This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Capability Maturity Model Integration
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach whose goal is to help organizations improve their performance. CMMI can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization. CMMI in software engineering and organizational development is a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements for effective process improvement. CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University.
Characteristics of the Maturity levels.
According to the Software Engineering Institute (SEI, 2008), CMMI helps "integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes."
CMMI currently addresses three areas of interest: 1. Product and service development — CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV), 2. Service establishment, management, and delivery — CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC), and 3. Product and service acquisition — CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ). CMMI was developed by a group of experts from industry, government, and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University. CMMI models provide guidance for developing or improving processes that meet the business goals of an organization. A CMMI model may also be used as a framework for appraising the process maturity of the organization. CMMI originated in software engineering but has been highly generalised over the years to embrace other areas of interest, such as the development of hardware products, the delivery of all kinds of services, and the acquisition of products and services. The word "software" does not appear in definitions of CMMI. This generalization of improvement concepts makes CMMI extremely abstract. It is not as specific to software engineering as its predecessor, the Software CMM (CMM, see below).
Capability Maturity Model Integration 2 History CMMI was developed by the CMMI project. The main sponsors included the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the National Defense Industrial Association. CMMI topics CMMI representation CMMI exists in two representations: continuous and staged. The staged representation is designed to provide a standard sequence of improvements. The continuous representation is designed to allow the user to focus on the specific processes that are considered important for the organization's immediate business objectives. CMMI model framework Depending on the CMMI areas of interest (acquisition. The staged representation also provides for an easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI. The CMM was developed from 1987 until 1997. CMMI Version 1. and can serve as a basis for comparing the maturity of different projects and organizations. or those to which the organization assigns a high degree of risks. CMMI is the successor of the capability maturity model (CMM) or Software CMM. Version 1. Process areas are the areas that will be covered by the organization's processes. services. The project consisted of members of industry. which aimed to improve the usability of maturity models by integrating many different models into one framework.3 in November 2010. the process areas it contains will vary.1 was released. This collection of sixteen process areas is called the CMMI core process areas. government and the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute (SEI).2 followed in August 2006. development) used. and Version 1. In 2002. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Core Process Areas Abbreviation CAR CM DAR IPM MA OPD OPF OPM OPP OT PMC PP PPQA QPM REQM Name Causal Analysis and Resolution Configuration Management Decision Analysis and Resolution Integrated Project Management Measurement and Analysis Organizational Process Definition Organizational Process Focus Area Support Support Support Project Management Support Process Management Process Management Maturity Level 5 2 3 3 2 3 3 5 4 3 2 2 2 4 2 Organizational Performance Management Process Management Organizational Process Performance Organizational Training Project Monitoring and Control Project Planning Process and Product Quality Assurance Quantitative Project Management Requirements Management Process Management Process Management Project Management Project Management Support Project Management Project Management . The table below lists the process areas that are present in all CMMI areas of interest.
Capability Maturity Model Integration 3 Project Management 3 RSKM Risk Management Maturity levels in CMMI for development There are five maturity levels.Defined • • • • • • • • • • • DAR .Quantitatively Managed • OPP .Risk Management.Measurement and Analysis PMC .Service Delivery WMC .Requirements Development.Configuration Management MA .Work Planning Maturity Level 3 .Quantitative Project Management Maturity Level 5 .Managed • • • • • • • • CM .Organizational Training PI . VAL .Validation.Organizational Performance Management Maturity levels in CMMI for services The process areas below and their maturity levels are listed for the CMMI for Services model: Maturity Level 2 .Project Planning PPQA .Configuration Management MA .Organizational Process Definition OPF . RSKM .Product Integration RD . TS .Requirements Management SAM .Work Monitoring and Control WP .Supplier Agreement Management SD . Maturity Level 4 .Project Monitoring and Control PP .Verification. The process areas below and their maturity levels are listed for the CMMI for Development model: Maturity Level 2 .Measurement and Analysis PPQA .Causal Analysis and Resolution • OPM .Organizational Process Performance • QPM .Organizational Process Focus OT .Decision Analysis and Resolution IPM .Technical Solution.Requirements Management SAM . maturity level ratings are awarded for levels 2 through 5. However.Process and Product Quality Assurance REQM .Managed • • • • • • • CM .Integrated Project Management OPD . VER .Process and Product Quality Assurance REQM .Defined .Optimizing • CAR .Supplier Agreement Management Maturity Level 3 .
Decision Analysis and Resolution IPM .Acquisition Verification DAR .Optimizing .Acquisition Technical Management AVAL .Defined • • • • • • • • • ATM .Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development Maturity Level 3 .Acquisition Validation AVER .Optimizing • CAR .Decision Analysis and Resolution IRP .Configuration Management MA .Organizational Process Performance • QPM .Organizational Training RSKM .Managed • • • • • • • • • AM .Incident Resolution and Prevention IWM .Organizational Performance Management Maturity levels in CMMI for acquisition The process areas below and their maturity levels are listed for the CMMI for Acquisition model: Maturity Level 2 .Requirements Management SSAD .Quantitative Work Management Maturity Level 5 .Causal Analysis and Resolution • OPM .Organizational Process Performance • QWM .Risk Management SCON .Project Monitoring and Control PP .Organizational Process Focus OT .Quantitatively Managed • OPP .Service Continuity SSD .Organizational Process Definition OPF .Process and Product Quality Assurance REQM .Capacity and Availability Management DAR .Organizational Training RSKM .Project Planning PPQA .Agreement Management ARD .Risk Management Maturity Level 4 .Organizational Process Definition OPF .Strategic Service Management 4 Maturity Level 4 .Organizational Process Focus OT .Quantitatively Managed • OPP .Integrated Work Management OPD .Measurement and Analysis PMC .Integrated Project Management OPD .Service System Development SST .Capability Maturity Model Integration • • • • • • • • • • • • CAM .Acquisition Requirements Development CM .Service System Transition STSM .Quantitative Project Management Maturity Level 5 .
Appraisal teams use a CMMI model and ARC-conformant appraisal method to guide their evaluation of the organization and their reporting of conclusions. v1. which focus on identifying improvement opportunities and comparing the organization’s processes to CMMI best practices. SEI . It addresses product and service development processes. and outsourcing processes in government and industry. Many organizations find value in measuring their progress by conducting an appraisal. instead. an organization is appraised.Capability Maturity Model Integration • CAR .3.g. Achieving CMMI compliance The traditional approach that organizations often adopt to achieve compliance with CMMI models involves the establishment of an Engineering Process Group (EPG) and Process Action Teams (PATs) This approach requires that members of the EPG and PATs be trained in the CMMI. assessments etc. The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) is an appraisal method that meets all of the ARC requirements. CMMI-compliant processes.3 was released in November 2010. acquisition. Results of an SCAMPI appraisal may be published (if the appraised organization approves) on the CMMI Web site of the SEI: Published SCAMPI Appraisal Results .3 was released in November 2010. CMMI best practices should be adapted by an organization according to its business objectives. each of which addresses a different area of interest. A. and to identify areas where improvement can be made 2. The current release of CMMI. More modern approaches that involve the deployment of commercially available. To meet the contractual requirements of one or more customers Appraisals of organizations using a CMMI model must conform to the requirements defined in the Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) document. To determine how well the organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices. The appraisal results can then be used (e. It addresses supply chain management. v1. that an informal (SCAMPI C) appraisal be performed. by a process group) to plan improvements for the organization. also known as SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination). It addresses guidance for delivering services within an organization and to external customers. provides models for three areas of interest: development. To inform external customers and suppliers of how well the organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices 3.Causal Analysis and Resolution • OPM . Regardless of which model an organization chooses. SCAMPI also supports the conduct of ISO/IEC 15504. and services. the organization can be awarded a maturity level rating (1-5) or a capability level achievement profile. acquisition. • CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ ). and that process areas be prioritized for improvement.Organizational Performance Management 5 CMMI models CMMI best practices are published in documents called models. Depending on the type of appraisal. Appraisal An organization cannot be certified in CMMI. Appraisals are typically conducted for one or more of the following reasons: 1. class A appraisal is the most formal and is the only one that can result in a level rating.. • CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV ). version 1. B and C. Of these. • CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC ). There are three classes of appraisals. can significantly reduce the time to achieve compliance.3 was released in November 2010. v1.
2006..  CMMI Overview (http:/ / www. sei. cfm  For the latest published CMMI appraisal results see the SEI Web site (http:/ / sas. cfm). These results do not guarantee that applying CMMI will increase performance in every organization. CMMI can be appraised using two different approaches: staged and continuous. The Software Engineering Institute’s (SEI) Team Software Process methodology and the use of CMMI models can be used to raise the maturity level. cmu. These statistics have not been updated for the CMMI. this view is supported by the process maturity profile  (page 10). gsfc. edu/ cmmi/ ). A small company with few resources may be less likely to benefit from CMMI.  "Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPISM) A. cfm  http:/ / www. . Retrieved 16 February 2011. 2002 ). which relies on oral communication. cmu. Turner & Jain (2002) argue that although it is obvious there are large differences between CMMI and agile methods. David J. . Retrieved 2006-09-23. ppt). cmu. These statistics indicate that.8% of the organizations with 1001–2000 employees are rated at the highest level (5: Optimizing). edu/ cmmi/ casestudies/ profiles/ cmmi. The staged approach yields appraisal results as one of five maturity levels. The differences in these approaches are felt only in the appraisal. and from Level 2 to Level 3 is an additional 20 months. 2002). Retrieved 16 February 2011. productivity.5% are assessed at level 2: Managed. both approaches have much in common. edu/ pars/ ). nasa. cfm  http:/ / www. the XP requirements management approach. .  http:/ / sas. References  Sally Godfrey (2008) What is CMMI ? (http:/ / software. 6 Applications The SEI published that 60 organizations measured increases of performance in the categories of cost. edu/ library/ abstracts/ reports/ 10tr033. For example. To conclude with a similar use of CMMI. Extreme Programming (XP). sei. sei. Accessed 16 February 2011. edu/ pars/  "Getting Started" (http:/ / www. edu/ library/ abstracts/ reports/ 10tr032. cmu. sei. since 1987. quality and customer satisfaction. Of the small organizations (<25 employees). However. the best practices are equivalent and result in equivalent process improvement results. sei. Software Engineering Institute. Sutherland et al. cmu. The median increase in performance varied between 14% (customer satisfaction) and 62% (productivity). schedule. has been evaluated with CMM/CMMI (Nawrocki et al. NASA presentation. but that there are phases in a project where one of the two is better suited. edu/ library/ abstracts/ reports/ 10tr034. a software engineering method. cmu. 70. sei. sei. Other viewpoints about using CMMI and Agile development are available on the SEI website . sei. edu/ library/ abstracts/ reports/ 06hb002. Retrieved 23 September 2006.Capability Maturity Model Integration has maintained statistics on the "time to move up" for organizations adopting the earlier Software CMM and primarily using the traditional approach. Software Engineering Institute. edu/ cmmi/ start/ ). The continuous approach yields one of six capability levels.2: Method Definition Document" (http:/ / www. sei. . edu/ cmmi/ research/ results/ ).  "CMMI Performance Results of CMMI" (http:/ / www. and not so much with how they can be implemented. They believe neither way is the 'right' way to develop software. . They suggest one should combine the different fragments of the methods into a new hybrid method. Interestingly. was evaluated as not compliant with CMMI. cmu.  http:/ / www. (2007) assert that a combination of Scrum and CMMI brings more adaptability and predictability than either one alone. Anderson (2005) gives hints on how to interpret CMMI in an agile manner. Version 1.  "Process Maturity Profile" (http:/ / www. The combination of the project management technique earned value management (EVM) with CMMI has been described (Solomon. cmu. while 52. CMU/SEI-2006-HB-002. cmu. cmu. Accessed 8 dec 2008. the CMMI model mostly deals with what processes should be implemented. gov/ docs/ What is CMMI. cfm). sei. the median times to move from Level 1 to Level 2 is 23 months.
• SCAMPI Appraisal Results (http://sas.cfm) (pdf). CMMI for Development SCAMPI Class A Appraisal Results.2)" (http://www. Retrieved 16 February 2011. • "CMMI for Services. The complete SEI list of published SCAMPI appraisal results. Software Engineering Institute.cfm) (doc).3" (http://www. 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2007.edu/library/abstracts/ reports/06tr011. Version 1.Capability Maturity Model Integration  http:/ / www. sei. Retrieved 16 February 2011. sei. 2006.2 (ARC.sei.cmu.org/Computers/Programming/Methodologies/ Capability_Maturity_Model/) at the Open Directory Project .3" (http://www. SEI Web pages • "CMMI Version 1.dmoz.edu/pars/ pars_detail. Retrieved 28 October 2006.cfm) (pdf). CMMI-SVC (Version 1.sei.sei.edu/library/abstracts/reports/10tr034.cfm) (pdf). 2010.cmu. Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute. Version 1.sei.3. • "CMMI for Acquisition.edu/library/abstracts/reports/06hb002.sei. November 2010).cmu. Retrieved 22 August 2006. Retrieved 16 February 2011. Software Engineering Institute.cmu. Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute. 2006. • "Optimiza formal announcment as CMMI-L3 and published on SEI website.cfm) (pdf). 2011. edu/ library/ abstracts/ reports/ 02tn016. V1. • "SEI Partner List" (http://www. Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute. CMMI-ACQ (Version 1. CMU/SEI-2007-TR-004.cmu.edu/cmmi) • Capability Maturity Model Integration (http://www. Software Engineering Institute. edu/ library/ assets/ 2005sepCMMI. Retrieved 15 March 2011.cmu.sei.cmu. cmu. CMMI-DEV (Version 1. pdf  http:/ / www.aspx?a=16167).edu/pars/pars.3 Information Center" (http://www.sei.3. Software Engineering Institute.edu/library/abstracts/reports/07tr004. • "Process Maturity Profile (Current and Past Releases)" (http://www.cfm) (pdf).sei. 2010. External links • Official website (http://www. Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute. cmu. cfm  http:/ / www.cmu.sei. • "Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) A Versiions 1.sei. Version 1.3" (http://www. cfm 7 Official sources SEI reports • "CMMI for Development. • CMMI Guidebook Acquirer Team (2007). cmu.aspx). Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute.sei.edu/library/abstracts/reports/10tr033. Software Engineering Institute.cmu. edu/ cmmi/ casestudies/ mappings/ comparisons. Version 1.2: Method Definition Document" (http://www. • "Appraisal Requirements for CMMI. November 2010). "Understanding and Leveraging a Supplier's CMMI Efforts: A Guidebook for Acquirers" (http://www." (http://sas.cfm).3.sei.edu/partners/directory/organization/index. November 2010).edu/cmmi/tools/cmmiv1-3/).edu/library/abstracts/reports/10tr032.cmu. sei. Retrieved 16 February 2011.cmu.cfm) (PDF). Retrieved 16 February 2011.edu/cmmi/casestudies/profiles/ cmmi.cmu. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
Deceglie.catalano. Roesser. Jarl Friis. SilentWarrior85. Gyrofrog. Rjwilmsi. Mortense. Ruud Koot. Denisarona. On5deu. Rikkitikki128. Pm master. Hbachus. Rmosler2100. Gaius Cornelius. Tedickey. KentAaronJohnson. NightFalcon90909. John.Article Sources and Contributors 8 Article Sources and Contributors Capability Maturity Model Integration Source: http://en.hole123. Conan. Truthanado.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Sally Godfrey. Pne. David Biddulph.wikipedia License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. SEI Publications. Intray. Carlton. Saxbryn. Jrdalton. Rolf acker. Jamelan. Original uploader was Conan at en.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Utuado. Srushe. Sandyshrum. Psoenen. Licenses and Contributors Image:Characteristics of Capability Maturity Model. Akris. IainB. BenFrantzDale. Nobunaga24.org/w/index. Feťour.0/ . DanielGuenther. Xsmith.php?title=File:Characteristics_of_Capability_Maturity_Model. Dan6hell66. Lurnid. Emurphy42. Hillelglazer. Ronz. Brianjester. Sspecter. Oldgeez. Jeffq. Kjetil r. IvanLanin. Ynottoor. Malte Foegen.svg Source: http://en.php?oldid=452642825 Contributors: AHB1982.wikipedia. Favonian. Murftown. Wmcrielaard.wikipedia. Jan. Cybercobra. Długosz. Dougluce. Bethmanj. MendipBlue. Matias.org/w/index. Mjrchaos. Sae1962. Espoo. Tide rolls. Amit.northern. Dirkbb. Harriv. DePiep. Alcanzar. Tomhubbard. Steven Zhang. Rfortner. Discospinster. JavierMC. VMS Mosaic. Xionbox. Greyskinnedboy. Zachlipton. Ash. Cander0000. Centrx. Graham87. Hawaiian717. Aamahdys. CutOffTies. JonnyJD. Heard tried won. Mdd. Flity. Blchrist. Da Joe. Bigpnut. Halmstad. Degsy99. Walter Görlitz. Frap. Refins. Hu12. SRyll. Gus W. Cemophora.flea. Chrzastek. 261 anonymous edits Image Sources. Chowbok.0 Unported //creativecommons. Garde. Igoldste. Cmmiloveprocess. Sc147. Lorezsky. Salliesatt. Kelemendani. Rasha Alabsi.Reccius. Versus22.derijke. Exleon. Rich Farmbrough. Ticaro. Roberto999. Huberthofmann. Sandys2000.