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Trng THCS M Quang:

CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII


Chuyn 2 : DU HIU CHIA HT
PHN I: TM TT L THUYT
I. NH NGHA PHP CHIA
Cho 2 s nguyn a v b trong b 0 ta lun tm c hai s nguyn q v r duy nht
sao cho:
a = bq + r Vi 0 r | b|
Trong : a l s b chia, b l s chia, q l thng, r l s d.
Khi a chia cho b c th xy ra | b| s d
r {0; 1; 2; ; | b| }
c bit: r = 0 th a = bq, khi ta ni a chia ht cho b hay b chia ht a.
K hiu: ab hay b\ a
Vy: a b C s nguyn q sao cho a = bq
II. CC TNH CHT
1. Vi a 0 a a
2. Nu a b v b c a c
3. Vi a 0 0 a
4. Nu a, b > 0 v a b ; b a a = b
5. Nu a b v c bt k ac b
6. Nu a b ( a) ( b)
7. Vi a a ( 1)
8. Nu a b v c b a c b
9. Nu a b v cb a c b
10.
Nu a + b c v a c b c
11.
Nu a b v n > 0 an bn
12.
Nu ac b v (a, b) =1 c b
13.
Nu a b, c b v m, n bt k am + cn b
14.
Nu a b v c d ac bd
15. Tch n s nguyn lin tip chia ht cho n!
III. MT S DU HIU CHIA HT
Gi N =

anan1...a
1a0

1. Du hiu chia ht cho 2; 5; 4; 25; 8; 125


+ N 2 a0 2 a0{0; 2; 4; 6; 8}
+ N 5 a0 5 a0{0; 5}
+ N 4 (hoc 25)

a1a0 4 (hoc 25)

+ N 8 (hoc 125)

a2 a1a0 8 (hoc 125)

2. Du hiu chia ht cho 3 v 9


+ N 3 (hoc 9) a0+a1++an 3 (hoc 9)
3. Mt s du hiu khc
+ N 11 [(a0+a1+) - (a1+a3+)] 11
+ N 101 [( a1a0 + a5a4 +) - ( a3a2 + a7a6 +)]101

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
+ N 7 (hoc 13) [( a2 a1a0 +

a8 a7a6 +) - [( a5 a4a3

a11a10a9 +) 11

(hoc 13)
+ N 37 ( a2 a1a0 +

a5 a4a3 +) 37

+ N 19 ( a0+2an-1+22an-2++ 2na0) 19
IV. NG D THC
a. nh ngha: Cho m l s nguyn dng. Nu hai s nguyn a v b cho cng s d khi chia
cho m th ta ni a ng d vi b theo modun m.
K hiu: a b (modun)
Vy: a b (modun) a - b m
b. Cc tnh cht
1. Vi a a a (modun)
2. Nu a b (modun) b a (modun)
3. Nu a b (modun), b c (modun) a c (modun)
4. Nu a b (modun) v c d (modun) a+c b+d (modun)
5. Nu a b (modun) v c d (modun) ac bd (modun)
6. Nu a b (modun), d Uc (a, b) v (d, m) =1

a
b
(modun)
d
d

7. Nu a b (modun), d > 0 v d Uc (a, b, m)

a
b
m
(modun )
d
d
d

V. MT S NH L
1. nh l Euler
Nu m l 1 s nguyn dng (m) l s cc s nguyn dng nh hn m v nguyn t
cng nhau vi m, (a, m) = 1

Th a (m) 1 (modun)
Cng thc tnh (m)
Phn tch m ra tha s nguyn t

m = p1 1 p2 2 pk k vi pi p; i N*
1
1
1
Th (m) = m(1 )(1 ) (1 )
p1`
p2
pk
2. nh l Fermat
Nu t l s nguyn t v a khng chia ht cho p th ap-1 1 (modp)
3. nh l Wilson
Nu p l s nguyn t th
( P - 1)! + 1 0 (modp)
PHN II:
CC PHNG PHP GII BI TON CHIA HT
1. Phng php 1: S DNG DU HIU CHIA HT
V d 1: Tm cc ch s a, b sao cho a56b 45
Gii
Ta thy 45 = 5.9 m (5 ; 9) = 1
a56b 45 a56b 5 v 9

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
Xt a56b 5 b {0 ; 5}
Nu b = 0 ta c s a56b 9 a + 5 + 6 + 0 9
a + 11 9
a = 7
Nu b = 5 ta c s a56b 9 a + 5 + 6 + 0 9
a + 16 9
a = 2
Vy: a = 7 v b = 0 ta c s 7560
a = 2 v b = 5 ta c s 2560
V d 2: Bit tng cc ch s ca 1 s l khng i khi nhn s vi 5. Chng minh rng s
chia ht cho 9.
Gii
Gi s cho l a
Ta c: a v 5a khi chia cho 9 cng c 1 s d
5a - a 9 4a 9 m (4 ; 9) = 1
a 9 (pcm)
V d 3: CMR s

111
111

81 s1

81
Gii

Ta thy: 111111111 9
C

111
111
= 111111111(1072 + 1063 + + 109 + 1)
81 s1

M tng 1072 + 1063 + + 109 + 1 c tng cc ch s bng 9 9


1072 + 1063 + + 109 + 1 9
Vy:

111
111

81 s1

81 (pcm)
BI TP TNG T

Bi 1: Tm cc ch s x, y sao cho
a. 34x5y 4 v 9
b. 2x78 17
Bi 2: Cho s N = dcba CMR
a. N 4 (a + 2b) 4
b. N 16 (a + 2b + 4c + 8d) 16 vi b chn
c. N 29 (d + 2c + 9b + 27a) 29
Bi 3: Tm tt c cc s c 2 ch s sao cho mi s gp 2 ln tch cc ch s ca s .
Bi 4: Vit lin tip tt c cc s c 2 ch s t 19 n 80 ta c s A = 1920217980. Hi
s A c chia ht cho 1980 khng ? V sao?
Bi 5: Tng ca 46 s t nhin lin tip c chia ht cho 46 khng? V sao?
Bi 6: Chng t rng s

11
11
22

22

100 s1

100 s2

l tch ca 2 s t nhin lin tip.

HNG DN - P S
Bi 1: a. x =

v y = 2
x=
v y = 6
b. 2x78= 17 (122 + 6x) + 2(2-x)17 x = 2

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
Bi 2: a. N4 ab4 10b + a4 8b + (2b + a) 4
a + 2b4
b. N16 1000d + 100c + 10b + a16
(992d + 96c + 8b) + (8d + 4c + 2b + a) 16
a + 2b + 4c + 8d16 vi b chn
c. C 100(d + 3c + 9b + 27a) - dbca29
m (1000, 29) =1
dbca29
(d + 3c + 9b + 27a) 29
Bi 3: Gi ab l s c 2 ch s
Theo bi ra ta c:
ab= 10a + b = 2ab (1)
ab2 b {0; 2; 4; 6; 8}
Thay vo (1) a = 3; b = 6
Bi 4: C 1980 = 22.32.5.11
V 2 ch s tn cng ca a l 80 4 v 5
A 4 v 5
Tng cc s hng l 1+(2+3++7).10+8 = 279
Tng cc s hng chn 9+(0+1++9).6+0 = 279
C 279 + 279 = 558 9 A 9
279 - 279 = 0 11 A 11
Bi 5: Tng 2 s t nhin lin tip l 1 s l nn khng chia ht cho 2.
C 46 s t nhin lin tip c 23 cp s mi cp c tng l 1 s l tng 23 cp khng
chia ht cho 2. Vy tng ca 46 s t nhin lin tip khng chia ht cho 46.
11...11 22...22 11...11 100...02
Bi 6: C 11002 so31 11002so32 = 11002 so31 14992so43
0
100...02
33...34
M 14992so43
= 3. 1992so33
0
11...11 22...22 33...33 33...34
11002 so31 11002so32 = 11002so33 1992so33 (pcm)
2. Phng php 2:
S DNG TNH CHT CHIA HT
* Ch : Trong n s nguyn lin tip c 1 v ch 1 s chia ht cho n.
CMR: Gi n l s nguyn lin tip
m + 1; m + 2; m + n vi m Z, n N*
Ly n s nguyn lin tip trn chia cho n th ta c tp hp s d l: {0; 1; 2; n - 1}
* Nu tn ti 1 s d l 0: gi s m + i = nqi ; i = 1,n
m + i n
* Nu khng tn ti s d l 0 khng c s nguyn no trong dy chia ht cho n phi c
t nht 2 s d trng nhau.

m + i = nqi + r
m + j = qjn + r

Gi s:

1 i; j n

i - j = n(qi - qj) n i - j n
m i - j< n i - j = 0 i = j
m + i = m + j
Vy trong n s c 1 s v ch 1 s chia ht cho n

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
V d 1: CMR: a. Tch ca 2 s nguyn lin tip lun chia ht cho 2
b. Tch ca 3 s nguyn lin tip chia ht cho 6.
Gii
a. Trong 2 s nguyn lin tip bao gi cng c 1 s chn
S chn chia ht cho 2.
Vy tch ca 2 s nguyn lin tip lun chia ht cho 2.
Tch 2 s nguyn lin tip lun chia ht cho 2 nn tch ca 3 s nguyn lin tip lun chia ht
cho 2
b. Trong 3 s nguyn lin tip bao gi cng c 1 s chia ht cho 3.
Tch 3 s chia ht cho 3 m (1; 3) = 1.
Vy tch ca 3 s nguyn lin tip lun chia ht cho 6.
V d 2: CMR: Tng lp phng ca 3 s nguyn lin tip lun chia ht cho 9.
Gii
Gi 3 s nguyn lin tip ln lt l: n - 1 , n , n+1
Ta c: A = (n - 1)3 + n3 + (n + 1)3
= 3n3 - 3n + 18n + 9n2 + 9
= 3(n - 1)n (n+1) + 9(n2 + 1) + 18n
Ta thy (n - 1)n (n + 1) 3 (CM V d 1)
3(n - 1)n (n + 1) 9

9(n 2 + 1) 9
m
18n 9

A 9 (PCM)
V d 3: CMR: n4 - 4n3 - 4n2 +16n 3 84 vi n chn, n 4
Gii
V n chn, n 4 ta t n = 2k, k 2
Ta c n4 - 4n3 - 4n2 + 16n = 16k4 - 32k3 - 16k2 + 32k
= t 16k(k3 - 2k2 - k + 2)
= t 16k(k - 2) (k - 1)(k + 1)
Vi k 2 nn k - 2, k - 1, k + 1, k l 4 s t nhin lin tip nn trong 4 s c 1 s chia ht
cho 2 v 1 s chia ht cho 4. (k - 2)(k - 1)(k + 1)k 8
M (k - 2) (k - 1)k 3 ; (3,8)=1
(k - 2) (k - 1) (k + 1)k 24
16(k - 2) (k - 1) (k + 1)k (16,24)
Vy n4 - 4n3 - 4n2 +16n 384 vi n chn, n 4
BI TP TNG T
Bi 1: CMR: a. n(n + 1) (2n + 1) 6
b. n5 - 5n3 + 4n 120 Vi n N
Bi 2: CMR: n4 + 6n3 + 11n2 + 6n 24 Vi n Z
Bi 3: CMR: Vi n l th
a. n2 + 4n + 3 8
b. n3 + 3n2 - n - 3 48
c. n12 - n8 - n4 + 1 512
Bi 4: Vi p l s nguyn t p > 3 CMR : p2 - 1 24
Bi 5: CMR: Trong 1900 s t nhin lin tip c 1 s c tng cc ch s chia ht cho 27.
HNG DN - P S
Bi 1: a. n(n + 1)(2n + 1) = n(n + 1) [(n + 1) + (n + 2)]
= n(n + 1) (n - 1) + n(n + 1) (n + 2) 6

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
b. n5 - 5n3 + 4n = (n4 - 5n2 + 4)n
= n(n2 - 1) (n2 - 4)
= n(n + 1) (n - 1) (n + 2) (n - 2) 120
Bi 2: n4 + 6n3 + 6n + 11n2
= n(n3 + 6n2 + 6 + 11n)
= n(n + 1) (n + 2) (n + 3) 24
Bi 3: a. n2 + 4n + 3 = (n + 1) (n + 3) 8
b. n3 + 3n2 - n - 3 = n2(n + 3) - (n + 3)
= (n2 - 1) (n + 3)
= (n + 1) (n - 1) (n + 3)
= (2k + 4) (2k + 2) (2k vi n = 2k + 1, k N)
= 8k(k + 1) (k +2) 48
12
c. n - n8 - n4 + 1 = n8 (n4 - 1) - (n4 - 1)
= (n4 - 1) (n8 - 1)
= (n4 - 1)2 (n4 + 1)
= (n2 - 1)2 (n2 - 1)2 (n4 + 1)
= 16[k(k + 1)2 (n2 + 1)2 (n4 + 1)
Vi n = 2k + 1 n2 + 1 v n4 + 1 l nhng s chn (n2 + 1)2 2
n4 + 1 2
n12 - n8 - n4 + 1 (24.22. 22. 1 . 21)
12
Vy n - n8 - n4 + 1 512
Bi 4: C p2 - 1 = (p - 1) (p + 1) v p l s nguyn t p > 3
p 3 ta c: (p - 1) (p + 1) 8
v p = 3k + 1 hoc p = 3k + 2 (k N)
(p - 1) (p + 1) 3
2
Vy p - 1 24
Bi 5: Gi s 1900 s t nhin lin tip l
n, n +1; n + 2; ; n + 1989 (1)
trong 1000 t nhin lin tip n, n + 1; n + 2; ; n + 999
c 1 s chia ht cho 1000 gi s n0, khi n0 c tn cng l 3 ch s 0 gi s tng cc ch s
ca n0 l s khi 27 s n0, n0 + 9; n0 + 19; n0 + 29; n0 + 39; ; n0 + 99; n0 + 199; n0 + 899
(2)
C tng cc ch s ln lt l: s; s + 1 ; s + 26
C 1 s chia ht cho 27 (PCM)
* Ch : n + 899 n + 999 + 899 < n + 1989
Cc s (2) nm trong dy (1)
3. Phng php 3:
XT TP HP S D TRONG PHP CHIA
V d 1: CMR: Vi n N
Th A(n) = n(2n + 7) (7n + 7) chia ht cho 6
Gii
Ta thy 1 trong 2 tha s n v 7n + 1 l s chn. Vi n N A(n) 2
Ta chng minh A(n) 3
Ly n chia cho 3 ta c n = 3k + 1 (k N)
Vi r {0; 1; 2}
Vi r = 0 n = 3k n 3 A(n) 3
Vi r = 1 n = 3k + 1 2n + 7 = 6k + 9 3 A(n) 3
Vi r = 2 n = 3k + 2 7n + 1 = 21k + 15 3 A(n) 3

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
A(n) 3 vi n m (2, 3) = 1
Vy A(n) 6 vi n N
V d 2: CMR: Nu n 3 th A(n) = 32n + 3n + 1 13 Vi n N
Gii
V n 3 n = 3k + r (k N); r {1; 2; 3}
A(n) = 32(3k + r) + 33k+r + 1
= 32r(36k - 1) + 3r (33k - 1) + 32r + 3r + 1
ta thy 36k - 1 = (33)2k - 1 = (33 - 1)M = 26M 13
33k - 1 = (33 - 1)N = 26N 13
vi r = 1 32n + 3n + 1 = 32 + 3 +1 = 13 13
32n + 3n + 1 13
vi r = 2 32n + 3n + 1 = 34 + 32 + 1 = 91 13
32n + 3n + 1
Vy vi n 3 th A(n) = 32n + 3n + 1 13 Vi n N
V d 3: Tm tt c cc s t nhin n 2n - 1 7
Gii
Ly n chia cho 3 ta c n = 3k + 1 (k N); r {0; 1; 2}
Vi r = 0 n = 3k ta c
2n - 1 = 23k - 1 = 8k - 1 = (8 - 1)M = 7M 7
vi r =1 n = 3k + 1 ta c:
2n - 1 = 28k +1 - 1 = 2.23k - 1 = 2(23k - 1) + 1
m 23k - 1 7 2n - 1 chia cho 7 d 1
vi r = 2 n = 3k + 2 ta c :
2n - 1 = 23k + 2 - 1 = 4(23k - 1) + 3
3k
m 2 - 1 7 2n - 1 chia cho 7 d 3
Vy 23k - 1 7 n = 3k (k N)
BI TP TNG T
2
2
Bi 1: CMR: An = n(n + 1)(n + 4) 5 Vi n Z
Bi 2: Cho A = a1 + a2 + + an
B = a51 + a52 + + a5n
Bi 3: CMR: Nu (n, 6) =1 th n2 - 1 24 Vi n Z
Bi 4: Tm s t nhin W 22n + 2n + 1 7
Bi 5: Cho 2 s t nhin m, n tho mn 24m4 + 1 = n2
CMR: mn 55
HNG DN - P S
Bi 1: + A(n) 6
+ Ly n chia cho 5 n = 5q + r r {0; 1; 2; 3; 4}
r = 0 n 5 A(n) 5
r = 1, 4 n2 + 4 5 A(n) 5
r = 2; 3 n2 + 1 5 A(n) 5
A(n) 5 A(n) 30
Bi 2: Xt hiu B - A = (a51 - a1) + + (a5n - an)
Ch chng minh: a5i - ai 30 l
Bi 3: V (n, 6) =1 n = 6k + 1 (k N)
Vi r { 1}
r = 1 n2 - 1 24
Bi 4: Xt n = 3k + r (k N)
Vi r {0; 1; 2}

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
Ta c: 22n + 2n + 1 = 22r(26k - 1) + 2r(23k - 1) + 22n + 2n + 1
Lm tng t VD3
Bi 5: C 24m4 + 1 = n2 = 25m4 - (m4 - 1)
Khi m 5 mn 5
Khi m 5 th (m, 5) = 1 m4 - 1 5
(V m5 - m 5 (m4 - 1) 5 m4 - 1 5)
n2 5 ni5
Vy mn 5
4. Phng php 4: S DNG PHNG PHP PHN TCH THNH NHN T
Gi s chng minh an k
Ta c th phn tch an cha tha s k hoc phn tch thnh cc tha s m cc tha s
chia ht cho cc tha s ca k.
V d 1: CMR: 36n - 26n 35 Vi n N
Gii
6n
6n
6 n
6 n
6
6
Ta c 3 - 2 = (3 ) - (2 ) = (3 - 2 )M
= (33 + 23) (33 - 23)M
= 35.19M 35 Vy 36n - 26n 35 Vi n N
V d 2: CMR: Vi n l s t nhin chn th biu thc
A = 20n + 16n - 3n - 1 232
Gii
Ta thy 232 = 17.19 m (17;19) = 1 ta chng minh
A 17 v A 19 ta c A = (20n - 3n) + (16n - 1) c 20n - 3n = (20 - 3)M 17M
16n - 1 = (16 + 1)M = 17N 17 (n chn)
A 17 (1)
ta c: A = (20n - 1) + (16n - 3n)
c 20n - 1 = (20 - 1)p = 19p 19
c 16n - 3n = (16 + 3)Q = 19Q 19 (n chn)
A 19 (2)
T (1) v (2) A 232
V d 3: CMR: nn - n2 + n - 1 (n - 1)2 Vi n >1
Gii
n
2
Vi n = 2 n - n + n - 1 = 1
v (n - 1)2 = (2 - 1)2 = 1
nn - n2 + n - 1 (n - 1)2
vi n > 2 t A = nn - n2 + n - 1 ta c A = (nn - n2) + (n - 1)
= n2(nn-2 - 1) + (n - 1)
= n2(n - 1) (nn-3 + nn-4 + + 1) + (n - 1)
= (n - 1) (nn-1 + nn-2 + + n2 +1)
= (n - 1) [(nn-1 - 1) + +( n2 - 1) + (n - 1)]
= (n - 1)2M (n - 1)2
Vy A (n - 1)2 (PCM)
BI TP TNG T
2n +1
2n +2
Bi 1: CMR: a. 3 + 2
7
4
4
b. mn(m - n ) 30
Bi 2: CMR: A(n) = 3n + 63 72 vi n chn n N, n 2
Bi 3: Cho a v b l 2 s chnh phng l lin tip
CMR: a. (a - 1) (b - 1) 192

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
Bi 4: CMR: Vi p l 1 s nguyn t p > 5 th p4 - 1 240
Bi 5: Cho 3 s nguyn dng a, b, c v tho mn a2 = b2 + c2
CMR: abc 60
HNG DN - P S
Bi 1: a. 32n +1 + 22n +2 = 3.32n + 2.2n
= 3.9n + 4.2n
= 3(7 + 2)n + 4.2n
= 7M + 7.2n 7
b. mn(m4 - n4) = mn(m2 - 1)(m2 + 1) - mn(n2 - 1) (n2 + 1) 30
Bi 3: C 72 = 9.8 m (8, 9) = 1 v n = 2k (k N)
c 3n + 63 = 32k + 63
= (32k - 1) + 64 A(n) 8
Bi 4: t a = (2k - 1)2; b = (2k - 1)2 (k N)
Ta c (a - 1)(b - 1) = 16k(k + 1)(k - 1) 64 v 3
Bi 5: C 60 = 3.4.5 t M = abc
Nu a, b, c u khng chia ht cho 3 a2, b2 v c2 chia ht cho 3 u d 1 a2 b2 +
c2. Do c t nht 1 s chia ht cho 3. Vy M 3
Nu a, b, c u khng chia ht cho 5 a2, b2 v c2 chia 5 d 1 hoc 4 b2 + c2 chia 5
th d 2; 0 hoc 3.
a2 b2 + c2. Do c t nht 1 s chia ht cho 5. Vy M 5
Nu a, b, c l cc s l b2 v c2 chia ht cho 4 d 1.
b2 + c2 (mod 4) a2 b2 + c2
Do 1 trong 2 s a, b phi l s chn.
Gi s b l s chn
Nu C l s chn M 4
Nu C l s l m a2 = b2 + c2 a l s l
2
b
a + c a c
b2 = (a - c) (a + b) =

2
2 2
b
chn b 4 m 4
2
Vy M = abc 3.4.5 = 60

5. Phng php 5:
BIN I BIU THC CN CHNG MINH V DNG TNG
Gi s chng minh A(n) k ta bin i A(n) v dng tng ca nhiu hng t v chng minh
mi hng t u chia ht cho k.
V d 1: CMR: n3 + 11n 6 vi n z.
Gii
3
3
2
Ta c n + 11n = n - n + 12n = n(n - 1) + 12n
= n(n + 1) (n - 1) + 12n
V n, n - 1; n + 1 l 3 s nguyn lin tip
n(n + 1) (n - 1) 6 v 12n 6
Vy n3 + 11n 6
V d 2: Cho a, b z tho mn (16a +17b) (17a +16b) 11
CMR: (16a +17b) (17a +16b) 121
Gii

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
C 11 s nguyn t m (16a +17b) (17a +16b) 11

16a + 17b11
(1)
17a + 16b11

C 16a +17b + 17a +16b = 33(a + b) 11 (2)

16a + 17b11
17a + 16b11

T (1) v (2)

Vy (16a +17b) (17a +16b) 121


V d 3: Tm n N sao cho P = (n + 5)(n + 6) 6n.
Gii
2
Ta c P = (n + 5)(n + 6) = n + 11n + 30
= 12n + n2 - n + 30
V 12n 6n nn P 6n n2 - n + 30 6n

n2 - n 6
n(n - 1) 3 (1)

30 6n
30 n (2)

T (1) n = 3k hoc n = 3k + 1 (k N)
T (2) n {1; 2; 3; 5; 6; 10; 15; 30}
Vy t (1); (2) n {1; 3; 6; 10; 15; 30}
Thay cc gi tr ca n vo P ta c
n {1; 3; 10; 30} l tho mn
Vy n {1; 3; 10; 15; 30} th P = (n + 5)(n + 6) 6n.
BI TP TNG T
Bi 1: CMR: 13 + 33 + 53 + 73 23
Bi 2: CMR: 36n2 + 60n + 24 24
Bi 3: CMR: a. 5n+2 + 26.5n + 8 2n+1 59
b. 9 2n + 14 5
Bi 4: Tm n N sao cho n3 - 8n2 + 2n n2 + 1
HNG DN - P S
Bi 1: 13 + 33 + 53 + 73 = (13 + 73) + (33 + 53)
= 8m + 8N 23
2
Bi 2: 36 + 60n + 24 = 12n(3n + 5) + 24
Ta thy n v 3n + 5 khng ng thi cng chn hoc cng l
n(3n + 5) 2 PCM
Bi 3: a. 5n+2 + 26.5n + 8 2n+1
= 5n(25 + 26) + 8 2n+1
= 5n(59 - 8) + 8.64 n
= 5n.59 + 8.59m 59
b. 9 2n + 14 = 9 2n - 1 + 15
= (81n - 1) + 15
= 80m + 15 5
3
2
Bi 4: C n - 8n + 2n = (n2 + 1)(n - 8) + n + 8 (n2 + 1) n + 8 n2 + 1
Nu n + 8 = 0 n = -8 (tho mn)
Nu n + 8 0 n + 8 n2 + 1

n + 8 -n 2 1 Vi n 8 n 2 + n + 9 0 Vi n 8
2

2
n + 8 n + 1 Vi n 8
n n 7 0 Vi n 8
10

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
n {-2; 0; 2} th li
Vy n {-8; 0; 2}
Phng php 6:
DNG QUY NP TON HC
Gi s CM A(n) P vi n a (1)
Bc 1: Ta CM (1) ng vi n = a tc l CM A(n) P
Bc 2: Gi s (1) ng vi n = k tc l CM A(k) P vi k a
Ta CM (1) ng vi n = k + 1 tc l phi CM A(k+1) P
Bc 3: Kt lun A(n) P vi n a
V d 1: Chng minh A(n) = 16n - 15n - 1 225 vi n N*
Gii
Vi n = 1 A(n) = 225 225 vy n = 1 ng
Gi s n = k 1 ngha l A(k) = 16k - 15k - 1 225
Ta phi CM A(k+1) = 16 k+1 - 15(k + 1) - 1 225
Tht vy: A(k+1) = 16 k+1 - 15(k + 1) - 1
= 16.16k - 15k - 16
= (16k - 15k - 1) + 15.16k - 15
= 16k - 15k - 1 + 15.15m
= A(k) + 225
m A(k) 225 (gi thit quy np)
225m 225
Vy A(n) 225
V d 2: CMR: vi n N* v n l s t nhin l ta c

m 2 12 n + 2

Gii
Vi n = 1 m2 - 1 = (m + 1)(m - 1) 8 (v m + 1; m - 1 l 2 s chn lin tip nn tch ca
chng chia ht cho 8)
Gi s vi n = k ta c

m2

k +1

m2

m 2 12k + 2 m

2k

= 2 k + 2.q + 1

k +1

( )

1 = m2
=

Vy

ta phi chng minh

12 k +3

Tht vy
m2

m 2 12 k + 2

1 = 2 k + 2.q

1 = 2 k + 2.q + 1 1 = 2 k + 4.q 2 + 2 k +3.q

2 k +3 (2 k +1 q 2 + q ) 2 k +3

m 2 12 n + 2

(q z )

vi n 1

BI TP TNG T
Bi 1: CMR: 3 - 26n - 27 29 vi n 1
Bi 2: CMR: 42n+2 - 1 15
Bi 3: CMR s c thnh lp bi 3n ch s ging nhau th chia ht cho 3 n vi n l s nguyn
dng.
HNG DN - P S
Bi 1: Tng t v d 1.
3n+3

11

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
Bi 2: Tng t v d 1.
Bi 3: Ta cn CM

a
a...
a
3n

3n (1)

sa

aa ... a =111 a 3
aa ... a
Gi s (1) ng vi n = k tc l
Vi n = 1 ta c

3k

s
a

Ta chng minh (1) ng vi n = k + 1 tc l phi chng minh

a
a...
a
k+
1

3k+1 ta c 3k+1 = 3.3k = 3k + 3k +3k

s a
k

a
... a a
... a a
... a = aa...a.102.3 + aa...a.103 + a
...a

a...
a =a
k
k
k
3k +1 s a

3k

2.3
3
k +1
= aa
...
a 10 + 10 + 1 3
3k

1. Phng php 7:
S DNG NG D THC
Gii bi ton da vo ng d thc ch yu l s dng nh l Euler v nh l Fermat
V d 1: CMR: 22225555 + 55552222 7
Gii
C 2222 - 4 (mod 7) 22225555 + 55552222 (- 4)5555 + 45555 (mod 7)
Li c: (- 4)5555 + 42222 = - 45555 + 42222
1111
= - 42222 (43333 - 1) = - 4 2222 4 3
1

( )

V 43 = 64 (mod 7) 4 3
22225555 + 55552222 0 (mod 7)
Vy 22225555 + 55552222 7
V d 2: CMR:

24 n +1

34 n +1

+3

((

1111

1 0 (mod 7)

+ 522 vi n N
Gii

Theo nh l Fermat ta c:
310 1 (mod 11)
210 1 (mod 11)
Ta tm d trong php chia l 24n+1 v 34n+1 cho 10
C 24n+1 = 2.16n 2 (mod 10)
24n+1 = 10q + 2 (q N)
C 34n+1 = 3.81n 3 (mod 10)
34n+1 = 10k + 3 (k N)
Ta c:

32

4 n +1

4 n +1

+ 33

+ 5 = 310q+ 2 + 210 k +3

= 32.310q + 23.210k + 5
1+0+1 (mod 2)
0 (mod 2)

12

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
m (2, 11) = 1
Vy

32

4 n +1

4 n +1

+ 33

V d 3: CMR:

22

+ 522 vi n N

4 n +1

+ 7 11 vi n N

Gii
2 (mod 10)

Ta c: 2 6 (mod) 2
24n+1 = 10q + 2 (q N)
4

22

4 n +1

4n+1

= 210q+ 2

Theo nh l Fermat ta c: 210 1 (mod 11)


210q 1 (mod 11)

22

4 n +1

+ 7 = 210q+ 2 + 7

4+7 (mod 11) 0 (mod 11)


Vy

22

4 n +1

+ 7 11 vi n N (PCM)

BI TP TNG T

Bi 1: CMR

26 n + 2

+ 319

vi n N

Bi 2: CMR vi n 1 ta c
52n-1. 22n-15n+1 + 3n+1 .22n-1 38
Bi 3: Cho s p > 3, p (P)
CMR 3p - 2p - 1 42p
Bi 4: CMR vi mi s nguyn t p u c dng
2n - n (n N) chia ht cho p.
HNG DN - P S
Bi 1: Lm tng t nh VD3
Bi 2: Ta thy 52n-1. 22n-15n+1 + 3n+1 .22n-1 2
Mt khc 52n-1. 22n-15n+1 + 3n+1 .22n-1 = 2n(52n-1.10 + 9. 6n-1)
V 25 6 (mod 19) 5n-1 6n-1 (mod 19)
25n-1.10 + 9. 6n-1 6n-1.19 (mod 19) 0 (mod 19)
Bi 3: t A = 3p - 2p - 1 (p l)
D dng CM A 2 v A 3 A 6
Nu p = 7 A = 37 - 27 - 1 49 A 7p
Nu p 7 (p, 7) = 1
Theo nh l Fermat ta c:
A = (3p - 3) - (2p - 2) p
t p = 3q + r (q N; r = 1, 2)
A = (33q+1 - 3) - (23q+r - 2)
= 3r.27q - 2r.8q - 1 = 7k + 3r(-1)q - 2r - 1 (k N)
vi r = 1, q phi chn (v p l)
A = 7k - 9 - 4 - 1 = 7k - 14
Vy A 7 m A p, (p, 7) = 1 A 7p
M (7, 6) = 1; A 6
A 42p.
Bi 4: Nu P = 2 22 - 2 = 2 2
Nu n > 2 Theo nh l Fermat ta c:
2p-1 1 (mod p)

13

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
2m(p-1) 1 (mod p) (m N)
Xt A = 2m(p-1) + m - mp
A p m = kq - 1
Nh vy nu p > 2 p c dng 2n - n trong
N = (kp - 1)(p - 1), k N u chia ht cho p

2. Phng php 8:
S DNG NGUYN L IRICHLET
Nu em n + 1 con th nht vo n lng th c t nht 1 lng cha t 2 con tr ln.
V d 1: CMR: Trong n + 1 s nguyn bt k c 2 s c hiu chia ht cho n.
Gii
Ly n + 1 s nguyn cho chia cho n th c n + 1 s d nhn 1 trong cc s sau: 0; 1; 2;
; n - 1
c t nht 2 s d c cng s d khi chia cho n.
Gi s ai = nq1 + r
0 r<n
aj = nq2 + r
a1; q2 N
aj - aj = n(q1 - q2) n
Vy trong n +1 s nguyn bt k c 2 s c hiu chia ht cho n.
Nu khng c 1 tng no trong cc tng trn chia ht cho n nh vy s d khi chia
mi tng trn cho n ta c n s d l 1; 2; ; n - 1
Vy theo nguyn l irichlet s tn ti t nht 2 tng m chi cho n c cng s d
(theo VD1) hiu cadr tng ny chia ht cho n (PCM).
BI TP TNG T
Bi 1: CMR: Tn ti n N sao cho 17n - 1 25
Bi 2: CMR: Tn ti 1 bi ca s 1993 ch cha ton s 1.
Bi 3: CMR: Vi 17 s nguyn bt k bao gi cng tn ti 1 tng 5 s chia ht cho 5.
Bi 4: C hay khng 1 s c dng.
19931993 1993000 00 1994
HNG DN - P S
2
25
Bi 1: Xt dy s 17, 17 , , 17 (tng t VD2)
Bi 2: Ta c 1994 s nguyn cha ton b s 1 l:
1
11
111

111

11
1994s 1

Khi chia cho 1993 th c 1993 s d theo nguyn l irichlet c t nht 2 s c cng s d.
Gi s l
ai = 1993q + r
0 r < 1993
aj = 1993k + r
i > j; q, k N
aj - aj = 1993(q - k)

111

11 00


0 =1993 (q k )
i - j 1994 s 1

i s 0

111

11.10

=1993 (q k )

i - j 1994s 1

14

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
m (10j, 1993) = 1

111

11 1993 (PCM)

1994s 1

Bi 3: Xt dy s gm 17 s nguyn bt k l
a1, a2, , a17
Chia cc s cho 5 ta c 17 s d t phi c 5 s d thuc tp hp{0; 1; 2; 3; 4}
Nu trong 17 s trn c 5 s khi chia cho 5 c cng s d th tng ca chng s chia
ht cho 5.
Nu trong 17 s trn khng c s no c cng s d khi chia cho 5 tn ti 5 s c s
d khc nhau tng cc s d l: 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10 10
Vy tng ca 5 s ny chia ht cho 5.
Bi 4: Xt dy s a1 = 1993, a2 = 19931993,
a1994 =

1993

1993

1994s 1993

em chia cho 1994 c 1994 s d thuc tp {1; 2; ; 1993} theo nguyn l irichlet c t
nht 2 s hng c cng s d.
Gi s: ai = 1993 1993 (i s 1993)
aj = 1993 1993 (j s 1993)
aj - aj 1994
1 i < j 1994
ni
1993

1993
.
10
1993

j - i s 1993

3. Phng php 9
PHNG PHP PHN CHNG
CM A(n) p (hoc A(n) p )
+ Gi s: A(n) p (hoc A(n) p )
+ CM trn gi s l sai
+ Kt lun: A(n) p (hoc A(n) p )
V d 1: CMR n2 + 3n + 5 121 vi n N
Gi s tn ti n N sao cho n2 + 3n + 5 121
4n2 + 12n + 20 121 (v (n, 121) = 1)
(2n + 3)2 + 11 121 (1)
(2n + 3)2 11
V 11 l s nguyn t 2n + 3 11
(2n + 3)2 121 (2)
T (1) v (2) 11 121 v l
Vy n2 + 3n + 5 121
V d 2: CMR n2 - 1 n vi n N*
Gii
Xt tp hp s t nhin N*
Gi s n 1, n N* sao cho n2 - 1 n
Gi d l c s chung nh nht khc 1 ca n d (p) theo nh l Format ta c
2d-1 1 (mod d) m < d
ta chng minh m\n
Gi s n = mq + r (0 r < m)

15

Trng THCS M Quang:


CHUYN BI DNG HC SINH GII
Theo gi s n2 - 1 n nmq+r - 1 n
2r(nmq - 1) + (2r - 1) n 2r - 1 d v r < m m m N, m nh nht khc 1 c tnh cht (1)
r = 0 m\n m m < d cng c tnh cht (1) nn iu gi s l sai.
Vy n2 - 1 n vi n N*
BI TP TNG T
2
Bi 1: C tn ti n N sao cho n + n + 2 49 khng?
Bi 2: CMR: n2 + n + 1 9 vi n N*
Bi 3: CMR: 4n2 - 4n + 18 289 vi n N
HNG DN - P S
Bi 1: Gi s tn ti n N n2 + n + 2 49
4n2 + 4n + 8 49
(2n + 1)2 + 7 49 (1) (2n + 1)2 7
V 7 l s nguyn t 2n + 1 7 (2n + 1)2 49 (2)
T (1); (2) 7 49 v l.
Bi 2: Gi s tn ti n2 + n + 1 9 vi n
(n + 2)(n - 1) + 3 3 (1)
n + 2 3
v 3 l s nguyn t
(n + 2)(n - 1) 9 (2)
n 13
T (1) v (2) 3 9 v l
Bi 3: Gi s n N 4n2 - 4n + 18 289
(2n - 1)2 + 17 172
(2n - 1) 17
17 l s nguyn t (2n - 1) 17 (2n - 1)2 289
17 289 v l.

16