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Haris Papasaika-Hanusch

Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, ETH Zurich

haris@geod.baug.ethz.ch

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 2

Images and Digital Images

A digital image differs from a photo in that the values are all

discrete.

dots, each of which has a brightness associated with it. These

dots are called picture elements, or more simply pixels.

neighborhood A neighborhood can be characterized by its

shape in the same way as a matrix: we can speak of a 3x3

neighborhood, or of a 5x7 neighborhood.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 3

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 4

Aspects of Image Processing

is more suitable for a particular application. (sharpening or de-

blurring an out of focus image, highlighting edges, improving

image contrast, or brightening an image, removing noise)

damage done to an image by a known cause. (removing of blur

caused by linear motion, removal of optical distortions)

constituent parts, or isolating certain aspects of an image.

(finding lines, circles, or particular shapes in an image, in an

aerial photograph, identifying cars, trees, buildings, or roads.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 5

Types of Digital Images

Binary: Each pixel is just black or white. Since there are only

two possible values for each pixel (0,1), we only need one bit

per pixel.

(black) to 255 (white). This range means that each pixel can be

represented by eight bits, or exactly one byte. Other

greyscale ranges are used, but generally they are a power of 2.

True Color, or RGB: Each pixel has a particular color; that color

is described by the amount of red, green and blue in it. If each

of these components has a range 0255, this gives a total of

256

3

different possible colors. Such an image is a stack of

three matrices; representing the red, green and blue values

for each pixel. This means that for every pixel there correspond

3 values.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 6

Binary Image

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 7

Grayscale Image

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 8

Color Image

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 9

General Commands

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 10

Command Window

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 11

Data Types

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 12

Image Information

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 13

Bit Planes

images by breaking them up into their bit-planes.

bit binary word.

The 0th bit plane consists of the last bit of each grey value.

Since this bit has the least effect (least significant bit plane).

The 7th bit plane consists of the first bit in each value (most

significant bit plane.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 14

Initial Image

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 15

Bit Plane 0

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 16

Bit Plane 4

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 17

Bit Plane 7

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 18

Spatial Resolution

greater the spatial resolution, the more pixels are used to

display the image.

Halve the size of the image: It does this by taking out every

other row and every other column, thus leaving only those

matrix elements whose row and column indices are even.

Double the size of the image: all the pixels are repeated to

produce an image with the same size as the original, but with

half the resolution in each direction.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 19

Interpolation

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 20

Extrapolation

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 21

Arithmetic Operations

each gray value in the image.

to each pixel: y = xC (imadd, imsubtract)

imdivide)

negative.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 22

Addition - Subtraction

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 23

Multiplication-Division

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 24

Complement

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 25

Addition

Image: J

Image: J+20

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 26

Subtraction

Image: J

Image: J-50

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 27

Multiplication

Image: J

Image: J*3

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 28

Division

Image: J

Image: J/2

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 29

Complement

Image: J

Image: 255-J

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 30

Histograms

histogram of its gray levels; that is, a graph indicating the

number of times each gray level occurs in the image.

from its histogram.

end

the upper end.

out over much of the range.

enhance its contrast, by spreading out its histogram. There are

two ways of doing this.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 31

Histogram Stretching (Contrast Stretching)

We can stretch the gray levels in the center of the range out by

applying a piecewise linear function

This function has the effect of stretching the gray levels [a,b] to

gray levels [c,d], where a<c and d>b according to the equation:

imadjust(I,[a,b],[c,d])

Pixel values less than c are all converted to c, and pixel values

greater than d are all converted to d.

j=

cd

ba

iac

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 32

Histogram Stretching

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 33

Before Histogram Stretching

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 34

After Histogram Stretching

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 35

Histogram Equalization

that they require user input.

that gray level i occurs n

i

times in the image. Suppose also that

the total number of pixels in the image is n so that

n

0

+n

1

+n

2

+...n

L

=n. To transform the gray levels to obtain a

better contrasted image, we change gray level i to:

levels, so that the histogram of the output image is

approximately flat.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 36

Before Histogram Equalization

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 37

After Histogram Equalization

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 38

Thresholding

image by first choosing a gray level T in the original image, and

then turning every pixel black or white according to whether its

gray value is greater than or less than T.

apply a thresholding operation as:

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 39

Thresholding

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 40

Spatial Filtering

or other shape over the given image.

A new image whose pixels have gray values calculated from the

gray values under the mask.

Linear function of all the gray values in the mask, then the filter

is called a linear filter.

1.position the mask over the current pixel,

2.form all products of filter elements with the corresponding elements

of the neighborhood,

3.add up all the products.

filter2(filter,image,shape)

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 41

Masks

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 42

Filtering

Working

Flow

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 43

Frequencies; Low and High Pass Filters

distance.

changes in grey values over small distances; (edges and noise)

change in the gray values. (backgrounds, skin textures)

components, and reduces or eliminates low frequency

components.

components, and reduces or eliminates high frequency

components.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 44

Gaussian Filters

Gaussian probability distribution function:

to a flatter curve, and a small value leads to a pointier

curve.

Blurring Effect

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 45

Gaussian Filters

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 46

Gaussian Filters

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 47

Noise

external disturbance.

disturbances in the image signal; it is randomly scattered white

or black (or both) pixels. It can be modeled by random values

added to an image

caused by random fluctuations in the signal.

applications. It can be modeled by random values multiplied by

pixel values.

Salt & Pepper Noise

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 49

Gaussian Noise

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 50

Speckle Noise

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 51

Motivation: detect changes

change in the pixel value large gradient

Gradient

operator

image

Thresholding

edge

map

x(m,n)

g(m,n)

I(m,n)

'

>

otherwise

th n m g

n m I

0

| ) , ( | 1

) , (

We can implement those two steps by basic MATLAB functions.

Edge Detection

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 52

1. Prewitt operator 2. Sobel operator

1

1

1

]

1

1 0 1

1 0 1

1 0 1

1

1

1

]

1

1 1 1

0 0 0

1 1 1

1

1

1

]

1

1 0 1

2 0 2

1 0 1

1

1

1

]

1

1 2 1

0 0 0

1 2 1

vertical

horizontal

Common Edge Operators

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 53

Canny Edge Detector

found by a computational algorithm should be minimized

Single response

only a single one exists

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 54

Edge Detectors

Color Image

Grayscale Image

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 55

Edge Detectors

Sobel

Canny

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 56

Color Images

standard way. It generally consists of a 3D coordinate system

and a subspace of that system in which each color is

represented by a single point.

and B, indicating the amounts of red, green and blue which

make up the color.

HSV:

Hue: The true color attribute (red, green, blue, orange, yellow,

and so on).

white. The more white in the color, the lower the saturation.

Value: The degree of brightness: a well lit color has high intensity; a

dark color has low intensity.

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 57

Color Image

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 58

Color Conversion

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 59

Initial Color Image

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 60

RGB Color Space

RED GREEN

BLUE

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 61

HSV Color Space

HUE

SATURATION VALUE

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 62

COLOR COMPOSITE

Aster 1 Aster 3

Aster 2

Digital Image Processing Using Matlab 63

COLOR COMPOSITE

Aster 1-2-3

Aster 2-1-3 Aster 3-2-1

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