Elliptic integrals We follow partially [22] Chapter VI §1. Z) y δ where Et : y 2 = 4x3 − t2 x − t3 is an elliptic curve (see the introduction of [18]).Chapter 2 Modular forms The objective of this chapter is to introduce modular forms and their relations with elliptic curves. Then one can take I the interval between two roots of f . up to ±1. For simplicity one can take t2 and t3 real numbers in such a way that f has three real roots. t3 is a new integral and cannot be calculated by previusly known numbers. ω=0 1 1 − ) (z − ω)2 ω 2 25 .1. During the history the mathematicians 2 3 understood that the elliptic integral √ I dx . Let us take t2 . 2. Without loss of generality we can ω assume that ( ω1 ) > 0. t3 ∈ C in such a way that the polynomial f (x) := 4x3 − t2 x − t3 has three distinct roots. Z) described in the course. Exercise 2. δ ∈ H1 (Et .2. dx y restricted to Et has no poles 2. A lattice Λ in C is a Z-submodule of Z generated by two R-linear independent elements ω1 and ω2 in C. 4x3 − t2 x − t3 where I is a path connecting two roots of f . Exercise 2. Λ) = 1 + z2 ( ω∈Λ. By algebraic geometric methods show that even at inﬁnity. One can write them. for generic numbers t2 .

Show that 1 ω∈Λ. 1]. t3 ) → H1 (Et . Let Λ ⊂ C be a lattice.2. t3 − 27t2 = 0. Show that L has a natural structure of a complex manifold.6. for a ﬁxed t2 . Proof. 6. Exercise 2. 2 3 The map given by p : C2 \{t3 − 27t2 = 0} → L 2 3 (t2 . g3 = −140G6 Moreover. Z).7.6. Exercise 2. MODULAR FORMS 1 ω 2k Proposition 2.1 of [22]. t3 λ−6 ) = λp(t2 . More precisely. Its inverse is given by the Eisenstein series: Λ → (g2 (Λ). ℘ (z.4. (Weierstrass uniformization theorem) Let Et : y 2 = 4x3 − t2 x − t3 . t3 the Abel map given by ∞ Et → C/Λ. . Let L be the space of lattices Λ = Zω1 + Zω2 ⊂ C. Λ). where Λ = p(t).1. 6. The Weierstrass ℘-function converges absolutely and uniformely on every compact subset of C − Λ.6.26 and the Eisenstein series of weight 2k are G2k (Λ) = ω∈Λ. a → a dx y is a biholomorphism and homomorphism of groups and its inverse is given by z → [℘(z. Exercise 2.3. Λ). ω=0 (z−ω)2 does not converge.Z) dx y is well-deﬁned and it is a biholomorphism which satisﬁes p(t2 λ−4 .5. show that L can be obtained by a quotient of a complex manifold by SL(2.4. See Theorem 3.6. Theorem 2.14 of [22]. The Eenstein series G2k is absolutely convergent for all k > 1.1. g3 (Λ)) where g2 := 60G4 . t3 ). ω=0 CHAPTER 2. Ex.

g1 . (x. Z). δ2 ) ˜ ˇ vanishes along a straight line connecting t3 to t3 (resp. δ2 ) . i. g2 | g1 2 Exercise 2. b) → π1 (T. δ2 ∈ H1 (Eb . Discuss the Picard-Lefschetz theory as above for the Legendre family of elliptic curves: y 2 = x(x − 1)(x − λ) 2. PICARD-LEFSCHETZ THEORY 27 2. t2 ˜ ˇ The function f has two critical values given by t3 .3. Z) where b ∈ T is a ﬁxed point In order to calculate it we proceed as follows: First we choose two cycles δ1 . i = 1. It gives us the following linear action: π1 (T. 2 such that the projection of δ1 (resp. y) → −y 2 + 4x3 − t2 x. δ2 → δ2 + δ1 ( resp. b) × H1 (Eb . where I is the identity 2 × 2 matrix. A2 = SL(2. Z). Z) = 0 1 . t3 = ± 27 .6. t) induced by inclusion is an isomorphism of groups and so the image of the monodromy group written in the basis δ1 and δ2 is: A1 . t3 }. deﬁne the function f in the following way: f : C2 → C.3 Picard-Lefschetz theory Et : y 2 = 4x3 − t2 x − t3 . t ∈ T is a C ∞ bundle over T . The corresponding anti˜3 (resp t3 ) can be computed using the ˇ clockwise monodromy around the critical value t Picard-Lefschetz formula: 3 δ1 → δ1 . δ2 . δ1 → δ1 − δ2 . ˜ ˇ It is not hard to see that the canonical map π1 (C\{t3 .2. g2 := A−1 A−1 = 1 2 −1 0 2 = g 3 = −I . δ2 = 1 and δ1 (resp. δ2 → δ2 ). A2 := 1 1 1 −1 . For the ﬁxed parameter t2 = 0. t3 − 27t2 = 0. t3 ) ∈ C2 | t3 − 27t2 = 0} 2 3 By Ehresmann’s theorem the ﬁbration Et .e. t3 ). Z) → H1 (Eb . 0 1 1 1 −1 0 and SL(2. where A1 := Note that g1 := A−1 A−1 A−1 = 2 1 2 1 0 . it is locally trivial. In order to get a one valued function we restrict λ to H and choose cycles δi .4 Schwarz function dx δ1 y dx δ2 y Let us take the Legendre family of elliptic curves and consider the Schwarz function λ→ ∈H It is multivalued beacuse of the choice of δ1 . This is the basic stone for the Picard-Lefschetz theory (see for instance [?] and the references there). 2 3 We consider again the familly of elliptic curves Let us put T := C2 − {(t2 . In a regular ﬁber Et = f −1 (t3 ) of f one can take two cycles δ1 and δ2 such that δ1 .

1.11 . Classify all elliptic curves E with α ∈ End(E) which is not multiplication by ±1 and is an isomorphism. we will encounter two spcial CM elliptic curves as follows: Exercise 2. z = i.1 . . 2 Exercise 2. ω. 8. 1 corresponds to the PicardLefschetz transformation of δ1 and δ2 .28 CHAPTER 2.7. and ω is a holomorphic diﬀerential form on E.12 of Koblitz. In this way the Shwarz function is a biholomorphisim. Later. Ex. Show that the image of the Schwarz function is the region depicted in 2. p ∈ E. The analytic continuations of the Schwarz map gives us the trianglization of H. The endomorphisim group of an elliptic curve E = EΛ is the set of all holomorphic maps EΛ → EΛ which are in addition homomorphisims of groups. Exercise 2. In fact one can reinterpret it as follows: Exercise 2. The canonical action of a ∈ C∗ on L corresponds to the multiplication of ω with a−1 . 1 Reproduced from Wikipedia .10. p). Deﬁnition 2.9. 2.1: Fundamental domain to the x-palne is a cycle around 0 (resp. MODULAR FORMS Figure 2. Its analytic continuations around λ = 0.5 CM elliptic curves Recall that L is a complex manifold whose points are lattices Λ = Zω1 + Zω2 .10. 1 )and λ.9. where E is a Riemann surface of genus one. It is in one to one correspondance with End(E) = {α ∈ C | αΛ ⊂ Λ} We have Z ⊂ End(E) and we say that E is CM if the inclusion is strict.8. L is the moduli of triples (E. More precisely show that we have only two such elliptic curve √ −1 + i 3 E = E z.

k = 2. f has a ﬁnite growth at inﬁnity. cz + d a b c d ∈ SL(2.1.7 Fourier series Since for a full modular form we have f (z + 1) = f (z) we can write the Laurant series of f in e2πiz : ∞ f (z) = i=0 ai q i . i.1) 2. 1 ) has ﬁnite growth at inﬁnity as in (2. ∀.m)∈Z2 −{(0. 2. q := e2πiz This is called the Fourier series (q-expansion) of f . . Exercise 2. z ∈ H The fundamental domain of the action of SL(2. Z) (full modular form of weight k) if 1. The Eisenstein series restricted to such a lattice gives us the following series G2k (z) := (n. It is easy to show that G2k is a modular form of weight 2k for the group SL(2. Z).1). f (aΛ) = a−k f (Λ). Z) is depicted in Figure 2.6. 3. 2.e.6 Full modular forms Let us consider a point z ∈ H and the lattice 1. z ∈ H. A holomorphic function f : H → C is called a modular form of weight k for the group SL(2. (nz + m)2k which we call them again Eisenstein series. z ∈ H. FULL MODULAR FORMS 29 2. f ( z. Modular forms of weight k are in one to one correspondance with holomorphic functions f on L such that 1.2. . Z): Deﬁnition 2. z ⊂ C. f satisﬁes (cz + d)−k f ( az + b ) = f (z). R) acts on H in a canonical way: az + b a b z := . (2. cz + d a b c d ∈ SL(2. R). For all Λ ∈ L and a ∈ C∗ . c d cz + d a b c d ∈ SL(2. .0)} 1 . R). It is useful to deﬁne the slash operator on holomorphic functions f in H: f |k (z) := (cz + d)−k f ( az + b ).2. lim f (z) = a∞ ∈ C z→∞ The group SL(2. .11.

λ−6 t3 ) = λg(t2 . Let k > 2 be an even integer.30 CHAPTER 2. The proposition follows from the Weierstrass uniformization theorem as follows: Let us consider the map H → C2 . Proof. z → e2πiz and so using Proposition 2. . Moreover. Writting the taylor series of f with homoheneous pieces in C[t2 . p.m)=1 2. t3 ]. z → p−1 ( z. deg(t6 ) = 6 we conclude that g is homogeneous polynomial of degree k in the mentioned ring. −140G6 (q)). t3 ) and g restricted to the image of α is holomorphic in α(0). we can check that α(0) is a regular point of ∆ = 0 and the image of α at α(0) is transeverse to ∆ = 0. a holomorphic function g in T with these properties corresponds to a modular form f .11. Z)) the vector space of full modular forms of weight k.2. The q-expansion of Gk is as follows: 2k Gk = 2ζ(k)(1 − Bk ∞ σk−1 (n)q n ). MODULAR FORMS Proposition 2. The set M = ⊕k∈Z Mk form a graded C-algebra.m∈Z. k = 4. It is sometimes usefull to deﬁne the normalized Eisenstein series: 1 Ek = 2 1 2k =1− Bk (nz + m)k ∞ σk−1 (n)q n n=1 n. 1 ) It factores through H → D − {0}.2 we obtain the holomorphic map α : D → C2 .8 The algebra of modular forms Let us denote by Mk := Mk (SL(2. The C-algebra M is freely generated by the Eisenstein series Gk . Conversely.3. deg(t2 ) = 4. (n. 110. α(q) = (60G4 (q). 6. q := e2πiz n=1 where the Bernoulli numbers Bk are deﬁned by: x = x−1 e and σk−1 (n) := d|n ∞ Bk k=1 −1 1 −1 1 1 5 xk = 1 + 2 x + 6 x2 + 30 x4 + 42 x6 + 32 x8 + 66 x10 + · · · k! 1! 2! 4! 6! 8! 10! dk−1 Proof. Proposition 2. Pulling back f by the period map p we get a holomorphic function g in T := C2 − {∆ = 0} which satisﬁes g(λ−4 t2 . It follows that g is holomorphic in all points of ∆ = 0 and so it extends to a holomorphic function in C2 . [9]. We consider a modular form as a holomorphic function on L as it is asked in Exercise 2.

9 The discriminant ζ(4) = π6 π4 . we have interpreted modular forms as functions in theree spaces: the Poicar´ upper e half plan H. relating the coeﬃcients of the q-expansion of j with the minimal dimensions needed to represent monster groups. 3 2. Exercise 4. p. For f : H → C a modular form of weight k we have s Tn (f ) = i=1 f |k Ai . · · · [As ]} = SL(2.12. .9. 2. Z)/Matn (2.11 Hecke operators So far. proved by Brocherd.10 We have j = 1728 The j function t3 E3 1 2 = 1728 3 4 2 = + 744 + 196884q + 21493760q 2 + 864299970q 3 + · · · 3 − 27t2 q t2 E4 − E6 3 There is so called Monstrous Moonshine conjecture. ζ(6) = . where {[A1 ]. THE DISCRIMINANT 31 2. The third part of the exercise says that τ (n) ≡ σ11 (n)( mod 691) Also Ex. the space L of lattices and the aﬃne space A2 representing the parameters C t2 and t3 . 123 of Koblitz.2. In this section for each natural number n we want to deﬁne the Hecke operator Tn : Mk → Mk which is a linear map. Exercise 2. 90 945 (2π)12 3 2 (E4 − E6 ) 1728 Recall that We deﬁne 3 2 2 ∆ := t3 − 27t2 = g2 − 27g3 = (2ζ(4)60E4 )3 − 27(2ζ(6)140)2 E6 = 2 3 and we have (2π) −12 1 2 (E 3 −E6 ) = ( ∆= 1728 4 ∞ ∞ τ (n)q = q−24q +252q −1472q +4830q +· · · = q n=1 n=1 n 2 3 4 5 (1−q n )24 τ (n) is called the Ramanujan function of n. [A2 ]. It is given by one of the following equivalent deﬁnitions: 1. Z).

Let A be an element in the group generated by GL+ (2.14. Z). t3 ) = f (t ). d Exercise 2. deg(t2 ) = 4. d|n. for each t ∈ C2 − {∆ = 0} and a basis of the homology δ1 . R) and { Let also ω = ω1 ω2 ∈ P. . 2. deg(t3 ) = 6 we have Tn (f )(t2 . . Can you show by algebraic geometric methods that for ﬁxed t ∈ C2 \{∆ = 0} the set of parameters t with α : Et → Et . . deg(α) = n y y . Show that SL(2. 2. . t where t = (t2 . Z) is represented exactly by one of the matrices d 0 b n d . λ 0 0 λ | λ ∈ C∗ } ∼ C∗ . = dx dx = . Exercise 2. This is equal to Aω in L if and only if ABA−1 ∈ SL(2. Prove the equivalence of the above deﬁnitions. Z). Z) · A−1 ∩ SL(2. Si ∈ SL(2.15. Let Ai = ASi A−1 . Z))\(A · SL(2.16. δ2 = 1 and A as above we have a local holomorphic map t → α(t). Using the map p in Weierstrass uniformization theorem. Z)/Matn (2. For f a homogeneous polynomial of degree k in C[tt .13. t3 ]. Namely. Prove that each equivalence class in SL(2. . Z)/Matn (2. we can translate the above process to the (t2 . t3 )-space. 0 ≤ b < n . MODULAR FORMS 2. . . t3 ) runs through all parameters for which there is an isogeny α : Et → Et such that α∗ ( dx ) = dx and deg(α) = n. Z) obtained by the previous one by an element B ∈ SL(2. Then Aω ∈ P. where Λ runs through all sublattices Λ ⊂ Λ of index n. Exercise 2. α ∗ is ﬁnite. This means that #(Λ/Λ ) = n. y y Exercise 2. δ2 ∈ H1 (Et .32 CHAPTER 2. s} and vice-versa. . Z). If we choose another basis of H1 (Et . Z) = {[ASi ] | i = 1. Z) · A−1 ) = {[Ai ] | i = 1. then we have a new period matrix ABω. For f : L → C a modular form of weight k we have Tn (f )(Λ) = Λ f (Λ ). We conclude that if we choose representatives for the quotient (A · SL(2. Z) with δ1 . s} then to each Ai we have associated a local map αi (t). 3.

Tm ∈ Mk → Mk prove that Tn ◦ Tm = dk−1 T nm .18.n) bn = Exercise 2. N . t3 ). For m ∈ N. A subgroup Γ ⊂ SL(2.2 . Let n ∈ N. i = 2. 3 such that pn := (pn. n where f (X) = x∈X f (x). The N -torsion subgroup of the complex elliptic curve E = C/Λ is E[N ] := {p ∈ E | np = 0} = ( 1 Λ)/Λ. Z/N Z).17.i (t2 . Z) is called a congruence subgroup of level N if it contains Γ(N ). 2 d d|(n. q = e2iπz . Z) | A ≡ 1 0 0 1 ( mod N )} It is the kernel of the canonical homomorphism of groups SL(2. Our main examples are Γ1 (N ) := {A ∈ SL(2.2. f ∈ Mk . Z) appears as the monodromy group of the Weierstrass familly of elliptic curves. Z) | A ≡ ( mod N )} Let Λ ⊂ C be a lattice. For two natural numbers n. Deﬁne Γ(N ) := {A ∈ SL(2.12 Groups We have seen that SL(2. Z) → SL(2. pn. d| gcd(m. where dk−1 amn/d2 . GROUPS 33 Exercise 2.m) The above formula is summarized in the following formal equality: ∞ Tn n−s = n=1 p (1 − Tp p−s + pk−1−2s )−1 Let f be a modular form with the Fourier expansion: ∞ f (z) = n=0 ∞ an q n . In this section we work with subgroups of SL(2.12.m and Hecke operators Tn . Z).3 ) leaves ∆ = 0 invariant and Tn (f )(t) = f (p−1 (t)). Z) | A ≡ ∗ ∗ 0 ∗ 1 ∗ 0 1 ( mod N )} Γ1 (N ) := {A ∈ SL(2. Are there polynomials pn. Let N be a positive integer number. 2. we have Tm f (z) = n=0 bn q n .

p). The set Y1 (N ) is the moduli space of pairs (E. The set Y0 (N ) is the moduli space of pairs (E. Z).34 and µN := {e The Weil pairing CHAPTER 2. 1. where E is a complex elliptic curve and C is a cyclic subgroup of E of order N .20. Prove that the above deﬁnition is well-deﬁned. For p. A ∈ SL(2. MODULAR FORMS 2πik N | k ∈ Z}. Y1 (N ) := Γ1 (N )\H. q ∈ E[N ] write ω2 . The set Y (N ) is the moduli space of pairs (E. where E is a complex elliptic curve and p is a point of E of order N . 2. q) is a pair of points of E that generates the N -torsion subgroup of E 2πi with Weil pairing eN (p. q) = e N . (p. . where E is a complex elliptic curve and (p. eN : E[N ] × E(N ) → µN is deﬁned as follows: let Λ = Zω1 + Zω2 . Let Y0 (N ) := Γ0 (N )\H. The item 2 is proved in the lectures. C). Proposition 2. p q Deﬁne eN (p. q) = e =A ω1 N ω2 N ( ω1 ) > 0. 2πi det(A) N Exercise 2.19. Prove 1 and 3 above. 3. Exercise 2. q)).4. Y (N ) := Γ(N )\H.

. Sympos. S. [8] Nicholas M. Modular curves and the Eisenstein ideal. ´ [13] B. 503. 1976. I. volume 111 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics. 1978. Torsion points on elliptic curves and q-coeﬃcients of modular forms. volume 677 of Lecture Notes in e e Math. H. Cassels. Birch and H. Coates et A. Coates and A. [11] Serge Lang. Freeman and Company. I. London Math. XXVIII. 1992. 35 . Basic algebra. Elliptic curves: Diophantine analysis. Reine Angew. Ruth Lawrence and Stefan Theisen.. F. J. second edition. Izv. Nauk SSSR Ser. [9] Neal Koblitz. 1978. volume 231 of Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Sciences]. P. Math. Katz. New York. Ill. volume 97 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Reine Angew.I. Birch and H. e Wiles). Publ. W. Math. [12] Ju. 1963. [3] J. New York. Berlin. o Springer-Verlag. Soc. second edition. 109(2):221–229. Introduction to elliptic curves and modular forms. 1963. [5] Dale Husem¨ller. Amer.. Swinnerton-Dyer. J. Soc. Hautes Etudes Sci. Providence.. Invent. 212:7–25. In S´minaire Bourbaki. On the conjecture of Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer. Mat. P. Inst. R. Invent. Notes on elliptic curves. Wiles. New York. Springer-Verlag. 1965. Kamienny. W.. Akad. 27:1395–1440. Rational points on algebraic curves over function ﬁelds. II. 1966. Berlin. J. second edition. Notes on elliptic curves. Mazur. Pure Math. pages 275–305. Diophantine equations with special reference to elliptic curves.. Swinnerton-Dyer.. 39(3):223–251. An overview of Deligne’s proof of the Riemann hypothesis for varieties over ﬁnite ﬁelds. With appendices by Otto Forster. De Kalb. [2] B.. Math.. Math. J. Math. 1985.. 1993. [4] J.Bibliography [1] B. 218:79–108. Springer-Verlag. Elliptic curves. 41:193–291. Northern Illinois Univ. Manin.. [10] Serge Lang. Math. pages Exp. Springer. 2004. Sur la conjecture de Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer (d’apr`s J. 29e ann´e (1976/77). F. 1977. J. In Mathematical developments arising from Hilbert problems (Proc. [6] Nathan Jacobson. Vol. pp.. 189–200. 1977. (47):33–186 (1978). 1974). I.. [7] S.

J. Technical report. Aspects of Mathematics. Springer-Verlag. Moduli of polarized hodge structures. 1996. No. 85:203– 362 (1 plate). 1951. 39(1):81–107. [24] J. Milne..1. Math. [19] Trygve Nagell.. 30. 1996. 44(2):129–162. Corrected reprint of the 1986 original. A classical Diophantine problem and modular forms of weight 3/2. Bull. Lecture notes. ıc Invent. Amer. London.. New York. Skr. 1949. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. Oslo 1935. volume 106 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics. [18] Hossein Movasati.jmilne. Bull. Goldfeld). Math. 1935. [15] Lo¨ Merel. Acta Math. Vieweg & Sohn. . 1983. Translated from the French and edited by Martin Brown from notes by Michel Waldschmidt. 1992.-Akad. Mazur. Braunschweig.. e Soc. [23] Joseph H. 55:497–508. Invent. Pure and Applied Mathematics. New York. Springer-Verlag.. www. Selmer.org. 2008. The Diophantine equation ax3 + by 3 + cz 3 = 0. Diophantine equations. Bornes pour la torsion des courbes elliptiques sur les corps de nombres. Math.. [25] Andr´ Weil. Silverman and John Tate. Math. Math. Silverman. Friedr. The arithmetic of elliptic curves. Rational points on elliptic curves. Invent. 1989. [22] Joseph H.36 BIBLIOGRAPHY [14] B. Tunnell. 124(1-3):437–449. Mordell. Elliptic curves. Numbers of solutions of equations in ﬁnite ﬁelds. 1992. E15.. 72(2):323–334. Vol. Solution de quelques probl`mes dans la th´orie arithm´tique des e e e cubiques planes du premier genre. [20] Ernst S. [21] Jean-Pierre Serre. Academic Press. 1969. S. B. Rational isogenies of prime degree (with an appendix by D. Lectures on the Mordell-Weil theorem. Norske Vid. 1-25 . [16] J. [17] L. Soc. Bras. 1978.

- Elliptic Notes
- qs10
- Spherical Indicatrix Curves of Spatial Quaternionic Curves
- Shif Rin Diff Geo
- gr2_2
- First Steps English
- Projected Curve
- WS1 Lessons
- Tmp 6979
- GM-NOTES
- Chapter 2 - Note
- Backmann 36-558
- Differentiation 3
- Kaplansky Commutative Rings
- THE RIEMANN HYPOTHESIS FOR DIRICHLET ZETA–FUNCTIONS
- cad2
- Rhinoceros Advanced Training Series
- Building a Complete Human Facial Rig in 3D Studio Max Part 1
- 1209.4044v1
- lectures.pdf
- Wireframe and Surface Design V5R8 Update
- Ioannou Web Ch5
- CE90 Discussion
- On the Existence of a Global Neighbourhood
- Crypto Aes
- 51_107
- Reader
- VUTU6OKM
- Screening
- RS_code_report

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd