Adnan A.S.

Jibril

ON n-POWER NORMAL OPERATORS
Adnan A.S. Jibril* Department of Mathematics and Statistics King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺻــﺔ‬
‫ﻧُﻌﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻀﺎء ﻫﻠﺒﺮﺕ ﻭﻧﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﱢ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻭﻧﻌﻄﻰ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻯ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻭﻧﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ‬ .۳ = ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺛﻢ ﻧﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻥ = ۲ ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻥ‬

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: jibril@kfupm.edu.sa Paper Received 16 March 2005; Revised 29 December 2007; Accepted 20 February 2008

July 2008

The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 33, Number 2A

247

S. 2-Normal Operator. Uniform Closure. Hilbert Space. Key words: Operator. We give some properties of these operators in general. Volume 33. Number 2A July 2008 . and also study the special case when an operator is n-power normal for n = 2. Invariant Subspace. Adjoint. 3. and prove that an operator T (T T ∈ L(H) is n-power normal if and only if T n is normal. Normal Operator 248 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. if and only if ⎜⎜ nx ⎜⎜= ⎜⎜ n)*(x) ⎜⎜ for all x ∈ H. Jibril ABSTRACT We introduce the class of n-power normal operators.Adnan A.

3.S.e. In this paper we introduce the class of n-power normal operators n ≥ 3 which we denote [nN ] for all positive integers n: T ∈ L(H) is n-power normal if T n T ∗ = T ∗ T n . If conversely T n is normal then T n T = T T n implies — by Fuglede theorem — that (T n )∗ T = T (T n )∗ . we show that the two classes [2N ] and [3N ] are independent and give some conditions under which an operator T ∈ [2N ] ∩ [3N ] becomes normal.e. Volume 33.4. and taking adjoints. are similar since S = X −1 T X where X= . INTRODUCTION Let H be a complex Hilbert space and let L(H) be the algebra of all bounded linear operators on H.2 cannot be replaced by similarity: The operators T = 1 0 −1 1 0 0 0 1 and S = 0 0 1 1 acting on C 2 . Proof. Proposition 2. Immediate from Proposition 2. Proposition 2. 2. the inverse.1 and from ([2]. July 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.5. we characterize and prove some general results about n-power normal operators. T n (T n )∗ = T ∗ T n T ∗ (T ∗ )n−2 = (T n )∗ T n . Unitary equivalence in Corollary 2. F ∈ [nN ] and T ∗n .1. Proof.1. Jibril ON n-POWER NORMAL OPERATORS 1. then T F ∈ [nN ]. Number 2A 249 . Then T is n-power normal if and only if T n x = (T n )∗ x for all x ∈ H. i. then T n (T ∗ )n = T ∗ T n (T ∗ )n−1 . In Section 3. p. if it exists. then T ∈ [nN ] if and only if T n is normal for any positive integer n ≥ 1. T T n = T nT ∗. If T. If T n T ∗ = T ∗ T n . and the restriction to a closed subspace of H of an n-power normal operator is n-power normal. i. F ∗n commute. ∗ Corollary 2. Corollary 2. The class [nN ] of n-power normal operators on H is closed under scalar multiplication. Let T ∈ L(H). Proof. The proof follows immediately from Proposition 2. In Section 2. Remark 2. RESULTS In this section we prove some general results about n-power normal operators. Let T ∈ L(H). Moreover.Adnan A. 154). the author introduced the class of 2-normal operators: T ∈ L(H) is 2-normal if T 2 T ∗ = T ∗ T 2 . The class of all 2-normal operators is denoted by [2N ].2. unitary equivalence. but T is 3-normal and S is not. In [1].

Corollary 2. are both 2-normal operators 1 0 0 2 and T = 1 −1 1 0 acting on C 2 . we prove it for n = 4. Proof. Proposition 3. i. then T ∈ [nN ] for all positive integers n ≥ 4.and post-multiply (3. Example 3. If T ∈ [2N ] and T is a partial isometry as well.6. Clearly ST = T S.e. T 2T ∗ = T ∗T 2 Pre. T T ∗ T = T. if T F = F T . T ∈ [3N ]. The following two examples show that these classes are independent: Example 3. are both in [3N ].1. THE CLASSES [2N ] AND [3N ] In this section we study the relation between the two classes [2N ] and [3N ]. Example 2.S.5 and by using induction. We prove the result by induction. The proof follows from Proposition 2.5. but 3. Let T ∈ L(H) such that T ∈ [2N ] ∩ [3N ]. In the following example we show that the sum of two commuting n-power normal operators is not necessarily n-power normal. Remark 2. If T is a partial isometry. Number 2A .8.1) 250 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. The operator T = 1 0 1 −1 2 −1 1 0 acting on C 2 .7. Pre. then it is not necessary that T F ∈ [nN ]: The non-commuting operators S = ST ∈ [3N ].3. Proof.Adnan A. 153). This follows immediately from Proposition 2. The operator T = acting on C 2 is not 2-normal but T ∈ [3N ]. Jibril Proof. then T m ∈ [nN ] for any positive integer m.4.and post-multiply the last equation by T to get T ∗ T 3 = T 3 T ∗ . then (by [2]. then T ∈ [3N ]. Proposition 3. First. Proof. but T ∈ [3N ]. The operators T = but S + T ∈ [2n]. 0 0 1 0 and S = 1 0 0 1 acting on C 2 . Volume 33. is 2-normal. p. In Proposition 2. Since T ∈ [2N ].2) July 2008 (3.1) by T and use T 3 T ∗ = T ∗ T 3 to get T 2T ∗T = T T ∗T 2 (3.2.1 and Fuglede theorem. If T ∈ [nN ].

Adnan A. Since T ∗ T and T T ∗ are self-adjoint.g. It is easy to see that an operator in [2N ] ∩ [3N ] need not be normal. T is normal. “On Roots of Normal Operators”.e. Let T ∈ [2N ] ∩ [3N ]. Math. Soc. Since T ∈ [2N ] ∩ [3N ] and since ker T 2 = ker T . pp. Berberian. Embry [3] has studied operators such that T 2 is normal and these have been completely characterized by Radjavi and Rosenthal [4].. Volume 33. Anal. Embry.. 19 (1968). 63–68. then T is normal. 23 (1996). 0 0 1 0 . Proc. Thus T is (n + 1)-normal. 653–664. REFERENCES [1] A. if T is one-to-one).7. 2 July 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. The result now follows by induction. “N -th Roots of Operators”.e. i.S. Math.. Remark 3. Amer.3. then T n+1 T ∗ = T T ∗ T n = T T ∗ T 2 T n−2 = T 3 T ∗ T n−2 = T ∗ T 3 T n−2 = T ∗ T n+1 .6. “On 2-Normal Operators”. [3] Mary R. pp. suppose that T n T ∗ = T ∗ T n . Proposition 2. Number 2A 251 . Dirasat. 1976. for example the operator We have however the following: Proposition 3. Jibril Multiplying (3. i. 193) that T is normal which is not true. 24 (1971). T T ∗ − T ∗ T = 0. [2] S.5. Now suppose the result is true for n > 4.A. If ker T = ker T 2 (e.K. p.S.2) on the left by T we get T 3T ∗T = T 2T ∗T 2 which implies that T ∗ T 4 = T 4 T ∗ . Introduction to Hilbert Spaces. Appl. Proof. The unilateral shift is not 2-normal since the unilateral shift is quasinormal and if it were 2-normal then this implies ([1]. we have T ∗ T T ∗ = T ∗ T which implies that (T T ∗ − T ∗ T )2 = 0. Remark 3. J. Jibril. New York: Chelsea Publishing Company. [4] Heydar Radjavi and Peter Rosenthal.

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