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Or describing simultaneous roll, pitch and yaw

G. Leng, Flight Dynamics, Stability & Control

1.0 Flight Dynamics Model • For flight dynamics & control, the reference frame is aligned with the aircraft and moves with it. (Why?) Xb

Yb Zb Question: Where’s the origin located for this body axes ?

G. Leng, Flight Dynamics, Stability & Control

v. Stability & Control .r} G.q.w} • Denote the angular velocity of the aircraft by = {p.• The aircraft is modelled as a rigid body with __ degrees of freedom • The ___ DOFs correspond to • Denote the translational velocity of the aircraft by V = {u. Flight Dynamics. Leng.

pitch rate Yb v r . Leng. Stability & Control . Flight Dynamics.roll rate Xb q .1 : Six Degrees of Freedom u p .Figure 1.yaw rate Note the right hand rule for rotation rates Zb w G.

Leng.1 Defining the aircraft orientation .1. Flight Dynamics.Euler angles The local horizon axes is aligned with the Earth fixed axes but translated to the aircraft’s cg. i body axes I j I k K J Earth fixed axes K G. Stability & Control local horizon axes J .

Question : How do we express the basis vectors IJK of the local horizon system in terms of the basis vectors ijk of the body axes system or vice versa ? i I j k K J G. Leng. Stability & Control . Flight Dynamics.

The local horizon axes system IJK can be rotated to coincide with the body axes i j k by using three rotation angles or Euler angles Yaw Euler angle Pitch Euler angle Roll Euler angle (Greek : psi) (theta) (phi) NB : The order of the rotations is important ! G. Stability & Control . Leng. Flight Dynamics.

Leng. Flight Dynamics.Step 1) Rotate IJK by an angle about the K axis (yaw) This yields the intermediate axes i1 j1 k1 J I i1 j1 K K = k1 G. Stability & Control .

Stability & Control . Leng.Step 1) Yaw about the K axis I i1 i1 j1 k1 = [ R ] I J K j1 J = cos sin 0 -sin cos 0 0 0 1 I J K G. Flight Dynamics.

Leng. Stability & Control . Flight Dynamics.Step 2) Rotate i1 j1 k1 by an angle about the j1 axis (pitch) This yields the intermediate axes i2 j2 k2 i2 i1 j1 i1 k2 k1 k1 j1 = j2 G.

Flight Dynamics.Step 2) Pitch about the j1 axis i2 j2 k2 = [ R ] i1 j1 k1 i2 i1 k2 = cos 0 -sin 0 1 0 sin 0 cos i1 j1 k1 k1 G. Leng. Stability & Control .

Leng.Step 3) Rotate i2 j2 k2 by an angle about the new i2 axis (roll) This yields the body axes i j k i2 j2 j k2 k k2 i2 = i j2 G. Flight Dynamics. Stability & Control .

Leng. Stability & Control .Step 3) Roll about the i2 axis i j k = [ R ] i2 j2 k2 k k2 = 1 0 0 0 cos sin 0 -sin cos i2 j2 k2 j j2 G. Flight Dynamics.

the basis vectors of the local horizon IJK and the body axes ijk are related as follows : i j k = [ R ] [ R ] [ R ] I J K Question : What happens if we want IJK in terms of ijk ? Hint : The rotation matrices have a special property [ R ]-1 = [ R ]T G. Leng. Stability & Control .So finally. Flight Dynamics.

Inverting the matrix product to get IJK in terms of ijk : -1 I J K = [ R ] [ R ] [ R ] i j k = [R ]T [ R ]T [ R ]T i j k G. Flight Dynamics. Leng. Stability & Control .

Exercise : Express the weight force component in terms of the body axes basis vectors i j k Hint : The weight component points downwards ie W K hence we need only express K in terms of i j k G. Flight Dynamics. Stability & Control . Leng.

Using the relationship derived : I J K cos -sin 0 sin cos 0 0 0 1 cos 0 sin 0 1 0 -sin 0 cos 1 0 0 0 cos -sin 0 sin cos i j k = Premultiply both sides by {0 0 1} K = {-sin 0 cos } 1 0 0 0 cos -sin 0 sin cos {-sin cos sin i j k What happens if the Euler angles are small ? = cos cos } i j k G. Stability & Control . Leng. Flight Dynamics.

Leng.r related to the rate of change of the Euler angles ? How about p q r = = = d / dt d / dt d / dt G. Flight Dynamics.q.0 Rotation rates and change in aircraft orientation How are the body rotational rates p. Stability & Control .2.

Flight Dynamics. Stability & Control = ’ K + ’ j1 + ’ i2 cos cos k = cos j .The angular velocity vector is = p i + q j + r k written using the body axes basis vectors describes the rate of change in orientation which can also be written as : Noting that K j1 i2 = = = -sin i + cos sin j + j2 i G.sin k . Leng.

Flight Dynamics.p q r -sin = cos sin 0 cos 1 0 0 ’ ’ ’ cos cos -sin Inverting yields : ' ' ' = = = p + (q sin + r cos ) tan q cos . Leng.r sin (q sin + r cos ) sec What happens if is 90 o ? NB : These are the EOMs relating the rate of change of aircraft orientation to body rotational rates G. Stability & Control .

Flight Dynamics. the angle of attack and sideslip are defined as follows: Yb Zb Xb V direction of flight G. Leng. Stability & Control .0 Aerodynamic forces in the body axes For a general aircraft orientation.3.

Stability & Control . Flight Dynamics.3. Leng.1 : Writing body velocity components with aerodynamic angles Yb Zb Resolving the velocity vector Xb u v w VT = = = VT cos cos VT sin VT cos sin Question : What about the aerodynamic forces ? G.

D & S defines an axes system i. aero force opposite to VT L : lift.2 Writing aerodynamic forces in the body axes Often aerodynamic forces are specified in terms of 3 mutually perpendicular forces L D D : drag. Leng. aero force perpendicular to VT S : side force Y NB : L.3. Flight Dynamics. Stability & Control S Z X VT . the “flight path axes” G.e.

The transformation can be written in terms of two rotations 1) a rotation about the Y body axes by - 2) a rotation about the resulting Z axis by and then inverting the components D S L = - cos() sin() 0 -sin() cos() 0 0 0 1 cos(-) 0 -sin(-) 0 1 0 X Y Z sin(-) 0 cos(-) G. Stability & Control . Flight Dynamics. Leng.

Z cos G. Leng.Y cos L = X sin . Flight Dynamics.Y sin S = (X cos + Z sin) sin .(X cos + Z sin) cos .Multiplying the rotation matrices yields the body axes components for the aerodynamic forces D = . Stability & Control .

Stability & Control . Flight Dynamics.L cos + + + (S sin . Leng.D cos) cos D sin) (S sin .(S cos .or the inverse relation X Y Z = = = L sin .D cos) sin Question : What do you expect if and are small ? G.

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