THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STORYTELLING THROUGH PICTURE SERIES AS A TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING SPEAKING OF NARRATIVE TEXT OF 2nd GRADE OF SMK KAWUNG

1 SURABAYA

Septriani Movita Lia.N 085300072/ E class

ENGLISH DEPARTEMENT FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING UNIVERSITY OF PGRI ADI BUANA SURABAYA

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study As an International language, English has become a very important language in the world. Speaking is an essential skill to be successful in communication and everyday living society. Moreover, in globalization Era, Speaking English is becoming more and more important as it is used among people who live in different places and cultures, share the ideas, and bring them into relationship with their environment. Firstly, English is an International language. It is spoken by many people all over the world, either as a first or second language. Secondly, English is also the key, which open the doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for the economics and political development of many countries in the world. Thirdly, English is a top requirement of these seeking jobs. Speaking skill plays an important role in learning English. Nunan (1991:3) states that “ mastering the art of speaking is the single most important aspect of learning a second or foreign language, and success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language, and success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language”. So, if somebody wants to be a skilful and an intellectual person who is ready to participate in this globalization era everybody have to master English in order to get the information from all over the world easily. Oral interactions can be characterized in terms of routines, which are conventional ( and therefore predictable) ways of presenting information which can either focus on information or interaction. English is taught in all of the educational institutions from elementary school to university level. It is used as an educational language. In Indonesia, English becomes something worthy. Furthermore, English is the language that is frequently used in international trade, Diplomacy and tourism and it is studied by many people in the

world than any other languages. Teaching English in Indonesia consists of four skills, namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing and other two components those are vocabulary, and grammar ( Depdiknas, 2006; 307). Speaking is one of communicative skills that should be mastered by the students of senior high school. Moreover, the graduates of senior high school are accepted to use English in real communication fluently and accurately. According to Bygate, a further feature of oral interaction is that the participants need constantly to negotiate meaning, and generally manage the interaction in terms of who is to say what, to whom, when, and about what. Because many students have difficulties in producing the utterances in the speaking class, even though English is not a new subject, some students still consider said that English is the difficult lesson to be learnt at school. Moreover, if the teacher asks the students to practice it. Most students just keep silent in the classroom. Student should have motivation so that they will be enthusiastic to express their thoughts and feeling orally. Byrne (1986: 11) has said that the development of oral ability is a good source of motivation for most learners. In addition, students‟ enthusiasm to speak is very essential for the success of learning speaking. The teacher must be creative and teacher has to able to stimulate student‟s motivation, likeness and curiosity and develop student‟s acquisition in learning spoken English. All of them represent strategies for providing the communication involvement that is necessary for communication interaction in the classroom. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) is an operational curriculum that an arranged and done in each unit of education (Susanto, 2007: 11). The teachers have opportunities to develop the curriculum based in the competence standard. To set the communicative competence standard, the teacher has to able to create the more appropriate technique, which is able to motivate and encourage the students to participate in classroom activities especially in speaking activity. In developing speaking skill,

students should be motivated so that they will be enthusiastic to express their thought and feeling orally. Pictures actually have some advantages to be used for teaching speaking, especially for young learners. Pictures can raise the student‟s interest; the teacher can provide fun for students will have different interpretation of pictures. This condition make the students like to have speaking class instead of thinking. Storytelling is so useful in teaching speaking because it allows students to explore their inner resources, empathize with others, and use their own experiences as scaffolds upon which to build credible action (Amato, 2003:214). Storytelling through their attention to human experience is likely to have much appeal in the language classroom. It means that students can improve their ability to produce the target language and improve their ability to comprehend and produce the target language. Lubis (1988: 70-75) states that the teacher can use media in teaching speaking such as visual aids (bulletin board, blackboards, realia, picture, chart, flash card, map, clock, cartoon), audio visual aids, ( TV, motion picture, video tape recorder). To support in doing storytelling, the storyteller may use a flannel board, puppets, pictures, and other objects. These aids help storyteller to remember the story, establish rapport with the audience, and gain confidence in their storytelling ability by using a picture or pictures series. Picture series can stimulus for a longer story or description (brown, 2004: 180). Picture series is more interesting, economical and practical compare with other media, besides it is good illustration media to describe the story sequence in narrative text. Narrative text is the text that tells a story and entertains the audience with real or fiction experience. Bailey (2005:104) says that storytelling using picture can give students active expressive their vocabulary. It means that the students encourage exploring their vocabulary in speaking. From those explanations, this study wants to observe how the storytelling using picture series is implemented in teaching speaking to the tenth grade students of senior high

school. How storytelling can improve the student s speaking ability and make them more active in expressing their thought.

1.2 Statement of the Problem Based on the background of the study, the research questions are as follows: Is the implementation of storytelling through picture series as a technique in teaching speaking of narrative text effective to improve the student‟s speaking ability?

1.3 Hypothesis Storytelling through Picture Series can be implemented in Teaching Speaking of Narrative Text to improve student‟s ability.

1.4 Purpose of the Study Purpose of the study is to know and observe the implementation of teaching speaking of narrative text through picture series of storytelling on the students‟ speaking ability.

1.5 Variable Variable is the element one can‟t miss as on conducts a research. F.n. Kerlinger in Arikunto (1997-94) “Variable is a concept as like men in the concept of sex, aware in the concept of awareness. In this research, the writer uses Quantitative Variable: 1. Independent Variable: teaching speaking through picture series of narrative text. 2. Dependent Variable: the students‟ speaking ability According to the variables in experiments Kerlinger said:

“All experiments have one fundamental idea behind them: to test the effect of one or more independent variables on a dependent variable (it is possible to have more than one dependent variable in experiments).”

1.6 Significance of the Study This research is strongly expected to be useful and helpful to the improvement of previous theory about using storytelling in teaching speaking to create narrative text. Hopefully, it can give a great contribution for both the English teachers and the students. 1. The teacher The writer hopes that it will be useful to provide the sight and description about the use of picture series for storytelling technique in the teaching of speaking, so that the English teacher knows and understands how to implement a good storytelling technique, and how to treat students well by knowing their responses to the use of storytelling technique by using picture. Moreover, the teachers can anticipate to the difficulties that may arise in implementing it. 2. The students The students can reach the main objective of the teaching of speaking skill that encourages them to express their thought and feeling freely. Furthermore they have a sense of achievement that will surely encourage them to speak English often, whenever and wherever they are.

1.7 Limitation of the Study The study will be limited on storytelling using picture series in teaching speaking to create narrative text, the student‟s ability, and the students‟ responses toward it.

1.8 Definition of the Key Terms To get a release of confusion and misinterpretation of the readers, the terms are defined as follows: Speaking : an activity to communicate orally which is involved two or More people, besides: the participants are both speaker and listeners. Storytelling Picture series : telling a story by using one‟s own word. : sequence a number of related composite pictures linked to form a series Narrative text : a type of spoken or written text that tells a story of one character or more who face certain situation.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter presents several theories, which are considered necessary to analyze the data. Among them are the nature of speaking, teaching speaking, the technique of teaching speaking, storytelling, storytelling in the teaching speaking, the advantages of storytelling, narrative text, kinds of pictures, the criteria in selecting good pictures, the advantages of using pictures in storytelling technique, the review of previous study.

2.1 Speaking 2.1.1 The nature of speaking Speaking is an important thing in the process of language learning. It means that speaking is very important to be learned in order to acquire the target language well. Bailey (2005:2) writes that speaking is the productive of an oral skill. In daily life, people use the language more in spoken than written one. It is because they need to interact with others. They need to access information through their speaking skill. “Speaking or communicating is a means of expressing ideas orally in order to response or to reach to others and initials communicative acts (Oshima: 1991). It means that individual can be able to speak a certain language if he has knowledge of the components with the speaker of the same language and they can express their idea, thought and feeling by producing utterance in communication with other people. Speaking is a productive skill that can be directly and empirically observed. Speaking becomes one important thing in the learning process, especially in the foreign language learning processes. It means that the students can express their ideas, feeling, opinion, and imagination by speaking. Besides they can participate in their class and interact with the teacher in oral communication.

Speaking is described as the ability to express one self a sequence of idea. Oral production of speaking ability is an activity to use pronunciation, stress, intonation, grammatical structure and vocabulary of the foreign language at normal rate delivery for native speaker of the language. Based on these theories, the English teacher must socialize her studies to practice English. Therefore, the teacher should give opportunities to speak English as much as possible. According to Brown that there are five basic types of speaking: 1. Imitative. At one end a continuum of types of speaking performance is the ability to simple parrot back (imitate) a word or phrase or possibly a sentence. 2. Intensive. A second type of speaking frequently employed in assessment context is the production of short stretches of oral language designed to demonstrate competence in a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, lexical, or phonological relationship (such as prosodic elements-intonation, stress, rhythm, juncture). 3. Responsive. Responsive assessment task include interaction and test comprehension but at the somewhat limited level of very short conversations, standard greetings and small talk, simple requests and comments. 4. Interactive. The difference between responsive and interactive speaking is in the length and complexity of the interaction. 5. Extensive. Extensive oral production tasks include speeches, oral presentations, and story-telling, during which the opportunity for oral interaction from listeners is either highly limited or ruled out altogether.

2.1.2 Teaching Speaking In the class, some students get difficulties to speak English because the students prefer to listen than to speak and the teacher only gives a material. So, the teacher should realize that

she/he must do more, and apply some different strategies/ techniques in order to make the students to speak. It is obviously the best way to solve this problem. As Nunan (2003: 48) states that teaching speaking is sometimes considered as simple process, commercial language schools a round the world hire people with no training to teach conversation. That is a job for teacher to make students can feel and learn something that is very useful with the language. However, the teaching of speaking is to maintain communication for students. Speaking is considered as the productive and oral skill. Many people view that is that most difficult skill. Nunan(2003: 48) states that there are two reasons why speaking is harder than listening, reading, and writing. The first reason is because speaking happens in real time. In the conversation, people speak spontaneously and the listener wait them to speak right then. It is impossible for the listeners to wait for a long time so that the speaker has to speak as fact as possible. Another reason do when they are writing. Most of students prefer to just listen whatever the teacher say and they do not have any effort to speak English in the class. For the students, learn to speak English is more difficult than other skills since they never practice English in real situation. It can be inferred that the global of teaching a foreign or second language is to gain the ability to communicate the target language. Both the students and the teacher have to use L2 (English) only, when the teaching of English takes place in the classroom, the students will follow their teacher to speak English too. Moreover, to make the students able to speak more freely and actively, it is not enough to use English in the classroom only but there should be lots of communication activities out of the classroom, such as making group discussion, debate community, game, etc.

2.1.3 The technique of teaching speaking The teachers have to find the best technique for their students. The good techniques should be able to increase and improve the student‟s ability. Teaching techniques are the ways in which the information that is learned is presented. “certain techniques are associated with particular methods and are derivable from participle, most techniques can be adapted to any teaching style and situation” (Larsen- freeman, 1985:2). There are various techniques can be used in teaching learning activities includes textbook, video, computer, and many others. However, the teachers have to consider several things. Firstly, the technique should be adjusted with the needs of different students. Secondly, it should be able to encourage the students to become active involved with the learning. Next, it should cover sufficient material so that it can be learn by all of students‟ progress in teaching learning process. According to Ricard ( 2003: 214), there are 3 techniques in teaching speaking that can make the students improve their ability to produce the target language acquire many of verbal nuances, improve the ability to work cooperatively in group situations, and effectively deal affective issues. Those techniques are: 1. Storytelling Storytelling is an oral sharing of a personal or traditional story, told using the essence of the tradition from which it originates. Storytelling was a great medium for sharing experience, for teaching, and for handing down from one generation to another ideals, values, and standards of behavior. It means that through storytelling people could tell their stories orally. 2. Role play Role play as a technique that can be implemented in teaching of speaking. It can be give the students to use the target language appropriately in real life situation and hopefully the students can to have free communication in English.

3. Drama Drama, even through an integral part of storytelling and role play, constitutes its own separate category. It includes activities involving roles, plots, and dialogues that are written in play form to be memorized and acted out on the stage or read aloud. Drama helps to explore the word of emotions and nonverbal communication in the ESL/EFL classroom.

2.2 Storytelling 2.2.1 The nature of storytelling Story is an arrangement that has fantasy characteristic and of course done by human. Storytelling is the art of using language, vocalization, and/or physical movement and gesture to reveal the elements and images of a story to a specific, live audience. Storytelling stands for story and telling. A central, unique aspect of storytelling is its reliance on the audience to develop specific visual imagery and detail to complete and co-create the story (www.eldrbaarry.net/roos/st_defn.htm). Moreover Petty and Jensen states that story is a systematic accounts of happening something that has a setting, a plot or purpose, characters and meaning (1980: 322). While telling is an activity which is done by people in speaking. We can make a conclusion that storytelling is an activity which is done by people in telling a story. In storytelling, the activity needs at least two people because the one is become storyteller and the other is become the listener. Tooze (1959: V) state that storytelling was a great medium for sharing experience, for teaching, and for handing down from one generation to another ideas, ideals, values, and standards of behavior. Storytelling is an oral sharing of a personal or tradition story, telling use the essence of the tradition from which it originates. It means that through storytelling people could tell their stories orally.

2.2.2 Storytelling in teaching Speaking Storytelling is also as a means of evaluating the student‟s ability to perceive and recall events. When conveying objectives may be possible to show what the objective is by showing the students a cartoon strip, for example, that depicts somebody spilling coffee over someone in a café. In this case you invite students to try to say what would be said in the storytelling activity. Early assessment of children‟s ability to comprehend, organize, and express language, followed by appropriate education based on this assessment, may be the key to students‟ success in school. They recommend the use of storytelling because restructuring teacher‟s questions does not bias the students‟ organization, comprehension, and sentence structures. These are steps that must be paid attention in storytelling activity. It is called storytelling guidelines. One typical set of guidelines are as follows, speak clearly, speak so all can hear, do not string sentences together with “ and-uhs” or “so”s”, stand still, look at your audiences, use colorful words, have good beginning and ending, talk naturally, be interested in your story (Petty and Jensen, 1980: 325).

2.2.3 The Advantages of Storytelling Students‟ can improve their ability to produce the target language, acquire many of its nonverbal nuances, improve the ability to work cooperatively in groups situations, and effectively deal with affective issues. There are a lot of advantages can be taken by using storytelling in teaching speaking. Storytelling can make the students active to participate in a class, so that their speaking becomes better. According to Amato (2003: 230) through storytelling students can improve their abilities to comprehend and produce the target language, but they quickly learn to work cooperatively in-group situation toward mutual goals. Being able to tell their own tales, interpret stories, and give them meaningful experience with the language that they might not otherwise have. Meanwhile, through

regular practice the students can learn how to be a good storyteller by understanding the essential part of the story before they present. Storytelling is being used across many

disciplines. A well-told story conveys great quantities of information in relatively few words in a format that is easily assimilated by the listener or viewer When

(http://jonah.cs.elon.edu/sduvall2/publications/duvallklecknerIACIS2007Final.pdf).

students are involved in storytelling, it means that have learned several things. Here, they are learning how to convey their story by constructing the words and utterances in order. They use their mind to think and learn how to explain an event, in which it comprises the subjects who are involved, when and where it happens.

2.3 Narrative Text A narrative text tells an imaginary story but the story may be based on facts. The purpose of the narrative is to entertain the readers. Narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation and in order to instill moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters and narrative point of view .Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers, According to Brown (2004: 1) state narrative text type tells a story using spoken or written language. Narrative is usually told by a story teller. This person gives his/her point of view to the audience and determines the order in which the events of the story will be told. Based on those explanations, it is stated that the point of narrative text is its series of events. The events usually put in chronological order, the order in which events happened. According to 2004 English curriculum ( Depdiknas, 2004b:3) the structure of narrative comprises orientation (Sets the scene and introduces the characters), Complication (a crisis/ problem arises), and Resolution (the crisis is resolved for better or worse). Narrative is a familiar type of communication to entertain the listener and the reader with a real or fiction experience. Some types of narrative are fairy stories, mystery, science,

fiction, horror/scary, fable, adventure, romance,etc. Narratives sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually find a way to be resolved. Narrative also have some characteristics based on its linguistic features ( Depdiknas, 2004: 4). They are: 1. Specific participant and individual participant 2. Many action verbs (material process) 3. Using past tense 4. Using linking words related to time 5. Using dialogue 6. Using descriptive language 7. Using pronoun 8. Using illustration to support the text The purpose of a narrative, other than providing entertainment, can be to make the audience think about an issue, teach them a lesson, or excite their emotions. Narrative can be presented as written or spoken texts. Written narrative often takes the form of novels. The story is usually told by a narrator. If the narrator is one of the characters in the story, the story is said to be told in the first person. If a person outside the story is the narrator, then the story is being told in the third person. Narrative text also has some text organizations or generic structures and language features that should be fulfilled in constructing the text.

Generic structure of narrative text First, an orientation in which introducing the participants and informing the time and the place. Second, a complication that describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with. Third, A sequence of events where the characters react the complication. This is the main body of the story. There maybe more than one complication and this

serves to frustrate the character/s in their attempts to achieve what they wish. Fourth, A resolution in which the characters solve the problem created in the complication. Everything ends up „happily ever after‟ after the conflicts are resolved. In some

narrative, the resolution may be left for the readers to decide. Fifth, a coda that provides a comment or moral based on what has been learned from the story ( an optional step).

Language Feature of Narrative text 1. Use of particular nouns to refer to or describe the particular people, animals and things that the story is about. 2. Use of adjective to build noun group to describe the people, animal, or things in the story. 3. Use of time connective and conjunction to sequence events through time. E.g. finally the snow white and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after. 4. Use of adverbs and adverbial phrases to locate the particular incidents or events. 5. Use pasts tense action verbs to indicate the actions in a narrative. 6. Use of saying and thinking verbs to indicate what characters are feeling, thinking, or saying. Anderson and Anderson (1998:28) explain more about generic structures and And language features of procedure text that can be seen to the next scaffolding:

The explanation above can be seen through the table below: Table : Generic structure and language feature of narrative text Generic structure Snow White Once upon a time there lived Orientation: ( Telling When, Where, Who) a little girl named Snow White. After her parents had passed away, she lived with her aunt uncle. One day she heard her uncle and her aunt taking about leaving Snow White in the Major complication castle because they both wanted to go America and they didn‟t have enough money to take Snow White. Snow White did not want her uncle and aunt to do this so Resolution: (telling the problem solving) she decided it would be best if she run away from home when her aunt and uncle were having breakfast. She run away into the woods. Complication telling a crisis arises She was very tired and hungry. Then she saw this little Resolution cottage. She knocked but no one answered, so she went inside and fell asleep Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from Complication work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the Action verb: Run away Thinking verb: Decided Saying verb: Answered Time connectives: Then, meanwhile Time conjunction: Once upon a time, one day Adjectives: Provide accurate description of the characters and settings. Noun: Identify the specific Characters and places in the story. Language Feature

dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “What is your name?” Snow White said, “ My name is Snow White.” Dwarfs said, “if you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White said, “Oh could I?” thank you”. Then Snow Major resolution White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. past tense action verbs: She heard her uncle

2.4 Picture 2.4.1 The nature of picture A real situation is simulated by relating words, phrase, and sentences exchange to pictures. Pictures are good visual aids to represent what the story is, pictures provide a realistic context. Picture can stimulate the students‟ imagination and bring their mind out from the class. It‟s important for the teacher to be creative to help the students understand the text better.

2.4.2 Kinds of Picture There are kind of pictures according to Finnochiaro: 2.4.2.1 Picture of individual person and individual object Picture of individual person and object are single picture of object, activities or person. This kind of picture is usually small. Finnochiaro states that “ an individual picture is one in which the item to be taught is found alone or is highlighted in some fashion containing persons or objects.”

For example:

2.4.2.2 Pictures of Situation Pictures of situation are large single pictures, which show scheme in which a number of people can be seen doing something. For example:

2.4.2.3 Pictures of series Picture series is a number of related composite pictures linked to form series or sequence of events on one chart. It is supported by Finnochiaro that, “situational pictures are series of related pictures about six to ten one chart will be found invaluable.” Usually picture series is available in textbooks, cartoon and comic strips in magazines for the teacher to copy. After discussion the details of the picture, students can try to arrange those in a sequence so that they tell a story with their friends used group conversation.

For example:

2.4.3 The criteria in selecting good pictures Picture which used in teaching activity should have good criteria. In this case, the media that is going to be used is picture series. By using picture series, it can help the students to visualize language from the abstract thing to concrete ones easily. There are some criteria based on Betty and Bowen in using picture as a teaching aid: 1. Clarity The picture must be clear. It should be able to see the relevance detail clearly. Strong outline and contrast in tone and color are important to avoid an ambiguity.

2. Size The picture should be large enough and clearly to be seen by the students. 3. Recognition The pictures must have significance feature with student‟s knowledge and culture understanding. 4. Appeal The content of the picture should interesting and create the student‟s imagination. 5. Relevance Pictures should be appropriate and relevant to the purpose of the lesson.

2.5 The Advantages of Using Picture series in Storytelling Technique The advantages of using picture series for teaching speaking in storytelling technique: 1. The most common techniques for oral production 2. Arousing the students‟ interest 3. Creating situation/ context 4. Giving reality of the prediction in the text 5. Expanding the students imagination 6. Activating students to think naturally

2.6 Review of Previous study In conducting the study of using storytelling using picture series as a technique in teaching speaking of narrative text to the tenth grade students of senior high school, the writer relates this study from any sources. Its used observation, interview, and questionnaire to gain the data. Related to his study, the writer tries to seek a different aspect of study even though the genre of the text that is same that is the narrative text. This study is emphasized on the

used storytelling using picture series as technique in teaching speaking to create narrative text to the tenth grade of senior high school and uses quantitative method as the research method.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is one of essential things in research. The success of a research depends on the accuracy of using data collecting technique, therefore research must be objective, valid accurate, and reliable. Research methodology actually is a science studying how to conduct research. The following serve several steps in doing research. 3.1 Research Design The writer has designed experimental study. The writer gives treatment on the experimental group and non treatment on the control group who are given the same materials and oral tests 3.2 Population and Sample 3.2.1 Population Population is the whole subjects of research. According to Encyclopedia of Educational evaluation (Suharsimi Arikunto, 1997:108) says that “A population is a set of all elements possessing one or more attributes of interest.” According to the theories above, it is obvious that population is always identified as an object. And the object of research is students of the 2nd grade of SMK Kawung 1 Surabaya, and the total population is 38 students. 3.2.2 Sample Sample is a part of population chosen to represent a population. According to Suharsimi Arikunto (1997: 109) it is said that “A sample is a part or representative of the population that is going to be observed.”

The reasons of using sample: 1. Since the subjects of sample are less than the ones of population, so it will be easier to count. 2. The quantity of the population is too big, probably will one or more objects. 3. Using sample research will save time, money and energy. 4. Eventually it is possible to make population research because to scope is too large.

3.3 Data collection Method Data collection method is way to prove the truth of assumption which depends on it. Collection data must use appropriate methods so that the data are accurate and valid. To get the data, the writer uses oral production test. 1. The Definition of Test Arikunto says that “Test is a series of questions or tasks which is used to measure skills, knowledge, and talents which are belonged to the individuals or group. According to the explanation, test is a measurement instrument designed to elicit a specific sample of an individual‟s behavior. 2. The Reason of using Test. To get data about the achievement of students in translating English text, test is used because: 2.1 Test is a kind of data comprising scores. 2.2 Test can give information to the achievement of students‟ skill in an oral production test. 2.3 By using test, can get faster data. 3. The advantage of using Test. 3.1 It is saving time and energy because it can be held simultaneously even in large capacity.

3.2 Test is easy to be done because it is arranged systematically 4. Scoring Procedure While teaching speaking through picture series of storytelling, the writer has to prepare the material especially picture series of storytelling of narrative text to help the students to speak actively through the picture series. Collecting data was done by conducting a kind of test, oral production test. This test was conducted to both experiment and control class. It is hoped to see whether there are differences of achievement between two groups. To make a decision whether the hypothesis stated earlier can be accepted or not, the writer analyzes their scores by using t-test. The formula of t-test technique is presented as follows:

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Ad : to = the observation X1 = the scope of speaking test by using picture series X2 = the scope of speaking test without picture series ∑X2 = the square of deviation n1 = the number of cases (experiment group) n2 = the number of cases (control group) The result of the real data can be seen in the next chapter. The rule of using t-test is if the obtained t-score is at 5% level of significance more than that written in the table, the hypothesis is accepted. On the other hand, if obtained t-score is at 5% level of significance less than that written in the table.

OBSERVATION In this research, The observation was used to collect data. This technique by interaction or overview in the classroom events. The writer also used real time observation. Wallace states that the real observation is observation and analysis actually happened by using any electronic means of recalling the data and it was done by msking chechlist or simply making notes. QUESTIONAIRE In this technique the writer ask the students to fulfill the questionnaire by answer the question of paper and check responses. Burns states that questionnaire is easier and less time consuming to administer than interview and the responses of the larger numbers of informants can be gathered.

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