‫مكتبتى‬

‫/‪http://ahmedbn221.blogspot.com‬‬

‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪nglish- Arabic‬‬

‫الراشــــــد‬

‫معجم المصطلحات السلمية‬ ‫إنجليزى – عربى‬
‫‪Anwer Mahmoud Zanaty‬‬

‫أنـور محمود زناتي‬

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‫مقدمة‬
‫اذا كان هذا هو السلم‬ ‫!!اذن فنحن جميعا ً مسلمون‬

‫جوته‬ ‫الديوان الشرقي للمؤلف (‬ ‫) الغربي‬

‫منذ قرون عدة رسم الغرب صورة ذهنية معنوية‬ ‫سيئة عن العرب، والسلم وجعلها محكومة بنمطية‬ ‫ثابتة، ول يقبل تعديلها‬ ‫ولكن فى ظل الحداث الجارية بدأ ينصب الهتمام‬ ‫حول علقة الشرق بالغرب، أو بعبارة أدق: علقة‬ ‫الغرب بالسلم، وأصبح الجميع فى الغرب يهرولون‬ ‫لدراسة المزيد عن السلم والمسلمين سواء فى الدين‬ ‫أو الفكر أو الشريعة الخ‬ ‫وهذا فرض علينا نحن أهل الشرق والسلم أن نوضح‬ ‫لهم الصورة النقية الصافية لهذا الدين العالمى ،‬ ‫وضرورة إبراز دعوة السلم إلى السلم ل التسليم ،‬ ‫ورفضه كل أشكال الرهاب )الغربية قبل الشرقية(،‬
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‫واستعداده للدخول في أي مسعى يهدف إلى مكافحة‬ ‫الظلم، شريطة أن تضطلع به أيد نظيفة غير ملوثة‬ ‫بممارسة الظلم والقهر والعدوان والتطهير العرقي‬ ‫!! والنفى من الوطان‬ ‫)1(وسوف نبرز آراء بعض من مفكرى الغرب فى السلم‬ ‫: قال المسيو واميري المجري‬ ‫إني أعتقد في الحقيقة أن روح نظام المسلمين دين "‬ ‫السلم , وهو الذي أحياهم, والذي يتكفل لهم بالسلمة,‬ ‫" إنما هو السلم فقط‬ ‫: وقال المسيو بيرك في البرلمان النجليزي‬ ‫إن دين السلم, هو أحكم وأعقل وأرحم تشريع عرفه "‬ ‫" التاريخ البشري‬ ‫: وقال شارل ميزميز الفرنسي المعروف‬ ‫لو وجد دين السلم المبلغين المقتدرين , الذين "‬ ‫يقدرون المذاكرة والتفاهم مع علماء النصارى في هذه‬ ‫الزمنة التي تنتشر فيها مذاهب الضللة المتفرقة,‬ ‫" لسلم الناس في أوربا‬ ‫: وقال المستر " إدوارد ورمي " المريكي‬ ‫ألم يأن لنا أن نعترف - نحن الذين نعد أنفسنا في "‬ ‫أعلى قمة التهذيب - بأنه لول التهذيب السلمي ,‬ ‫ومدنية المسلمين وعلومهم وعظمتهم, وحسن نظام‬
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‫لمزيد من التفاصيل أنظر أنور محمود زناتى : زيارة جديدة للستشراق ، ط 1، مكتبة )1(‬ ‫النجلو المصرية . 6002‬

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‫جامعاتهم, لكانت أوربا اليوم تهيم في ظلم ليل بهيم أل‬ ‫يمكن أن يقال حقا ً : إن أوربا المسيحية بذلت كل في‬ ‫بوسعها منذ قرون لتخفي شكرها للعرب المسلمين !‬ ‫دع أوربا تعترف بخطئها, دعها تعلن للعالم أجمع عن‬ ‫غباوتها الغريزية أنها ول شك ستضطر يوم للعتراف‬ ‫" بالدين البدي المدينة به وهو السلم‬

‫أنور زناتى‬ ‫القاهرة 6002‬ ‫جامعة عين شمس‬

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glossary of islamic terms
‫معجم المصطلحات السلمية‬

A

'Abasa

"He frowned"

‫عبس‬

. The blind man that is referred to in this surah is Abdullah ibn Umm Maktoum. Surah 80 of the Holy Qur'an.

The Abbasid Caliphs (132-656 A.H./750-1259 A.D.) ‫الخلفاء العباسيون‬
They assumed the Caliphate following the Umayyads. They trace their lineage to Al-`Abbas, the Prophet's uncle. After half a century of secret arrangements, the Abbasid Revolution began in Khurasan under the leadership of Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, 130 A.H./748 A.D. During their rule the Muslim empire reached its zenith in all aspects of life. Their first Caliph was Abu Al-`Abbas Al-Saffah. He was followed by Abu Ja`far Al-Mansur who ended the revolutionary period, reaffirmed their rule and established Baghdad, the capital, which witnessed a scientific, cultural and literary renaissance that stretched throughout the Middle Centuries. Unfortunately, the state eventually began to decline and suffer from weakness and decentralization. Many petty states emerged such as the Tulunids, the 5

Ikhshidids and the Fatimids. The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and Al-Musta`sim, the last caliph, was killed by Hulegu.

Abbey Abbot Abdication

‫الرهبانية‬ ‫الراهب‬ ‫التنحى عن العرش‬

‘Abdul Muttalib ‫عبد المطلب‬
‘Abdul Muttalib was the nickname of the grandfather of Muhammad S. Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of Muhammad S was the chief of Makkah and also a caretaker of the Ka’bah. Through his trading caravans, he had brought prosperity to Makkah. He had made Makkah the trading capital of Arabia. During one of his business trips, caravan of Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf stopped at Yathrib (Madinah). There, he married Salma bint ‘Amr of the local Najjar tribe. A few days after his marriage, Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf continued on his business trip. During that journey, he fell sick and died of his illness. His fellow travelers buried him in Ghaza. A few months after the death of Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf, his widow Salma gave birth to his son. That boy was named ‘Amr bin Hashim, but everyone called him Shaybah (Old man) because he had a bunch of white hair at birth. Back in Makkah, Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf, a younger brother of Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf assumed the responsibilities of the offices of the Ka'bah after him. By chance, Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf found out that his nephew, son of his elder brother Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf, was growing up in Yathrib (Madinah) with his mother and maternal uncles. Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf decided to return the wealth of Hashim bin 'Abd Manaf to his son Shaybah.
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Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf traveled to Yathrib (Madinah) to bring his nephew back to Makkah. After initial hesitation Salma agreed to send her son to Makkah with his uncle Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf. On their way to Makkah, Shaybah was riding ahead of Al Muttalib bin 'Abd Manaf. In those days, usually servants rode ahead of their masters. When people of Makkah saw Shaybah riding ahead of Al Muttalib, they mistook him as a servant of Al Muttalib. That is why they called him 'Abdul Muttalib, which means the servant of Al Muttalib. This nickname became so popular that his real name ‘Amr bin Hashim or his nickname Shaybah, was completely forgotten. With time 'Abdul Muttalib became the chief of Makkah and the caretaker of the Ka’bah. He inherited the responsibility to provide drinking water to the pilgrims of the Ka’bah. Fetching water all day long from distant wells made him very tired. By chance he discovered the longlost Zamzam well. Muhammad S was the son of ‘Abdul Muttalib’s youngest son ‘Abdullah. Muhammad S was born a few months after the death of his father. ‘Abdul Muttalib loved his grandson Muhammad S very much. 'Abdul Muttalib died when Muhammad S was only eight year old.

Abdullah / ‘Abd Allah ‫عبد الله‬
After the advent of Islam, ‘Abd Allah became one of the most popular names. It means slave of Allah. Rules of Arabic language grammar allow the two words to be combined together. After joining together, words ‘Abd and Allah can be written as ‘Abdullah or ‘Abdallah. Arabs worshiped Allah in the days of ignorance also, but they took many partners with Him. They mistakenly considered Allah as the biggest of their many gods. The name ‘Abd Allah was in use among Arabs before Islam also. Father of Muhammad S was also named ‘Abdullah. He had died a few months before Muhammad S
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was born.‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib was the name of the father of Muhammad S. He was the youngest son of ‘Abdul Muttalib. ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib died a few months after his marriage with Aminah bint Wahb. Muhammad S was born a few months after the death of his father ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib Aberrance Ability Abjuration Abjurer ‫الضلل‬ ‫الهمة - القدرة‬ ‫ النكار - الردة‬‫المرتد‬ ‫الرتداد‬

Ablution

‫الوضــــــــوء‬

At the five daily prayer times prescribed by the Qur'an, ablutions are part of the ritual purification which must precede participation in contemplation and the act of prostration and prayer. . Abode A . of delusion A . of joy A . of peace A . of perdition A . of temptation A . that abideth A . which remaineth Abodes ( the two ) Abolish Abominable ‫الدار السكن‬ ‫دار الغرور‬ ‫دار السرور‬ ‫دار السلم‬ ‫دار البوار‬ ‫دار البتلء‬ ‫دار القرار‬ ‫دار البقاء‬ ‫) الداران ) الدنيا والخرة‬ ‫ينسخ‬ ‫المكروه‬

Abrahah Al-Habashi

‫أبرهه الحبشى‬

Abrahah Al-Habashi : The commander who led a huge army supported by elephants in an attempt to destroy the Ka`bah
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Abrogating Absolute Absolvable Abstemious Abstention Abstinence ‫إمتناع‬

‫الناسخ‬ ‫المطلق‬ ‫يغفر‬ ‫الزاهد‬ ‫التقوى‬

Abu Al-Qasim

‫أبو القاسم‬

It is the Kunya of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). It is prohibited to have the Kunya of the Holy Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). See Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 205,book 73, Vol.8 Sahih Muslim, Kitab-ul Adab. Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) ‫أبو بكر رضى‬

‫الله عنه‬
Also spelled Abi Bakr. He was one of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. His full name is Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him as-Siddiq because he always believed in him (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), without any reservation. He was the first of the four rightly guided Khalifaas (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen) from 11 - 13 AH. The other three, may Allah bless them, were 1. Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, 13-23 AH. 2. Uthman ibn 'Affan , may Allah be pleased with him, 24-36 AH. 3. Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, 36- 40 AH.

Abu Lahab

‫أبو لهب‬
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Fiercest enemy of Islam and paternal uncle of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Surah 111 of the Holy Qur'an. Known as Suratul Masad. Abundance ‫الكوثر‬ Accepted ‫مبرور‬ Accepter ‫الشفيع‬ Accountableness ‫المسئولية‬ Accursed ‫الملعون‬

'Ad

‫) عاد) قوم‬

An ancient tribe that lived after the Prophet Nooh (Noah), peace be on him, in the village of Ahqaf in the Yemen. It was a very prosperous tribe, but was rebellious against Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala and their Prophet Houd, peace be on him. So Allah Ta'ala destroyed it with a fatal westerly windstorm (Ad-Dabour). See Holy Qur'an, Houd (11):50-60. See Mursaleen .

Adam (Peace be on him) ‫آدم عليه السلم‬
The first man and a prophet. He was created neither in Paradise nor on Earth, but in the realm of Allah's mercy. From there he was sent to Jannah (Paradise), from where later he was sent down to Earth. He had many offspring, the most famous ones are Habil (Abel) and Qaabil (Cain). See Holy Qur'an, AlBaqarah (2): 30-39, Al-Maida (5) 30-34. See Mursaleen .

Adhan

‫الذان‬

Islamic way for calling Muslims to prayer. The Adhan that is announced today was formulized and formalized in l AH. See Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 583,book 3, Vol.1 Sahih Muslim, Kitabul Adab. Admonishment Administrative Adoration Adorer
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‫الوعظ‬ ‫اقليم إدارى‬ ‫العبادة‬ ‫العابد‬

Adult Adulterant Adulterer Adulteress Adulterine Adultery Adverse Advocate Affability Affection Affidavit Affinity Affinity Afflatus Aforetime ‫القربى - المصاهرة‬ ‫اللهام‬ ‫الود‬ ‫المودة‬

‫البالغ‬ ‫المطفف - الغاش‬ ‫الزانى‬ ‫الزانية‬ ‫مرتكب الزنا‬ ‫الزنا‬ ‫المكابر‬ ‫الوكيل‬

‫الشهادة بقسم‬ ‫صلة الرحم‬

‫فى الزمنة الغابرة‬

Afwu

The Forgiver or Pardoner

‫العفـــو‬

Al-'Afuwo": The Forgiver or Pardoner, in the sense of obliterating the memory of wrongdoings from one's mind. One of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta' ala. See Maghfirah . Aged Aggression Aggressiveness Agnomen Agnosticism Agony of death ‫المعمر‬ ‫عدوان‬ ‫العدوانية‬ ‫الكنية اللقب‬ ‫الل أدرية‬ ‫الحتضار‬

AH

After Hijra

‫بعد الهجــــــرة‬
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After Hijra. Hijra means emigration. The Islamic calendar starts from the day the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, emigrated from Makkah to Madinah, in 622 A.D.

Ahad

‫أحـــــد‬

1. One. 2. The Incomparable. When referring to Allah Subhana wa Ta'la, this means: A. that He has no comparable in His Essence or in any of His Attributes. B. that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah.

Ahadeeth

‫أحـــاديث‬ ‫أهل النص‬

Sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Singular: Hadith.

Ahl al-nass w-al-ta 'y in ‫والتعيين‬ Ahl ar-ra'y ‫الرأي‬ people of opinion

People of Divine ordinance and designation

‫أهل‬

means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned in Islam.

Ahl al-Dimmah (or Dhimmis)

‫أهل الذمه‬

are the non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state who have been subjugated under the Muslims and pay Jizyah tax in order to have tolerance of their rights to life, property and practice of their religion, etc.

Ahl al-Kitab

'People of the Book,' ‫أهل الكتاب‬

literally 'People of the Book,' refers to the followers of Divine Revelation before the advent of Mohammad.

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Ahlul Bait "the People of the House". ‫البيت‬

‫أهل‬

Literally means "the People of the House". A polite way of addressing the wife and the members of the household. Sometimes used to refer to the family of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessing and peace of Allah be on him and on his family and on all his companions. The blessings here are addressed to the entire household. See Holy Qur' an, Houd (11):73.

Ahlul Kitab "the People of the Scripture"‫الكتاب‬

‫أهل‬
Literally means "the People of the Scripture". It refers to Yahoud (Jews), Nasara (Christians) and Saabe-een (Sabians). Those who believe in the Trinity and that Jesus is God and/or the Son of God are considered as Kuffar (unbelievers), even though they are Ahlul Kitab. See Maghdoub and Dhaleen . Holy Qur' an, Yusuf Ali, AlMaida (5): 19, 75-76. Holy Qur' an, M. Pickthall, Al-Maida (5):17, 72-73.

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Ahlul Kitab wa sunnah ‫أهل‬

‫الكتاب والسنه‬

Literally means "the People of the Book (the Holy Qur'an) and the sayings and traditions, (the Sunnah of Muhammad, may Alah bless him and grant him peace)". This refers to the people who strive to follow exactly the teachings of the Holy Qur'an and Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, without any deviations.

Ahmad

‫أحمـــد‬

Another name of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him, prophesied his coming. See Muhammad , may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Holy Qur' an, As-Saff(61):6.

Ahqaf (Al) Name of a village in Yemen Aid ‫معونة‬

‫الحقاف‬

Name of a village in Yemen. Home of the people of 'Ad. See 'Ad . Surah 46 of the Holy Qur' an.

'Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her)

‫عائشة‬

Daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him and her) and wife of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Call mother of the Faithful ( uml Mumineen )

Aimless

‫الضال‬

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Ajal

time of death

‫أجل‬

Appointed time. In Islamic terminology it refers to the (appointed) time of death. Allah Ta'ala says in the Holy Qur'an that He will not, (and therefore no-one else can), alter the time of someone's death. Muslims reject such statements as "the doctor saved his life", or "he would have lived longer in..". Such statements are made by those who do not believe in Allah or do not have the understanding of the necessity to believe in Allah, thus exposing themselves to Shirk (associating partners with Allah), by believing and saying that the power over life and death is within human capability.

'Ala (Al) The Most High AL-'ADL The Just ‫العـــــدل‬

‫العلـــــــى‬

"The Most High" See Surah 87 of the Holy Qur 'an. "The Just". Among the 99 Names of God in Islamic theology.

Alaihi Salaam Peace be upon him

‫عليه السلم‬

Peace be upon him. This is said whenever the name of a Malak (an angel), a nabi (a prophet) or a rasool (a messenger) of Allah is mentioned, except for the name or title of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu 'alaihe wa sallam). See Sallallahu 'alaihe wa sallam . See Mursaleen.

Al-Andalus

‫الندلس‬

Now the Arabic name for Spain. The word was derived from "Vandalusie", or the country of the Vandals. The Arabs settled in Al-Andalus for seven centuries where they commissioned architectural masterpieces making Al-Andalus one of the most beautiful architectural regions in the Islamic world.

Al-Asma al-Husna

‫السماء الحسني‬

Al-Asma al-Husna, literally meaning the 'most excellent names'

used of God, express His greatness and paramountcy, holiness, purity, and the perfection and absoluteness of all His attributes
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Al-Aus al-Husayn

‫الوس‬ ‫الحسين‬

Al-Aus : A tribe in Medina, later a section of the Ansar The son of Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Fatima, he was assassinated in 680 AD in Kerbala and is venerated by the Shiites

Al-`Uzza

‫العــــزي‬ Praise be to Allah ‫الحمد لله‬

Al-`Uzza : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic period

Al-hamudu lillah

Praise be to Allah. Should be said on all occasions and especially after sneezing. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: 'When any one of you sneezes, then he should say "Al-hamdu lillah", and his brother or friend (who listens) should respond by saying "Yarhamuka Allah", (Allah have mercy upon you);

al-hawa.
Personal temptations.

‫الهـــــوى‬

Ali ibn Abi Talib, May Allah be pleased with him ‫علي بن أبي طالب‬
One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The last of the four rightly guided Khalifs (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen), may Allah bless with him, he ruled from 36AH to 4OAH. He was martyred whilst praying in the Masjid (mosque). See Khalifa.

Al-Khazraj ALLAH

‫الخزرج‬ God ‫الله‬

Al-Khazraj : A tribe in Medina, later a section of the Ansar The Name of the Creator of the Universe and all that it contains. Derives from the word "Ilah" which means "the One deserving all worship", the One to Whom all hearts submit in
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love, fear, reverence, desire, trust and sincerity, and to Whom all limbs submit in all forms of worship such as prayers, supplications, sacrifices, invocations, etc. 1 - Allah has decreed that His Holy Name is "Allah" and has ordained that all His creation call upon Him by the name of "Allah". In the original Bible and Taurat (in the Hebrew text), the name "Allah" is used. 2 - In Islam the name "God" is not used for the fear of misunderstanding. To the Christians it will give them a mental image of a human being (the Prophet Jesus, son of Mary, peace be on him), to some Hindus it creates a mental picture of an animal (a cow). To the Zoroastrians it creates a picture of a fire, Allah, there is none but He, King of the Universe, the Creator and Originator of all that there is. He has no beginning nor end. He was not begotten nor did He beget. He is not like any thing.

Allah ta'ala Allah the Exalted ‫الله تعالى‬ Al-Llat ‫اللت‬
Al-Lat : An idol worshipped by the Thaqif in the Pre-Islamic period Allegation Allegiance Alliance Allies Allowed Allurement Ally Almighty ‫القدير‬ ‫الحلفاء‬ ‫المباح‬ ‫الغواء‬ ‫المعاهد - الحليف‬ Za'ama ‫الحلف‬ ‫الزعامه‬ ‫الخلص - الولء‬

(.The Almoravids (448-541 A.H./1056-1146 A.D
17

‫دولة المرابطين‬
The Almoravids (448-541 A.H./1056-1146 A.D.) : The Almoravids were Berber descendants of the Limtunah, a tribe of Sinhajah. They founded an Islamic state in Morocco and ruled Andalusia and Tunisia. They were known for their covered faces and were called Al-Murabitin for living in secluded places for practicing acts of worship. Yusuf bin Tashfin was the most famous among their Sultans. He founded Marrakesh and made it the capital of his state. He defeated the Franks and put an end to the rule of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (the Kings of the Petty States). He left to `Ali, his son, a strong and vast state, but it was eventually destroyed by Almohads. The Almohads (515-667 A.H./1121-1269 A.D.) ‫دولة‬

‫الموحدين‬
The Almohads (515-667 A.H./1121-1269 A.D.) : A Shiite state in

Morocco founded by Al-Mahdi bin Tumart after the fall of the Almoravid state. The Almohads ruled Morocco and extended their influence over Andalusia. Their state collapsed in Andalusia after the Battle of Al-`Aqab, (609 A.H./1212 A.D.)

Almsgiving

zakat ‫الزكــــاة‬

Almsgiving (zakat in Arabic) is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, almsgiving constitutes one of the main means by which Islam strives for an economically just society. It is an obligatory "poor tax"--reckoned at somewhere between two and ten percent of income and holdings--which can be given directly to the poor or to a distribution official. The money is used for hospitals, schools, helping indigent debtors and freeing slaves, as well as poor support. From the perspective of the giver, "zakat" (as it is known in Arabic) purifies the giver

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and the remainder of his "wealth." It is also envisioned as a loan to Allah, who will repay it double. Almsgiving Alter ego Ambassador Ambigus Amen Amender ‫آمين‬ ‫المصلح‬ ‫المبهم‬ ‫الصدقات‬ ‫الولى الحميم‬ ‫السفير‬

Amin ‫آمين‬
Other Commonly Used Spellings: AAMIN, AAMEEN, AMEEN means custodian or guardian. Someone who is loyal or faithful.

Amirul Mumineen Commander of the Faithful ‫أمير المومنين‬
Commander of the Faithful. Title of the leader of the Islamic nation after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The first four commanders of the faithful of the new Islamic nation were called al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen, "the rightly-guided Khulafaas" (see Khalifa . They were given this title because they carried out their duties perfectly according to the Holy Qur'an and the practices and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Ammunition Amnah bint Wahb

‫عتاد‬ ‫أمنه بنت وهب‬

Aminah bint Wahb was the mother of Muhammad S, the Messenger of Allah. She was the daughter of Wahb bin ‘Abd

19

Manaf bin Zuhrah. Aminah bint Wahb was married to ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, the youngest son of ‘Abdul Muttalib. Her husband Abdullah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib died during one of his trading trips and was buried in Yathrib (Madinah), where he had stopped for treatment with the maternal uncles of his father. He was buried there. Muhammad S, the Messenger of Allah, was born a few months after the death of his father. When the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S was six year old, his mother Aminah bint Wahb took him to the grave of his father ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib in Yathrib (Madinah). Aminah bint Wahb fell sick at Abwa, when they were returning from Yathrib (Madinah). She died and was buried at Abwa, a township between Makkah and Yathrib (Madinah). The Messenger of Allah, Muhammad S was brought back to his grandfather ‘Abdul Muttalib in Makkah, by Umm Ayman, a maidservant of his father. Amnesty ‫عفو‬ Anathematization ‫اللعن السخط‬ Ancestor ‫) السلف ) من الجداد‬ Ancestral ‫السلفى‬ Anchorite ‫الناسك الزاهد‬ Animator ‫المحيي‬ Animism ‫الروحانية‬ Annalist ‫المؤرخ الحولى‬ Annals ‫الحوليات‬ Announcement ‫الذان العالن‬ Announcer ‫المؤذن‬ Annunciation ‫التبشير‬

Ansar

‫أنصــــــــــــــار‬

Literally means "helpers".

20

The inhabitants of Madinah, the Aus and the Khazraj tribes, who embraced Islam and supported the Muslim emigrants against the pagan Quraishi and other tribes who made war on the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Helpers of the Prophet Isa (the Prophet Jesus, son of Mary), peace be on him. See Holy Qur'an, As-Saff (61):14. Singular: Ansari. Antichrist Antique Apologue Apophthegm Apostacy ‫المسيح الدجال‬ ‫عتيق‬ ‫الخرافة‬ ‫القول المأثور‬ ‫الردة‬

Apostasy Movement

‫حركــــة الردة‬

Apostasy Movement : Some tribes took advantage of the turmoil among the Muslims following the Prophet's death and declared their apostasy. Apostate Apostle Apostleship Apostheosis Approver ( the ) Approving Appurtenance ‫المرتد‬ ‫الحوارى - الرسول‬ ‫الرسالة‬ ‫التأليه‬ ‫المجيب‬ ‫الستحسان‬ ‫الحاشية‬

aqiqah

‫عقيقه‬

the ceremony of shaving a baby's head and giving it a formal name. This ritual is a celebration of the birth of the child, and the giving of a name that welcomes it into the Muslim community. It usually takes place within seven days of the birth.

21

Arab genealogy ‫العرب‬

Ansaboul arab

‫أنساب‬

Arab genealogy : Arabs used to pride themselves on their noble birth and pure lineage. The Prophet's ancestry can be traced back to the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him).

Arabicization of the Diwans

‫تعريب الدواوين‬

Arabicization of the Diwans : 700 Caliph `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan orders the arabicization of the Diwans (state ministries), which were following the Persian order (81 A.H.)

'Arafat

‫عرفـــــــــات‬

A pilgrimage site, ahout 25km east of Makkah al-Mukaramah. Standing on 'Arafat on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and staying there from mid-day to sunset is the essence of the Hajj (the Pilgrimage). Arbitrariness Arbitrary Arbitration Arbitrator Arch Archives ‫الستبداد‬ ‫الستبدادى‬ ‫التحكيم‬ ‫الحكم‬ ‫قوس‬ ‫السجلت‬

'Areem

dam

‫العرم‬

May be translated as dams or embankments. The 'Areme (dam) that is referred to in Surah 34:16 is the Maarib Dam whose traces still exist in Yemen. Argue Arguer Argumentation ‫يجادل‬ ‫المجادل‬ ‫البرهان‬

22

Armament Armature Arm ‫الجيش‬ Arrant Arrogance Arrogant Arrow Arsenal Aruspex ‫المتكبر‬

‫التسلح‬ ‫الدرع‬ ‫الخبيث‬ ‫التكبر‬ ‫السهم‬ ‫دار السلحة‬ ‫العراف‬

'Asr (Al)

Afternoon

‫العصـــــــــــــر‬

"Afternoon". The third compulsory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It can be prayed at any time between mid-afternoon and a little before sunset. Surah 103 of the Holy Qur'an. Ascendance ‫الستعلء - السيادة‬ Ascendancy ‫السطوة - النفوذ‬ Ascension ‫الصعود - لعيسى عليه السلم‬ Ascent ‫العروج‬ Ascents ‫المعارج‬ Ascertainment ‫التحقق‬ Ascetic ‫الزاهد - الناسك‬

Asceticism ascetic Ashabul Aika

Batul

‫زهد نسك‬ ‫بتـــــــول‬ ‫أصحاب اليكـــة‬

means ascetic. It is ascribed to Fatimah (the Prophets daughter) and the Virgin Mary. Dwellers of the wood. Another name for the Midianites. See Madyan . See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hijr (15):78, Al-Shu'ara (26):176-191. Ashab Al-Maimana companions of the Right ‫أصحاب‬

‫الميمنة‬

23

Literally means "companions of the Right", the righteous people. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out the good and the evil. They will be divided into three groups: 1. Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are nearest to Allah Ta'ala. 2. Ashab al-Maimana - the righteous people, those who are destined to enter Jannah (Paradise). 3. Ashab aI-Mash'ama - literally means "companions of the Left"; these people will be the inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire). For full explanations of: Muqarraboon, see Surah Al-Waqi'ah (56):11-26; Ashab al-Maimana, see Surah 56:27-40. Ashab alMash 'ama, see Surah Al-Waqi'ah (56):41-56. Ashab Al-Mash'ama Companions of the Left ‫أصحاب‬ Literally means "Companions of the Left", the evil-doers. These people will he the companions of the Nar (Hellfire) on the Day of Resurrection. For full explanation: See Ashab alMaimana . See Holy Qur'an, Al-Wa qi'a (56):41-56.

‫المشئمة‬

Ashraful Mursaleen

‫أشرف المرسلين‬

The most honoured of all the prophets. One of the titles of the Holy Prophet Muhammad , may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Asharatul mubashshirun (Al) ‫المبشرين‬

‫العشرة‬

the ten people that were given the glad tidings of assurance of entering Paradise. They were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abdur Rahman ibn Awf, Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, Talhah ibn Ubaydullah, az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa'id ibn Zayd

Asiya ‫)امرأة فرعون‬

‫)أسيا‬

24

The wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh). She is one of the four greatest created females, the other three being: 1. Mariam (Mary), may Allah be pleased with her, the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him. 2. Khadija ,may Allah be pleased with her, the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 3. Fatima, may Allah be please with her, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Asma wa Sifaat (Tawheed Al) ‫والصفات‬

‫السماء‬

Unity of Names and Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. To believe that: 1. None can qualify or name Allah except as He or the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named or qualified Him. 2. None can be named or qualified with the Names of the Attributes that belong only to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. For example, none may be called 'Al-Muhyee" (the Giver of Life) except for Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself. 3. We must believe in all the Ayat and Ahadeeth (Sahih) regarding the Attributes of Allah without altering their meaning in any way whatsoever.

Asmaul Husna (Al) ‫الحسنى‬

‫السماء‬

The ninety-nine Beautiful Names (Attributes) of Allah Ta'ala. It is haram to add to or delete from the list of Attributes of Allah. It is also haram to give such attributes to anyone else. For the full list of al-Asmaul Husna, see Asmaul Husna Alasmaul Husna(List).

Assalamu 'Alaikum Peace be on you ‫عليكم‬

‫السلم‬

25

"Peace be on you". Greeting of the Muslims. The response to this greeting is "Wa 'Alaikum Assalam wa Rahmatul-lahi wa Barakatuh", And on you be the Peace and Mercy of Allah and His Blessings. Assassins ‫الحشاشون‬ Assembler ‫الجامع‬ Assent ‫التسليم - الرضا‬ Assignation ‫الفرض‬ Associate ‫الصحابى‬ Associates ‫الصحابة‬ Astrologist ‫المنجم‬ Astrology ‫علم التنجيم‬ Astronomer ‫الفلكى‬ Astronomy - ‫علم الفلك‬ ‫علم ا لهيئه‬

Atabic The Atabegs ‫التابك‬

The Atabegs : Atabeg was a Turkish title used by the Seljuks for members of the court ministers and leaders. Some of the Atabegs managed to take control of the state leading to the emergence of the petty states in the 12th century A.D. in Iran and Syria. They ruled for a long period of time, most remarkable among them were the Atabegs of Azerbaijan and Iran.

Atheist Athheistic Atone Attack Attacker Attitude Attributes

‫الملحد‬ ‫اللحادلى‬ ‫يكفر عن ذنب‬ Hujoom ( Onslaught ) ‫المهاجم‬ ‫اتجاه‬ ‫الصفات‬ ‫صفات الكمال‬ ‫صفات الجلل‬ ‫صفات الجمال‬

‫هجوم‬

Attributes of prefection Attributes of majesty Attributes of beauty

26

Attributes of essence Attributes ( of god ) Attrition Augur Authority Autocracy Autocrat Autonomy Avarice Avaricous Avenge Avenger Awakener Award Aware ( the ) ( the ) ‫يثأر‬ ‫المنتقم‬ ‫الباعث‬ ‫يحكم‬ ‫الكبير‬

‫صفات الذات‬ ‫اسماء ال وصفاته‬ ‫النابه‬ ‫ الكاهن‬‫السلطة‬ ‫الحكم المطلق‬ ‫الحاكم المطلق‬ ‫التفرد - الستقلل الذاتي‬ ‫الحرص - البخل‬ ‫البخيل‬ ‫العراف‬

Ayah (pl. ayat)

‫آيه‬

Ayah means a sign (or 'token') which directs one to something important. In the Quran the word has been used in four different senses: (1) sign or indication; (2) the phenomena of the universe (called ayat of God for the reality to which the phenomena point is hidden behind the veil of appearances); (3) miracles performed by the Prophets; and (4) individual units (i.e. verses) of the Book of God.

Ayoub, Peace be upon him .

‫ايوب عليه السلم‬

Job. A prophet of Islam. He was renowned for his patience, hence the idiom "Sabr Ayoub" (the patience of Job), which means complete patience and constancy.See Mursaleen .

'Aziz

The Almighty
27

‫العزيـــــــز‬

1. "Al-'Aziz". The Almighty. One of the ninety-nine

attributes of Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hajj' (22):40. See Asmaul Husna LIST????. 2. Title of Egyptian noblemen during the time of the Pharaohs. Zulaikha was the wife of the 'Aziz who tried, but failed, to tempt the Prophet Yusuf (Joseph), peace be on him, into seduction. See Holy Qur' an, Yusuf(12):23 24.

B Ba'ath ‫البعـــث‬
In Islamic terminology this means the resurrection of the Muslims and the Kuffar (unbelievers). The Ba'ath of the Kuffar (unbelievers) and the subsequent stages leading to the Nar (Hellfire) is in five stages: 1. The Kuffar will be raised with all their senses being active, i.e. they will be able to feel, see, hear, smell and taste. 2. On their way to the place ofjudgement they will still have their senses active. 3. They will be judged with all their senses intact. 4. On their way to Nar (Hellfire) they will lose all their senses. 5. When put into the Nar (Hellfire), they will regain all their senses so as to feel Allah Ta'ala's wrath.

Bab Al-Raiyan

‫باب الريان‬

28

The name of one of the gates of Heavens (Jannah) through which the people who often observe fasting will enter on the Day of Judgement. Backbiting Backslider ‫الغيبة‬ ‫ المرتد‬‫المارق‬

Badiyyah desert ‫الباديــــه‬ a desert or semi-arid environment.

29

Badr

‫بــــــدر‬

Site of the first great battle between the early Muslims and the pagans of the Quraish in 2AH. Badr is located about 150km south of al-Madinah al-Munawarah. The Muslim army consisted of 313 men and the Quraish had a total of 1,000 soldiers,archers and horsemen. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Anfal (8):5-19,42-48, Aali lmran (3):13. Bad omen Bail Bairam ‫الطيرة‬ ‫الكفالة‬ ‫عيد الضحى‬

Baitul Ma'amur (Al) ‫المعمور‬ Baitul Mal

House of Allah ‫البيت‬

House of Allah over the Seventh Heaven where the Malaikah (angels) pray.

An Islamic treasury

‫بيت المال‬

An Islamic treasury intended for the benefit of the Masakeen (needy Muslims) and not for the leaders or the wealthy. Balance Balance of power Band ‫الميزان‬ ‫التوازن الدولى‬ ‫الجماعة العصابة‬

Bani Nadheer

A Jewish tribe ‫بني النضير‬

A Jewish tribe who lived about three miles south of Madinah during the time of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Four months afier their treachery at the time of the Battle of Uhud, when they planned to betray the Muslims and kill the Messemger of Allah, the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, expelled most of them to

30

Syria and the rest to Khaibar. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hashr (45):26.

Bani Quraiadha

A Jewish tribe ‫بني قريظة‬

A Jewish tribe from Madinah. Along with the Quraish tribe of Makkah, they plotted to destroy the Prophet Muharnmad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, by attacking the Mu4ims from within Madinah at the Battle of the Ditch, but when they lost they asked to have their fate judged by Sa'd ibn Mu' az (the chief of the Aus 'the Ansar' tribe) because he used to be their ally. Sa'd judged them according to their own law, the Taurat (Torah), and ordered that every male be killed, all their women be sold as captives and all their belongings be divided amongst the Muhajirs (Deut. 20:13-14,16). See Holy Qur' an, Al-Ahzab (33):26-27.

Banner Baqi

‫اللواء - العلم‬ A cemetery at Madinah ‫البقيع‬

A cemetery at Madinah. Many of the S ahabiyeen (companions)of the Prophet Muhammad are buried there, may the blessing and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions and all who follow him and them.

The Banning Tahreem (Al)
Baragaining Barbarian Barbarians Barbarism Barbarous Barefooted friars ‫البربرى‬ ‫مساومة‬ ‫الهمجى‬ ‫الهمج - البرابرة‬ ‫الهمجية‬

‫التحريم‬

"The Banning". Surah 66 of the Holy Qur' an.

‫الرهبان- الحفاة‬

31

Baron Baroness Barrier Barter Bartering

‫البارون‬ ‫البارونة‬ ‫البرزخ‬ ‫البيع‬ ‫المقايضة‬

Barzakh

‫الـبرزخ‬

Literally means partition or barrier. In Islamic terminology it usually means the life in the grave, because the life in the wave is the interspace between the life on earth and the life in the Hereafter. Life in the Barzakh is real, but very different from life as we know it. Its exact nature is known only to Allah Ta'ala. It is during our life in the Barzakh that we will be asked about Allah, our faith and the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. We will also be shown the Jannah and the Nar (Paradise and Hellfire) and which of these two places we wifl occupy after we are judged

Base Basmalah

‫الخبيث‬ ‫بسم الله‬

"In the Name of Allah". 1. This statement is usually made by every Muslim who is about to embark on anything that is Halal (lawful), however trivial that act or deed may seem. 2. First verse of Suratul Fatiha. 3. To be recited before the beginning of every Surah except for Suratul Tautah (Surah 9 of the Holy Qur' an).

Bawdy Bayina (Al)

‫الدنس‬ The Clear Proof ‫البينه‬
32

"The Clear Proof,'. Surah 98 of the Holy Qur~ an.

The Beast

Dabaah

‫دابه‬

1. The Beast. The beast that will come out of the earth and

will speak to man. His appearance will be one of the major signs of the coming of the Last Day. 2. In general, every living creature that moves on this earth. See Holy Qur'an, an-Nami (27):82-83. Bedlam Behaviour Being free Being glorius ‫الجلل‬ ‫البيمارستان‬ ‫سلوك‬ ‫العتق‬

belief

Plural : 'Aqaaid. Literally means belief. In Islamic terminology, it means articles of faith. There are six articles of faith: Belief in Allah. We believe: He is the Lord and Creator of all that there is. He is the True God and all other deities are false. He is One, and has no associates (sons or otherwise). He alone has the knowledge of the Unseen and of the Hour. In His Names and Attributes .
He never came down to earth in any shape or form.

'Aqeeda

‫عقيدة‬

He is Everlasting, He did not beget nor was He begotten, and He is not like anything. His Mala'ikah (angels). We believe: They are His honoured servants. They act only by His command.
33

They are made out of light ( Nur ). They obey all of Allah's commands. All angels are good and incapable of wrong doing. (We do not believe in the notion of a "fallen angel".) They may be seen by some men only by Allah's consent. His Revealed Books. We believe: He has sent down books with every messenger. The original books of Allah that were sent to the Prophets Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus no longer exist in their original form. We believe only in the original Taurat (Torah), Zaboor (Psalms) and Ingeel (Gospel). The Holy Qur'an that was revealed to the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the only perfect book of Allah that is free from corruption and is a true source of light for all mankind. His Rusull (Messengers). We believe: The Messengers of Allah Ta'ala include Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Abraham, Noah, Jesus, Moses, peace be on them all. All messengers are human beings. Muhammad's message encompasses and abrogates all the messages of all the other messengers, since Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the last Messenger and the
34

Holy Qur'an is the Last Message from Allah before the end of the world. Belief in the Day of Judgement. We believe: In the Final Day, which is the Day of Judgement. There will be no intercessors except by Allah's leave. Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, will be given permission to intercede on behalf of all those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and who submitted their will to Him, that is, those who are "Muslims" (Muslim = One who submits his or her will to Almighty Allah). Heaven is for the believers and Hell is for the rejecters. Our book of deeds will be given to us in our right or left hand (to the believers and unbelievers respectively). Belief in Fate and the Divine Decree. We believe: In fate, whether good or bad, which Allah has measured and ordained for all His creatures. His decree cannot be changed except by His leave. Allah has granted man the free will to choose between good and evil. Thus, there is no excuse for wrong action in the sight of Allah Ta'ala.

35

All that is to happen until the Day of Judgement is already written down on the Lauh al-Mahfudh. O Allah! Let me not die except in Islam, and raise me on the Day of Judgement only as a Muslim. Ameen! Believer Believers Benediction Benefaction Benefactor Beneficent Beniganant Bequest Bestiality Bestower Bias Bier Bigotry ‫تحيز‬ ‫الجنازة‬ ‫المغالة‬ ‫المؤمنون‬ ‫التسليم في نهاية الصلة‬ ‫الصدقة‬ ‫المحسن‬ ‫البر‬ ‫اللطيف‬ ‫ الوصية التركة‬‫البهيمية‬ ‫الوهاب‬ ‫المؤمن‬

Bilal

‫بــــلل‬

The first Mu'adin of Islam a companion of the Prophet Muhammad pbuh, a former Abyssinian slave (may Allah be pleased with him).

Bishop

‫السقف‬

36

Bi'thah the beginning of the Prophet's mission ‫بعثه‬
the beginning of the Prophet's mission, his call to Prophethood in 610 C.E..

Bitter Agag
Blackguard Blackleg Blackmail Black stone Blasphemer Blasphemy Bleeding Blessings ‫المقامر‬

( Salty water)
‫المنافق‬

‫أجاج‬

‫البتزاز‬ ‫الحجر السود‬ ‫الكافر‬ ‫الكفر‬ ‫الحجامة‬ Barakah ‫بركه‬

Blood relative
Bloody Blowing Bondsman Bondswoman Booty Bounteous Breanch of trust Breanch of promise Bribery

Dhawi al-Arhaam
‫الدموى‬ ‫النفخ فى الصور‬ ‫العبد الرقيق‬ ‫المة - الجارية‬ ‫الغنيمة - الفىء‬ ‫الكريم‬ ‫خيانة المانة‬ ‫نكث العهد‬ ‫الرشوة‬
37

‫ذوي الرحام‬

Brigade Buccaneer

‫الغزوة‬ ‫القرصان‬

Bukhari

‫البخاري‬

Imam Bukhari is known so because he was from Bukhara. He was a great scholar of Islam and is known for his great work of scientifically authenticating and compiling Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). He traveled great distances to find and meet the narrators of Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). He memorized all the Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) he heard from the narrators. He researched the backgrounds of the entire chain of narrators of Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). He evolved a scientific system of verification of the Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). He had memorized more than 200,000 Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S). His scrutiny of the Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) was so stringent that only approximately 1% of those Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) made to his compilation. The compilation of Ahadith (Sayings of Muhammad S) by Imam Bukhari is considered to be the most authentic one and is known as Sahih Bukhari

Bumpkin Buraq ‫البراق‬

‫المتغطرس‬

An animal larger than a donkey and smaller than a horse on which the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went on the Mi' raj. See Mi'raj .

Bureau of Taxes ‫ديوان الخـــراج‬ Buruj (Al) The Zodiacal Signs ‫الـــبروج‬
"The Zodiacal Signs". Surah 85 of the Holy Qur' an. This refers to the constellations in the heavens themselves, not to the astrologers' 9star signst.

38

Burying baby girls alive Byzantines

‫وأد البنات‬

Burying baby girls alive : One of the customs of Arabs in the Pre-Islamic period

‫الروم البيزنطيون‬

39

C
Cabal Cadi ‫القاضى‬ Caeser Cain ‫القيصر‬ ‫قابيل‬ ‫المؤامرة - المؤتمر السرى‬

Caliph

khalifah

‫الخليفــــة‬

The title of khalifah or 'Caliph' (literally, 'he who follows'or 'successor') was first assumed by the four immediate successors to the Prophet Muhammad as temporal leaders of the emerging Muslim community (known as the Orthodox caliphs). The rulers of subsequent early Islamic dynasties were also considered caliphs, with the ‘Abbasid caliphate in Iraq lasting until 1258/658 H. At the same time, the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt made rival claims to the caliphate from 909 to 1171 (296-567 H), while in Spain at Cordoba the Umayyad dynasty also claimed the caliphate from 775 to 1236 (159-633 H). After 1258, the caliphs excercised increasingly diminished authority, and political power passed to the secular heads of state. See the article "Khalifa" by D. Sourdel and others in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 4, pp. 937-953.

Caliphate
Calumniate Calumniator Calumny ‫يغتاب‬ ‫المغتاب‬

‫الخلفـــــــــة‬

The rule or institution of the caliph.

‫ الغيبة - البهتلن‬40

‫النميم‬

Campaign Campaigner Canaan Canard Candid Candidate Capacious Capacity Capital Captivation Captive Cardinal Carrion Caste Castration Casuist Casuistry Catapult Cataract Catastrophy Catechism Catholic Catholicism

‫حملة حربية‬ ‫المحارب‬ ‫كنعان‬ ‫الفرية - الكذبة‬ ‫المين‬ ‫المرشح لمنصب‬ ‫الواسع ذو القدرة‬ ‫طاقة - قدرة‬ ‫العاصمة‬ ‫الفتنة‬ ‫السير‬ ‫السر البابلى‬ ‫الكاردينال‬ ‫الميتة‬ ‫طائفة‬ ‫الخصاء‬ ‫المفتى‬ ‫الفتاء‬ ‫المنجنيق‬ ‫السد - الشلل‬ ‫البلية الكارثة‬ ‫الوعظ‬ ‫الكاثوليكي‬ ‫الكاثوليكية‬

Captivity Babylonian

The Cattle

An'aam (Al)
41

‫النعام‬

"The Cattle". Surah 6 of the Holy Qur' an. Causing Cavalcade Cavalier Cavalry Cave ‫الفرسان‬ ‫الكهف‬ ‫العلل‬ ‫الخيالة‬ ‫الفارس‬

The Cave of Hira ‫حـــــراء‬

' ‫غار‬

The Cave of Hira' : Muhammad (peace be upon him) had a calm nature and a natural tendency to meditation . He used to seclude himself in the Cave of Hira' to practice self-purification and ponder over the creation around him.

The Cave of Thaur

‫غار ثـــــور‬

The Cave of Thaur : It is the cave in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companion Abu Bakr stopped to take shelter from the polytheists during the Hijrah journey from Mecca to Medina. Certainly Chamberlain Chambermaid Champion Chancel Charitable Charity Charlatan Chary Chaste Chastity Chauvinism ‫اليقين‬ ‫الياور‬ ‫الوصيفة‬ ‫النصير‬ ‫الهيكل - المذبح‬ ‫المتصدق - المحسن‬ ‫الحسان - البر‬ ‫المشعوذ - الدجال‬ ‫الشحيح‬ ‫عفيف‬ ‫الطهارة - العفة‬ ‫الغلو في الوطنية‬
42

Chauvinist ‫المتعصب الوطني‬ Chief ‫رئيس‬ Chief judge ‫قاضي القضاة‬ Chosen of god ‫صفي ال‬ Christian ‫المسيحي النصراني‬ Chronicle ‫السجل - المدونة - الحولية‬ Chronicler ‫الخباري‬ Circumambulating ‫الطواف‬ Circumcision ‫الختان‬ Citadel ‫القلعة‬ Citizen ‫مواطن‬

The City

Balad

‫البلـــــد‬

"The City" of Makkah. Surah 90 of the Holy Qur' an. City state ‫دولة المدينة‬ Civil ‫المدني‬ Civil war ‫الحرب الهلية‬ Civilization ‫الحضارة - المدنية‬ Civilized ‫المتمدن المتحضر‬ Clairvoyance ‫الفراسة‬ Clan ‫العشيرة‬

The Clans ‫الحــــزاب‬

Ahzab (Al)

"The Clans". A famous battle between the early Muslims and the rejectors, in which the Muslims, under the direction of Salman al-Farisi, dug a trench around the city of al-Madinah al-Munawarah to thwart the advance of the unbelievers in 5 AH. The battle is also known as the Battle of the Khandaq (Battle of the Trench). See Holy Qur' an, An-Nur (24):55, AlAhzab (33):9-20. Surah 33 of the Holy Qur'an. Class socity Cleavage ‫مجتمع طبقى‬ ‫النشقاق‬

The Cleaving

Al-infitar
43

‫النفطار‬

"The Cleaving". See Surah 82 of the Holy Qur~ an. Clerk Cloister Closet ‫الكاتب‬ ‫الدير‬ ‫المقصورة‬

The clot of blood

'Alaq

‫العلـــق‬

"The clot of blood". Also called Surat Iqraa. Ayat (verses) 1-5 of this surah were the first five verses revealed to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They were revealed to him through the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him, in the Ghar Hiraa (Cave of Hiraa) in Jabal anNur. See Surah 96 of the Holy Qur' an. Coalition ‫التحالف‬ Code ‫السنن الشريعة‬ Codex ‫المخطوط - مجموعة القوانين‬ Codification ‫التشريع - التقنين‬ Coercion ‫قهر‬ Coffin ‫التابوت‬ Cogitation ‫التفكير‬ Cognition ‫الدراك‬ Cognomen ‫اللقب - الكنية‬ Cohesion ‫تماسك‬ Cohort ‫الطائفة - الحشد‬ Coin ‫العملة‬ Collectedness ‫السكينة‬ Collecting mosque ‫المسجد الجامع‬ Colloquy ‫المحاورة - المجادلة‬ Colonial ‫الستعماري‬ Colonist ‫المستعمر‬ Colonization ‫الستعمار‬ Colonnade ‫الرواق‬ Colony ‫المستعمرة‬ Combat ‫النزال - الموقعة‬ Combatant ‫المقاتل - المصارع‬ Combination ‫التحزب - التحاد‬
44

Command ‫المر‬ Commander Commanding Soul Commandment Commando Commemoration

‫القائد‬ ‫النفس المارة‬ ‫الوصية‬ ‫الفدائي‬ ‫التذكاري‬

Commentary

Tafsir

‫تفسير‬

A commentary. There are several reliable Tafsirs on the meanings of the Ayaat of the Qur'an, including those of Ibn Kathir, Jalalayn and Al-Cortubi. Commission ‫البعثة - اللجنة‬ Commitment ‫تعهد‬ Committee ‫اللجنة - الهيئة - الجمعية‬ Commonweal ‫الخير العام‬ Commonwealth ‫الجمهور - الشعب‬ Communicating ‫التصال‬ Communion ‫المعاملة‬ Community ‫الجماعة - الجمعية‬ Commutation ‫التعويض - التبرك‬ Compact ‫المعاهدة‬

Companion Sahabi

‫صحابى‬

Companion, particularly any companion of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Plural: Sahabiyeen. Companion ‫الرفيق‬ Companions ‫الصحابة‬ Companion Of The Cave ‫اهل الكهف‬ Companion Of Elephant ‫اصحاب الفيل‬ Compassion ‫الرحمة - الشفقة‬ Competition ‫المنافسة‬ Complacence ‫النشراح - المسرة‬

45

Compilation of the Holy Qur'an ‫القرآن‬

‫جمــع‬

Compilation of the Holy Qur'an : 653 Caliph `Uthman orders the standardization of Qur'anic recitation according to that of the Quraish. He sends copies of the standard Mushaf to provinces of the Muslim empire (32 A.H.) Complaint Complaisant Compromise Compulsion Compulsory Compunction Comulation Conation Concession Conciliation Conclave Concord Concububine Condemnation Condisciple Conditions Condonation Confederacy Confederates Conference Confession ‫الشروط‬ ‫الغفران - السماح‬ ‫التحالف - التحاد‬ Al-Ahzâb ‫المؤتمر‬ ‫الجهر بالدعوة‬
46

‫الشكوي‬ ‫اللطيف‬ ‫تسوية‬ ‫الكراه‬ ‫الجباري‬ ‫الندم‬ ‫التراكم‬ ‫نزوع‬ ‫التسليم - الذعان‬ ‫توفيق‬ ‫المجمع - المؤتمر‬ ‫التحاد التوافق‬ ‫الجارية - المحظية‬ ‫الدانة - الحكم‬ ‫الحواري - القرين‬

‫الحزاب‬

Confessionist Confessors Confidence Confident Confiscation Conflict Confrontation Confutation Congealed Blood Congregation Congress Connexion Conquer Conquest

‫الثابت العقيدة‬ ‫الصديقون‬ ‫الثقة‬ ‫الواثق‬ ‫المصادره‬ ‫الصدام - المعركة - الصراع‬ ‫المجابهة - المواجهة‬ ‫البطلن - التفنيد‬ ‫العلق‬ ‫الجمهور‬ ‫المؤتمر‬ ‫النسب - القرابة‬ ‫يظفر - يقهر‬ ‫النصر‬ - ‫الفتح‬ - ‫ الحشد‬‫الجمعة‬ ‫جموع المصلين‬

Congregational Prayers

The Conquest of Mecca ‫فتح مكـــة‬
The Conquest of Mecca : Muslims conquered Mecca in 8 .A.H./630 A.D Conscience Consensus Of Opinion Consensus Omnium Consent Consequence Conservatory Consols ‫الحافظ‬ ‫الدين الموحد‬ ‫ضمير‬ ‫اجماع الرأي‬ ‫الجماع العام‬ ‫الرضا‬ ‫التسليم‬ ‫النتيجة - العاقبة‬

47

Conspicuous Conspiracy Constancy Constant Consternation Constituent Constitution Consultation Contemplation Contemplative Science Content Contention Contest Continence Continuance Contradictory Contravention Contract Contraction Contradiction Contradistinct Contrast Contribution Contrivance Controversial ‫التضاد‬ ‫القناعة‬ ‫الثبات‬ ‫الراسخ‬

‫الظاهر‬ ‫المؤامرة‬ ‫الثابت‬ ‫المجلس التأسيسي‬ ‫الدستور‬ ‫الشوري‬ ‫التفكر‬ ‫علم التصوف‬ ‫ المناظرة‬‫الخصام - الجدال‬ ‫ العصمة‬‫البقاء‬ ‫العفة‬ ‫متناقضة‬ ‫تناقض‬ ‫العقد‬ ‫القبض - النقباض‬ ‫التناقض - المقاومة‬ ‫التمايز - التفاضل‬ ‫التباين‬ ‫التدبير - الحيلة‬ ‫ التناظري‬‫الجدلي‬ ‫العانة - المدد‬ ‫الدوام‬ ‫الخصام - النزاع‬

‫الفزع - الزهول‬

48

‫‪Controversy‬‬ ‫‪Contumacious‬‬ ‫‪Contumacy‬‬ ‫‪conundrum‬‬ ‫‪convenance‬‬ ‫‪Convenant‬‬ ‫‪Convenience‬‬ ‫‪Convent‬‬ ‫‪Convention‬‬ ‫‪Convergings‬‬ ‫‪Converser‬‬ ‫‪Converser of god‬‬ ‫‪Convert‬‬ ‫‪Convict‬‬ ‫‪Conviction‬‬ ‫‪Conviction of truth‬‬ ‫‪Convincing‬‬ ‫‪Convocation‬‬ ‫‪Convulsion‬‬ ‫‪Co-operation‬‬ ‫‪Copartner‬‬ ‫‪Copiousness‬‬ ‫‪Copt‬‬ ‫‪Coptic‬‬ ‫‪Copyist‬‬

‫ الخصام‬‫ العنيد‬‫العناد‬ ‫-‬

‫الجدل‬ ‫المتمرد‬ ‫التمرد‬ ‫اللغز - الوهم‬ ‫الميثاق‬ ‫الميثاق‬ ‫ الرضا‬‫الدير - الصومعة‬ ‫‬‫النشراح‬

‫ الطلسم‬‫ العهد‬‫الخانقاه‬ ‫ اليسر‬‫- التفاق‬

‫المعاهدة - العرف - التقاليد‬ ‫الكفارة‬ ‫الكليم‬ ‫كليم ال‬ ‫المهتدي‬

‫المدان‬

‫-‬

‫الجاني‬ ‫القناع‬

‫- القتناع‬

‫حق اليقين‬ ‫المقنع‬ ‫ الستدعاء‬‫ التشنج‬‫التعاضد‬ ‫المشارك‬ ‫القبطي‬ ‫القبطي‬ ‫الوراق - النساخ‬ ‫‬‫‬‫الجمع‬ ‫الضطراب‬ ‫التعاون‬ ‫الشريك‬ ‫الفتنة -‬

‫الفيض - الكثرة - الوفرة‬

‫94‬

Cororation Correctitude Corroboration Corruption Corsair Cortege Cosmos Cot ‫الصومعة‬ Council Councilor Counsel Counselor Countenancer Counter Courage Courageous Court the Countermand ‫البطال‬ ‫القرصان‬

‫النقابة‬ ‫الستقامة‬

-

‫الجمعية - التحاد‬ - ‫الجدية‬ ‫التقوية - التعزيز‬

‫- التأييد‬

‫التحريف الفساد - الرشوة - النحلل‬ ‫الحاشية - البطانة‬ ‫الكون‬ ‫الكوخ‬ ‫المجلس - المشورة‬ ‫المشير‬ ‫الشوري‬ ‫ المشير - الموجه‬‫المثبت‬ ‫المحصي‬ - ‫ النقض‬‫النسخ‬ ‫الشجاعة‬ ‫الشجاع‬ ‫ الفناء - الساحة‬‫البلط‬ - ‫المؤيد‬ ‫الناصح‬

"The coursers".

'Adiat (Al )

‫العاديات‬

"The coursers". "Coursers" refer to war horses when they charge, stamp their hooves, breathe heavily and snort in the course of the confusion of battle. Surah 100 of the Holy Qur'an. Courteous Courtesy Courtyard ‫اللطيف- البشوش‬ ‫الدب - الدماثة‬ ‫الفناء - الساحة‬
50

‫‪Covered‬‬ ‫‪Covering‬‬ ‫‪Coy‬‬ ‫‪Crackbrain‬‬ ‫‪Cradle‬‬ ‫‪Creation‬‬ ‫‪Creator‬‬ ‫‪Creatures‬‬ ‫‪Credence‬‬ ‫‪Credendum‬‬ ‫‪Creditable‬‬ ‫‪Credulous‬‬ ‫‪Creed‬‬ ‫‪Crescentade‬‬ ‫‪Crier‬‬ ‫‪Crime‬‬ ‫‪Criminal‬‬ ‫‪Crisis‬‬ ‫‪Cross‬‬ ‫‪Crowd‬‬ ‫‪Crown‬‬ ‫‪Crown prince‬‬ ‫‪Crucifixion‬‬ ‫‪Cruel‬‬ ‫‪Cruelty‬‬

‫المدثر‬ ‫الغاشية - البرقع - الغشاوة‬ ‫الخجول - المحتشم‬ ‫الغفلـة‬ ‫المهـد‬ ‫الخلق‬ ‫الخالق‬ ‫المخلوقات‬ ‫التصديق – اليمان - الثقة‬ ‫العقيدة‬ ‫الحميد - المشكور‬ ‫الساذج‬ ‫العقيدة - الملة – كلمة الشهادة‬ ‫الجهـاد‬ ‫المنادى - المؤذن‬ ‫الجريمة - الذنب‬ ‫المذنب - الجانى‬ ‫الزمة‬ ‫الصليب‬ ‫حشد - جمهرة‬ ‫التاج - الكليل‬ ‫ولى العهد‬ ‫الصلب‬ ‫الطاغى - القاسى‬ ‫الوحشية - القسوة‬

‫15‬

Crusade Crusaders Culmination Cult Cult ancestor Culture Curate Curmudgeon Custodian Custody Custom Customs Czar Czarina

‫الحرب الصليبية‬ ‫الصليبيون‬ ‫بلوغ الذروة‬ ‫المعتقد الدينى‬ ‫عبادة السلف‬ ‫الحضارة - الثقافة‬ ‫الكاهن‬ ‫البخيل‬ ‫المين‬ ‫العتقال‬ ‫العرف‬ ‫الجمارك‬ ‫القيصر‬ ‫القيصرة‬ ‫الشحيح‬ ‫الوصي القيم‬

D Dahr (Ad) Dajjal(Ad) The Time Anti-Christ ‫الدهــــــر‬ ‫الدجــــــال‬

"The Time". Another name for Suratul Insan. Surah 76 of the Holy Qur'an. Ad-Dahr indicates the space/time continuum. Anti-Christ. Also known as Maseeh ad-Dajjal. See Ahadeeth regarding "the Final Hour" in both Sahih books. Sahih Bukhari,
52

Hadith 649, 650, Vol.4. Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Fitan wa Isharat as-Say'ah.

Dark ages Darkness

‫العصور المظلمة‬ Dhulumaat ‫ظلمــــات‬

Darkness. In the sense of lurking danger. See Holy Qur' an, AlAn'aam (6):63. This is where the word Dhulm (injustice) is derived, for injustice in whatever form is an evil darkness. Dash Dawn ‫ الصدام‬‫الفجر‬ ‫الصدمة‬

Dawood , (Peace be upon him) ‫السلم‬

‫داوود عليه‬

David. A prophet of Islam. The prophet to whom the Zabour was revealed, and who fought Jalut (Goliath) and killed him. See Holy Qur'an, Saad (38):17-26. See Mursaleen. Daybreak Day of assembly Day of eternity Day of exodus Day of gathering Day of judgment Day of meeting Day of resurrection Day of sacrifice Day of threatening Daybreak ‫الفلق‬ ‫يوم الحشر‬ ‫يوم الخلود‬ ‫يوم الخروج‬ ‫يوم الجمع‬ ‫يوم الفصل‬ ‫يوم التلق‬ ‫يوم القيامة‬ ‫يوم النحر‬ ‫يوم الوعيد‬ ‫الفلق - الفجر‬

53

‫‪Deadly‬‬ ‫‪Dearth‬‬ ‫‪Death‬‬ ‫‪Debating‬‬ ‫‪Debauching‬‬ ‫‪Debenture‬‬ ‫‪Deceitless‬‬

‫المميت‬ ‫القحط - المجاعة‬ ‫الفناء‬ ‫المجادلة‬ ‫‬‫المباحثة‬ ‫الغواية -‬ ‫السند‬ ‫المستقيم‬ ‫المين‬

‫الفسوق‬ ‫ الصك‬‫الصالح‬

‫‪Deception‬‬
‫‪Deception‬‬ ‫‪Declaration‬‬

‫‪Ghayy‬‬

‫الغى‬

‫.‪Deception. Name of a pit in Hellfire‬‬ ‫الغش - الخداع‬ ‫العلن - البيان - اليضاح‬ ‫اعلن الحرب‬ ‫أعمال‬ ‫الهمال - القصور‬ ‫النهزام‬ ‫الهزيمة -‬

‫‪Declaration of war‬‬ ‫‪Deeds‬‬ ‫‪Default‬‬ ‫‪Defeat‬‬ ‫‪Defenes‬‬ ‫‪Defiance‬‬ ‫‪Defrauding‬‬ ‫‪Deign‬‬ ‫‪Delegate‬‬ ‫‪Delegating‬‬ ‫‪Deliverance‬‬ ‫التواضع‬

‫الحصون‬ ‫التحدى‬ ‫الخيانة في المغنم‬ ‫الغلول -‬

‫يفوض‬ ‫النابة‬ ‫التفويض -‬

‫- المبعوث‬

‫التحرير - العتق‬
‫45‬

‫‪Deluge‬‬ ‫‪Demanding‬‬ ‫‪Dementia‬‬ ‫‪Democratism‬‬ ‫‪Demolishment‬‬ ‫‪Demon‬‬ ‫‪Demonstration‬‬ ‫‪Denomination‬‬

‫الطوفان‬ ‫القتضاء‬ ‫العته - البلهة‬ ‫الديمقراطية‬ ‫التحطيم - التخريب‬ ‫العفريت‬ ‫ البرهان‬‫التعصب‬ ‫التعيين‬ ‫المنكر - الجاحد‬ ‫ المعزول‬‫الغواية‬ ‫يسترحم‬ ‫الستعاذة‬ ‫التفويض‬ ‫ الوكيل‬‫النائب‬ ‫نواب‬ ‫الرتباك - التخبط‬ ‫المخلوع‬ ‫الفساد -‬ ‫يستعيذ -‬ ‫العلم اليقين‬

‫مله - طائفة دينية‬

‫‪Denominationalism‬‬ ‫‪Denotation‬‬ ‫‪Denying‬‬ ‫‪Deposed‬‬ ‫‪Depravation‬‬ ‫‪Deprecate‬‬ ‫‪Deprecating‬‬ ‫‪Deputation‬‬ ‫‪Deputy‬‬ ‫‪Deputies‬‬ ‫‪Derangement‬‬ ‫‪Deray‬‬ ‫‪Derision‬‬ ‫الفوضى‬

‫السخرية - الستهزاء‬

‫55‬

‫‪Descendant‬‬ ‫‪Descendants‬‬ ‫‪Desecration‬‬ ‫‪Desideration‬‬ ‫‪Designation‬‬ ‫‪Desire‬‬ ‫‪Desolateness‬‬ ‫‪Desolation‬‬ ‫‪Despair‬‬ ‫‪Dispatch‬‬ ‫‪Desperation‬‬ ‫‪Despoiling‬‬ ‫‪Despoilment‬‬ ‫‪Despondent‬‬ ‫‪Despot‬‬ ‫‪Despotism‬‬ ‫‪Destination‬‬ ‫‪Destinism‬‬ ‫‪Destiny‬‬ ‫‪Destroyer‬‬ ‫‪Destruction‬‬ ‫الحفاد‬ ‫النتهاك‬ ‫ الرغبة‬‫ التعيين‬‫الرغبة - الشهوة‬ ‫-‬

‫السليل‬

‫التدنيس‬ ‫البتغاء‬ ‫التمييز‬

‫الخراب - الدمار‬ ‫الخراب - الدمار‬ ‫اليأس - القنوط‬ ‫ الرسالة‬‫البلغ‬ ‫اليأس‬ ‫السلب‬

‫- القنوط‬

‫- النهب‬

‫السلب - النهب - الغتصاب‬ ‫القانط‬ ‫ الظالم‬‫ الطغيانية‬‫التعيين‬ ‫القضاء - القدر‬ ‫القدر‬ ‫المذل‬ ‫ التخريب‬‫الهدم - التدمير‬ ‫المصير -‬ ‫اليائس -‬ ‫المستبد‬ ‫الستبدادية‬

‫65‬

Detention Deterioration Determinism Detestation Devastation Development Deviance Deviation Devil Devoutness

‫- التعويق‬

‫العاقة‬ ‫ العبث‬‫الفساد‬ - ‫الجبرية‬

‫الحتمية‬

‫المقت - الكره‬ ‫التدمير - التخريب‬ ‫التطور - النمو‬ ‫انحراف‬ ‫الزيغ - الضلل‬ ‫الشيطان‬ ‫التقوى - الورع - النسك‬ - ‫النحراف‬

Dhimmi Dhul-Kifl

A non-Muslim ‫الــذمـــى‬ ‫ذو الكفـــــــل‬

A non-Muslim living under the protection of Islamic rule. Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was a Rasul (Messenger) of Allah (God). He is mentioned at several places in the Holy Qur-an (21:85-86; 38:48). Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was a Rasul (Messenger) sent to the Israelites. He commanded them to wage a war against the mischievous people, but they refused it for the fear of death. Allah (God) punished them with death by a plague and huge blasts. No one amongst them remained alive to even bury the dead. Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) was praying to Allah (God) in seclusion for giving Hidayah (Guidance) to his people. When he came out, he saw the putrefied bodies of his followers. Although his people disobeyed him, he was deeply aggrieved by their fate. He made Du’a (Supplication) to Allah (God) to give their lives back to them. Allah (God) listened to his request and brought the followers of Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) back to life (The Holy Qur-an 2:280). Muslims believe in
57

Dhul-Kifl A (Ezekiel) and all other Rusul (Messengers) of Allah (God).

Dhulm

injustice

‫ظلـــــم‬

Usually wrongly spelled as Zulm. It means injustice, harm, wrongdoing or transgression either against oneself or someone else. 1. Against oneself. Doing deeds or saying words which will bring the displeasure of Allah Ta'ala. These deeds may be physical or spiritual that will ultimately harm the soul. 2. Against others. In any form whatsoever, whether they he physical or mental. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2)35. Its opposite is Nur, light. See Nur.

Dhu'l Qarnain ‫ذو القرنين‬
One of the greatest rulers of ancient history. He was a true believer in Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Kahf(18):83. ialectic Dictator Dictatorship Differing Diffidence Diffident Dignity Dilapidation Dilatation Diluvium ‫الخجول‬ ‫الكرامة‬ ‫ التخريب‬‫التمدد - النبساط‬ ‫الطوفان‬
58

‫الجدل‬ ‫الحاكم المطلق‬ ‫الحكم المطلق‬ ‫الختلف - التباين‬ ‫التواكل‬

‫الخراب‬

Director Dirt Disabused Disaffirmation Disagreement Disaster Disbelief Disceptation Disciple Discipline Discomfited Discomposure

‫الهادى - الموجه‬ ‫درهم‬ ‫الدنس‬ ‫المهدى - المرشد‬ ‫النكار‬ - ‫النقض‬ - ‫الختلف‬ ‫التنافر - التباين‬ ‫الواقعة - الكارثة‬ ‫الكفر - الجحود - الشك‬ ‫الخصام - النقاش‬ ‫الحوارى - المريد‬ ‫ التهذيب‬‫النظام‬ ‫المهزوم - المغلوب‬ ‫الضطراب‬

Dirham A silver coin

Discord Shiqaaq ‫شقاق‬ Discreation ‫الهدم - التحطيم‬ Discrimination Disculpation Disfiguration Dishonest Dishonesty Disloyalty Dismissal Disobedience ‫الفرقان - التفرقة - العنصر‬ ‫التبرير‬ ‫التشويه‬ ‫الخائن‬ ‫الخيانة‬ ‫الغدر - الخيانة‬ ‫العزل‬ ‫العصيان‬ - ‫الطرد‬

59

Disorganization Dispiteous Disposition Dispositional Dispute Dissemble Dissimulator Dissocial Dissolute Dissuasion Distingction Distinguished Distrust Disturbance Disunionism Ditch Divided Dividing Divination Divine Divine justice Divine names Divine assistance

‫الفساد - الفوضي‬ ‫الخلق الطيبة‬ ‫الغربزي‬ ‫المجادلة‬ ‫ينافق‬ ‫المنافق‬ ‫الفظ‬ ‫الفاسق‬ ‫النصح - الرشاد‬ ‫تفرقة‬ ‫المميز‬ ‫ الرتياب‬‫النفصالية‬ ‫الخندق‬ ‫المقسوم‬ ‫الشك‬ ‫ الفتنة‬‫الضطراب‬ ‫الفطري‬

‫العاق - الجبار‬

‫التقسيم‬ ‫الكهانة‬ ‫اللهي‬ ‫تأييد إلهى‬ ‫العدل اللهي‬ ‫السماء الحسنى‬

60

Divine omnipotence Divine providence Divine right Divine saying Divinity Divorcement

‫الهيمنة اللهية‬ ‫العناية اللهية‬ ‫الحق اللهى‬ ‫الحديث القدسي‬

‫اللهوت‬ ‫الطلق‬

Diya

Blood money ‫ديـــــه‬

Blood money, paid as compensation for killing, wounding, etc. Plural: Diyaat. Doctrine Dogmatism Doleful Dolt Domains Domesday Domesticity Dominance Dominant Domination Dominion Doomsday Doubt Doxy ‫الكظيم‬ ‫الحمق‬ ‫حكم‬ ‫يوم الحساب‬ ‫اللفة‬ ‫السيادة - السيطرة‬ ‫القهار‬ ‫الغلبة - السيطرة‬ ‫السلطة - الملكية‬ ‫يوم الحساب‬ ‫الشك - التردد‬ ‫الرأى - العقيدة‬ ‫عقيدة‬ ‫العقيدية‬

61

Dread Drive

‫الرهبة‬ ‫باعث‬

Duha (Ad) Dukhan

Forenoon ‫الضحي‬ The Smoke ‫الدخـــان‬

"Forenoon": The mid-morning hours. Surah 93 of the Holy Qur'an. "The Smoke". Surah 44 of the Holy Qur'an. One of the signs of the proximity of the Last Day. Duties Dwelling Dwelling of peace Dynasty ‫واجبات‬ ‫المقام - السكن‬ ‫دار السلم‬ ‫السرة المالكة - الملك الوراثي‬

E (The) Earthquake Zalzalah ‫زلزلــــــه‬

"The Earthquake". One of the names of the Yaum al-Qiama. See Surah 99 of the Holy Qur'an. Eagar Eagerness Eblis Edict Efface ‫ابليس‬ ‫ المرسوم - الحكم‬‫يبطل - ينسخ‬ ‫المر‬ ‫المتحمس‬ ‫الحماس‬ - ‫ الحمية‬‫الجتهاد‬

62

Effacement Effect Effection Efficiency Egging

‫المحو - الزالة‬ ‫ الغرض‬‫القدرة‬ ‫التأثير‬ - ‫الكفاية‬ ‫التكوين - التسبيب‬ ‫الغراء - التحريض‬

Eid

a festivity

‫العيـــــد‬

The word 'Eid is an Arabic name to mean a festivity, a celebration, a recurring happiness, and a feast. In Islam, there are two major 'Eids namely the feast of Ramadhan ('EId AlFitr) and the Feast of Sacrifice ('Eid Al-Adhha). The first 'Eid is celebrated by Muslims after fasting the month of Ramadhan as a matter of thanks and gratitude to Almighty Allah. It takes place on the first day of Shawwal, the tenth month of the lunar calendar. The second 'Eid is the Feast of Sacrifice and it is to be celebrated for the memory of prophet Ibrahim trying to sacrifice his son Isma'il (Ishmael). This 'Eid lasts four days between the tenth and the thirteenth day of Zul-Hijjah, the twelfth month of the lunar calendar.

Eid Al-Adha

‫عيد الضحي‬

A four-day festival that completes the rites of pilgrimage and takes place on the 10th-13th of DhuI Hijjah(the 10th is the day of Nahr and 11th-13th are the days of Tashriq). Literally means "the feast of the sacrifice". This feast commemorates the Prophet Ibrahim's obedience to Allah by being prepared to sacrifice his only son Ismael, peace be on both of them. See Holy Qur' an, As-Saffaat (37)~1OO-1O3.

Eid Al-Fitr

‫عيد الفطـــــر‬

Three-day festival marking the end of Ramadan. It takes place on the 1st of Shawal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar.

63

Amr Bill Ma' roof

Enjoining the good

‫بالمعروف‬

‫المر‬

Enjoining the good. The full version is "Amr bill Ma'roofwa nahi 'anil Munkar", (enjoining the good and forbidding the evil). Ejaculation Elect Elegy Elementalism Elevation Elite Eloquence Embassador Embattle Ember Emblem Emblement Embrace Emendator Emergent-year Emigrant Emigration Emissary ‫المبعوث‬
64

‫ التحميد‬‫المصطفي‬ ‫الرثاء‬ ‫العنصرية‬ ‫العروج‬

‫التهليل‬

‫الصفوة - الملء‬ ‫البيان - الفصاحة‬ ‫السفير‬ ‫يحصن‬ ‫الجمرة‬ ‫الشعار - الرمز‬ ‫الريع‬ ‫يعتنق‬ ‫المصلح‬ ‫بدء التقويم‬ ‫المهاجر‬ ‫الهجرة‬

-

‫النخبة‬

Emission Emperor Empery Empire Empress Emptiness Emulation Enactment Enchanting Encouragement Encroachment Endemic Ending ‫المبراطورية‬ ‫المبرطورة‬ ‫الخلء - الفراغ‬ ‫المنافسة‬ ‫المبرطور‬

‫- البعث الخروج - النبعاث‬

‫السلطة‬

‫القانون - الشريعة - السنة‬ ‫ الفتنة - السحر‬‫التشجيع‬ ‫العتداء - التطاول‬ ‫المستوطن‬ ‫الخاتمة - النهاية‬ ‫الرقية‬

Endowment

Waqf

‫وقف‬

Endowment. A charitable trust in the Name of Allah, usually in perpetuity, and usually for the purposes of establishing the Deen of Islam, teaching useful knowledge, feeding the poor or treating the sick. Endowment Enduring Enfolded Enforcement Enfranchisement ‫المهر - الصداق‬ ‫ الدائم‬‫المدثر‬ ‫الكراه - الجبر‬ ‫العتق - التحرير‬
65

‫الباقي‬

‫‪Enhancement‬‬ ‫‪Enricher‬‬ ‫‪Enslavement‬‬ ‫‪Enthrallment‬‬ ‫‪Enthusiasm‬‬ ‫‪Enticement‬‬ ‫‪Entreatment‬‬ ‫التضرع ‪Entreaty‬‬ ‫الخندق ‪Entrenchment‬‬ ‫المبين ‪Enucleator‬‬ ‫‪Envious‬‬ ‫المعتمد ‪Envoy‬‬ ‫الحسد ‪Envy‬‬ ‫المدثر ‪Enwraped‬‬ ‫الخاتمة ‪Epilogue‬‬ ‫‪Equality‬‬ ‫‪Equitable‬‬ ‫‪Equitation‬‬ ‫العدل ‪Equity‬‬ ‫‪Equivalent‬‬ ‫‪Era‬‬ ‫-‬

‫التزكية‬ ‫المغني‬ ‫الستعباد‬ ‫الستعباد‬

‫الترقية -‬

‫السترقاق -‬

‫الحماسة - القدام‬ ‫الغواء - التضليل‬ ‫التضرع‬

‫الحاسد‬ ‫ المبعوث -‬‫الرسول‬

‫المساواة‬ ‫ المنصف - المقسط‬‫الفروسية‬ ‫القسط‬ ‫المكافئ‬ ‫ الحقبة‬‫ العصر‬‫الزمن‬ ‫العادل‬

‫66‬

‫‪Eraser‬‬ ‫‪Erasing‬‬ ‫القويم ‪Erect‬‬

‫الماحي‬ ‫العفو‬ ‫ المعتدل -‬‫‬‫الزاهد‬ ‫الجدلي‬ ‫‬‫الضلل‬ ‫المنتصب‬

‫الناسك ‪Eremite‬‬ ‫ النقاشي ‪Eristic‬‬‫الشرود ‪Erantry‬‬

‫ضلل ‪Eroneously‬‬ ‫الخطيئة ‪Eroneousnes‬‬ ‫‪Error‬‬ ‫لقمان ‪Esop‬‬ ‫‪Esoteric‬‬ ‫الرجاء ‪Esperance‬‬ ‫‬‫السري‬ ‫المل‬ ‫الباطني -‬ ‫الغى - الخطأ‬

‫التجسس - الجاسوسية ‪Espionage‬‬ ‫ الرضا ‪Esponsal‬‬‫الروح ‪Esprit‬‬ ‫الوجود - الكينونة ‪Esse‬‬ ‫‪Essential‬‬ ‫‪Established‬‬ ‫التقدير ‪Esteem‬‬ ‫‪Estovers‬‬ ‫‪Eternal‬‬ ‫جوهرية‬ ‫الصمد‬ ‫ الجلل -‬‫التقدير‬ ‫الستحسان‬

‫التأسيس - الرسوخ - الشرعي ‪Establishment‬‬ ‫المباح لضرورة‬ ‫الباقي - الصمد البدي‬
‫76‬

‫التباغض- النفور ‪Estrangement‬‬

Eternity (Infinit) Ethics Etiology Evaluation ‫التقدير‬ Evanescent ‫الزائل‬ -

Abd ‫الخلق‬

‫أبد‬

‫السبية العلية‬ ‫الفاني‬

Evangelization ‫التبشير‬

Eve

Hawwa

‫حواء‬

Eve, wife of Adam, peace be on them. She bore many children. Every time she gave birth, they were twins, one male and one female. Each twin married the twin of the other. The two most famous of her offspring were Habil (Abel) and Qaabil (Cain). Event ‫ الحدث‬Evidence ‫الواقعة‬ ‫الخالدون‬ ‫الشهادة - البينة‬

Everlasting ‫ الدائم - الباقي‬‫ الحجة- البرهان‬Evident ‫الظاهر‬ Evil ‫الشر- الشيطان‬ Evolution Exact Exacting ‫ا‬ Exaction Exaltation ‫التشريف‬ Exalted Exalter Excaudate ‫البتر‬ Exclamation ‫العلي‬ ‫الرافع‬ ‫تطور‬ ‫الكامل‬ ‫الظلم‬ ‫الظلم‬

-

‫التام‬ ‫الكراه‬ ‫الغتصاب‬ ‫المتعالي‬ - ‫الغتصاب‬

‫ الستصراخ‬68

‫النداء‬

‫ التبرير ‪Exculpation‬‬‫‪Excuse‬‬ ‫‪Execution‬‬ ‫الوصي ‪Executor‬‬ ‫علم التفسير ‪Exegesis‬‬ ‫‪Exegeste‬‬ ‫ البراءة ‪Exemption‬‬‫الجتهاد ‪Exertion‬‬ ‫‪Exile‬‬ ‫‪Exilement‬‬ ‫ البقاء ‪Existence‬‬‫‪Exorbitance‬‬ ‫الدعوة ‪Exorcism‬‬ ‫‪Expanding‬‬ ‫‪Expansion‬‬ ‫‪Expatriation‬‬ ‫‪Expedition‬‬ ‫‪Expending‬‬ ‫المبذر ‪Expensive‬‬ ‫الخبرة ‪Experiment‬‬ ‫‪Expiable‬‬ ‫الفدية ‪Expiation‬‬ ‫التفسير ‪Explaining‬‬

‫التبرئة‬ ‫العذر‬ ‫ الهلك‬‫العدام‬

‫الشارح‬ ‫العفاء‬ ‫الجلء‬ ‫البعاد‬ ‫- الوجود‬

‫المفسر -‬

‫النفي - الهجرة -‬ ‫النفي -‬ ‫الجور -‬ ‫الكون‬

‫الظلم‬

‫النشراح‬ ‫ التمد - البسط‬‫الجلء - السبي‬ ‫حملة‬ ‫النفاق‬ ‫التوسع‬ ‫‬‫النفي‬

‫يفدي‬

‫يكفر‬

‫96‬

‫‪Exploit‬‬ ‫‪Exploitation‬‬ ‫المفسر ‪Exponent‬‬ ‫البيان ‪Expositiopn‬‬ ‫المفتي ‪Expounder‬‬ ‫‪Expugnance‬‬ ‫‪Expurgation‬‬ ‫التوسع ‪Extension‬‬ ‫‪Extinction‬‬ ‫‪Extravagant‬‬ ‫‪Extrusion‬‬ ‫الشاهد ‪Eyewitnes‬‬ ‫‬‫-‬

‫ العمل الفذ‬‫الستفادة‬ ‫الشارح‬ ‫الشرح‬ ‫ النصح‬‫‬‫الفاتح -‬ ‫المد‬ ‫-‬

‫المفخرة‬

‫المأثرة -‬

‫الستغلل‬

‫- التحذير ‪Expostulation‬‬

‫النذار‬ ‫الفتح‬

‫القهر‬ ‫التطهير‬ ‫ البسط -‬‫الفناء‬ ‫المسرف‬ ‫الطرد‬

‫القاهر - الغازي ‪Expugner‬‬

‫السراف ‪Extravagance‬‬

‫‪F‬‬

‫07‬

Fa ‫النصيب المقسوم‬ Fable ‫الخرافة السطورة‬ Facilitation ‫التيسير‬ Facility ‫السهولة - اليسر‬ Facing ‫المواجهة‬ Faction Factor Faculty acultie Fad Fade ‫التافه‬ ‫الحزب‬ ‫العامل - الباعث - الوكيل‬ ‫ملكه - قدرة خاصه‬ ‫ النخبة‬‫بدعه‬ - ‫الغث‬ ‫الصفوة‬

Fai
War booty gained without fighting. Failure Fairy ‫ الجان‬Fairyism ‫العبقرية‬ ‫الفشل- الخسران‬ ‫الجن‬

‫فىء‬

Iman

faith

‫ايمـــان‬

Trust, faith and acceptance. Having faith and believing in: Allah Ta'ala. To affirm with the tongue, believe in the heart and confirm through action the following: His Existence. His Lordship. His Worship. His Names and Attributes. Belief in His angels. Belief in His revealed Books. Belief in His messengers, without making any distinction between them.
71

Belief in the Hour and the Judgement and the Fire and the Garden. Belief in the Divine decrees of Allah Ta'ala, both the good and the evil. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):285. See Mursaleen . Faithful Faithful the ‫المعتقد‬ ‫المؤمنون‬

Faithful spirit ‫الروح المين‬ Faithfulness ‫المانة- الخلص‬

Fajr (Al)

"The Dawn". The time of the first obligatory Salat (Prayer). It can be prayed at any time between the first light of dawn and just before sunrise. Also called Subh (morning).Surah 89 of the Holy Qur'an.

The Dawn ‫الفجـــــر‬

Falaah

Success

‫الفـــــــــلح‬

Success. Real success lies in "enjoining what is right and forbidding what is evil..." (Surah Aali Imran (3):104). One of the sentences that is said during the Adhan and Iqama, "Haya 'alal Falaah" (Come to Success). Other derivations: Muflih = the person who is successful, the person whose deeds and actions have gained Allah Ta'ala's pleasure. See Holy Qur'an, Surah Al-Baqara (2): 1-5. See Aflaha: He has succeeded.

Falaq (Al)
False ‫ البهتان‬Falsehearted Falshod ‫الزور‬ Falsity ‫- الزور‬

The Daybreak
‫الزور‬ ‫ الخائن‬‫الكذب‬
72

‫الفــلق‬

"The Daybreak" Surah 113 of the Holy Qur'an. ‫الماكر‬

Fame ‫- الصيت‬

‫السمعة‬

The family of 'Imran Aali 'Imran ‫آل عمران‬ . 'Imran was the father of Mariam, the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on them.
Fanal ‫المنارة‬ Fanaticism Fancy ‫التعصب‬ ‫- الزعم‬

‫الوسواس - الظن‬

Faqeeh Fard 'Ain

‫فقيه‬ ‫فرض العين‬ Collective duty ‫فرض‬

An Islamic scholar who can give an authoritative legal opinion or judgement. An action which is obligatory on every Muslim.

Fard Al-Kifaya ‫الكفاية‬

Collective duty. A duty on all the community; but if it is fulfilled by a part of that community then the rest are not obliged to fulfill it. Fare Farewell ‫الجر‬ ‫الوداع‬

Faridha Farsakh Faruq

A duty League ‫الفاروق‬

‫فريضــــة‬ ‫فرســخ‬

A duty enjoined on all Muslims. Plural: Fara'idh. League; about three miles. This was the name given to Umar ibn Al-Khattab. It means 'One who distinguishes the truth from falsehood'. Fascination Fash ‫التعب‬ ‫السحر‬ ‫الفتنة‬

73

Fasting

Seeaam

‫صيــــام‬

Fasting, from food and drink - and from sexual intercourse if you are married during daylight, from the first light of dawn until sunset. Also spelled as Saum. Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the Arkan (five pillars) of Islam. Allah Ta' ala has made it obligatory on every Muslim whether man or woman, with the exception of: 1. A person who is ill. 2. A person on ajourney of 16 Farsakhs (48 miles) or more. 3. A woman who is menstruating or who has just given birth. Once these situations no longer apply, the missed days must be compensated. The very young are exempted.The aged should fast, but if they find it difficult then they too are exempted and may feed poor people instead. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):184-185, 187. Fatalism ‫مذهب الجبر‬ Fatality Fate ‫ القضاء‬Fated ‫الحتمية‬ ‫القضاء‬ ‫النصيب‬

Fath (Al) Fatiha

The Victory ‫الفتــــح‬ The Opening Chapter ‫الفاتحة‬ Manifest Victory ‫الفتح‬

"The Victory". Surah 48 of the Holy Qur'an. "The Opening Chapter". Another name for Suratul-Hamd. Surah 1 of the Holy Qur'an.

Fat'han Mubeena ‫المبين‬

"Manifest Victory". The manifest victory that is referred to here is the peace treaty of Hudaibiyah. It was one of the greatest victories which the newly-born Islamic Ummah
74

(nation) gained. On face value it seemed like a great setback for the Muslims, but in fact it was, by the will of Allah Ta'ala, one of the main means by which the Muslims consolidated and grew. See Holy Qur'an, Surah Al-Fath (48).

Fatima May Allah be pleased with her

‫فاطمه‬

Daughter of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. She is one of the four greatest women ever created by Allah Ta'ala. The other three are: 1. Mariam (Mary), Mother of Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him. 2. Asiya, the wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh). 3. Khadija ,may Allah be pleased with her, the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessing of Allah be on him and on all his wives and family.

The Fatimids (909-1171 A.D.)

‫الخلفة الفاطمية‬

The Fatimids are traced back to `Ali bin Abi Talib and his wife, Fatimah. This state was established by `Ubaidullah AlMahdi in Tunisia. It witnessed 14 caliphs, and reached its utmost expansion during the era of Al-Mu`izz, who annexed North Africa to his state and sent Jauhar Al-Siqilli, his commander-in-chief, to occupy Egypt. Jauhar established Cairo which later became the state capital to which Al-Mu`izz moved and extended his influence over Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The last caliph was Al-`Adid whose ministry was led by Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi, who eventually precipitated the fall of the Fatimid state. The most notable architectural and cultural achievements were the establishment of Cairo and the construction of Al-Azhar Mosque.

Fatir (Al)

The Creator ‫الفاطــــر‬

"The Creator". Also another name for aI-Malaikah. Surah 35 of the Holy Qur'an.
75

Fatwa

A legal verdict

‫فتوة‬

A legal verdict given on a religious basis. the sources on which a fatwa is based are the Holy Qur'an, Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, and all other authenticated Ahadeeth. Fault Favonian Favor Favorite ‫الولي‬ Fawn ‫ينافق‬ Fawner ‫المنافق‬ Fay Feal ‫الموالي‬ Fealty Fear ‫الرهبة‬ Feast ‫الوليمة‬ Feast of sacrifice ‫عيد الضحي‬ Feast ‫العيد‬ Federacy ‫التحاد‬ Federal Fellow Felon ‫الفاسد‬ Festival ‫العيد‬ Fetters Chains Feud Feudalism ‫القطاعية‬
76

‫الزلة‬ ‫الوديع‬ ‫ المنة‬‫المعروف‬

‫العقيدة‬ ‫الخلص‬ ‫الخوف‬

‫التحادي‬ ‫الند‬ ‫المجرم‬ ‫القرين‬

Female infanticide ‫وأد البنات‬ ‫الصفاد‬ ‫عداوة‬

Feudalist ‫القطاعي‬ Fiction Fidelity ‫المانة‬ Fiducial ‫ المين‬‫الصادق‬ ‫خرافة‬

Fidya

‫الفديــــــة‬

Compensation for missing or wrongly practising necessary acts of worship. Fidya usually takes the form of donating money or foodstuffs or sacrificing an animal. Contrast with Kaffara (making amends). See Kaffara. Filiation ‫تبنى‬ Finder the ‫الواجد‬ Fines ‫الدية‬

Fiqh

‫الفقـــــه‬ Pharaoh ‫فرعــــون‬

Islamic Law.

Fir'aun

Pharaoh. Tide of the Ancient Egyptian rulers, particularly the one who rejected the Prophet Musa (Moses), peace he on him, and tried to have him killed. They were famous for their cruelty and disbelief. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):49, Ta Ha (20):9-80, Al-Qasas(28):1-42, Al-Fajr(89):1O-14.

Firdaus

Paradise

‫الفردوس‬

The middle and the highest part of the Jannah (Paradise). Fitna This has various meanings, depending on its context in the sentence: 1. Oppression or tumult, as in Surah Al-Baqara (2):]93. 2. Trial or punishment, as in Surah Al-Maida (5):74. 3. Trial or temptation, as in Surah Al-Anfal (8):28. 4. It can also mean causing discord between Muslims, or sedition.

Firm

‫الحازم‬

‫المكين‬
77

‫المتين‬

Fitrah

The fitrah is the natural disposition of every human being, which is to believe in Allah alone without any partners. The Messenger (saw) said, “Each one of you is born on the fitrah; it is your parents who make you Jews, Christians and fire worshippers.” Every person is born Muslim, believing in God. However, when a person starts to follow his desires and false deities, his fitrah will become polluted. Five foundation of islam ‫أركان السلم الخمسة‬ Fixation ‫التثبيت‬ Flame ‫اللظى - السعير‬ Fling ‫الزدراء‬ Flirt ‫الغزل‬ Flock ‫السرب‬ Fog ‫الحيرة‬ Foible ‫الزلة‬ Folk ‫ الناس‬‫العامة‬ Folkway ‫فقه الجماعة‬ Followed ‫المقتدي به‬ Foolery ‫الجهالة - الحمق‬ Folhardy ‫الجسور - المتهور‬ Foppish ‫المغرور‬ Forbearer ‫الحليم‬ Forbiddance ‫النهي - التحريم‬ Forbidden ‫المحرم‬ Force ‫ القدرة‬‫ القوة‬Forced ‫القسري - القهري‬ Forcefulness ‫الجبرية‬ Forcible ‫القدير‬ - ‫القوي‬ Forcing ‫الكراه‬

‫الفطـــــــــــره‬

‫العنف‬

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Foredoom ‫القضاء‬ Forefather Foreknowledge Forestaller

‫السلف الجداد‬ ‫التنبؤ‬ ‫المحتكر‬

Forewarner

‫نذيـــــــــــر‬

Forewarner : One who warns sinful people against the imminent punishment of Allah Forfeiture ‫الخسران - الغرم‬ Forgery ‫التزوير‬ Forgive ‫يصفح‬ Forgiveness ‫العفو‬ Forgiver ‫الغفار‬ Forgiving ‫الصفح - العفو‬ Formal ‫الصوري - الشكلي‬ Formidable ‫القاهر‬ Fornicator ‫ الفاجر‬‫الفاسق‬ Fornication ‫الزنا‬ - ‫الفجور‬ Forray ‫الغتصاب - السلب‬ Fort ‫الرباط‬ Fortification ‫التحصين‬ Fortresses ‫القلع‬ Fortunetelling ‫الكهانة‬ Fosterage ‫الرضاع‬ Foundation ‫التأسيس‬ Foundling ‫القيط‬ framer ‫المبدع - المبتكر‬ Frank ‫الصريح‬ Franks ‫الفرنجة‬
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Frantic Fraternity

‫الهائج‬ ‫الخوة‬

-

‫الثائر‬

Fraternization

‫المؤاخــــــــــــاة‬

Fraternization : The Prophet (peace be upon him) established brotherly ties between the Muhajirun and the Ansar Fraud ‫الخداع‬ Freak ‫الهوي‬ Frebooty ‫القرصنة‬ Freedom ‫الحرية‬ Fremescence Frenzy Frightened Frustration ‫الحباط‬ Fundamentalism ‫الغوغاء‬ ‫المس‬ ‫المذعور‬ - ‫البطال‬ ‫الصولية‬ - ‫ السلب‬‫النهب‬ ‫الغش‬

Fugitation ‫الفرار من العدالة‬

Furqaan (Al)
Fury ‫الغضب‬

The Criterion

‫الفرقــــــــان‬

"The Criterion". Another name of the Holy Qur'an. Surah 25 of the Holy Qur'an.

Fussilat (Al)

‫فصلت‬

"They are expounded." Another name for Ha Mim and AsSajda. Surah 41 of the Holy Qur'an.

G
Gabriel ‫جبريل عليه السلم‬

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Gaby Gage Gain Gainsaying ‫النكار‬ Galen ‫جالينوس‬ Gallant Game ‫العنيد‬ Gang Garrison Gayness ‫الزهو‬ Geneology Generality Generation Generosity Generous the Gens ‫جماعة‬ ‫عصبة‬

‫الغفلة‬ ‫الرهينة‬ ‫ الربح‬‫الكسب‬

‫الشهم‬

‫حامية‬

Nasab

‫نسب‬ ‫الغلبية‬

It means lineage or geneology. ‫ الكثرية‬‫جيل‬ ‫الكرم‬ ‫الكريم‬ ‫عشيرة‬ ‫الجود‬

Gentility ‫ الدماثة‬Gentle Genuflect Genuflection ‫الركعة‬ Ghazi ‫الغازي‬

‫اللطف‬ ‫الحسنة‬ ‫يركع‬

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Ghazwa

A holy battle for the cause of Allah the Almighty in which the Prophet Muhammad himself, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took part. Nural: al-Maghazi or Ghazawat.

A holy battle

‫غــــــــزوة‬

Gheeba ‫غيبة‬
Gideon ‫جالوت‬ Gift ‫النعام‬ Gif Gimp Given Giver ‫ الواهب‬Glaring Glorification Glorious ‫الماجد‬ Glory ‫المجد‬ Glory be to him Glossarist Glow Gluttonousness Gnathonic Gnome Gnosis God God willing -

Talking evil about someone in his or her absence. Backbiting. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hujurat (49):12. ‫الهبه‬ ‫الغفلة‬ ‫الفتوة‬ ‫الموهوب‬ ‫المعطي‬ ‫الظاهر - الواضح‬ ‫المجد‬ - ‫التمجيد‬ ‫الحمية‬

‫سبحانه وتعالى‬ ‫المفسر‬ ‫ التأجج‬‫النهم - الشراهة‬ - ‫الشارح‬ ‫التوقد‬

‫المداهن - المنافق‬ ‫الحكمة - القول المأثور‬ ‫العلم‬ ‫ال‬ ‫بإذن ال‬

‫- المعرفة‬

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‫‪Godfearing‬‬ ‫‪Godhead‬‬ ‫‪Godship‬‬

‫المتدين‬ ‫اللوهية‬ ‫اللوهية‬

‫‪Godward‬‬ ‫العناية اللهية‬ ‫‪Gog and magog‬‬ ‫يأجوج ومأجوج‬ ‫‪Gollath‬‬ ‫‪Samaritan‬‬ ‫‪Gospel‬‬ ‫‪Goth‬‬ ‫‪Gothic‬‬ ‫‪Gourd tree‬‬ ‫‪Govern‬‬ ‫‪Governable‬‬ ‫‪Government‬‬ ‫‪Governor‬‬ ‫‪Grace‬‬ ‫‪Grace of god‬‬ ‫‪Gracious the‬‬ ‫‪Gradation‬‬ ‫‪Graith‬‬ ‫‪Grand‬‬ ‫‪Grandeur‬‬ ‫‪Grant‬‬ ‫‪Grasp‬‬ ‫القوطي‬ ‫القوطي‬ ‫شجرة اليقطين‬ ‫يسوس‬ ‫يحكم‬ ‫الحكم‬ ‫الوالي‬ ‫النعمة‬ ‫الحكومة‬ ‫يساس يحكم‬ ‫السلطة‬ ‫الحاكم‬ ‫الحسان العون‬ ‫العناية اللهية‬ ‫اللطيف‬ ‫الدرجة - المرتبة‬ ‫البين - الواضح - الثروة‬ ‫الجليل - العظيم‬ ‫العظمة - الجلل‬ ‫يمنح‬ ‫البطشة‬ ‫السامري‬ ‫النجيل‬ ‫جالوت‬

‫38‬

‫‪Gratuity‬‬ ‫‪Grave‬‬ ‫‪Grave sins‬‬ ‫‪Graveyard‬‬ ‫‪Great‬‬ ‫‪Greatness‬‬ ‫‪Great sin‬‬ ‫‪Greed‬‬ ‫‪Greek fire‬‬ ‫‪Greeks‬‬ ‫‪Greeting‬‬ ‫‪Greetings‬‬ ‫‪Grievance‬‬ ‫‪Grieving‬‬ ‫‪Grim‬‬ ‫‪Grossness‬‬ ‫‪Grotto‬‬ ‫‪Grouch‬‬ ‫‪Grounding‬‬ ‫‪Grove‬‬ ‫‪Grudge‬‬ ‫‪Grumble‬‬ ‫‪Guarded‬‬ ‫العاتي‬ ‫‪the‬‬ ‫الروم‬ ‫القبر‬

‫ العطية - جزاء الحسان‬‫الذنوب الكبار‬ ‫المقبرة‬ ‫المقتدر - العظيم‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫الحرص‬ ‫النار الغريقية‬ ‫التحية - السلم‬ ‫التحيات‬ ‫الضيم - الظلم - الضنك‬ ‫الفجيعة‬ ‫العنيف -‬ ‫ الفظاظة‬‫المغارة‬ ‫المتذمر‬ ‫ الترسيخ‬‫اليكة‬ ‫الحقد - الضغينة‬ ‫يتأفف‬ ‫الحمى‬ ‫التأسيس‬ ‫الغلظة‬ ‫الكبير -‬ ‫عظمة‬

‫الهبة‬

‫يصون - يحمي ‪Guard‬‬

‫48‬

Guardian the Guardianship Guerdon Guidance the Guide Guidance Guile Guilelessness Guilt Guiltless Guilty Guiltiness Gushness

‫الحافظ‬ ‫الوصاية‬ ‫ الجزاء‬‫الهداية - الهدى‬ ‫الدليل - الهادى‬ ‫الهداية‬ ‫الخداع- المكر‬ ‫الصدق - المانة‬ ‫ذنب‬ ‫البرىء - الطاهر‬ ‫المذنب - المجرم - الجانى‬ ‫الجرام - الثم‬ - ‫الحضانة‬ ‫الجر - الثواب‬

‫- الفيض‬

‫التدفق‬

H Habit Hadith ‫الطبع‬ tradition ‫العادة‬

‫الحديث‬

A saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Plural: Ahadeeth.

Hadith-Qudsi

‫حديث قدسي‬

A saying of Allah Ta'ala narrated by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that is not part of the Holy Qur'an.

85

Hadj Hadji Hafiz

‫الحج‬ ‫الحاج‬ ‫حافظ القرآن‬

Hafsa , May Allah be pleased with her

‫حفصة رضي‬

‫الله عنها‬
Daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, and wife of Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions.

Hagar

‫هاجر‬ 'Black Stone' ‫الحجر السود‬

Hajar Al-aswad (Al)

The 'Black Stone', a stone which some say fell from heaven, set into one corner of the Ka'aba in Makka by the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be upon him, which the pilgrims, in imitation of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kiss, so unifying all the Muslims throughout the ages in one place.

Hajj (Al)

The Pilgrimage ‫الحـــج‬

"The Pilgrimage", which commences on the 8th of Dhu'lHijjah. There are three types of Hajj: 1. Hajjat-Tamata'a (interrupted). Umra followed by Hajj, but taking off the Ihram in between these two stages. 2. Hajj al-Qiran (combined). Umra then Hajj without taking off the Ihram. 3. Hajj al-Ifrad (single). Hajj without Umra. A pilgrimage to Makkah in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar is also known as Hajj al-Ifrad. The performance of Hajj consists of ten steps: 1. Put on the Ihram at the appointed station, then recite the Talbiyah. Recitation is done aloud by men and quietly by women. Depending on what type of Hajj you are doing, perform the necessary
86

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

rites at the Ka'aba on arrival in Makkah. SeeTalbiya. Go to Mina (on the 8th of the month). Pray the Duhr, 'Asr, Maghreb, Isha and Fajr prayers at their proper times, but shortening the four Rak'at to two, as if doing travelling prayers. When the sun rises (on the 9th of the month), go to 'Arafat and combine the Duhr and 'Asr Salat. After the sun sets, go to al-Muzdallifa, reciting the Talbiyah. Combine the Maghreb and the 'Isha Salat. After the Fajr prayer, raise your hands and do Du'a. (After midnight, women and the weak may proceed to Mina if they wish.) In Muzdallifa (or Mina), pick up small stones (either 49 or 70) to throw at the Jamra (stone pillars) of 'Aqaba. Go to Mina (on the 10th of the month);  Throw seven stones, one stone at a time, at the largest of the three Jamras (the stone pillars that represent Shaitan).  Sacrifice your animal. You must eat some of its meat, but give the bulk of it to the poor and hungry. (Do this step only if it is required of you. It is not required for Hajj al-Ifrad. If you are doing either of the other two types of Hajj, but cannot afford an animal, then fast three days after you first put on Ihram and seven days after you have returned home.)  Shave your head. Women only need to cut off a lock of hair. The rules of Ihram are now lifted, except for sexual intercourse with one's spouse.

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7. Go to Makkah and do Tawaf al-Ifada. Go to the hills of Safa and Marwa and do Sa'i. Now the rules of Ihram are completely lifted. 8. Return to Mina and stay there for the remainder of the 10th and on the 11th, 12th and the 13th. (You may, if you wish, leave Mina after Asr on the 12th or after Asr on the 13th. You must leave Mina before the sun sets.) 9. Each day, stone each of the three Jamras (the stone pillars) with seven pebbles. 10. If you wish to return home, you must do the Tawaf al-Wida'. No-one is excused, except for menstruating women or women in the period of discharge after childbirth. See Tawaf al-Wida. See Surah 22 of the Holy Qur'an. Performing the Hajj if you are able is one of the Arkan of Isla

88

Hajj-al-wida' The last farewell Hajj

‫حجة الوداع‬

The last farewell Hajj of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, before his death. During that Hajj, Muhammad gave an immortal Khutba called "Khutbatul Wida". This sermon is still remembered word for word, for it confirmed that the Deen of Islam had been completed, transmitted and established by the Messenger of Allah, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions and all who follow him in what they are able, with sincerity, until the Last Day. Hakeem Hakim ‫الحكيم - الطبيب‬ ‫الحاكم‬

Halqah Hanbali

‫حلقـــــــة‬ ‫حنبلى‬

A group of students involved in the study of Islam. One of the main schools of thought in Islam, founded by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d. 855 A.C.), a famous scholar of fiqh. Hanging ‫الشنق‬

Hanifi Haman

‫حنيفي‬ ‫هامان‬

One of the main schools of thought in Islam, founded by Abu Hanifah (d. 767 a.c.), a famous scholar of fiqh. Minister of Fir'aun (Pharaoh) who tried to have all the newborn babies killed at the time when the Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be on him, was born.

Hannah, May Allah be pleased with her

‫حنا‬

Grandmother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be on them, and wife of 'Imran, may Allah be pleased with him. Since the Prophet isa had maternal grandparents, how can the Christians claim him to be Allah? Since Allah is the Creator of all that there is, and was not created, do the Christians claim
89

that Allah has a family tree? (Since they acknowledge the immaculate conception and the virgin birth, why do they trace the lineage of Jesus through Joseph the carpenter? See Matthew 1:6-16, Luke 3:23-31,) Glory be to Allah, the Most High. Cursed are those who ascribe partners to Him. The punishment of Hellfire awaits those who do not desist from this blasphemy. Happening ‫الوقوع‬ ‫الصيرورة‬

Haram

‫الحرام‬

1. Any act or deed which is prohibited by Allah and will

incur His wrath and punishment. See Ahkam. 2. Sanctuary or boundary of any Masjid (mosque), but usually used with regard to the sanctuaries of the Masjid al-Ha ram in Makkah and Masjid al-Rasool, may Allah give him light and peace in his grave, in Madinah. This is why they are referred to as "AI-Haramain alShariffain", the two Holy Sanctuaries.

Haramain al sharifain (AL)

‫الحرمين الشريفين‬

"The two Holy Sanctuaries". The sanctuary of the Ka'ba at Makkah and the sanctuary of al-Masjid al-Rasool, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in Madinah.

Harbinger

‫النذير‬

‫البشير‬ ‫هارون عليه السلم‬

Haroon, peace be upon him

Aaron. A prophet of Islam. He was the brother of the Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be on them. See Holy Qur' an, Ta Ha (20);29-36, 90-94. Harsh ‫الغليظ‬ Haruspex ‫العراف‬ ‫الفظ‬

Harut and marut

‫هاروت ماروت‬
90

Two angels who, by the permission of Allah Ta'ala, taught magic to the people of Babylon. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2):102.

Hasad

Jealousy

‫الحسد‬

Jealousy. Hasad is forbidden in Islam, except for two specific reasons: 1. Being jealous of a person for memorizing the Holy Qur'an by heart. 2. Being jealous of a wealthy person for expending his wealth in the path of Allah Ta'ala.

Hashr (Al)

The Exile

‫الحشــــر‬

1. "The Exile". Surah 59 of the Holy Qur'an.

2. Another name for the Day of Judgement, Yaumal-Hashr, "Day of the Gathering". Hateful Hate ‫الكريه - المبغوض - المكروه‬ ‫الكره‬

Hawazin
Hazard Headship

A Quraishi tribe. An Arabian tribe that always gave trouble to the new-born Islamic nation before their conversion to Islam. ‫المجازفة - المخاطرة‬ ‫الرياسة - الزعامة‬ ‫العنيد‬ ‫العناد‬

‫هـــوازن‬

Headstrong Hradstrongness Hearer Hearsay Heartburning Heatben

‫السميع‬ ‫الرواية‬ ‫الضغينة‬ ‫الوثنى الكافر‬
91

‫الحسد‬

Heathenishness Heathenism

‫الوثنية‬ ‫عبادة الوثان‬

Heaven

Samaa

‫السماء‬

Heaven. In the sense of 'sky'. "Sab'a Samawat" - Seven Heavens. Plural: Samawat. Heaven Heavely ‫دار البقاء‬ ‫السماوى‬ ‫الوامر السماوية‬

heavenly decrees Hebrew ‫العبرى‬ Hector Hegemony Hegira ‫الهجرة‬ Heir ‫الوارث‬ ‫يرث‬ ‫ولي العهد‬ Heir apparent Heirdom Hell Helotry Help ‫النصر‬ ‫النصار‬ ‫النافع‬ ‫هرقل‬ ‫البشير - النذير‬ ‫الراعي‬ Helpers Helpful Heracles Herald Herdsaman ‫السفاح - الجبار‬

‫الزعامة - السلطان‬

‫الوراثة - الرث‬ ‫جهنم‬ ‫العبيد - الرقاء‬

92

(The) Hereafter

Akhira

‫الخرة‬

(After-Life, Hereafter, Next World). the term embraces the following ideas. That the present order of existence will some day come to an end That when that happens,God will bring another order into being in which He will resurrect all human beings, gather them together and examine their conduct, and reward them with justice and mercy. That those who are reckoned good will be sent to Paradise whereas the evil-doers will be consigned to Hell. That the real measure of success or failure of a person is not the extent of his prosperity in the present life, but his success in the Next. Heresiarchy Heritage Hermit Hermitage Hero ‫الشجاع‬ ‫الهرطقة - الضلل‬ ‫التركة - الرث‬ ‫الناسك - الزاهد‬ ‫الصومعة‬ ‫البطل‬ ‫الهرطقة - الضلل‬ ‫النبيل - الشريف‬

Heterodoxy Highbred

Hijab

veil

Any kind of veil - it could be a curtain, a facial veil, etc. The facial Hijab is divided into two types: 1. Niqab = full facial covering. 2. Khimar = partial facial covering, i.e. it covers the face, but leaves the eyes exposed. It is said that the Universe is what veils the Creator from the creation. If you find
93

‫حجاب‬

the veil awe-inspiring, how much more awe-ins piring is the One behind the veil!

Hijaz Hijr (Al) Hijra Hijri

The region along the western seaboard of Arabia, in which Makka, Medina, Jeddah and Ta'if are situated. "Al-Hijr". Name of a rocky place and its people. Surah 15 of the Holy Qur'an.

‫الحجاز‬

‫الحجر‬

Migration ‫هجرى‬

Migration in the path of Allah.

‫الهجرة‬

Name of the Islamic lunar calendar. It took its name from the early Muslims who migrated from Makkah to Madinah, and commences from the date of the Prophet Muhammad's Hijra, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which he made with Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, in 622AC. The months of the Islamic calendar are: 1 - Muharram 2 - Safar 3 - Rabi'i al-Awal. 4 - Rabi'i al-Akhira. 5 - Jumada al-Awal. 6 - Jumada al-Akhira. 7 - Rajab 8 - Sha'ban. 9 - Ramadan 10 - Shawal 11- Dhul Qi'da. 12 - Dhul Hijjah

The Hijri Calendar

‫التقويم الهجري‬

637 The Hijri Calendar : 637 The reign of Caliph `Umar bin Al-Khattab witnesses the beginning of dating the Muslim era from the first day of the lunar year in which the Hijrah took place (16 A.H.)

Hira ‫حراء‬
A famous cave in the Jabal an-Nur in Makkah where Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, first received the Divine Message through the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him.

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Hizb

Party. Allah Ta'ala divides all the parties into two groups: "Hizb Allah" (the Party of Allah ) and "Hizbal-Shaitan" (the Party of Satan). It is irrelevant to Allah how one labels one's party, whether it be "Democratic Party", "Labour Party","Communist Party" or whatever. All that matters is whether or not it follows the path of Allah Ta'ala.

Party ‫حــــزب‬

Hisba
Historian History Hitch Hoard Hold Holies Holocaust Holy Holy city Homage Homilist Homily Honest Honor

‫الحسبه‬
‫المؤرخ‬ ‫التأريخ‬ ‫العائق‬ ‫المساك‬ ‫العقبة‬ - ‫القبض‬ ‫الحرم المقدس‬ ‫المحرقة‬ ‫الطاهر‬ ‫المقدس‬ ‫المدينة المقدسة‬ ‫الولء‬ ‫الواعظ‬ ‫العظة - الموعظة‬ ‫ الصادق‬‫الشرف‬ ‫الستقامة‬ ‫المين‬ ‫الزخيرة - المؤونة‬

. Office of accounting or public inspection. See muhtasib.

Honesty ‫الصدق - المانة‬ Honourableness

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Hooriyah

A female virgin ‫حوريــــــــة‬

A female virgin created by Allah Ta'ala, but not a descendant of Adam, peace be on him. She is created in Jannah (Paradise)and is the perfect companion of man in the Akhira (Hereafter). Her beauty is insurpassable and unimaginable. She has intensely black irises and the whites of her eyes are pure white. Also spelled as Houriah. Plural: Hooriyat. Horror Horse ‫الرعب‬ ‫الفرس‬ ‫الفروسية‬ ‫الكرام للضيف‬ ‫الخان‬ ‫معادى‬ ‫الضيافة‬

Horsemanship Hospitality Hostel Hostile

Houd, peace be upon him

‫هود عليه السلم‬

A prophet sent to the Tribe of 'Ad. See Mursaleen. See 'Ad. Surah 11 of the Holy Qur' an.

Hubal

‫هبـــــل‬

Hubal : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic period

Hudaibiya (Al) ‫الحديبية‬
A famous plain ten miles from Makkah on the way to Jeddah. Site of the peace pact between the Muslims and the pagan Quraish in the year 6AH. This treaty paved the way for the spread of Islam. Surat al-Fath (Surah 48 of the Holy Qur'an) cmmemorates this victorious event. Allah Ta'ala called it "Fathan Mubeena" (a Manifest Victory). See Holy Qur'an, AIFath (48):1-4.

96

Huge

‫الضخم - الهائل‬

Hujjaj

Pilgrims ‫حجــــاج‬

Pilgrims. Persons who have been on pilgrimage to Makkah during the Hajj season in the month of Dhul Hijjah. Singular: Haj = a male pilgrim, Hajah = a female pilgrim.

Hujurat (Al)
Human Humanism

"The Apartments". Surah 49 of the Holy Qur'an. ‫ النسانية‬‫النسانية‬ ‫النسان‬

The Apartments ‫الحجــــرات‬

Humaza (Al)
Humility

The Scandalmonger
‫تواضع‬

‫الهمزه النمام‬ ّّ

"The Scandalmonger". Surah 104 of the Holy Qur'n.

Hunain

‫حنين‬

Valley on the road from Makkah to Taif. Site of a famous battle that took place immediately after the conquest of Makkah in 8AH, between the Muslim army consisting of about 10,000-2,000 men and the combined forces of the Hawazin and Thaqeef which amounted to 4,000 men. After a surprise attack and a near defeat, the Muslims managed to completely crush the enemy. See Holy Qur' an, At-Taubah ( 9):24-25. Hungriness Hurt ‫المسغبة‬ ‫الذى‬ ‫الجوع‬

Hutama

‫الحطمة‬

The seventh and deepest level of the Nar (Hellfire). This is where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity. The worst of Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen (hypocrites), whether they
97

be mankind or Jinn, because they 'accept' Allah and His Messenger with their tongues, but deny this 'acceptance' by their actions. See Jahanam. Hypocrites ‫المنافقون‬

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I
Iblis ‫ابليس‬
The Jinn who disobeyed Allah Ta'ala and was expelled from His mercy. It was Iblis who tempted Adam and his wife Hawwa (Eve), peace be on them, to approach the forbidden tree. He is also known as Shaitan (Satan). See Shaitan . See Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2):30-39.

Ibrahim, peace be upon him

"Abraham". He was a messenger, as well as one of the greatest prophets of Islam. He was the father of two other great prophets, Ismail and Ishaq (Ishmael and Isaac respectively). All the prophets who came after him were descended from him, peace be on them. See Mursaleen . See Holy Qur' an, AlBaqara (2):130, 135. Surah 19 of the Holy Qur'an. Iconoclasm ‫تحطيم - اليقونات الل ايقونية تحطيم الصنام‬ Idealism ‫المثالية‬ Idol ‫الصنم الوثن‬

‫ابراهيم عليه السلم‬

Idols Idol-worship

Idols. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):219

‫أنصاب‬

‫عبادة الصنام‬

Idolatry Idolatry was widespread in the Arabian Peninsula, including .Mecca, in the Pre-Islamic era

Idris, peace be upon him ‫ادريس‬

Enoch. A prophet of Islam and a man of truth and wisdom. See Holy Qur'an, Maryam (19):56-57, Al-Anbiya (21):85. See Mursaleen

Ifrad (Hajj al)
Ignoramus

Single Hajj ‫افـــــراد‬
‫الجهالة‬

"Single Hajj". Performing Hajj without doing Umra. See Hajj ‫الحج‬ ّ

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Ignorantly

ً ‫جهل‬

‫جهالة‬

Ihram

‫احـــــــــرام‬

1. The state in which one is prohibited from doing certain

things which are lawful at other times. Umra and Hajj are performed in such a state. 2. When one assumes such a state one must state mentally and orally that he or she is assuming such a state for the purpose of Umra or Hajj. Then one must recite the Talbiya. See Talbiya 3. Dress: o Men. It consists of two pieces of unstitched cloth: (i) Rida - worn around the upper part of the body. (ii)Izar - worn below the waist. o Women. Any full length dress which covers the entire body except for the hands and face, and is inconspicuous, i.e. it does not attract attention in any way whatsoever (tight, colourful, etc.). 4. Behaviour: Both men and women are not permitted to trim their hair or nails, wear perfume, harm or kill any living thing, including insects, or damage any plant or tree. They should avoid argument and loss of temper. Sexual intercourse between spouses is also not permitted.

Ihsan ‫احسان‬
Highest level of obedience in worship, i.e. to be aware of and sincere to Allah Ta'ala and to be eager to do all good deeds. It is to worship Allah as if you see Him, knowing that, although you do not see Him, Allah sees you.

Ijmaa`: Consensus of opinion

‫إجمـــاع‬

Consensus of opinion. Usually defined as the unanimous agreement of the mujtahidoon of any period following the demise of the Prophet Muhammad on any matter. As such, it is described as collective ijtihaad.
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Ijtihaad:

‫اجتهــــــاد‬

Literally, striving and self-exertion; independent reasoning; analytical thought. Ijtihaad may involve the interpretation of the source materials, inference of rules from them, or giving a legal verdict or decision on any issue on which there is no specific guidance in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

Ikhlas

The Complete Faith

‫اخـــلص‬

1. "The Complete Faith". Surah 112 of the Holy Qur' an. 2. Sincerity of the heart in worship and purity of intention. For any worship to be accepted by Allah it must be entirely for His sake, and not for other-than-Him. Illegal Illicit ‫الل شرعي‬ ‫الحرام - المحظور‬

Ilyas, peace be upon him ‫الياس عليه السلم‬
Elijah. A prophet of Islam. See Holy Qur'an, Al-An'am (6):85, As-Saffat (37):123-132. See Mursaleen . Imam Imaret Imitation Immaculately Immanity Immarescible Immigration Immolation Immolator Immoral ‫المام‬ ‫العمارة‬ ‫التقليد - المحاكاة‬ ‫الطهارة - العفة - البراءة‬ ‫البربرية‬ ‫الثابت‬ ‫الهجرة‬ ‫تقديم الضحية‬ ‫المضحي‬ ‫الفاجر‬ ‫الفاسد‬ ‫الباقي‬

101

Immortal Impartial Impartialness Impeccable Impeccably Impendence Impenitence Imperator Imperiousness Imperturabability Impiety Impignoration Impious Imploration Imposture Imprecation Improving Improvement Impure

‫الباقي‬ ‫العادل‬ ‫العدل‬

‫الخالد‬ ‫المنصف‬ ‫النصاف‬

‫المعصوم المنزه‬ ‫العصمة‬ ‫الوعيد‬ ‫العتو‬ ‫العاهل‬ ‫التجبرية‬ ‫الحتشام‬ ‫ا لزندقة‬ ‫التهديد‬ ‫العصيان‬ ‫المبراطور‬ ‫الستبدادية‬ ‫الوقار‬

‫اللحاد‬ ‫التعهد‬

‫العهد‬ ‫الزنديق‬ ‫الملحد‬

‫البتهال‬ ‫الضلل‬ ‫اللعنة‬ ‫التهذيب‬ ‫التهذيب‬ ‫الدنث‬

‫التضرع‬ ‫الفك‬

‫التحسين‬ ‫التحسين‬

Imsaak

‫امساك‬

Start of the fasting time. Imsaak begins when the first light of dawn becomes visible, at Fajr when the Adhan is called.

102

Infallibility Inalterable Inattention Inattentive Incest Inchastity Independence Independent Indepravate Indevote Indevotion Indidiation Indigence Indigent Indirection Indisciplinable Indocile Indocility Inerrant Inevitable day Infendation ‫الثابت‬

‫العصمة من الزلل‬

‫السهو‬ ‫الغافل‬

‫الغفاة‬

‫زنا المحارم‬ ‫الزنا‬ ‫الستقلل‬ ‫المستقل‬ ‫الطاهر‬ ‫المنافق‬ ‫النفاق‬ ‫الثم‬ ‫ الفاقة‬- ‫الخطيئة‬ ‫الفقر‬ ‫النقي‬ ‫الفسق‬

‫المعدم - الفقير‬ ‫النحراف‬ ‫المتمرد‬ ‫المتمرد - العاصي‬ ‫التمرد - العصيان‬ ‫المعصوم‬ ‫الحاقة‬ ‫ العطاء- البذل‬‫ القطاع‬‫الذكاة‬

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Inference ‫استنباط‬ Inference. Deducing a somewhat hidden meaning from a given text. The process of extracting laws.

Inferior Infidel Infidelity Infidels Influential Information Ingenuousness Ingratitude Inguilty Inherently Inheritance Inhibition Innitency Innocence innovation

‫تابع‬ ‫الملحد - الكافر‬ ‫الكفر - اللحاد - الزندقة‬ ‫الكافرون‬ ‫ المتسلط‬‫النبأ‬ ‫الصدق - الشهامة‬ ‫العقوق‬ ‫البرىء‬ ‫الفطرة - السليقة‬ ‫الوراثة - الموهبة‬ ‫ التحريم‬‫الكف‬ ‫المؤثر‬

‫السند - السناد‬ ‫ السماحة‬‫بدعـــه‬ ‫البراءة‬

The term bid'ah linguistically means 'innovation'. It is any saying or action which has been falsely attributed to the Messenger Muhammad (saw) and his Companions (ra). Bid'ah
104

is one of the negations of Islam, and those who knowingly innovate any matter in the Deen will be prevented from having intercession from the Messenger of Allah (saw). Those who regularly commit bid'ah are known as Ahl ul-Bid'ah (the people of bid'ah), and this term can be applied to many deviant sects nowadays, such as the Sufis.

Input Insha Allah

‫الغاثة‬

‫العانة‬

If Allah wills

‫انشاء الله‬

"If Allah wills". It is forbidden to say "I will do such and such tomorrow," without saying afterwards, "Insha Allah".

Inshiqaq (Al) Inshirah (Al)
Insight Inspiration Instinct Institution Insubmission Insurgence Insurrections Intent Intention Niyyah ‫نيه‬ ‫الفراسة‬ ‫الغريزة‬

Rending Asunder

‫النشقاق‬

"Rending Asunder". Surah 84 of the Holy Qur'an.

The Expanding ‫النشراح‬
- ‫الستبصار‬ ‫الوحي - اللهام‬ ‫ النشاء‬‫التأسيس‬

"The Expanding". Surah 94 of the Holy Qur'an.

‫لعصيان - المروق‬ ‫العصيان - التمرد‬ ‫ثورات‬ ‫النية - القصد‬

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Interdict Internecion

‫التحريم‬ ‫التهالك - القتتال‬

Interpretation

‫التفسير - اليضاح - التأويل‬ Taweel Interpretation. Especially interpretation of the Holy Qur'an Intreat ‫يتضرع - يتوسل‬ Intrepidity Invasion Inveiglement Investigation Invisible Invisible world Invocation ‫البطش - البسالة‬ ‫غزو‬ ‫التضليل‬ ‫البحث - التمحيص - الستجواب‬ ‫المستور - المحجوب‬ ‫عالم الغيب‬ ‫البتهال - التضرع‬

Iqama

‫القامه‬

The call which announces to the congregation that the obligatory prayer is just about to begin. The statements are the same as the Adhan, but in a shortened form, such that if a statement is repeated four times during the Adhan, then it is repeated twice during the Iqama.

Iqamat as-salat ‫اقامة الصله‬

Performing the Salat in a perfect manner. This is understood by most Muslims as having only one meaning, but it has two: 1. Performing the prayer in exactly the same manner as the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray. see Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 737, boook 12, Vol.1. 2. Establishing the prayer Every person in a Muslim society who is seven years old or more must pray women in their houses and men in the Masajid (mosques). Every head, be he head of the family or chief

106

of the town, will be held responsible for the missed Fard prayers of those under him, as well as his own.

Iram ‫ارم‬

Capital city of the ancient people of 'Ad in the Yemen. It was famous for its lofty pillars. Some scholars say Iram was a hero of the people of 'Ad who built a lofty statue of him. See Holy Qur'an, AL-Fajr (89):6-8. Irresistance ‫التسليم - الذعان - الرضوخ‬

Isa, peace be upon him

One of the greatest prophets and messengers of Islam. He is also known as Isa ibn Mariam (Jesus, Son of Mary) and Isa alMaseeh (Jesus the Messiah, Jesus Christ). The Jews and the Christians have both blasphemed against the Prophet Isa, peace be on him. The Jews reject him completely, whilst the Christians have elevated him to the level of Allah and/or Son of Allah. The concept of such divinity is rejected in the Bible by the Prophet Isa himself(in pans of the Bible which have not yet been altered) 1. According to 1 Timothy 2:5, "There is One God, and one mediator between God and men, the 'MAN' Christ Jesus." Notice the words" man" and "mediator". Are the Christians trying to say that Allah is the mediator and that the Bible is wrong? Do they not realize that Allah is so supreme in glory that He does not mediate? Ask the Christians how else they can explain this verse. Warn them that Allah's wrath will be on those who know-ingly hide or avoid the Divine Truth. 2. According to Matthew 24:36, Jesus, peace be on him, has no knowledge of the time of the Hour. Are the Christian strying to say that Allah lacks knowledge? 3. According to Matthew 14:23, Jesus, peace be on him, went into the hills to pray. Are the Christians trying to say that Allah needs to pray, and if so, then to whom? 4. "But in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines commandments of men." Matthew 15:9. Isa himself confirmed the prophecy of Isaiah that the people would worship him in vain and believe in doctrines made by men. The truth is that Jesus, peace be on him, spoke the truth, but it is the Christians who, in his name, have
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‫عيسى عليه السلم‬

invented lies against him. Allah is One. He did not beget nor was He begotten. See Mursaleen .

Isha ‫العشــــــــــــاء‬

Night. The fifth and last Fard Salat (Prayer). Its time starts about one and a half hours after sunset, when the redness has disappeared from the night sky and the stars have appeared, and ends a litle before dawn.

Ishaq, peace be upon him

Isaac. A prophet of Islam. He was the second son of the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on him. He was thirteen years younger than his brother, the Prophet Ismael (Ishmael), peace be on him. Mary, mother of Jesus, peace be on them, was descended from Ishaq. See Holy Qur' an, Al-An'am (6):84, AsSaffat (37):112-113. See Mursaleen .

‫اسحق عليه السلم‬

Islam

Literally means "submission to the will of Allah". It is for this reason that Allah Himself names His life transaction "al-Islam" and describes all the followers of this way of life, in every age, as "Muslims". The life transaction of Allah has five pillars, all of which must be strictly adhered to in word, deed and sincere belief. The five pillars of Islam are as follows: 1. Shahadatain. Bearing witness. All Muslims must believe in and utter the Shahadatain.  First Shahada : Ash-hadu an la illaha illa l'lah. (I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.)  Second Shahada: Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah. (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) 2. Salat. Prayers. To do all the five compulsory daily prayers regularly in the exact manner as was practised by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 3. Seeaam. Fasting. Also spelled as Saum. To fast in the month of Ramadan. 4. Zakat. Wealth tax. To pay 2.5% of one's yearly savings above a certain amount to the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at least) the equivalent
108

‫الســـــــــــــلم‬

of 85g of 24 carat gold at the time when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat is also due on other things such as silver, animals, crops, etc. For a full explanation on Zakat refer to the relevant books written on the subject. 5. Hajj. Pilgrimage. To perform the pilgrimage to the Holy City of Makkah at least once in one's lifetime (if one is able to afford it). See Holy Qur' an,Al-Maida (5):3. Islamic religious law

Ismael, peace be upon him ‫اسماعيل عليه السلم‬
Ishmael. A prophet of Islam. The first son of the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on him, thirteen years older than his brother, the Prophet Ishaq (Isaac), peace be on him. It was through the lineage of Ismael that the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was born. He helped his father Ibrahim to raise the foundations of the Holy Ka'ba, the holiest Masjid (mosque) in Islam. See Holy Qur'an, AlBaqara (2):125-129, Maryam (19):54-55. See Mursaleen .

‫الشريعة السلمية‬

Isnaad

Chain of narrators of a hadeeth.

‫السناد‬

Isra (Al)
Isolate Isolation Izar

"The Night Journey". Another name for Bani Israel. Surah 17 of the Holy Qur'an. ‫منعزل‬ ‫عزلة‬ ‫الزار‬

‫الســــــــــــراء‬

A cloth worn (by men) below the waist.

109

J Jab Jabriyah
Jack Jacob

‫الطعنة‬

‫الوخزة‬

‫الجبريه‬

Jabriyah : A sect which denies man's freedom of choice and believes that all his actions are predetermined ‫يحي عليه السلم‬ ً ‫يعقوب عليه السلم‬

Jahanam

‫جهنم‬

Most commonly understood to mean Hell. In fact, it is one of the levels of Hell. There are seven levels of Hellfire: 1. Jaheem - the shallowest level of Hell. It is reserved for those who believed in Allah and His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but who ignored His commands. 2. Jahanam - a deeper level where the idol-worshippers are to be sent on the Day of Judgement. 3. Sa'ir - is reserved for the worshippers of fire.

110

4. Saqar - this is where those who did not believe in Allah will be sent on the Day of Judgement. 5. Ladha - will be the home of the Jews. 6. Hawiyah - will be the abode of the Christians. 7. Hutama - the deepest level of Hellfire. This is where the religious hypocrites will spend eternity. The worst of Allah's creation are the Munafiqeen (Hypocrites), whether they be mankind or Jinn, for they outwardly appear to accept, but inwardly reject, Allah and His Messenger.

111

Jaheem

‫الجحيم‬

The shallowest level of the Nar. It is reserved for those who believed in Allah and His Messenger Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but who ignored His commands. See Jahanam.

Jahliyah

Ignorance The Pre-Islamic Era

‫الجاهلية‬
Ignorance. This involves relying on what is other than the truth. This is why the age prior to the advent of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is called Jahiliyah. Many people believed, for example, in Allah, but tried to attain His pleasure through worshipping another medium such as a stone, fire, man, wood, animal, etc., rather than following His guidance which had been revealed to the earlier messengers. The age of Jahiliyah 'ended' when the Final Revelation, the Holy Qur'an, was revealed to mankind and the Jinn. However, it still exists wherever this Last Message from God has not reached. Any deviation from the True Path is no longer considered as Jahiliyah, but as Kufr, for the truth has been distinguished from falsehood.

Jamra ‫جمرة‬
White hot coal. The term used to describe the three pillars built of stone at Mina. Plural: Jimar.

Jamrat al 'aqaba

‫جمرة العقبه‬

One of the three stone pillars at Mina. One of the rites of Hajj is to throw pebbles at these stone pillars, which represent Shaitan (Satan). Plural: Jimar.

Jannah

Paradise ‫جنه‬

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Also spelled as Janna. Paradise. A created abode in the Hereafter for those who believe in the Unity of Allah and in all His Prophets and Messengers, and who follow their way of life. See Mursaleen. Jannah has eight gates around it and each of these eight gates has eleven doors. The names of the eight gates are: 1. Bab al-Iman. 2. Bab al-Jihad. 3. Bab al-Kadhemean al-Gaidh. 4. Bab ar-Raiyan. 5. Bab ar-Radiyeen. 6. Bab as-Sadaqa. 7. Bab at-Taubah. 8. Bab as-Salat. Jannah has not been guaranteed to any human being or Jinn (with the exception of the messengers of Allah) before their deaths, other than the following ten men: 1. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. 2. Umar ibn al-Khattab. 3. Uthman ibn 'Affan. 4. Ali ibn Abi Talib. 5. Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqas. 6. Abu Ubaida 'Amer ibn al-Jarrah. 7. Al-Zubair ibn al-'Awam. 8. Talha ibn Ubaidu'llah. 9. Abdar-Rahman ibn 'Auf. 10.Sa'is ibn Zaid. May Allah be pleased with all of them.

Jathiyah (Al)
Jehad ‫الجهاد‬

The Crouching ‫الجاثيه‬

"The Crouching". Surah 45 of the Holy Qur' an.

The Jews of Medina

‫يهود المدينة‬

113

The Jews of Medina : Upon arriving at Medina, the Messenger of Allah made a covenant with the Jews. They were conferred liberty to practice their religion and their title to their wealth.

Jibreel, peace be upon him

The Angel Gabriel. Also called Rooh al-Qudus, "The Holy Spirit". His duty was to reveal the Word of Allah Ta'ala to His Anbiaa (Prophets). He is now sent to help the very religious against the temptations of Shaitan (Satan) at the time of death. His epithet is Roohul Amin (The Spirit of Truth) (Ash-Shu'ara (26):193). The AI-Amin is Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):97-98, At-Takwir (81):19-21. See Mursaleen

‫جبريل عليه السلم‬

Jinn (Al)

"The Jinn". A race of created beings that are made out of smokeless fire. They are like the Ins (human race) in many ways: 1. They are born, have children and die. They also have friends and family. 2. There are Muslims and Kuffar amongst them. 3. They eat food, but their food consists mainly of bones and stool. They differ from us in many ways too: 1. Their lifespan is much longer than ours. 2. They can see us and sometimes are able to dwell within us. 3. They need no form of transport. 4. They need no housing. The Muslims amongst them like to live in the Masajid and pray, but the unbelievers tend to live in the bathrooms of non-religious Ins (human beings). The best way to make sure that they do not intermix with us (i.e. enter our bodies or houses or eat food with us) is to remember Allah constantly and to read the Holy Qur'an as much as possible. Surah 72 of the Holy Qur'an.

‫الجن‬

Jizya

tax

‫الجزيــــــــــــــه‬
114

A tax imposed on non-Muslims who are under Muslim rule. Job ‫ايوب عليه السلم‬ Joseph ‫يوسف عليه السلم‬ Judaism ‫اليهودية‬ Judge ‫القاضي‬ Judgeship ‫القضاء‬ Judgment ‫القضاء الحكم‬

Judiye

‫الجودي‬

Place where the Ark of the Prophet Nooh (Noah), peace be on him, came to rest. Jabal (Mount) Judiye is in the Turkish district of Bothan, which is situated near the frontiers of Turkey, Syria and Iraq. See Holy Qur'an, Houd (]J):44.

Junub

‫جنب‬

Junub - a person having Janaba - means to be in a state of ceremonial impurity or defilement. A male becomes junub on having sexual intercourse or simply on the emission of semen in sleep or otherwise. A female also becomes junub as a result of sexual intercourse as well as when she is menstruating or having postnatal bleeding. These are the general causes of janaba, which is also referred to in the books of jurisprudence as hadath akbar. A full bath is required for a junub to receive purification or tahara, without which a man or woman is not allowed to touch or read the Qur'an, enter the mosque or offer the prayers. In the absence of water, however, one is allowed to resort to tayammum. Tayammum substitutes for both a full bath (ghusl) and ablution (wudu). Jurist ‫الفقيه - المشرع‬ Justice ‫العدل - القسط‬

K

115

Ka'aba

‫الكعبه‬

The cube-shaped stone building whose foundations were built by the angels and completed by Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son, the Prophet Ismael, peace be on them, in Makkah. It was rebuilt with the help of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the focal point towards which all Muslims face when praying. Kabin Kadi ‫زواج المتعة‬ ‫القاضي‬

Kafir

Unbeliever

‫كافــــــــر‬

Unbeliever. Someone who covers up the truth and rejects Allah and His messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them peace. There are many different ways in which a person becomes a disbeliever in Allah. For full explanation see Kufr. Plural: Kuffar. Unbeliever. Someone who covers up the truth and rejects Allah and His messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them peace. There are many different ways in which a person becomes a disbeliever in Allah. For full explanation see Kufr. Plural: Kuffar. Kafila ‫القافلة‬ Kaid ‫القائد‬ Kain ‫قابيل‬ Kaiser ‫العاهل‬ Kauser ‫الكوثر‬

‫القيصر‬

Kawthar (Al)

The fount of Kawthar

‫الكوثر‬

1. "The fount of Kawthar". A sacred fount in Jannah

(paradise). It is the source of all the four rivers of Paradise, and feeds the Hawd of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Surah 108 of the Holy Qur'an.
116

2. The Hawd which is filled by Al-Kawthar is at the end of the Siratul Mustaqeem. It is a gift from Allah to the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is to quench the thirst of the true believers. Keblat ‫القبلة‬ Ken ‫المعرفة - الدراك‬ Khadija may Allah be pleased with her ‫خديجه رضي الله‬

‫عنها‬

First wife of the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and one of the four greatest females created, the other three being; 1. Mariam (Mary), Mother of the Prophet isa (Jesus), peace be on them. 2. Asiya, the wife of Fir'aun (Pharaoh). 3. Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, may Allah bless them and grant them peace.

Khaibar

‫خيبر‬

A famous town north of Madinah. It was the place where a great battle took place between the Muslims and the Jews in 1OAH. The Muslim victory at Khaibar destroyed Jewish influence in the Arabian peninsular for many centuries, until the introduction of the modern Jewish banking system throughout the world. See Holy Qur' an, Al-A hzab (33):27.

Khaleel

‫خليل‬

Highest form of friendshp. The love that is mixed with one's own soul. The Prophet Muhammad and the Prophet Ibrahim, may Allah bless them and grant them peace, were 'Khaleelu'llah', the intimate friends of Allah. They loved people for Allah, but their greatest love was only Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself.

Khalideen

‫خــالدين‬

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To abide for ever. The good will abide in the Jannab (Paradise) and the evil will abide in the Nar (Hellfire) forever. "Khalideena feeha abada". (They will abide in there for ever.) The word "Aba da" also means "for ever". Allah Ta'ala uses "Abada" to emphasize "for ever", reminding us that eternity is endless.

Khalifa

‫خليفة‬

Derives from the word Khalafa, Yakhlufu = come after. Khulafa = the ones who succeed others, in the sense of standing in as a representative for someone else. Thus Khalifa = viceregent, the representative of Allah. Khalifa has two main meanings: 1. General: It refers to mankind, particularly the believers. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):30. Every Muslim is a Khalifa and should carry the banner of Islam high and strive to establish the Deen of Islam until Allah's Word is uppermost on the earth.) 2. Specific: A Muslim ruler. There were four Al-Khulafaa ar-Rashideen, "the rightly-guided Khulafaa": o AbuBakras-Siddiq- 11-13AH. o Umar ibn al-Khattab - 13-23AH. o Uthman ibn 'Affan - 24-36AH. o Ah ibn Abi Talib- 36-4OAH. May Allah be pleased with them. Plural: Khulafaa.

Khandaq (Al)

The Ditch ‫الخندق‬

"The Ditch". A famous battle between the early Muslims and the pagans in which the Muslims built a Khandaq (trench) on the unprotected side of the city of Al-Madinah al-Munawarah to prevent the advance of the Makkan unbelievers in 5AH. The enemy were halted by this unexpected tactic, and then driven away by awful weather, mutual distrust and low morale,
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without any major engagement having taken place. It was also called Ghazwatul-Ahzab (Battle of the Clans), because the Makkan idol-worshippers were assisted by the Jewish Tribes ofBanu Nadhir, Banu Chatfan and Banu Asad. See Holy Qur'an, An-Nur (24):55, Al-Ahzab (33):9-20.

Kharaj Khatib

Tax imposed on the revenue from land taken from nonmuslims to ensure their equal rights under Islamic law. orator, speaker.

‫الخــــراج‬

orator

‫خطيب‬

Khawarij

The people who dissented from Islam and created a false belief which was not part of the HolyQur'an or the teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Singular: Kharij.

‫الخوارج‬

Khazen

. Finance manager.

‫خازن‬

Khimar

A type of Hijab (veil) which covers the face, but leaves the eyes exposed, as opposed to the Niqab, which covers the entire face, including the eyes.

veil ‫خمار‬

khitan : Khosoof

‫ختـــــــان‬ Lunar eclipse ‫الخســوف‬

the ritual circumcision of every Muslim male child. Lunar eclipse. There is a special Eclipse Salat (prayer) which lasts as long as the eclipse itself. Kiblah Kind ‫الكريم‬ ‫القبلة‬ ‫المحسن‬ ‫الرقة‬ ‫الفظ‬ ‫الشفقة‬

Kindhearteredness Kindless Kindly ‫القاسي‬ ‫اللطيف‬

‫العطوف‬
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King Kingdom Kinship Kismet

‫الملك‬ ‫الملك‬ ‫قرابة‬ ‫القسمة - النصيب‬

Kitab

‫الكتاب‬

Book. There are three types of Kutub (books): 1. The Book of records or deeds. On the Day ofjudgement, everyone from both man and Jinn will receive their book, in their right or left hand, according to the preponderance of their good or bad deeds and thus will either enter Paradise or be cast into Hellfire. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Qamar (54):52-53. 2. AI-Kitab, The Book (or Revelation). Refers especially to the Holy Qur'an, but also refers to the original revelations revealed to the earlier messenpgers of Allah, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on them. See Qur'an. 3. Ordinary books. i.e. books written by people, all of which are subject of human error and cannot be compared to the Qur'an. The Qur'an is the uncreated word of Allah Ta'ala. Kneel Kneeling Knight Knowing Knowledge Koran ‫السجود‬ ‫الجاثية‬ ‫ النبيل‬‫العارف‬ ‫العلم‬ ‫المعرفة‬ ‫ركوع‬ ‫الفارس‬

‫القرآن الكريم‬

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Kufee

‫كوفى‬

A style of angular writing often used for early hand-written copies of the Holy Qur'an.

Kufr

‫كفــــر‬

Disbelief in Allah's Commands, including the refusal to accept whatever the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, taught. There are two levels of Kufr: 1. Kufr al-Akbar (major disbelief) . Major Kufr is subdivided into five categones; o Kufr al-Taktheeb: Denying the divine truth. o Kufr Abaa wa Stakbara ma'al-Tasdeeq:Refusing to bow to Allah due to pride, even though acknowledging the divine truth. o Kufr ash-Shakk wa Dhann: Doubting any or all of the six articles of faith (see 'Aqaaid), even if not completely denying them. o Kufr aI-Iraad: Knowingly turning away from the divine truth. o Kufr al-Nifaq: Disbelief through hypocrisy. 2. Kufr aI-Asghar (minor disbelief) . Being unappreciative of what Allah Ta'ala has provided.

Kunya

A respectful and affectionate way of calling People as "Abu" or "Umm" (Abu = father of, Umm = mother of) followed by the name of the eldest son; if there is no male offspring then the "Abu" or"Umm" is followed by the name of the eldest daughter. It is prohibited to have the same Kunya as the

‫كنيه‬

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Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, e.g. It is not permitted to call someone Abu Qasim". Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 205, Vol.8. Sahih Muslim, Kitabul-A dab.

Kusuf

Solar eclipse ‫كسوف‬

Solar eclipse. There is a special Eclipse Salat (prayer) which lasts as long as the eclipse itself.

Hypocrite

Zindeeq

‫زنديق‬

Hypocrite or unbeliever. Anyone who does not believe in Allah and who rejects His Messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them peace.

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L La ilaha illa'llah Lailatul-Qadr' ‫ل اله ال الله‬ Night of Power' ‫ليلة القدر‬

There is no deity except Allah. This sentence is called AlKalimatul Tayibah. The 'Night of Power', concealed in one of the odd nights in the last ten days of Ramadan; the night on which the Qur'an was first revealed by Jibreel to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and which the Qur'an itself describes as "better than a thousand months" (Holy Qur' an, AlQadr (97):3). Lance Lapidate Lapidation Lapse Largess Last the Last day ‫الرمح - الحربة‬ ‫يرجم‬ ‫الرجم‬

‫الزلة - العثرة‬ ‫الهبة - المنة‬ ‫الخر‬ ‫اليوم الخر‬
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Lasting

‫البقاء - الدوام‬

Lateef (Al)

"Al-Lateef". The Subtle One Who is All-Pervading. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. The exact meaning of this word is very difficult to fully understand. It includes all of the following meanings (and more that we are not aware of): 1. So fine that He is imperceptible to the human sight. 2. So pure that He is unimaginable to the human mind. 3. So kind that He is beyond human comprehension. 4. So gracious that He is beyond human grasp. 5. So near that He is closer to us than our jugular veins. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hajj (22):63, Ash-Shura(42):19. Laudable Law Layer Leadership League Leal Lealty Legacy Legal Legend Legitimate Legitimists Lewdness ‫الشرعي‬ ‫أسطورة‬ ‫الشرعى‬ ‫المشرعون - الفقهاء‬ ‫فاحشة‬ ‫الوفي‬ ‫ الخلص‬‫الرث - الميراث‬ ‫الوفاء - المانة‬ the ‫الحميد‬ ‫الحمد - المدح - الثناء‬ Laudableness ‫الشرع‬ ‫الفقيه‬ ‫الزعامة‬ ‫الحلف‬

‫اللطيف‬

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Lewdness. A major sin. Liberation ‫التحرير‬ Link ‫صلة‬

Literally

Taabi`oon

‫التابعون‬

Literally, followers. The generation of Muslims immediately after the Companions (.Sahaabah). Local custom which is `recognizably' good. In the absence of anything to the contrary, derivation of the law from the common and approved mores of a people.

Loot, Peace be upon him

‫لوط عليه السلم‬

Lot. A prophet of Islam. Nephew of the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on them. The Prophet Loot's wife was destroyed, along with the people whom he called to worship Allah, for their wickedness. They were the first people to practise homosexuality and lesbianism. See Holy Qur'an, Houd (11):81, Ash-Shu'ara (26): 160-175. Loss Loyal Loyalty Luminous ‫الخسارة - السراف‬ ‫المين - المخلص - الصادق‬ ‫المانة - الصدق‬ ‫نورانية‬

Lunar calendar

‫) التقويم القمري ) الهجري‬

In their religious duties, Muslims depend on solar and lunar calendars. The latter is shorter than the solar by twelve days. Fasting the month of Ramadhan, celebrating the two major feasts ('Eid Al-Fitr and 'Eid Al-Adhha), performing the pilgrimage to Makkah, and other religious activities depend upon the lunar months. The names of the lunar months are: Muharram, Safar, Rabi' Al-Awwal, Rabi' Al-Akhar, Jumadal ulla, Jumada Al-Akhirah, Rajab, Sha'ban, Ramadhan,

125

Shawwal, Zul-Qa'adah, and Zul-Hijjah. The timing of the daily prayers depends on the solar system.

126

Luqman

‫لقمـــــــان‬

"Luqman". Name of a wise sage of ancient Arabia. Some say he was a prophet. He has the title of Mu'ammar (the long lived one). Surah 31 of the Holy Qur'an.

Lure

‫الغواء - الغراء - الغواية‬ ‫المبذر‬ ‫الترف‬ ‫التنعم‬ - ‫المسرف‬

Luxurious Luxury Luxary

127

M Ma'arij (Al) ‫المعـــــــــراج‬
"The Ways of Ascent". Surah 70 of the Holy Qur' an.

Ma'arif

‫المعــــــــارف‬

A spiritual realisation of Allah Ta'ala. Gnosis. It is to directly witness the Light of the Names and Attributes of Allah manifested in the heart.

Ma'shar Mabrur

Assemblies ‫مبــــــرور‬

‫المعشـــــــر‬

Assemblies. Whether they be assemblies of mankind or of the Jinn or both. A Hajj that is accepted by Allah because of its perfection in both inward intention and outward observance of the traditions of Rasoolu'llah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Madhhab: way of going

‫المذهب‬

(plural: madhaahib). Literally, way of going. School of thought.

Madyan

People of the Prophet Shu'aib, peace be on him. They were destroyed by an earthquake for rejecting Shu'aib and the warnings from Allah Ta' ala he had brought with him. See Holy Qur'an, Al-A'raf(7):85-93, Houd (1]):84-95.

‫مدين‬

Maghdoub

Cursed ‫مغضــــــــــــوب‬

"Cursed" by Allah Ta'ala. Surah Al-Fariha (1):7, "...Maghdoubee 'alaihim..." (those that have been cursed) refers to the Jews. Allah Ta' ala has cursed them for continually breaking their covenants. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2 ):83 86, 93,100, Al-Ma' idah (5):13-14, 73.
128

Maghfirah

Forgiveness

‫المغفـــــــره‬

Forgiveness. In the Holy Qur'an Allah Ta'ala uses three different words to mean "forgive": 1. 'Afa. Forgave, in the sense of obliterating the memory of wrondoing from one's mind. 2. Safaha. Forgave, in the sense of overlooking, ignoring or turning away from misdeeds. 3. Maghflra. Comes from one of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala, "Al-Ghafur", which means to forgive again and again.

Maghreb

Sunset ‫المغــــــــرب‬

Sunset. The fourth compulsory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It consists of three Raq'as. It can be prayed at any time between just after sunset and before the stars appear in the sky. Magic Magician Magnanimity Magnificence Magnificent ‫سحر‬ ‫مجوسي- ساحر‬ ‫كرم الخلق - النخوة‬ ‫بهاء - جلل‬ ‫عظيم - بهي - جليل‬

Mahr
Maiden

‫مهــــــــر‬
‫عذراء‬

Dowry given by a husband to his bride on marriage.

Manifest

Zaahir

‫الظاهــــــــر‬

Manifest, apparent, obvious. A word or phrase is described as zaahir when it has a clear meaning. It may still however be open to interpretation.

Maiser Gambling

‫الميسر‬

Gambling. Literally means getting something too easily. Maiser has been prohibited by Allah Ta'ala in the strongest
129

terms possible : "Ijtanibou" - "Leave it!". It is a higher level of prohibition than forbidding it because it is Haram. Hararn = a direct prohibition ordered by Allah Ta'ala. Ijtanibou = a degree more serious than Ha ram. It is not only Haram, but also a direct command not to approach or be near it for any reason whatsoever. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ba qara (2):2 19, A/-Ma' idah (5):93.

Majeed

"Al-Majeed". The Most Glorious. One of the ninety-nine Attributes ofAllah. For a full list of the Asmaul Husna of Allah Ta'ala. Majesty ‫جلل - فخامة‬

The Most Glorious ‫الماجــــد‬

Majoos

Fire worshippers ‫المجـــوس‬

Fire worshippers. These people lived mainly in Persia and the Eastern Arabian Peninsula in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Haft (22):17. Majority Major sins ‫الغلبية‬ ‫كبائر‬

Makr

‫المكــــــــــــــر‬

Has two meanings: 1. Plotting or planning with evil intent. 2. Planning for a good purpose: "Wa Makaru wa Makara Allah wa'llahu Khairul Makereen" (Surah Aali 'Imran (3):54). "They planned and Allah planned and Allah is the best of planners". Makaru = they plotted. Makara = He planned. Makkar = plotter. Makereen= plotters. See Holy Qur' an, Aali 'Imran (3):54.
130

Malaikah
• •

Angels ‫ملئكـــــه‬

"Angels". Another name for Suratul Fatir. Surah 35 of the Holy Qur' an. A race of created beings that are made out of light. Their sole purpose in creation is to worship and glorify Allah and to perform their duties exactly as described. They are incapable of disobedience. They do not eat, or sleep, or procreate. Their exact number is unknown. Amongst the well-known ones are the following: 1. The angel Jibreel (Gabriel) - the angel whose duty is to communicate between Allah Ta'ala and the prophets and to whomever Allah wills; e.g. he was commanded to communicate with Mariam (Mary,Mother of the Prophet Jesus), Jesus and Muhammad, may Allah bless them and grant them peace. 2. The angel Mikaeel (Michael) - the angel of provisions. 3. The angel of Death - takes the souls of people when they die. Many Muslims mistakenly call him lirael. The name "I irael" is neither mentioned in the Holy Book of Allah, the Holy Qurtan, nor by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in any of the Ahadeeth. The name "Izrael" is mentioned in the Taurat and therefore has been 'borrowed' from the Jews. Beware of such innovations. Copying the Jews or any other unbelievers, and then saying "This is from Allah", is Kufn 4. The angel Israfeel - the angel who will blow the horn to bring the universe to its end. 5. The angel Ridwan - keeper of Jannah (Paradise). 6. The angel Maalik - keeper of Nar (Hellfire).

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7. The angels Munkar and Nakeer - the two angels who are assigned to question the souls of the dead in their graves about their fa ith. Peace be on all of them. Singular: Malak. Malice Malignity ‫مكر - خبث‬ ‫كراهية - حقد‬

The Mamluk State (1250-1517 A.D.) ‫المماليك‬

‫دولة‬

The Mamluk State (1250-1517 A.D.) : The Mamluks were originally Turkish, Circassian and Mongol slaves recruited by the Ayyubids. They rose to power in Egypt and constituted the two ruling-classes: the Naval Mamluks and the Mamluks of the Tower. The Mamluk Sultans extended their influence over Syria and some parts of Asia Minor. They confronted the Crusaders and Mongols. After the fall of their state at the hands of the Ottomans, their chiefs represented a source of trouble and disturbance until Muhammad `Ali eliminated them at the Massacre of the Citadel (1811 A.D.) Although their era was famous for its political anarchy, they left behind important architectural monuments including mosques, schools, and hospices, particularly in Cairo.

Manah

‫مناة‬

Manah : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic period

Manasik General sacrifice ‫مناسك‬
General sacrifice in the path of Allah Ta'ala. All deeds and actions during the Hajj are regarded as Manasik, for they are indeed regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah. Manifestly Mankind ‫علنية‬ ‫البشرية‬

Mansookh Abrogated ‫منســـــــــوخ‬
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Abrogated. The abrogation of certain commands usually came with increased belief or a change in situation. Only Allah Ta'ala has the power to abrogate verses of the Holy Qur'an. An example of an abrogated statement is: "...wa in too bdu ma fee anfooseekum aw too khfoohu youhasibkumbihi Allah..."(AlBaqara (2):284), "...whether you show what is in your mind or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it...". When the Muslims heard this Ayah they went to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said: "O Rasoolullah, we can control ourselves, but how can we control the outbursts in our hearts?" (i.e. sudden thoughts that Shaitan puts within us). The Prophet Muhammad said: "Do you intend to say, 'Same'na wa asaina' (We hear and we disobey), as did both the People of the Book (i.e. the Jews and the Christians)? Say, 'Same'na wa ata'na!'." So they said, 'Same'na wa ata'na (We hear and we obey) . On hearing their reply Allah Ta'ala abrogated this verse, by revealing the 286th verse of Surah al-Bqara. "La youkalifu'llahu nafsan lila wus'aha...", "Allah does not burden a soul beyond its scope...". The aim of the 284th verse of Surah al-Baqara was to test the followers of Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them, as to whether or not they would say the same as the Jews and the Christians who used to say, "Same 'na wa 'asaina" (We hear and we disobey)

Maqam Ibrahim The station of Ibrahim ‫مقام‬ ‫ابراهيم‬
The station of Ibrahim. The place where the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be on him, stood in prayer, and which marks the place of prayer following Tawaf of the Ka'aba. This place today is marked by a stone in which there are two large sunken footprints, said to have been made by the Prophet Ibrahim when he stood on the stone while he and his son Ismael were building the Ka'aba.

Mariam, peace be upon her ‫مريم عيها السلم‬
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"Mary". The Virgin Mary. Daughter of 'Imran and Hannah and mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him. She is the first of the four greatest females created, the other three being: 1. Asiya, the wife of Fir1aun (Pharaoh). 2. Khadija, the first wife of Muhammad. 3. Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and all his wives and family. Surah 19 of the Holy Qur'an.

Martyr

Shaheed

‫شهيد‬

Martyr in the cause of Allah Ta'ala. There have been many Shuhadaa in Islamic history, amongst whom are the following: 1. Hamza, martyred at the Battle of Uhud in 4AH. 2. Umar, stabbed in Madinah on 27/12/23AH. 3. Uthman, axed at his home on 17/12/35AH. 4. Ali, stabbed while in Sajda on 17/9/4OAH. 5. Hussein, martyred at the Battle of Karbulah (Iraq) on 9/l/6l AH. Whoever is killed in the way of Allah goes straight to the Garden, may Allah be pleased with all of them. See Holy Qur'an,An-Nisaa (4):117-120. Plural: Shuhadaa

Marut ‫ماروت‬
One of the two angels that were sent by Allah as a trial to mankind by way of allowing Harut and Marut to teach them magic. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):102.

Marwa

‫المروه‬

A small hill in Makkah close to the holiest Masjid in Islam, AlMasjid al-Haram. See Sa'i Safa and Marwa.

Masad (Al) Palm Fibre ‫المسد‬
"Palm Fibre". Another name for Surah AbI Lahab. This Surah condemned Abi Lahab and his wife to Hellfire (many years before their deaths) for their Kufr, especi~ly their violent opposition to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Surah 1]] of the Holy Qur'an.
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Maskeen visibly in need ‫مسكين‬
visibly in need, but also those who seem in no need of help, but who in reality are very poor. Singular: Miskeen.

Masjid

Mosque ‫مسجد‬

Mosque. A place of worship for Muslims. A place where the five daily compulsory prayers are regularly done, except for the Jum'a prayers (the Friday noon prayer and Friday Khutba). The Masjid Jame' is the place where all the five compulsory Salat (Prayers) and the Jurn'a prayers are regularly done. The Masjid Jame' is usually larger than a Masjid. Plural: Masaj Id.

Masjid al-aqsa (Al) 'Furthest Mosque' ‫المسجد‬ ‫القصي‬
The 'Furthest Mosque' built by the early Muslims in Jerusalem, on or near where the Temple of Solomon once stood. See Baitul-Maqdis.

Masjid al-haram (Al) Masjid an-nabawi (Al)

‫المسجد الحرام‬ ‫المسجد النبوي‬

The Grand Masjid in Makkah. The Ka'ba (the Qiblalt of the Muslims) is situated within it. Another name for the Masjid ar-Rasool in Al-Madinah. It is the second greatest Masjid in Islam, the first being the Masjid alHaram in Al-Makkah al-Mukaramah, and the third being the Masjid al-Aqsa in AI-Quds (Jerusalem). Mediation Medieval ‫وساطة - شفاعة‬ ‫عصور وسطي‬

Medina Al-Munawwarah
Meditation ‫تأمل - تفكر‬ Menace ‫تهديد وعيد‬ Mendacity ‫الفك - الزور‬
135

‫المدينة المنورة‬

Medina Al-Munawwarah [Illuminated] : Previously known as Yathrib

Merciful ‫رحيم‬ Mercy ‫رحمة - رأفة‬ Messenger ‫رسول‬ Messenger of Allah ‫رسول ال‬

Mi'raj

‫المعـــــــــراج‬

The Night Journey of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, from Makka to Jerusalem and then through the realms of the seven Heavens, beyond the limit of forms, the Sidrat al-Muntaha, to within a bow-span's length or nearer to the Presence of Allah. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Isra (17):1. See Bukhari, Hadith 345, Book 8, Vol.1 ,and 227,book 58 Vol.5. Migration ‫هجرة‬

Mihraab Prayer niche ‫محــــــــراب‬
Prayer niche of a Masjid (mosque), in front of which the Imam stands when leading the congregational prayers. Militant ‫مجاهد محارب‬

Mimbar Mina ‫منى‬

pulbit

‫منبر‬

Steps on which the Imam stands to deliver the Khutba on the day of the Jum'a. A place five miles from Makkah and approximately ten miles from 'Arafat. An essential place to visit during the Hajj. See Hajj. Minaret Minority ‫القلية‬ ‫مناره‬

Miracles

Miracle : A miracle is an event that appears inexplicable by the laws of nature, so held to be supernatural in origin or an act of Allah. Misbelief ‫كفر‬
136

‫معجزات‬

Miscreant Miser Misery Misrule Mission Mistrust Mob Moderation Modesty

‫جاحد‬ ‫بخيل - شحيح‬ ‫شقاء - بؤس‬ ‫فوضي - اضطراب‬ ‫بعثة - ارسالية‬ ‫شك - ريبة‬ ‫غوغاء‬ ‫العتدال‬ ‫عفة - طهارة‬ ‫محمد صلي الله‬

Mohammad, peace be upon him

‫عليه وسلم‬ The Final Messenger of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to Ins wal Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Born in Makkah in 570AC. At the age of 40 he was called upon to become the mightiest of all messengers. He died in Madinah at the age of 63 after gloriously completing his transmission of the Divine Message. He was the bringer of the greatest miracle of all time, the Holy Qur'an. It is through him that Allah Ta'ala has enlightened mankind and the Jinn until the Day of Judgement. He is the Best of Creation, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and his family and his companions and all who follow him and them in what they are able, with sincerity, until the Last Day. To those Jews and Christians who reject the Holy Prophet Muhammad, let it be known that Muhammad is actually mentioned by name in the Old Testament in the original Hebrew Song of Solomon, Ch.5, v.16. But for some misguided reason they have chosen to adulterate it by changing it from "Muhammadim" (in the Hebrew) to "altogether lovely" in the English. (Mummad + im is a term of respect in Hebrew.) Similarly, Muhammad is actually mentioned by name in the New Testament in John 14.16,26,15.26 and 16.13. The Greek
137

word "Periqleitos" (Paraclete), which is the equivalent of the Aramaic word "Mhamda", means precisely what "Ahmad" means in Arabic, "the most praiseworthy", and "Ahmad" is one of the Prophet Muhammad's names, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. But for some misguided reason they have chosen to adulterate it by changing it from "Mhamda" (in the Aramaic) to "Comforter" or "Counsellor" in the English. Many other references to Muhammad which existed in the original Torah and Ingeel have been removed altogether. Allah Ta'ala's wrath awaits those who knowingly alter or hide His words. Allah Ta'ala has given Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, the following names; 1. Muhammad: The one who praises and is praised. 2. Ahmad: The most praiseworthy. 3. AI-Mahi: The effacer (of Kufr). 4. AI.'Aqib: The last. 5. Mustafa: The chosen. 6. AI-Amin: The trustwonhy. Surah 47 of the Holy Qur' an. For a chronological list of the main events in the Prophet Muhammad's life, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

A Chronological Guide
1. Prophet's birth In the spring season Monday is the agreed day. 1st year of Am-ul-Feel. 50 days after the event of the elephant, The date is a matter of controbersy, but most researchers lean to the 9th Rabi I, as Monday also falls on that date.

138

corresponding to 22nd April, 570 AD, 1st Jaith 628 Bikrami before sunrise, popularly known to be 12 Rabi I. 2. Nursing At the age of 4 months.

Other dates suggest are 10 and 13 Rabi I. Some have also suggested 8. But the majority of scholars' view favours 9. 2-3 days after birth, he was suckled by Thaubia, a slave girl of Abu Lahab. Permanent nursing period spent at the desert home of Halima S'adia

3. Death of Prophet's mother. 4. Death of his grandfather. 5. First journey to Syria with Hazrat Abu Talib. 6. Participation in the battle of Fajjar 1st time.

At the age of 6 years. At the age of 8 years 2 months 10 days. At the age of 12 years 2 months At the age of 15 or thereabout.
The episode of Bahira, the Monk, is connected with this journey.

139

7. Participation in the battle of Fajjar second time. 8. Participation in Hilful Fazul, a reformist movement. 9. Second journey to Syria as a trader. 10. Marriage with Hazrat Khadija. 11. Unseen secrets reveal themselves.

Some time later, no date given. At the age of 16. At the age of 23 or 24 At the age of 25 years 2 months. Seven years before Prophethood at the age of 33. At the age of 35. Arbitrated in the dispute about fixing the black stone which was amicably settled.

12. Arbitration.

13. Prophethood.

At the age of 40 years 11 days, 9 Rabi I, corresponding to 12 February, 610 AD, Monday 9 Rabi I, on the day of Prophethood. 18 Ramaza 1st
140

14. Fajr and Asr Prayers , prescribed 2 Rakats each. 15. Beginning of

Sura 'Alaq was

revelation of the Qur'an 16. Beginning of secrect preaching

year of Prophethood Friday, at night House of Arquam Makhzoomi was made centre of movement. At the end of 3rd year of Prophethood. 3rd to 5th year of Prophethood.

revealed

About 40 people accepted Islam during this period.

17. First public announcement of Prophethood. 18. First wave of opposition, Ridicule Propaganda and mild oppression.

During this period, deputations of Quraish went to pressurise Abu Talib and confabulations for opposition.

19. Second wave of intense opposition, Oppression. 20. Migration to Abyssinia.

5th to 7th year of Prophethood. Rajab, 5th year of Prophethood.

21. Hazrat Hamza and Hazrat Umar embrace Islam.

Hazrat Umar accepted Islam 3 days after Hazrat Hamza.

141

22. Prophet's internment at Shi'b Abi Talib with the family of Hashim. 23. End of internment and boycott. 24. Year of sorrow. Death of Hazrat Abu Talib and Hazrat Khadija 25. Visit to Taif

1st Muharram, 7th year of Prophethood. End of 9th year of Prophethood. 10th year of Prophethood.

Jumada II, 10th year of Prophethood. 27ths Rajab, 10th year of Prophethood, Monday 27th Rajab, 10th year of Prophethood, Monday. Zul hijja, 10th year of Prophethood Zul hijja, 12th year of Prophethood. Zul hijja, 12th year of Prophethood.
142

26. Ascension (Miraj)

27. Daily prayers five times a day prescribed. 28. Beginning of Islam in Medina. 29. Deputation of Medina. Six people accept Islam. 30. First pledge of Aqaba with 12 persons.

31. Second pledge of Aqaba with 75 persons. 32. Migration: (a) From Mecca to the cave of Thaur

Zul hijjar, 13th year of Prophethood. Safar 27, 13th year of Prophethood, Prophet's age was 53 years. 1st Rabi I, 13th year of Prophethood, Monday, 16th September, 622 A.D. 8th Rabi I, 14th year of Prophethood Monday 23rd September, 622 14th year of Prophethood, Friday Rabi I, 1 H. Rabi II, 1 H. First quarter, 1 H. Middle of 1 H.
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(b) Departure from Thaur

(c) Arrival at Quba.

(d) Entry into Medina. 33. Foundation of Masjid-i-Nabavi laid. 34. Addition of obligatory prayers 35. Brotherhood between Migrants and Ansars 36. Establishment of

Islamic State and constitutional agreement of Medina. 37. Defence system introduced. 38. Marriage with Hazrat Ayesha. Middle of 1 H. Shawwal, 1 H. Patrol parties start.
Married in Mecca before migration but consummation at Medina after migration.

39. Islam of two elite, Abdullah ibn Salam, formerly Jew and Abu Qais Sarha bin Abi Anas, former Christian monk. 40. Jihad ordered.
12 Safar 2 H., 1 year 2 months and 10 days after migration.

41. First military action Ghazwa Waddan. 42. Pacts with outside clans Bani Damra, People of Bowat and Banu Madlaj. 43. Robbery of Kurz bin Jabir Fahri. 44. Nakhla episode,

Safar 2 H.

Safar to Jumada II, 2 H.

Rabi I, 2 H. End of Rajab, 2
One non-Muslim killed and two

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first frontier clash of Islamic party.

H.

taken prisoners and brought to Medina. The Prophet resented the action and made amends for it.

45. Salman Farsi accepts Islam. 46. Beginning of Azan 47. Zakat prescribed. 48. Change of Qibla. 49. Ramazan fast prescribed. 50. Congregational prayer of Eid-ul Fitr, Fitra ordered. 51. Battle of Badr. First regular battle: Start from Medina. Battle. Victorious entry into Medina. 52. Marriage of Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Fatima.

2 H. 2 H. 2 H. 15th Shaban, 2 H. Monday 1st Ramazan, 2 H. Wednesday. 1st Shawwal, 2 H. 8 Ramazan, 2 H. Wednesday 17 Ramazan, 2 H. 20 Ramazan, 2 H. After the battle of Badr, 2 H.

145

53. Siege of Banu Qainuqa'.

Middle of Shawwal to beginning of Ziq'ada, 2 H. 3 H.

54. Prophet's marriage with Hazrat Hafsa, daughter of Hazrat Umar. 55. Marriage of Hazrat Usman with Hazrat Umme Kulsum, daughter of the Prophet. 56. First order of prohibition of wine. 57. End of Ka'ab bin Ashraf. 58. Birth of Hazrat Hassan. 59. Battle of Uhud, Start from Medina. Battle. Pursuit of Abu Sufian's army up to Hamra-ul-Asad. 60. First order of prohibition of usury.

3 H.

3 H. 3 H. 15 Ramazan, 3 H. 5 Shawwal, 3 H. after Friday prayer. 6 Shawwal, 3 H. Saturday. 7 Shawwal, 3 H. Sunday. Soon after battle of Uhud.

146

61. Injunctions about orphans. 62. Detailed laws of inheritance issued. 63. Injunctions about marriage, rights of wives, prohibition of marriage with idolaters. 64. Prophet's marriage with Ummul Masakin Zainab, daughter of Khozaima. 65. Episode of Raji'. Murder of 10 members of missionary deputation. 66. Ghazwa Banu Nodair. 67. Death of Hazrat Zainab, daughter of Khozaima. 68. Order of Hijab 69. Final order of prohibition of wine. 70. Second Ghazwa of Badr.

Soon after battle of Uhud. Soon after battle of Uhud. 3 H.

End of 3 H.

Safar, 4 H.

Rabi I, 4 H. Rabi I, 4 H.

1 Ziq'ada, 4 H. Friday. 4 H. Ziq'ada, 4 H. Abu Sufian did not turn up in

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keeping with his own challenge. 71. Ghazwa Dumatul Jandal 72. Ghazwa Banu AlMustalaq 73. Injunctions for Tayammum. 74. Prophet's marriage with Hazrat Jowairia. 75. Episode of Ifk. 76. Enforcement of Penal Laws against fornication, slander etc. 77. Ghazwa Ahzab. 78. Arrival of Daus deputation to Medina. 79. Punishment of Banu Quraiza. 80. Prophet's marriage with Zainab, daughter of Jahsh. 81. Islam of Thamama bin Usal, chief of Najd. Rabi I, 5 H. 3 Shaban, 5H. On the way to Ghazwa Banu Mustalaq. Shaban, 5 H. Shaban, 5 H. 5 H.

Shawwal or Ziq'ada, 5 H. 5 H. Zul hijja, 5 H. 5 H.

6 H.

148

82. Treaty of Hudaibiya. 83. Return to Medina from Hudaibiya. 84. Islam of Khalid bin Walid and Amr ibn-ul Aas. 85. Beginning of international callletters to rulers. 86. Ghazwa Khyber.
87. Prophet's marriage with Hazrat Safia.

Ziq'ada, 6 H. Zul hijja, 6 H. Zul hijja, 6 H.

1st Muharram, 6 H. Wednesday. Muharram, 7 H. Murharram, 7 H. 7 H. 7 H.
By Muslim young men who were oppressed in Mecca but could not be allowed to say at Medina according to Hudaibiya Treaty.

88. Return of Abyssinian migrants. 89. Establishment of independent Muslim camp at Saiful Bahr.

90. Raid by Saif-ulBahr on Quraish Caravan. 91. Postponed Umra performed 92. Detailed

Safar, 7 H.

Ziq'ada, 7 H. 7 H.

149

injunctions about marriage and divorce 93. Marriage of the Prophet with Hazrat Maimuna at Mecca 94. Islam of Jibila Ghassani. 95 Ghazwa Mutah. 96. Violation of Hudaibiya pact by non-Muslims 97. Ghazwa of the conquest of Mecca, start from Medina. Victorious entry into Mecca Expedition of Hazrat Khalid to demolish the temple of Uzza at Nakhla. Expedition of Amr ibn-ul Aas to demolish the temple of Swa'a. Expedition of Sa'ad Ashhali to demolish temple of 7 H.

7 H. Jumada I, 8 H. Rajab, 8 H

10 Ramazan, 8 H. Wednesday. 20 Ramazan, 8 H. Most probably 25 Ramazan, 8 H.

Ramazan, 8 H

Ramazan, 8 H

150

Manat. Stay in Mecca Ghazwa Hunain. Siege of Taif Up to 9 Shawwal Shawwal, 8 H End of Shawwal to beginning of Ziq'ada, 8 H. about 18 or 20 days. Ziq'ada, 8 H.

Distribution of booty at Ji'rana, and Umra 98. Final order of prohibition of usury

8 H.

On the occasion of the victory of Mecca. Annulment of all demands of the amounts of interest.

99. Arrival of Suda deputation at Medina. 100. Death of Hazrat Zainab, daughter of the Prophet. 101. Organization of Zaka. 102. Ghazwa of Tabuk. Start of the Poor Contingent.

8 H. 8 H.

Beginning of Muharram, 9 H. Rajab, 9 H.

151

103. Order about Jizia. 104. Zerar Mosque set on fire. 105. Islam of Ukaidir, chief of Dumatul Jandal. 106. Apology by Ka'ab ibn Zuhair and his acceptance of Islam. 107. Some deputations which came to Medina: Deputation of Azra. Deputation of Baliy. Deputation of Khaulan. Deputation of Thaqif. 108. Haj prescribed. First Haj under Hazrat Abu Bakr. 109. Proclamation of annulment of pacts of unlimited period. 110. Deputation of Maharib. Deputation of

At the time of Tabuk. On return from tabuk. 9 H.

9 H.

Safar, 9 H. Rabi I, 9 H. Shaban, 9 H. 9 H. 9 Zul hijja, 9 H.

10 Rabi II, 10 H. 10 H. 10 H.
152

Mahamid. Deputation of Khaulan. Deputation of Naisan. Deputation of Bani Haris bin Ka'ab Deputation of Salaman. 111. Twenty days' retirement of the Prophet in the last Ramazan. 112. Musailima the liar's correspondence with the Prophet 113. The Last Haj: start from Medina. Stay at Zulhailifa. Shaban, 10 H. Ramazan, 10 H. Shawwal, 10 H. Ramazan, 10 H. Ramazan, 10 H.

10 H.

26 Ziq'ada, 10 H. Saturday between Zuhr and Asr. Night between Saturday and Sunday. Sunday at the time of Zuhr prayers Night of Sunday 4 Zul hijja, 10 H.

Putting on Ihram

Arrival and stay at Zittowa. Start from Zittowa to Mecca

5 Zul hijja, after early morning prayer.
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Entry into sacred Mosque. Stay outside Mecca. Start for Mina.

5 Zul hijja, 10 H. at noon up to 8 Zul hijja, 10 H. 8 Zul hijja, 10 H. Thursday noon 9 Zul hijja, 10 H. Friday after sunrise. 9 Zul hijja, 10 H. Friday afternoon. 9 Zul hijja, 10 H. after Zuhr and Asr prayers. 9 Zul hijja, 10 H. after sunset, Friday. 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. Saturday after morning prayer. 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. before sunrise 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. after sunrise till noon.

Start from Mina to Arafah Haj Address.

Stop at Arafah.

Start from Arafah to Muzdalifa. From Muzdalifa to Masha'ar-i-Haram From Masha'ar-iHaram to Mina Throwing of pebbles.

154

Address at Mina. Sacrifice performed. Start from Mina to Mecca. Return from Mina to Mecca. Second address at Mina. Start from Mina to Mahsab or Abtah. Return from Mecca.

10 Zul hijja, 10 H. noon. After address. 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. evening. 11 Zul hijja, 10 H. 13 Zul hijja, 10 H. Tuesday. Night between 13th and 14th Zul hijja, 10 H. Middle of Muharram, 11 H. 26 Safar, 11 H. Last military expedition ordered by the Prophet.

114. Deputation of Nakh'a 115. Order for Start of Usama's Army.

116. Beginning of the Prophet's fatal disease. 117. Period of seriousness of disease. Stay in Hazrat Ayesha's

End of Safar, 11 H.

7 days up to the time of passing away.

155

room.
118. Last congrgational prayer at the mosque and last address. 5 days before passing away, Thursday, Zuhr prayer.

119. Passing away.

12 Rabi I, 11 H. Monday, forenoon.
Night between 13 and 14 Rabi I, 11 H. Tuesday.

120. Burial in Hazrat Ayesha's room.

Monarchism Monarchy Monastery Monk Monopolist Monopoly Monotheism Moot Morale Motivation Motive Mould ‫ناسك‬

‫رهبنة‬ ‫ملكية‬ - ‫سلطنة‬ ‫دير - صومعة‬ - ‫راهب‬ ‫محتكر‬ ‫احتكار‬ ‫التوحيد‬ ‫روح معنوية‬ ‫دافعية‬

‫مجادلة - محاورة‬

‫باعث - دافع‬ Taqwim ‫تقويـــم‬

Mould, shape, form, etc. Allah Ta'ala created man in the best of forms, but then abased him to the lowest of the low. See Holy Qur 'an, At-Teen (95):4-5.
156

Mouted Mubashirat

‫على كل ضامر‬ Glad tidings ‫مبشــــرات‬

Glad tidings. Good dreams.

Mubiqat destructive sins ‫موبقـــــات‬ Major, destructive sins. Mudathir (Al) The Cloaked One ‫المدثر‬
"The Cloaked One". Surat 74 of the Holy Qur' an.

mufti : an interpreter ‫مفتــــى‬
an interpreter or implementer of shari'ah or Islamic law (essentially an Islamic lawyer). The Council of Muftis gathers together to debate changes to Islamic laws in the face of modern advances, such as organ donation.

Muhaddith A scholar of Ahadeeth ‫محـــدث‬
A scholar of Ahadeeth (sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Plural: Muhaditheen.

Muhajir

immigrant ‫مهاجـــــــر‬

A Muslim who emigrated from Makkah to Madinah during the time of the great repression of the Muslims by the pagan Quraish up until the conquest of Makkah in 8AH by the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Plural: Muhajireen.

Muhajireen ‫مهاجــــــــرين‬
Plural of Muhajir. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hashr (59):8-9, AlMunafiqun (63): 7. See Muhajir.

Muhkam ‫محكم‬
Qur'anic verses which have a clear-cut meaning.

muhtasib.

‫المحتسب‬

157

The officer in charge of the hisba, whose duty, among other things, is to ensure the proper conduct of people in their public activities.

mujtahid.
Religiously learned.

‫مجتهـــــد‬ Atheist ‫الملحد‬

Mulhid

Atheist. A complete disbeliever in Allah Ta'ala and the Last Day. Derives from Ilhad (atheism). Ilhad literally means deviation. For a full explanation: See Ilhad. Plural: Mulhidoon or Muihideen.

Mulk (Al) Munafiq

The Sovereignty ‫الملك‬ A hypocrite ‫المنافــــق‬

"The Sovereignty", of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 67 of the Holy Qur'an. A hypocrite, more dangerous and worse than a kafir

Munafiqeen Hypocrites ‫المنافقين‬
Hypocrites. They are the worst of created beings, for they pretend to, but do not believe in Allah and the Last Day. Allah has cursed them (At-Tawbah (9):67-69) and on the Day of Judgement they will occupy the lowest depth of the Nar (Hellfire), called "Hutama". Also spelled as Munafiqoon. Singular: Munaflq.

Munkar

‫منكــــر‬

1. Name of one of the two angels who will question us in

our graves. See Munkar wa Nakir. 2. Something that is disapproved of in Islam. 3. Something that is denied when it is said or pointed out. 4. Something that is refused when offered.

Munkar wa Nakir, peace be upon them ‫منكر ونكير‬

158

The two angels who will question the souls of the dead in their graves shortly after burial about their faith, asking, "Who is your Lord? Who is your Prophet? What is your Book? What was your Deen?" See Malaikah.

Muqarraboon

‫المقربون‬

Literally means "those who have been brought near". These are the most exalted, the most loved by Allah Ta'ala. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta'ala will sort out the good and the evil into three groups: 1. Muqarraboon - the exalted class, those who are the nearest to Allah Ta' ala. Also described as the Sabiqoon, meaning 'those who outstrip the rest'. 2. Ashab al-Maimana - literally means "the Companions of the Right". These are the righteous people, those who are destined to enter the Jannah (Paradise). 3. Ashab al-Mashama - literally means "the Companions of the Left". These people will be the inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire). For full explanation on; Muqarraboon - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56):11-26. Ashab al-Maimana - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56):27-40. Ashab al-Mashama - see Al- Wa qi'ah (56):4!-56.

Murji'ah: Deferrers ‫مرجئه‬
Deferrers. Those who defer judgment of the sinner to God and the Day of Judgment.

Mursalat (Al) The Emissaries ‫المرسلت‬
"The Emissaries". Surah 77 of the Holy Qur' an.

Mursaleen

‫المرسلين‬

Literally means "those who are sent". It refers to the prophets and messengers sent by Allah Ta'ala. Allah sent many prophets and messengers to preach the message of Tawheed to Ins wal Jinn (mankind and the Jinn). Their exact number is not Ahadeeth. Here is a complete list of the prophets and
159

messengers of Allah who are mentioned in the Book of Allah Ta'ala, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them: For example : 950-1000 1. Adam The first human ??
2. Idris

3. Nooh(M) 4. Houd 5. Saleh
6. Ibhrahim (NI)

7. Loot 8. Ismael 9. Ishaq 10.Yacoub 11.Yusuf 12.Shuaib 13.Ayoub 14.Dhu'l-Kifel 15.Musa(M) 16.Haroon 17.Dawood (NI) 18.Sulaiman 19.Ilyas 20.Al-Yas' 21.Yunus 22.Zakariah 23. Yahya 24.Isa(M)

83 950 150 58 175 175

??
3900 2900BC 2500 2200BC 1861 1786BC

Enoch

Noah Preached to 'Ad.

2000 1900BC Preached to Thamud

Abraham 1861 1786BC Lot 120or143 1781 1638BC Shmael 178or180 1761 1681BC Isaac 1700 1653BC Jacob 147 1610 l5OOBC Joseph 110

? 92 75 120 122 70 53 ? ? ?
120 30

1600 15OOBC Preached to Madyan

1600 1500BC Job
1600 15OOBC Ezekiel.

1436 1316BC Moses 1439 1317BC Aaron.

1043 937BC 985 932BC 9 BC ca 9 BC Ca 8 BC Ca.
100BC 2OAC

David Solomon Elijah. Elisha Jonas
Father of Yahyah.

1BC 3OAC John the Baptist 1 33AC Jesus 33 25.Muhammad(M) 63 571 632AC The Final Messenger (M)= a messenger as well as a prophet of Allah Ta'ala; i.e. one who came with a new message, a revelation that confirmed the earlier revelations, but which contained new elements appropriate for its time.

160

Murtad Apostate Murtaddeen

Apostate. Plural: Murtadeen.

‫مرتــــــــد‬

People who become apostates, i.e. people who become unbelievers after having believed. Back To list ]

‫مرتدين‬

Musa, peace be upon him ‫موسى عليه السلم‬ Mushrikeen Idol-worshippers ‫مشركين‬

Moses. One of the greatest prophets and messengers of Islam. See Mursaleen.
Idol-worshippers. People who associate partners with Allah Ta'ala, such as the Christians, who have raised the Prophet Isa (Jesus, Son of Mary), peace be on them, to the level of Allah. Allah Ta'ala may forgive any sin which man or Jinn may commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. Singular: Mushrik. See Shirk.

(AL)Mustafa

The Select

‫المصطفى‬

AL-Mustafa [The Select] : One of the names of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) because he was chosen by Allah to be His Messenger to all mankind.

Mutashaabihaat: Allegorical ‫متشابهات‬
Allegorical. Refers to verses (aayaat) of the Qur'an which are expressed in a figurative manner in contradistinction to aayaat muhkamaat or verses which are clear in and by themselves. Mutiny ‫عصيان‬ ‫فتنة‬ ‫تمرد‬

Muzzammil (AL) The Enshrouded One ‫المزمل‬
"The Enshrouded One". Surah 73 of the Holy Qur'an. Mystic Mysticism ‫صوفي‬ ‫تصوف‬

161

‫‪Myth‬‬

‫أسطورة‬

‫261‬

N Nahl (Al) The Bee Najm (Al) The Star Najwa ‫النجوى‬ ‫النحل‬ ‫النجم‬

"The Bee". Surah 16 of the Holy Qur'an. "The Star". Surah 53 of the Holy Qur'an.
1. A private talk between Allah the Almighty and one of

His slaves on the Day of Resurrection. See Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 621, Book 43, Vol.3. 2. A secretive talk amongst the Kuffar plotting against the Holy Prophet Muhammad and his followers, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them. See Surah al-Mujadalah (58):8.

Naskh

Abrogation ‫نسخ‬

Abrogation of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an: "None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We substitute something better or similar" (2: 106).

Naasikh

active participle

‫ناسخ‬

(active participle). Refers to the passage which abrogates or supersedes the part which is abrogated. The abrogated passage is called mansookh (passive participle). Nation Negativism ‫امه - شعب‬ ‫سلبية‬

The Negus

‫النجاشى‬

The Negus : King of Abyssinia who received the Muslims who had immigrated to his country from Mecca and protected them

163

Neighbour Neighbourhood Neuter ‫حيادي‬

‫جار‬ ‫جيرة - جوار‬

Nifaq

Hypocrisy

‫نفاق‬

Hypocrisy. One of the greatest sins in the sight of Allah Ta'ala. The punishment for Nifaq is the lowest pit of an-Nar (Hellfire), the Hutama. See Jahanam. Niggard Nobility Noble Nomad Nomadism ‫بخيل‬ ‫الشراف‬ ‫نبيل - شريف‬ ‫بدوى‬ ‫بدواة‬

Nooh, peace be upon him Noon

‫نوح عليه السلم‬

"Noah". A messenger as well as aprophet. Surah 71 of the Holy Qur'an. See Mursaleen.

Duhr ‫الظهـــــــــــر‬

Noon. The second obligatory Salat (Prayer) of the day. It can he prayed at any time between noon and mid-afternoon

Nun Nusuk

‫راهبة‬ ‫نسك‬

A general sacrifice in the path of Allah. All the deeds and actions of Hajj are regarded as Nusuk, for they are indeed

164

regarded as sacrifices in the path of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Plural: Manasik.

Nuzool

‫النزول‬

The revelation of the Holy Qur'an. The revelation of the Holy Qur'an was revealed in three stages: 1. It was first written on the Lauh al-Mahfudh, i.e. on the guarded tablet in the Seventh Heaven. 2. On the Lailatul Qadr Allah Ta' ala sent the entire Qur' an down to the Baitul 'Izza in the First Heaven. 3. During the month of Ramadan Allah Ta'ala ordered the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him, to start to reveal the Qur'an to the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but not all at once. The entire revelation of the Holy Qur'an took twenty-three years.

O O Allah Allahumma ‫اللهم‬
"O Allah". This is said when invoking Allah Ta'ala. For example, "Allah humma atina fid dunya hasana wa fil akhirati hasana wa qin a 'ad hab an-nar". "OAllah, give us the good of this world and the good of the Hereafter and preserve us from the Hellfire."
165

Obdurate Ta'a

‫عنيد‬ ‫طاعه‬

Obedience ‫خضوع‬

Obedience to Allah and performing good deeds. Interpretation. Especially interpretation of the Holy Qur'an

Obeisance Occupation Olden ‫غابر‬ Omnipotent Omniscient Onset Opinionated Oppression Optimism Orator

‫سجود‬ ‫عتيق‬ ‫القدير‬ ‫عليم‬

- ‫خضوع‬

‫احتلل‬

‫غارة - هجوم‬ ‫عنيد - مكابر‬ ‫ظلم‬ ‫التفاؤل‬ ‫مفوه‬ ‫خطيب‬

166

orders

Ahkam

‫أحكام‬

Literally means "orders". In Islam, orders are subdivided into six distinct categories: 1. Compulsory, (Fard) = severe punishment if disobeyed. This takes two forms: 1. Fard 'ain = compulsory on every person, e.g. Salat. 2. Fard kifaya = compulsory on at least one person in the community, e.g. Salat al-Janaza.
2. Necessary but not compulsory (Wajib), e.g. Salat al-Juma'.

3. Recommended but not compulsory (Mustahab), e.g. Sunnah prayers, Sadaqa. 4. Legal and allowed (Halal), e.g. eating good food,marriage. 5. Disapproved of, but not forbidden (Makrouh), e.g.smoking tobacco. 6. Forbidden (Muharram, Haram), e.g. Zina (fornication and adultery). Orderliness ‫ترتيب - نظام‬ Organization ‫منظمة‬ Orient ‫الشرق‬ Orientalism ‫الستشراق‬ Orientalist ‫مستشرق‬ Origin ‫اصل - نشأة‬ Original sin ‫الخطيئة الولى‬ Ornament ‫حلية - زينة - زخرف‬ Orphan ‫يتيم‬ Orthodox ‫الراشدون‬ Ostracize ‫نفي - طرد‬ Outlay ‫نفقة‬ Oversight ‫سهو - نسيان‬ Overtly ً ‫علنية - جهارا‬

167

P
Pacification ‫تهدئة - مصالحة‬

168

‫‪Pact‬‬ ‫‪Pagan‬‬ ‫‪Paganism‬‬ ‫‪Painful‬‬ ‫‪Palace‬‬ ‫‪Panegyric‬‬ ‫‪Panic‬‬ ‫‪Papacy‬‬ ‫‪Papal‬‬ ‫‪Paradise‬‬ ‫‪Paragon‬‬ ‫‪Pardon‬‬ ‫‪Parity‬‬

‫عهد‬

‫ميثاق -‬

‫وثنى - عابد الصنام‬ ‫عبادة الوثان‬ ‫مؤلم - موجع‬ ‫قصر‬ ‫مديح - ثناء‬ ‫هلع‬ ‫ذعر -‬ ‫البابوية‬ ‫بابوى‬ ‫جنة الفردوس‬ ‫نموذج الكمال‬ ‫غفران‬ ‫مساواة‬ ‫بخيل‬ ‫بخل‬ ‫شريك - مقاسم‬ ‫حزب - جماعة‬ ‫ممر - معبر‬ ‫غضب - حدة شغف‬ ‫طاعة عمياء‬ ‫مقاومة سلبية‬ ‫عفو‬ ‫- تقريظ‬

‫‪Parsimonious‬‬ ‫‪Parsimony‬‬ ‫‪Participant‬‬ ‫‪Party‬‬ ‫‪Pass‬‬ ‫‪Passion‬‬ ‫‪Passive obedience‬‬ ‫‪Passive resistance‬‬

‫961‬

Paternal Path

‫ابوى - وراثى‬ ‫السبيل‬

Patience

Sabr ‫الصبر‬

Patience and perseverance. Allah Ta'ala has promised "Falaah"(success) in this world and in the Hereafter to those Muslims who have Sabr, especially during times of hardship. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Jmran (3):200. Patrimony Patriot Patronage Paucity Pavilion ‫متعصب‬ ‫ميراث‬ - ‫وطنى‬ ‫رعاية - تعضيد‬ ‫قلة - ندرة‬ ‫ايوان - فسطاط‬

P.B.U.H

These letters are abbreviations for the words Peace Be Upon Him which are the meaning of the Arabic expression " 'Alaihis Salam", which is an expression that is said when the name of a prophet is mentioned. This expression is widely used by English speaking Muslims. It is to be noticed here that this expression does not give the full meaning of "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam". Therefore it is recommended that people do not use (p.b.u.h.) after the name of prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.); they should use "Salla Allahu 'Alaihi Wa Sallam" instead, or they may use the abbreviated form of (s.a..w) in writing. Peace Penalty Penance ‫ صلح‬‫سلم - امن‬ ‫قصاص - عقاب‬ ‫توبة - كفارة‬
170

‫عليه السلم‬

Penitence Penitent Perfidy Period Perjury Permissible Permission Perpetuate Perpetuity Perplexity Persecution Perspicacious Persuasion Pert Pertinacity Pertinent Oerverse Perversity Pervert Pest Phantom ‫عناد‬ ‫ ضال‬‫وباء‬ ‫ملئم‬

‫ندم‬

- ‫توبة‬

‫تائب - نادم‬ ‫ نكث العهد‬‫عصر‬ ‫يمين زور - حنث‬ ‫ جائز‬‫مباح‬ ‫غدر - خيانة‬

‫اذن - اجازة - رخصة‬ ‫ابد - خلود‬ ‫بقاء - ابدية‬ ‫حيرة - ارتباك‬ ‫اضطهاد‬ ‫بصير - صاحب نظر‬ ‫ اقناع‬‫سفيه‬ ‫عناد - اصرار‬ - ‫مناسب‬ ‫عنيد‬ ‫مارق‬ ‫ضلل‬ ‫متمرد‬ ‫استمالة‬

- ‫طاعون‬ ‫شبح‬

‫- طيف‬

171

Pharisaism Phenomena Phenomenon Philanthropy Philosophy Piety Pig Pilgrim Pilgrimage Pillage ‫خنزير‬ ‫الحاج‬

‫نفاق‬ ‫ظواهر‬

- ‫رياء‬

‫ظاهرة‬ ‫محبة خير البشرية‬ ‫فلسفة‬ ‫تقوى - ورع‬

‫الحج‬ ‫غنيمة‬

Pillars

Arkan

‫أركـــــان‬

Pillars. This refers to the indispensable pillars of Islam. There are five Arkan of Islam: 1. Shahadatain, bearing witness. All Muslims must believe in and utter the Shahadatain. o The First Shahada is: Ashhadu an la illaha illal'lah. (I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.) o The Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah. (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) Singular: Shahada = bearing witness. Dual: Shahadatain = bearing witness. 2. Salat, prayers. To perform all the five compulsory daily Salat (prayers) regularly in the exact manner as was practised by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

172

3. Seeaam, fasting. Also spelled as Saum. To fast in the month of Ramadan. 4. Zakat, wealth dues. To pay 2.5% of one's yearly savings o the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold at the fime when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat is also due on other things such as silver, animals, crops, etc. For full explanation on Zakat refer to the relevant books written on the subject. 5. Hajj, pilgrimage. To perform the pilgrimage to the Holy City of Makkah at least once in one's lifetime (if one is able to afford it). Pimp Pious Piousness Pirate Pitiless Pity Placable Plague Platonic Plaudit Plea Pledge Plenty Plurality ‫ديوث‬ ‫ متدين‬‫التقوى‬ ‫قرصان‬ ‫عديم الشفقة‬ ‫شفقة - عطف‬ ‫مسامح - عطوف‬ ‫طاعون - وباء‬ ‫طاهر - عذرى‬ ‫ مدح‬‫ثناء‬ ‫حجة‬ ‫ احتجاج - عذر‬‫وفرة - رخاء‬ ‫تعددية - اكثرية‬ ‫تقى - ورع‬

‫رهينة - عهد - وعد‬

173

Poetry Politeness Politics Pollute Polytheism Polytheists

‫الشعر‬ ‫ادب - كياسة‬ ‫السياسة‬ ‫فسق - دنس‬ ‫الشرك - تعدد اللهة‬ ‫المشركين‬

Poor

Faqir

‫فقير‬

A poor person. In Islam poverty may take two forms : 1. Wordly : A person who does not have the financial means to help himself. 2. In the Akhira(Hereafter): A person who has failed to gain the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala by way of disobedience, thus earning a place in the Nar (Hellfire). Poor dues Populace Population Pork Portend Portico Portliness ‫العزم‬ Position Postponement ‫وضع‬ ‫ ارجاء‬‫توعد‬ ‫رواق - دهليز‬ ‫مهابة - وقار‬ ‫السكان‬ ‫لحم الخنزير‬ ‫الزكاة‬ ‫العامة - العوام‬

The Possessors of Constancy

Awlo alazm ‫أولو‬

‫تأجيل‬

174

Possession Potency Potent Potentate Pout Poverty Powerful Praise Prayer Preacher Preaching Precaution Precipice Precipitance Preclusion Precursor Predestination Predict ‫ انذر‬‫تكهن‬ ‫تنبأ‬ Prediction Predisposition Predominance Predominant ‫قادر - مقتدر‬ ‫مسيطر‬ ‫عبس - تجهم‬ ‫عوز‬ - ‫فقر‬

‫سيطرة - استحواذ‬ ‫قوة - نفوذ‬

‫قوى - قدير - مقتدر‬ ‫حمد - ثناء - مدح‬ ‫حميد‬ ‫صلة‬ ‫واعظ - مبشر‬ ‫الموعظة‬ ‫حذر - حيطة‬ ‫هاوية - هوة‬ ‫هور - اندفاع‬ ‫منع - صد‬ ‫بشير - نذير‬ ‫قضاء وقدر - جبرية‬

Praiseworthy

‫استعداد - قابلية‬ ‫تسلط - غلبة‬ ‫متسلط‬

175

Pre-eminence Prehistoric Prejudice Preparation Prepossessed Prescribed Prescript Prestation Pretence Pretext Prevalence Prevention Previous Priest Priestess Priesthood Primitive Primordial Prince Principle ‫امير‬ ‫كاهن‬ ‫كاهنة‬

‫استعلء‬ ‫ماقبل التاريخ‬ ‫تعصب‬ ‫اعداد - استعداد‬ ‫ متحيز‬‫فتوى‬ ‫عطاء‬ ‫ادعاء - حجة - تظاهر‬ ‫متحامل‬ ‫مفروض‬

‫حجة - علة‬ ‫سيادة - تسلط‬ ‫منع - صد - ايقاف‬ ‫سالف - سابق‬

‫كهنوت‬ ‫بدائى‬ ‫اصلى - اساسى‬ ‫مبدأ‬

Principles of Islamic law Usulul Fiqh ‫الفقه‬

‫أصول‬

Principles of Islamic law, drawn from the original fundamental primary sources.
176

Princedom Princess Principal Principality Pristine Privation Privilege Privy council Proclamation Proclivity Prodigal Prodigality Profanation Progeny Prohibition Promiscuity Promise

‫امارة‬ ‫اميرة‬ ‫رئيسى‬ ‫مقاطعة‬ ‫امارة‬ ‫فطرى - اولى - ازلى‬ ‫حرمان - فاقة‬ ‫امتياز - حق‬ ‫مجلس العرش‬ ‫اعلن - منشور‬ ‫استعداد - ميل‬ ‫مبذر - مسرف‬ ‫تبذير - اسراف‬ ‫تدنيس - انتهاك الحرمة‬ ‫نسل - ذرية‬ ‫تحريم - منع‬ ‫اباحية‬ ‫وعد - عهد‬

Proof

Daleel

‫دليل‬

(plural: adillah). Proof, indication, evidence. Every ruling or judgment needs to be substantiated by the appropriate daleel in the first instance from the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Propaganda ‫نشر الدعوة - الدعاية‬ Propensity Property ‫ميل - استعداد‬ ‫ملكية‬

177

Prophecy

‫تكهن - تنبؤ‬

Prophet

Nabi ‫نبي‬

Prophet. There have been many prophets since the world was first created. Their exact number is not mentioned either in the Holy Qur'an or in any of the authenticated Ahadith (sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Only twenty-five of them are actually named in the Holy Qur'an, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on all of them. See Mursaleen for the complete list. Plural: Anbiyaa. Prophethood Propitiation Proposition Proselyte Prosperity Prosperous Prostitution Prostrating Protection ‫حماية وقاية‬ ‫زنا‬ ‫سجود‬ ‫النبوة‬ ‫كفارة‬ ‫رأى - اقتراح - قضية‬ ‫مهدى - مهتد‬ ‫فلح - نجاح‬ ‫مفلح‬

Protectors

Awliyaa

‫أولياء‬

Protectors, friends, supporters, helpers. Comes from the same root word as Maula. Singular: Walee. Protest ‫اقامة الحجة‬ Protestation ‫احتجاج‬ Proud ‫متكبر - فخور‬ Province ‫اقليم - مقاطعة‬ Provocation ‫اثارة - اغضاب‬ Proxy ‫تفويض - توكيل‬
178

Prudence ‫بصيرة - فطنة‬ Prudent fear ‫التقية‬ Psalm ‫الزبور - مزمور‬ Psalter ‫المزامير‬ Publicity ‫انتشار - شيوع‬ Publicly ً ‫علنية - جهارا‬ Pulpit ‫منبر‬ Pumpkin ‫اليقطين‬ Punishment ‫عقاب - قصاص‬ Pure ‫طاهر‬ Purification ‫تطهير‬ Purify ‫تطهر‬ Purity ‫الطهارة‬

Purification

Tahara

‫طهـــــــارة‬

Purification. Tahara is accomplished in a variety of ways, e.g.: 1. Souls. In order for the soul to be pure one must submit one's whole self to Allah Ta'ala, i.e. become a Muslim. 2. Bodies. They are purified through Tayammum, Wudu or Ghusl, depending on the circumstances. For a full explanation: See Tayammum, Wudu and Ghusl. 3. Clothing. Three things indicate that clothes may be impure and need washing: o If they smell. o If they are wet and the cause of the wetness is either unknown or known to be impure or dirty. o If they are stained. Puritan Purity ‫حنبلى - مدقق‬ ‫نقاء طهارة‬

179

Q

180

Qabr Grave ‫قبر‬
Grave.Life in the Qabr(the grave)is known as the "Barzakh",the interspace, because it comes between in this world and life in the next world. The Qabr is known by six names: 1. Bait al-Ghurba (House of the Stranger). 2. Ba1t al-Wahda (House of Solitude). 3. Bait al-Turab (House of Dust). 4. Bait al-Door (House of Worms). 5. Bait al-Fitna (House of Trail). 6. Bait al-Dhulma (House of Darkness). The grave is experienced as a place of peace and light and spaceby the Ruh of the Mumin who sees his or her place in the Garden in the morning and in the evening; and is experienced as a place of torment and darkness and no space by the Ruh of the Kafir who sees his or her place in the Fire in the morningand in the evening. After death there is a period of waiting in the grave for the Ruh until the Last Day arrives, when every one who has ever live will be brought back to life and gathered together. their action will be weight in the Mizan (the Balance), and every one will either go to the Garden or the Fire, for ever.

Qada wa Qadar Decree and Destiny ‫والقدر‬

‫القضاء‬

Decree and Destiny. Qada means what Allah has ordained for all the world. Qada can not be changed, for the decree of Allahis final. Qadar is the individual fate, or destiny if each one of all His creature. It also can not be changed but may be altered by Allah under special circumstances, for "Allah has power over all thing" (Holy Qur'an, Al-Ma'idah (5):19.)

Qadi judge ‫القاضي‬
181

It means judge.

Qardan Hasana

ً ‫قرضا ً حسنا‬

"A beautiful loan" (to Allah Ta'ala). Spending in the cause of Allah Ta'ala is described by Allah Ta'ala Himself as "a beautiful loan" because it entails self-denial for the sake of Allah Ta'ala. It is for this reason that Allah has promised a rich reward for those who expend their wealth in His Path. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Baqara (2):245, Al-Hadid (57):11, 18.

Qareen

‫القرين‬

1. One who performs Hajj al-Qiran. See Hajj.

2. An independent soul that resides inside a person. It is normally a friendly companion who helps the individual, but sometimes gets jealous and causes problems. A male Qareen resides in a male person and a female Qareen in a female, 3. Companion

Qaroon

‫قارون‬

Korah. A wealthy Kafir who led a rebellion (of 250 men) against the Prophets Musa (Moses) and Haroon (Aaron), peace be on them. As a punishment Allah Ta'ala caused the earth to open and swallow them up along with all that they possessed. See Holy Qur'an, Al- Qasas (28):76-82, Al-Ankabut (29):39.

Qiama (Al) The Resurrection

‫القيامه‬

"The Resurrection". Surah 75 of the Holy Qur' an.

Qibla

‫القبله‬

Direction in which all Muslims face when praying. Initially the Qiblah was towards al-Quds (Jerusalem), then Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala ordered the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to face al-Ka'ba in Makkah alMukarramah. Everyone has a direction in life, but only the
182

Muslims have this Qiblah. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):142-145, 149-150.

Qisaas Law

‫القصاص‬

Law of equal retaliation when punishing a person for injuries intentionally inflicted on someone else. See Al-Baqarah(2:178179). Also Qisas, Qesas

Qiyas

measuring

‫القياس‬

Literally Qiyas means measuring or ascertaining the length, weight or quality of something. Qiyas also means comparison to establish equality or similarity between two things. A fourth element of Sharia not found in the Quran, Sunnah, or given in the Ijma, qiyas are new cases or case law that may have been previously decided by a higher judge. The Sharia judge can use legal precedent to decide new case law and its application. Quack Quail Quarrel ‫دجال‬ ‫وهن - ضعف‬ ‫خصام - عراك‬

Qubâ'

‫قبـــــــاء‬

A place on the outskirts of Al-Madina. The Prophet saw established a mosque there, which bears the same name. A visit to that mosque on Saturday forenoon and offering a two Rak'ât prayer is regarded as a performance of 'Umra in reward according to the Prophet's saying.

Queen ‫ملكة‬ Quest ‫حاجة - طلب - بحث‬ Quiescence ‫هدوء - طمأنينة‬ Qur'an ‫القرآن الكريم‬
The "Recitation". The Holy Qur'an. Also called AIFurqaan,"The Discrimination (between truth and falsehood)". The Final Revelation of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to Ins walJinn (mankind and the Jinn). Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself
183

decreed that it is He who will preserve the Holy Qur'an from any deletion or addition or alteration until the Day of Resurrection. It is generally understood that it is a book meant for the Muslims alone. In fact, it is a book for all mankind and jinn to follow up to the Day of Judgement, but it has been accepted only by those who have submitted their will (the Muslims) to Allah the Almighty. The people whom the Qur'an is intended to benefit are described in Suratul-Baqara (2):15.They are the successful ones. The Holy Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, through the Angel Jibreel (the Angel Gabriel), peace be upon him, during a period of twenty-three years. The Holy Qur'an is the greatest of the Last Messenger's miracles, since he could neither read nor write and had never received any formal education. The Holy Qur'an is the uncreated word of Allah. The Holy Qur'an contains 114 Suwar, composed of 6,616 Ayat, 77,934 words and 323,671 letters. Surah Index : • 1. The Opening
• • • • • • • • • • •

2. The Cow 3. The Family Of 'Imran, The House Of 'Imran 4. Women 5. The Table, The Table Spread 6. Cattle, Livestock 7. The Heights 8. Spoils Of War, Booty 9. Repentance, Dispensation 10. Jonah 11. Hud 12. Joseph

184

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

13. The Thunder 14. Abraham 15. Al-hijr, Stoneland, Rock City 16. The Bee 17. Isra', The Night Journey, Children Of Israel 18. The Cave 19. Mary 20. Ta-ha 21. The Prophets 22. The Pilgrimage 23. The Believers 24. Light 25. The Criterion, The Standard 26. The Poets 27. The Ant, The Ants 28. The Story, Stories 29. The Spider 30. The Romans, The Byzantines 31. Luqman 32. The Prostration, Worship, Adoration 33. The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces 34. Saba, Sheba 35. The Angels, Orignator 36. Ya-sin 37. Those Who Set The Ranks, Drawn Up In Ranks 38. Sad, (the Letter) Sad ( S )

185

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

39. The Troops, Throngs 40. The Believer, The Forgiver (god) 41. (signs) Spelled Out, Ha-mim 42. Councel, Consultation 43. Ornaments Of Gold, Luxury 44. Smoke 45. Crouching 46. The Wind-curved Sandhills, The Dunes 47. Muhammad 48. Victory, Conquest 49. The Private Apartments, The Inner Apartments 50. Qaf, (the Letter), ( Q ) 51. The Winnowing Winds 52. The Mount 53. The Star 54. The Moon 55. The Beneficent, The Mercy Giving 56. The Event, The Inevitable 57. Iron 58. She That Disputeth, The Pleading Woman 59. Exile, Banishment 60. She That Is To Be Examined, Examining Her 61. The Ranks, Battle Array 62. The Congregation, Friday 63. The Hypocrites 64. Mutual Disillusion, Haggling

186

• • • • • •

65. Divorce 66. Banning, Prohibition 67. The Sovereignty, Control 68. The Pen, (the Letter) N 69. The Reality 70. The Ascending Stairways, Staircases Upward, Sckeptic 71. Noah 72. The Jinn, Sprites 73. The Enshrouded One, Bundled Up 74. The Cloaked One, The Man Wearing A Cloak 75. The Rising Of The Dead, Resurrection 76. Time, Man, (every) Man, This (day-and-)age 77. The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth 78. The Tidings, The Announcement 79. Those Who Drag Forth, Soul-snatchers 80. He Frowned! 81. The Overthrowing, Extinguished! Wrapping Things Up 82. The Cleaving, Bursting Apart 83. Defrauding, The Cheats, Cheating 84. The Sundering, Splitting Open 85. The Mansions Of The Stars, Constellations 86. The Morning Star, The Nightcomer 87. The Most High, Glory To Your Lord In The Highest 88. The Overwhelming, The Pall

• • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

187

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

89. The Dawn, Daybreak 90. The City, This Countryside 91. The Sun 92. The Night 93. The Morning Hours, Morning Bright! 94. Solace, Consolation, Relief 95. The Fig, The Figtree 96. The Clot, Read! 97. Power, Fate 98. The Clear Proof, Evidence 99. The Earthquake 100. The Courser, The Chargers 101. The Calamity, The Stunning Blow, The Disaster 102. Rivalry In World Increase, Competition 103. The Declining Day, Eventide, The Epoch 104. The Traducer, The Gossipmonger 105. The Elephant 106. Winter, Quraysh 107. Small Kindnesses, Almsgiving, Have You Seen? 108. Abundance, Plenty 109. The Disbelievers, Atheists 110. Succour, Divine Support 111. Palm Fibre, The Flame 112. The Unity, Sincerity, Oneness Of God 113. The Daybreak, Dawn 114. Mankind

188

Quraish

One of the greatest tribes in pre-Islamic Arabia. The Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, belonged to this tribe. At first they were an avowed enemy to the Prophet, but the vast majority accepted Islam after the conquest of Makkah in 8AH by Muhammad and 10,000 of his companions, may the blesssings and peace of Allah be on him and them. Surah 106 of the Holy Qur' an. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Qamar (54):43-46,51.

‫قريش‬

Qurbaan:

‫قربان‬

Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam it refers to the sacrificing of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of eid ul-ad'haa and the two days following it.

R Ra'd (Ar) The Thunder ‫الرعد‬
"The Thunder". Surah 13 of the Holy Qur' an. Rabbi Rabbinical Rabble Race Racism ‫سللة‬ ‫حبر‬ ‫حاخام‬ ‫السوقة‬ ‫اصل‬ ‫عنصرية‬ ‫الرعاع‬ ‫جنس‬ ‫سللية‬ ‫حاخام‬

Rahaman (Ar) Most Gracious ‫الرحمن‬
"Ar-hahman". Most Gracious, Merciful. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 55 of the Holy Qur' an. This Surah is referred to as "The Bride of the Holy Qur an

Raheem (Ar) Most Merciful ‫الرحيم‬
"Ar-Raheem". Most Merciful. One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. . It is said that the Attribute of Ar189

Raheern consists of the mercy of Allah that is only experienced by the Muslims, whereas the Attribute of Ar-Rahman consists of the mercy of Allah that is experienced by the whole creation. For example, all creatures are fed until they die, but only the Muslims experience the reward of breaking the fast at the end of each day of Ramadan, and the reward of meeting their Lord in the next world.

Rajm (Ar) Stoning ‫الرجم‬
Stoning. In Islamic law the Hadd punishment for whoever is married and commits adultery is to be stoned to death.

Rak'a

A unit of the Salat (Prayer), a complete series of standing, bowing, two prostrations and sittings. Plural: Rak'at.

‫ركعــــــه‬

Ramadan

The ninth month of the Islamic clendar. It is a very important month in the Islamic world. 1. It is the month of fasting, during which all adult Muslims who are in good health fast from the first light of dawn until sunset each day. During the first third of the fast you taste Allah's mercy; during the second third you taste Allah's forgiveness; and during the last third you taste freedom from the Fire. See Holy Qur' an, AlBaqara (2):185. 2. It is the month in which the revelation of the Holy Qur' an to our Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, commenced. 3. The Lailatul Qadr (see (Qadr, Lailatul) occurs in this month. 4. The famous Battle of Badr was fought and won in this month. 5. The Conquest of Makka by Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took place in this month. Rancour ‫غل - حقد‬
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‫رمضـــــان‬

Random Ransom

‫عشوائى‬ ‫فدية - فداء‬

Rasool Messenger

‫رســــــول‬

Messenger. A prophet of Allah Ta' ala who came with a pure revelation from Allah to mankind and the Jinn. For a complete list of the messengers and prophets referred to in the Qur' an: See Mursallen. Plural: Rusull. See Rusull.

Rasoolu'llah Messenger of Allah ‫رسول الله‬
Messenger of Allah. Throughout the history of the world Allah has sent messengers with a Book to explain Tawheed to man and Jinn, and to show them how to live at peace. The Muslims accept and believe in all the messengers, including the prophets Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Dawood (David), Isa (Jesus), peace be upon them all, and especially Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Mursallen. Ratification Rationality Rattle death Readiness Realm Reasoning Rebel Rebellious Rebellion Recitation Recluse ‫القاء‬ ‫ناسك‬ ‫تصديق - مصادقة‬ ‫عقلنية‬ ‫حشرجة الموت‬ ‫قبول - تأهب‬ ‫مملكة - دولة‬ ‫ جدال‬‫متمرد - عاص‬ ‫متمرد‬ ‫تمرد - عصيان - ثورة‬ - ‫تلوة‬ - ‫معتزل‬ ‫تفكر‬ - ‫تعقل‬

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‫‪Reclusion‬‬ ‫‪Recognition‬‬ ‫‪Recoil‬‬ ‫‪Recondite‬‬ ‫‪Reconnoiter‬‬ ‫‪Recorded‬‬ ‫‪Recourse‬‬ ‫‪Recrute‬‬ ‫‪Redemption‬‬ ‫‪Redoubtable‬‬ ‫‪Reformation‬‬ ‫‪Reformer‬‬ ‫‪Refrain‬‬ ‫‪Refuge‬‬ ‫‪Refutation‬‬ ‫‪Regal‬‬ ‫‪Regenerate‬‬ ‫‪Region‬‬ ‫‪Registration‬‬ ‫‪Regress‬‬ ‫‪Regression‬‬ ‫‪Regular‬‬ ‫مصلح‬ ‫ترجع‬ ‫‪Reconciliation‬‬

‫عزلة - اعتكاف‬ ‫قبول - اعتراف‬ ‫ارتد -‬ ‫وفاق - تسوية - مصالحة‬ ‫غامض - سرى - خفى‬ ‫تجسس - استطلع‬ ‫مدون - مسجل‬ ‫استنجاد - التجاء‬ ‫مدد‬ ‫فداء - فدية - استرداد‬ ‫جبار - مريع‬ ‫اصلح - تهذيب‬ ‫قرار - مذهب‬ ‫ملجأ - مأوى‬ ‫دحض - نقض - تفنيد‬ ‫ملكى‬ ‫مهتد - متجدد‬ ‫اقليم - مقاطعة‬ ‫تدوين - تسجيل‬ ‫ارتداد- نكوص‬ ‫ردة - عودة - تقهقر‬ ‫منتظم - قانونى‬ ‫- تمييز‬

‫291‬

Regularity Regulation Reign Reinforcement Relationship Reliable Reliance Relics ‫ثقة‬

‫نظام - قانونية - تناسق‬ ‫قاعدة - نظام - قانون‬ ‫حكم - تسلط‬ ‫مدد - امداد - تقوية - تعزيز‬ ‫علقة - قرابة‬ ‫وثوق - اتكال - اعتماد‬

‫اثار - بقايا - ذخائر‬

religion

Deen ‫الدين‬

1. Deen Usually translated as 'religion', but in fact meaning 'life-transaction', the transaction being between Allah and each of his created beings. The life-transaction, or religion, of Allah Ta'ala is universal. It is the way of Islam (submisson of will to Allah Ta'ala). He sent the same message to Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus) and all the other prophets, peace be on all of them, but mankind, through ignorance or intentional misguidance by others, has altered the religion of Allah again and again. Allah Ta'ala sent the Holy Qur'an as the final revelation and guidance for mankind and the Jinn who will all be judged on the Day of Resurrection. 2. Also indicates the judgement itself, i.e. "Yaum al-Deen" (Judgement Day). Religious Religiousness Remission Remonstrance ‫دينى‬ ‫تقى‬ ‫تدين‬ ‫غفران مغفرة‬ ‫اعتراض‬ ‫احتجاج‬
193

Remorseful Renegade Renunciate Renunciation Reentance Repentant Repose Reprehension Representative Repression Reproof Reputation Rescission Reservation Resignation Resolution Respect Respite Restorative Restrictions Resurrect ‫كبح‬ Reprobation ‫نبذ‬ ‫ندم‬

‫حى الضمير‬ ‫مارق‬ ‫تبرأ‬ ‫نبذ‬ ‫توبة‬ ‫تائب‬ ‫راحة‬ ‫لوم تعنيف‬ ‫نائب‬ ‫تبرؤ‬ ‫نادم أواب‬ ‫اطمئنان‬ ‫زجر‬ ‫وكيل‬ ‫قمع‬ ‫استهجان‬ ‫توبيخ‬ ‫سمعة صيت‬ ‫الغاء‬ ‫نقض‬ ‫فسخ‬ ‫حفظ - استبقاء‬ ‫استسلم - اذعان‬ ‫عزم - تصميم‬ ‫احترام‬ ‫مهلة - امهال‬ ‫مسئولية‬ ‫مجدد‬ ‫شروط - تحفظات‬ ‫بعث - نشور‬ ‫تعنيف‬ ‫مرتد‬ ‫انكر‬ ‫نبذ‬ ‫انكار‬

Responsibility

194

Resurrection Retaliation Reticent Retinue Retire Retirement Retreat Retribution Retrogression Revealed Revelation Revenge Reverence Revolt Revolution Reward Rhetorician Right Righteous ‫حق‬ ‫انتقام‬

‫القيامة - البعث‬ ‫كاظم - كتوم‬ ‫بطانة - حاشية‬

‫تقهقر - اعتزل‬ ‫اعتزال - انسحاب‬ ‫ عزلة‬‫تقهقر‬ ‫جزاء - عقاب‬ ‫رجوع - ارتداد‬ ‫أوحى‬ ‫وحى - الهام - تجليات‬ ‫انتقام - ثأر‬ ‫وقار - احترام‬ ‫تمرد - عصيان‬ ‫ثورة - انقلب‬ ‫الجر‬ ‫ حصيف‬‫بليغ‬

‫صالح - عادل‬

Righteousness and awe of

Birr wa Taqwa

‫والتقوي‬

‫البر‬

Righteousness and awe of the Creator which ~nspire a person to be on guard against wrong action and eager for ac don which are pleasing to Allah.

195

The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (11-40 A.H.) ‫الخلفاء‬

‫الراشدون‬

The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (11-40 A.H.) : The RightlyGuided Caliphs are the first four Caliphs who succeeded the Prophet (peace be upon him). The Rightly-Guided Caliphs are the outstanding members of the Community and its symbols, leaders of the Call and its guards. They preserved the unity of the Muslim community and managed the affairs of the Islamic state. They are: Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, `Umar bin Al-Khattab, `Uthman bin `Affan and `Ali bin Abi Talib. Rigid Risk Rite Rituals ‫صارم عنيف‬ ‫مجازفة مخاطرة‬ ‫شعيرة‬ ‫شعائر‬ ‫طقوس‬

Rizq Provision ‫رزق‬
rizq. Provisions that God destines for a person, in such forms as additional income, food, clothing, or a natural resource such as water. See fatahna. Provision. Sustenance. Derives from the word "AI-Razaq" The Provider or Sustainer, one of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah Ta' ala.

Rooh Spirit ‫روح‬
Spirit. See Holy Qur' an, Al-Hijr (15):29, Al-isra (17):85-86, Al-Mujadilah (58):22, Al-Ma' arif (70):4, An-Naba' (78):38, Al- Qadr (97):4.

Rooh AL Qudus The Holy Spirit ‫روح القدس‬
The Holy Spirit. Another name for the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him. His duty was to communicate between Mlah and His prophets. Alah Ta'ala strengthened the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him, with the Holy Spirit (Al-Baqara
196

(2):87, 253). This is one of the reasons why the Nasara (Christians) believe that the Prophet Jesus was divine. If Jesus was Allah, then why did he need strengthening? They also believed that the Holy Spirit was divine. If the Holy Spirit was Allah, then how was He sent and by whom? Who has the power to command Allah to go anywhere? Do they not know that Allah is "AI-Wahid", "The Unique"? Glory be to Allah, the Most High. Surely they disbelieve who say that Allah has associates.

Ruh-ul-Lah

‫روح الله‬

According to the early religious scholars from among the companions of the Prophet saw and their students and the Mujtahidûn, there is a rule to distinguish between the two nouns in the genitive construction. (A) When one of the two nouns is Allah, and the other is a person of a thing, e.g., (i) Allah's House (Bait-ul-Lah ), (ii) Allah's Messenger; (iii) Allah's slave ('Abdullah ); (iv) Allah's spirit (Ruh-ul- Lah ) etc. The rule of the above words is that the second noun, e.g., House, Messenger, slave, spirit, etc. is created by Allah and is honourable in His Sight and similarly Allah's spirit may be understood as the spirit of Allah, in fact, it is a soul created by Allah, i.e. Jesus, and it was His Word: "Be!", - and he was created (like the creation of Adam). (B) But when one of the two is Allah and the second is neither a person nor a thing, then it is not a created thing but is a quality of Allah, e.g., (i) Allah's Knowledge ('Ilmullah ); (ii) Allah's Life (Hayatullah ); (iii) Allah's

197

Statement (Kalamullah ); (iv) Allah's Self (Dhatullah )etc. Root Royal Rude ‫ أصل‬‫ملكى‬ ‫فظ - وقح‬ ‫جذر‬

Ruqya ‫رقيه‬
Divine words, usually from the Holy Qur' an, used as a recitafion to cure an illness or a disease. Rule Ruler Runagate ‫حكم - قاعدة - سلطة‬ ‫حاكم - متسلط‬ ‫كافر - ضال‬

198

S
Sabian ‫صابىء‬ Sacerdotal ‫كهنوتى‬ Sacred ‫مقدس - دينى‬ Sacredness ‫قداسة - حرمة‬ Sacrifice ‫ضحية - ذبيحة - قربان‬ Sadness ‫حزن - غم‬

afa and Marwa

‫الصفا والمروه‬

Two small hills in Makkah, in Al-Haram as-Shareef (The Grand Masjid) to the east. It is an essential part of an Umra and the Hajj to walk seven times between the two places, quickening one's step briefly between two points between them. This is called Sa'i. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2): Safety ‫امن - سلمة‬ Sage ‫حيم - عاقل‬

Sahih

‫صحيح‬

Healthy and sound with no defects. Authentic, as regards Ahadeeth, such as Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

Sahih Bukhari Sahih Muslim Sahu ‫سهو‬

‫صحيح البخارى‬ ‫صحيح مسلم‬

A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Bukhari.

A book of authentic Ahadeeth compiled by Imam Muslim. Literally means forgetting. If one adds to or subtracts from what is required during the Salat (Prayer), out of forgetfulness

199

or lack of attention, then one must perform two extra prostrations at the end of the Salat. This is called Sajda Sahu. Saint ‫قديس - ولى‬ Sake ‫قصد - سبيل - غاية‬

Sakina Calm ‫السكينه‬
Calm, peaceful tranquillity, perfect calmness, serenity, due to the Presence of Allah being made clear and apparent. See Holy Qur'an, At-Taubah (9):26, 40, Al-Fath (48):4, 18, 26.

Salaf

Forebears, predecessors, ancestors.

Forebears ‫السلف‬ ‫السلف الصالح‬

Al Salaf al Saalih Salafi ‫سلفي‬

the righteous forebears - refers to the early generations of Muslims including the Sahaabah and the Taabi`oon. Literally, "the early years". Salafi is used generally to describe the early generations of the Muslims, particularly the companions of the Messenger of Allah and those who followed them, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and them. In the present age the term is sometimes used to describe a Muslim who closely follows the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet Muhammad and As-Salafiyeen as-Saliheen, the righteous companions of Muhammad.

Salat

‫الصــــــــله‬
Prayers. There are five daily obligatory prayers in Islam,consisting of fixed sets of standings, bowings, prostrations and sittings in worship to Allah. These are called Rak 'at. The number of Rak'at in each prayer and their timings are: 1. Fajr - dawn - two Rak'at.
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2. Duhr - noon - four Rak'at. 3. 'Asr - afternoon - four Rak' at. 4. Maghreb - sunset - three Rak'at. 5. Isha - late evening - four Rak'at. These five Salat are one of the Arkan of islam. See Arkan.It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu when doing the Salat. For voluntary Salat: See NafiIah. One of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See Jannah.

Salatud_duha Salatul Janaza

‫صلة الضحى‬ Funeral prayer ‫صلة الجنازه‬

A Nafl Salat that is prayed after sunrise and before noon. Funeral prayer. It is permitted to do Salatul Janaza only over the dead bodies of Muslims. This prayer is done in the standing position only, and usually immediately before the burial. It contains four Takbirs: 1. After the first Takbir - read Suratul Fatiha. 2. After the second Takbir - recite any Dua'a for the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,but it is preferred to do the Tashahhud (see Tashahhud)and the Salat aI-Ibrahimiya: "AIlahumma salle 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala alec Muhammad kama salaira Ibrahim wa 'ala alee Ibrahim; fill 'alameen innaka hameedun majeed. Allahumma barak 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala alee Muhammad kama barak ta ibrahim wa 'ala alec Ibrahim; fill 'alameen innaka hamidun majeed." ("O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as You blessed Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You are Praiseworthy,Glorious. O Allah, give Muhammad blessing and the family of Muhammad, as You gave Ibrahim blessing and the family of Ibrahim. In all the worlds surely You are Praiseworthy , Glorious.") 3. After the third Takbir - pray for the deceased person, his or her relatives and the Muslim people in general.
201

4. After the fourth Takbir - this marks the end of the Salat.Face your right shoulder and say "Assalamu 'alaikum wa rahmarullah" ( "Peace be on you and the Mercy of Allah").

Salatul Shuruq Salatul Tasbih

‫صلة الشروق‬ ‫صلة التسابيح‬

A Nafl Salat of two or four Rak'at that is prayed a short while after sunrise. A special Nafl Salat of four Rak'at. This Salat involves praising Allah Ta'ala by including "Subhanallah, wal hamdulilah, wa la il laha illallah, wallahu akbar" ("Glory to Allah, and Praise to Allah, and there is no god except Allah and Allah is Greatest") seventy-five times in each Rak'a.

salat ul-Jum'ah :

‫صلة الجمعه‬

Although most Muslims pray on their own wherever they happen to be at the time, there is an opportunity on Fridays to come together as a community to pray together. Traditionally, the midday prayer on Friday is said at the mosque, where the imam or a guest will read passages from the Qur'an and may give a lesson – much as Muhammad may have done thousands of years ago. The congregation is arranged in lines (women and men have separate areas for prayer), and the synchronisation of movement and chanting by hundreds of Muslims is a powerful sight. Although attendance is obligatory for men (although not for women), a man who is sick is excused.

Saleh, peace be upon him

‫صالح عليه السلم‬

A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Thamud who lived in the north-western part of the Arabian Peninsula. They were destroyed for rejecting him. The remains of their stone dwellings still exist today. See Holy Qur'an, AI-'Araf(7):73-79, At-Tawbah (11):61 -68, Ash-Shu'ara (26):141 -159,An-Naml (27):45-53.

202

Salih

‫صالح‬

Righteous and goodly person, someone who is in the right place at the right time. It may also mean healthy and sound in body and soul.

Salsabil A fountain in Jannah ‫سلسبيل‬
A fountain in Jannah. Literally means "seek the way". See Holy Qur'an, Al-insan (76)18. Salutation Salavation ‫سلم - تحية‬ ‫خلص - نجاة‬

Samad (As)

‫الصمد‬

Does not have an exact meaning in English. The closest word or words that indicate the meaning are: 1. "Absolute" and "Eternal" and "Everlasting". 2. The One to Whom all created beings turn to for all their needs, and Who is not dependent on anything or anyone for any need. 3. The Most Perfect in His Attributes.One of the ninetynine Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. For a complete list. Sanctification ‫تقديس - تطهير‬ Sanctimonious ‫زنديق - منافق‬ Sanctity ‫بر - قداسة - طهارة‬ Sanctuary ‫معبد‬ Sapience ‫دراية - فطنة‬ Sapient ‫حكيم‬

Saqifah A shelter with a roof

‫السقيفه‬

A shelter with a roof. The companions of the Prophet met in a Saqifah in Madinah to pledge their loyalty to Abu Bakr after the death of the Prophet.

Samad (as)

‫الصمد‬

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One of the ninety-nine Attributes of Allah. It means Absolute, Eternal, and Everlasting. It refers to the One to Whom all created beings turn to for all their needs, and Who is not dependent on anything or anyone for any need. The Most Perfect in His Attributes.

Sariya A small army ‫سريه‬
A small army sent by the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, for a Jihad in which he did not personally take part. Satan ‫الشيطان‬ Savage ‫همجى - بربرى‬ Savagery ‫همجية - بربرية‬ Saviour ‫مخلص - منقذ‬

Sawm

Fasting (sawm in Arabic) is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. All healthy and sane Moslems are expected to fast (to abstain from food, drink, smoking and other bodily pleasures) during the daylight hours throughout the entire month of Ramadan. This means that they rise before dawn to eat breakfast and then eat a large meal after dusk. While they fast during the day, Moslems are expected to reflect on themselves and their standing before Allah, and ask for forgiveness for their sins. The evening meal, by contrast, is often a time of enjoyment and the gathering of friends and relatives. Sceptic Scepter Schism ‫مرتاب - ملحد‬ ‫صولجان‬ ‫انشقاق - شقاق‬

Fasting

‫الصـــــوم‬

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Scowl Screech

‫عبس - تجهم‬ ‫صيحة‬

Scribes of the revelation
Scruple ‫شك - ريبة‬ Sculptor ‫صانع التماثيل‬ Secular ‫علمانى‬ Seclusion ‫فصل - عزل‬

‫كتاب الوحي‬

Scribes of the revelation : Scribes of the revelation were those who shouldered the task of writing down the revelation.

The Seat of Allah

Al-kursi

‫الكرسي‬

The Seat of Allah, al-Hayyu al-Qayoum. The size of His Seat extends over all the heavens and earth. Even though it is such a huge creation, it is still much smaller than the 'Arsh (the Throne) of Allah Ta'ala. Surah 2:255 is called Ayatul Kursi. See Surah al-Baqara (2):255. See also 'Arsh. Seconder ‫معين - ظهير‬ Sect ‫طائفة - مذهب‬ Sedan ‫هودج‬ Sedateness ‫هدوء سكينة‬ Sedition ‫عصيان‬ Seditious ‫متمرد‬ Seductive ‫مضلل - مخادع‬ Self ‫ذات‬ Self-denial ‫انكار الذات‬

The Seljuk State

‫دولة السلجقة‬

The Seljuk State : These were the descendants of Turkman whose grandfather was Seljuk. They had so many offsprings who ruled Iran, Asia Minor, Iraq and Syria from the 11th to the 13th centuries A.D. They put an end to the Buyids and were .finally brought to an end by Genghis Khan and his successors
205

Seniority ‫أقدمية - أسبقية‬ Sensual ‫شهوانى‬ Sensuality ‫شهوانية‬ Serenity ‫رزانة - هدوء‬ Serdom ‫عبودية‬ Settler ‫مستوطن‬

Shafaa'a

Intercession

‫الشفاعه‬

Intercession. On the Day of Judgement Allah Ta'ala, through His Grace and Mercy, will permit the Prophet Muhammad may Allah bless him and grant him peace, to intercede on behalf of the Muslim Ummah. Three other groups may also be given leave to intercede: 1. The Anbiyaa - the prophets. 2. The Ulamaa - the people of knowledge from amongst the Muslims. 3. The Shuhadaa - the martyrs who died in the cause of Allah Ta'ala.

Shahada
• •

witness ‫شهـــــاده‬

To witness, in this world. See Shahadatain. To bear witness, on the Day of Judgement. There will be four witnesses on Yaum al-Hisab (the Day of Reckoning): 1. The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the Muslim Ummah against all the other Ummahs (communities and nations). 2. The earth and the day and the night will be given the power to speak and bear witness. 3. Everyone's limbs will bear witness for or against theirowners. 4. One's deeds. Singular of Shahadatain.
206

Shahawat Shahid Shaikh

Desires ‫شهـــــــيد‬ ‫الشيخ‬

‫شهـــوات‬

Desires and passions. It means a witness or martyr. [Other Commonly Used Spellings: SHEIKH] The word Shaikh is a title or a nickname for an elderly person or a religious leader in a community. This title is also given to a wise person. The meaning of the word Shaikh has been distorted, misused, and abused by some mass media to reflect the wrong meanings.

Shirk

‫الشرك‬

Opposite of Tawheed. To associate anyone or anything with Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Shirk is idol-worship. Idol-worship means attributing form to Allah, encasing Him in an object, a concept, a ritual or a myth - when Allah has no form, is not like anything and cannot be conceived of or perceived. Allah the Most Merciful is prepared to forgive any sin a man or Jinn may commit, except for dying in a state of Shirk. There are three types of Shirk: 1. Shirk al-Akbar (major Shirk). This is divided into four categories: o Shirk ad-Du'a : invoking or supplicating to a false deity besides Allah Ta'ala, i.e. invocation or supplication by either invoking other than Allah or invoking Him through a created being or thing, such as a prophet, an angel, a saint, or even a bank manager. o Shirk al-Niyyah wa Iraada wal Qasd : having the intention and determination to deliberately do any type of act of worship to a deity other than Allah Ta'ala.

207

Shirk at-Ta'a: obeying any created being against the command of Allah Ta'ala. Beware of such Shirk! It is very easy to commit. o Shirk al-Muhabbah: loving a created being or an object more than Allah Ta'ala. 2. Shirk aI-Asghar (minor Shirk): o Shirk ar-Rea':carrying out a religious act for worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah, e.g. giving Zakat for the sake of fame or praise. o Shirk at-Tasmee': swearing by other than Allah, and accordingly relying on other than Allah, or attaching more importance to other than Allah. 3. Shirk aI-Khafy (hidden Shirk):heing dissatisfied with what Allah has ordained for a panicular person. Hidden Shirk is to inwardly worship anything or anyone other than Allah, or to inwardly associate something or someone as a partner with Him, especially one's self.
o

Shaitan

Satan

‫شيطــــــان‬

Satan. An evil Jinn who prompts mankind and Jinn to rebel against Allah. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil that He has created . Plural: Shayateen. See Iblis. See Holy Qur'an, AnNisaa (4):117-120.

Shari'a

‫الشريعـــــــه‬

Islamic law as ordained by Allah Ta'ala. Literally it means 'a road'. The Shari'a is the legal and social modality of a people based on the revelation of their prophet. The last Shari'a in history is that of Islam. It abrogates all previous Shari'as. It is being the last, therefore the easiest to follow, for it is applicable to the whole human race wherever they are.

Shu'aib, peace be upon him ‫السلم‬

‫شعيب عليه‬

A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the people of Madyan (Midian), but they rejected him, so Allah Ta'ala destroyed them
208

with an earthquake. See Mursaleen. See Holy Qur'an,AlA'raf(7):85-93, Houd (11):84-95.

Shuhadaa

‫الـشهــداء‬

Persons who die Fee Sabeeli'IIah (in the path of Allah). Allah has designated eight things for the Shuhadaa alone: 1. They are the first to be forgiven. 2. They are the first to see their place in Jannah (Paradise) 3. They are exempted from 'Adhabul-Qabr (trials and tribulations in the grave). 4. They will be exempted from fear on the Day of Resurrection. 5. They will be crowned with the "Taj al-Waqar" (literally means "the crown of respect") on that Day. 6. They will each be married to seventy-two "Houri'een"(see Hooriah). 7. They will each be given permission to intercede on behalf of seventy-two of their relatives. 8. The sweetness of Iman will physically glow from within them. Shelter Shivering ‫مأوى‬ ‫رجفة‬

Shura (Ash) The Consultation ‫الشورى‬ Sidrat al_Muntaha

"The Consultation". Surah 42 of the Holy Qur'an.

‫سدرة المنتهي‬

"The lote-tree of the furthest limit." A tree over the Seventh Heaven near Paradise, the place where form ends and beyond which no created being may pass. See Holy Qur'an, An-Najm (53):14-18.

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Sincerity ‫إخلص‬ Sinful ‫اثيم‬ Sinless ‫بار‬ Sins ‫ذنوب‬

Siraat (As) ‫الصـــــراط‬
Literally means "road". It is the bridge over the Nar (Hellfire) which must be crossed to enter the Garden on the Day of Judgement. It is described in Ahadeeth as being narrower than the blade of a sword, thinner than a hair and as having hooks over it to snatch wrongdoers and throw them into Jahanam.Some will cross the Siraat into the Garden like lightning or like the wind, some with ease, some with difficulty, some with great difficulty and some will fall into the waiting Fire below. See Holy Qur' an, Mariam (19):71.

Sirah (As)

[Other Commonly Used Spellings: SEERAH] The writings of the companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.) about him, his personality, his life story. and his ways of handling different situations is called Sirah. The famous collections of the Sirah are At-Tabari, Ibn Ishaq, and Ibn Hisham. The Sirah is a source of reference that Muslims rely on in their daily life situations and problems.

‫السيره‬

Siwak slander

‫سواك‬ Buhtan ‫بهتان‬

A piece of branch or root of a tree called al-Arak used as a toothbrush. A false accusation, calumny, slander. Slaughter ‫ذبح - نحر‬ Slave ‫عبد - رق‬ Slaver ‫نخاس‬

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Slavery ‫عبودية - رق‬ Slave-trade ‫تجارة الرقيق‬ Slyness ‫دهاء - مكر‬ Sociability ‫حسن المعاشرة‬ Social ‫اجتماعى - عمرانى‬ Society ‫مجتمع‬ Sodomite ‫لوطى‬ Soldier ‫جندى‬ Solemn ‫مهيب وقور‬ Solemnity ‫مهابة - خشوع‬ Solidarity ‫التضامن‬ Soliloquy ‫النجوى - مناجاة النفس‬ Slogan ‫شعار‬ Solomon ‫سليمان عليه السلم‬ Solven ‫مقتدر‬ Sonship ‫بنوة‬ Soothsayer ‫منجم - عراف‬ Sorcerer ‫ساحر - عراف‬ Sorceress ‫ساحرة - عرافة‬ Sorcery ‫سحر‬ Sordid ‫بخيل‬ Sorrow ‫حزن - الم‬ Sorcery ‫السحر السود‬ Sot ‫سكير‬ Souls ‫ارواح‬ Sovereignty ‫سيادة‬

The specific reason

Asbab An-Nazul

‫النزول‬

‫أسباب‬

The specific reason and circumstances for the revelation of various verses of the Holy Qur'an. For example: Surat at211

Taubah, Ayat 79-80 (the story of Abu 'Aqeel). In 9AH the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked for contributions to finance his Tabuk expedition. Being very poor, but still yearning to contribute, Abu 'Aqeel decided to offer his services, which lasted from dusk till dawn. He received only two handfuls of barley in payment. He took the entire payment and presented it to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. A group of Munafiqeen (hypocrites) saw this and started to deride Abu 'Aqeel by saying, "Look at Abu 'Aqeel, does he think that Allah is in need of such a pathetic donation?" Allah Ta'ala became so angry with them that He immediately sent down the Holy Spirit Jibreel (The Angel Gabriel), peace be on him, to reveal Surah 9: 79-80 to Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Spell

‫رقية‬

Spendthrift

Bukhl

‫بخل‬

Spendthrift. Allah Ta'ala has forbidden mankind to be either misers or over-generous to a fault. See Holy Qur'an, Suwar : Al-Isra (17):26-29, Al-Furqan (25):67.

(The) spider 'Ankaboot (Al)

‫العنكـبــوت‬

"The spider" The spider who made its web over the Ghar Thaur (Cave of Thaur) where the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, hid from the Quraish on his way to Madinah. Surah 29 of the Holy Qur' an. Spiritualism ‫روحانية‬ Spleen ‫الحقد‬ Splendid ‫بهى - فاخر‬ Splendour ‫بهاء - رونق‬

The Spoils of War

Anfaal (Al)
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‫النفـــال‬

"The Spoils of War". Surah 8 of the Holy Qur'an.

Spoliation ‫نهب - سلب - اغتصاب‬ Spontaneously ً ‫اختيارا - طوعا‬ ً Squad ‫فرقة - شرذمة‬ Stateliness ‫ابهة - فخامة‬ Statuary ‫صانع التماثيل‬ Status ‫مكانة‬ Statute ‫سنة - قانون‬ Steadfast ‫ثابت - راسخ‬ Steady ‫ثابت - مثابر‬ Stickler ‫مكابر - معاند‬ Stinginess ‫بخل - شح‬ Stingy ‫بخيل - شحيح‬ Stoop ‫انحناء‬ Straightness ‫اعتدال - استقامة‬ Strait ‫مضيق - بوغاز‬ Strayed ‫ضل‬ Stress ‫اهمية - خطورة‬ Stricken ‫منكوب‬ Stubborn ‫عنيد‬ Suavity ‫دماثة - رقة - طلوة‬ Subdue ‫يخضع‬

Subhan Allah

Glory be to Allah

‫سبحان الله‬

Glory be to Allah. Far removed is He from anything imperfect associated with Him and far removed is He from anything unsuitable ascribed to Him!

Subhanahu wa Ta'ala

‫سبحانه وتعالي‬

"May He be Glorified and Exalted." One of the many ways of glorifying Allah the Almighty. It means "Glory be to Allah on

213

High. Far removed is He from any imperfection". The shortened form of this glorification is "Allah Ta'ala". Subjection ‫اخضاع - خضوع - اذعان‬ Subjectivity ‫ذاتية‬ Subjugate ‫قهر - استعبد‬ Sublimity ‫سمو - رفعة - جلل‬ Suborder ‫قبيلة - طائفة‬ Subordinates ‫التابعون‬ Subsequence ‫تبعية‬ Success ‫نجاح - فلح‬ Successor ‫خليفة‬ Sufferance ‫معاناة‬

Sulaiman, peace be uon him ‫السلم‬

‫سليمان عليه‬

Solomon. A prophet of Islam and a wise king. He was the son of the Prophet (and King) Dawood (David), peace be on both of them. He ruled the north-western Arabian Peninsula for about forty years. Allah Ta'ala gifted him with many powers,which included having power over the winds, being able to converse with the birds and ants and other animals, and having power over the evil Jinn. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Anbiya (21): 79-82, An-Naml (27):15-44, Saba (34):12-14, Saad (38):30-40.See Mursaleen.

Sunnah traditions ‫السنه‬

All the traditions and practices of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that are recorded not only in such books as Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, but also in living people to whom these traditions and practices have been transmitted, from person to person, from then until now.Although the Sunnah has come to refer almost exclusively to the practice of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him
214

and grant him peace, it also comprises the customs of the first generation of Muslims in Madina. They learned their Islam directly from the Prophet, not from books, and transmitted what they had learned to the next generation. Thus they have become models whom all Muslims should follow. The Sunnah is a complete behaviourial science that has been systematically kept outside the learning framework of this society. It cannot be learned from books, although books can be helpful. It can only be learned from real Muslims who are true teachers. Plural: Sunnan.

Surah

‫ســـــــورة‬

A chapter of the Holy Qur'an. Literally means "a form". There are 114 Suwar in the Holy Qur'an. Plural: Suwar. Superstition Supplication Support Surrender Sustenance Suzerainty Sway Swear Sword Sowrdman Sylph Symmetry Swearing ‫سيادة‬ ‫سلطة - نفوذ‬ ‫اقسم - حلف‬ ‫يمين - قسم‬ ‫سيف - حسام‬ ‫سياف‬ ‫حورية‬ ‫تناسق‬
215

‫خرافة‬ ‫تضرع - توسل‬

Supplication: Invoking Allah for whatever one desires. ‫معونة‬ ‫تسليم - استسلم‬ ‫الرزق‬

‫‪Synagogue‬‬

‫مجمع اليهود‬

‫612‬

T Taaghout (pl. Tawaagheet) ‫الطاغوت‬

The Sharee'ah definition of Taaghout is: “Anyone (or anything) that is worshipped, obeyed or followed other than Allah”. In other words, Taaghout is a false deity (god). If someone worships a person, and that person accepts to be worshipped then he is Taaghout. Likewise, if a person makes legislation he too is Taaghout, as only Allah has the right to legislate. Taaghout can be a ruler (who does not rule by Islam), police (who do not enforce Islam), a stone, constitution, animal, scholar (who does not judge by the Sharee'ah), celebrity etc. Whoever follows or worships the Taaghout, he will become one himself. Taboo ‫محرم‬ - ‫تحريم‬

Tabuk

‫تبوك‬

A famous town 400 miles north of Madinah al-Munawarah close to Shaam. In 9AH the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, hearing that the Byzantines were gathering a large army to march against the Muslims, led a large expedition to Tabuk, on what was to be his last campaign, only to find that the Byzantine army had withdrawn back into its own territory.

Tadabour Meditation and consideration Taghabunn (At) Mutual Loss ‫التغابن‬ Tâghût ‫طاغوت‬
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‫التدبر‬

"Mutual Loss". Another name for the Final Houn Surah 64 of the Holy Qur'an.

: The word Tâghût covers a wide range meanings: It means anything worshipped other than the Real God (Allah), i.e. all the false deities. It may be Satan, devils, idols, stones, sun, stars, angels, human beings e.g. Jesus, Messengers of Allah, who were falsely worshipped and taken as Tâghûts. Likewise saints, graves, rulers, leaders, etc., are falsely worshipped, and wrongly followed.

Tahqiq Taif

‫تحقيق‬ ‫الطائف‬

Recitation of the Holy Qur'an in a very slow manner. This method is used only when one is learning or teaching Taj weed. A city fifty miles east of Makkah, where the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went to preach after being rejected, beaten and nearly killed by the pagan Quraish of Makkah in the second year before Hijra. There too he suffered beatings and humiliation. On his return journey to Makkah, Allah Ta'ala revealed to him that although the people of Taif had rejected him, the Jinn had accepted him. It was then that Surarul Jinn (Surah 72) was revealed to him.

Tajweed ‫تجويد‬
Recitation of the Holy Qur'an with precise articulation and exact intonation.

Takathur (Al):

‫التكاثر‬

"The Race for Worldly Gains". Surah 102 of the Holy Qur' an. Takweer (At) The Overthrowing ‫التكوير‬ "The Overthrowing". Surah 81 of the Holy Qur'an.

Talbiya

‫تلبيه‬

The call that the pilgrims make to their Lord on the Hajj, saying: "Labbaik, labbaik, Allahumma labbaik." ("I am totally at Your service, I am totally at Your service, O Allah I am totally at Your service.")
218

"La shareeka laka labbaik." ("You have no partner, I am totally at Your service.") "Innal hamda wa n'imata laka wal mulk." ("Truly, the praise and the blessing are Yours, and the dominion.") "La shareeka lak." ("You have no partners.") Tale Talisman ‫اسطورة‬ ‫طلسم‬

Talut Tamper Taqwa

‫طـــــالوت‬ ‫عبث‬ ‫تحرش‬

King Saul. He led his army against the army of Jalut (Goliath). See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):247-249.

Fear of Allah ‫التقــــــوى‬

Fear of Allah, being careful, knowing your place in the cosmos. Its proof is the experience of awe, of Allah, which inspires a person to be on guard against wrong action and eager for actions pleasing to Allah. Fearing Allah as He should be feared is one of the major signs of being a faithful Muslim. Piety and restraint (through Taqwa) in times of hardship are signs of having achieved the essence and spirit of Islam, and thus Allah's blessing. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Imran (3):102103,AS-Hashr (59):18-19.

Tariq (Al) The Night Visitant ‫الطــــارق‬
"The Night Visitant". Surah 86 of the Holy Qur'an.

Tarteel ‫ترتيل‬
Measured recitation of the Holy Qur'an taking extreme care with regard to the rules of slow reading, pausing and stopping at every indicated point.

Tashahhud

‫التشهــد‬
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Reciting the following silently while one is in Qu'ud (i.e. the sitting position) during Salat: "Attahiyatu lillahe wa salawatu tayibat. Assalamu 'alaika ya aiuhan nabiu wa rahmatullahe wa barakatuhu. Wa assalamu 'alaina wa 'ala 'ibadillahe saleheen. Ashadu an Ia illaha illal lah. Wa ashadu anna Muhammadar rasoolu' llah." ("Greetings are for Allah and all prayers and all good. Peace be on you 0 Prophet and the Mercy of Allah and His blessing. Peace be on us and on the right-acting slaves of Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of , recitation of the Tashahhud is followed by recitation of Salat al-Ibrahimiya. See Salatul-Janaza.

Tasneem

‫تسنيم‬

Name of a fountain in Jannah (Paradise) whose drink is superior to the purest of wines. Its nectar will only be drunk by those near est to Allah Ta'ala. Literally means "rich and elevated". See Holy Qur' an, Al-Mutafifeen (83):27-28.

Taubah

‫التوبــــه‬

Returning to correct action after error, turning away from wrong action to Allah and asking His Forgiveness, turning to face Allah whereas before one turned one's back. Name of one of the eight gates of Jannah (Paradise). See Jannah. "Repentance". Another name for Al-Baraah. Surah 9 of the Holy Qur' an.

Tauhîd
(A)

‫التوحيد‬

: It has three aspects; A, B and C:
Oneness of the Lordship of Allah; Tauhîd-ar-Rububiyya: To believe that there is only one Lord for all the universe, its Creator, Organizer, Planner, Sustainer, and the Giver of Security, etc., and that is Allah.

220

(B)

(C)

Oneness of the worship of Allah; Tauhîd-al-Uluhiyya: To believe that none has the right to be worshipped [e.g. praying, invoking, asking for help (from the unseen), swearing, slaughtering sacrifices, giving charity, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.], but Allah. Oneness of the Names and the Qualities of Allah;

Tauhîd-al-Asmâ was-Sifat: ‫والصفات‬

‫توحيد السماء‬

To believe that : (i) we must not name or qualify Allah except with what He or His Messenger saw has named or qualified Him; (ii) none can be named or qualified with the Names or Qualifications of Allah; e.g. Al-Karim; (iii) we must confirm Allah's all qualifications which Allah has stated in His Book (the Qur'ân) or mentioned through His Messenger (Muhammad saw ) without changing them or ignoring them completely or twisting the meanings or giving resemblance to any of the created things; e.g. Allah is present over His Throne as mentioned in the Qur'ân. (V. 20 : 5): "The Most Beneficent (i.e. Allah) Istawa (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne" over the seventh heaven; and He only comes down over the first (nearest) heaven (to us) during the day of 'Arafât (Hajj, i.e. 9th Dhul-Hijja) and also during the last third part of the night, as mentioned by the Prophet saw , but He is with us by His Knowledge only, not by His Personal Self (Bi-Dhatihi), "There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the AllSeer." (The Qur'ân, V. 42:11). This holy Verse confirms the quality of hearing and the quality of sight for Allah without resemblance to others; and likewise He also said: "To one whom I have created with Both My Hands," (V. 38:75); and He also said:

221

"The Hand of Allah is over their hands.": (V. 48:10, The Qur'ân). This confirms two Hands for Allah, but there is no similarity for them. This is the Faith of all true believers, and was the Faith of all the Prophets of Allah from Noah, Abraham, Moses and Christ till the last of the Prophets, Muhammad saw . It is not like as some people think that Allah is present every-where, here, there and even inside the breasts of men. These three aspects of Tauhîd are included in the meanings of Lâ ilâha ill Allâh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah). It is also essential to follow Allah's Messenger Muhammad saw : Wajûb Al-Itteba' and it is a part of Tauhîd-al-Uluhiyya. This is included in the meaning: "I testify that Muhammad saw is the Messenger of Allah" and this means, "None has the right to be followed after Allah's Book (the Qur'ân), but Allah's Messenger saw ". [See the Qur'ân (V. 59:7) and (V. 3:31)].

Tawaf

‫طــــواف‬

The circling of the Holy Ka'aba. Tawaf is done in sets of seven circuits, after each of which it is necessary to pray two Rak'at,preferably at or near the Maqaam al-Ibrahim. See Tawaf al-Ifada.

Tawheed (Al) Monotheism The Divine Unity

‫التوحيد‬

The Divine Unity, Unity in its most profound sense. Allah is One in His Essence and His Attributes and His Acts. The whole universe and what it contains is One unified event which in itself has no lasting reality. Allah is the Real, AI-Haqq. Although Allah is indivisible and beyond conception, Tawheed can be viewed from four distinct perspectives: 1. Tawheed aI-Rububiyah : Unity of Lordship. To perceive that there is only one Lord, the Master and Creator of the Universe, Who oversees and orders it in every moment, and that He is Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.
222

2. Tawheed aI-Uluhiyah : Unity of Worship. To realise that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah "Wahdahu Ia shareeka'lah" ("Alone without partner"). 3. Tawheed al-Asma wa Sifaat : Unity of Names and Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. To comprehend that: o None can qualify or name Allah except as He or Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, have named or qualified Him. o None can be named or qualified with the Names or the Attributes that belong only to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. For example, none maybe called "AI-Muhyee" ("the Giver of Life") except Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala Himself. o We must accept all the Ayat and Ahadeeth (Sahih)regarding the Attributes of Allah without altering their meaning in any way whatsoever. For a full list of the Attributes of Allah Ta'ala. 4. Tawheed al-Itabaa : Unity in following the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. To believe in and recite the words "Ashadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah" ("I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah") and to follow the way of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, as much as one is able, in life and worship. It is only by following the way of Islam that the true nature of Tawhid becomes apparent. Another name for Suratul Ikhlas.

Tawrat:

‫التـــوراة‬

The revelation received by Moses, the Law of Moses often used to designate all the books of the Old Testament.

Tax ‫ضريبة‬ Taxation ‫الضرائب‬ Tayammum

‫الخراج‬ ‫التيمم‬

223

Tayammum literally means 'to intend to do a thing'. As an Islamic legal term, it refers to wiping one's hands and face with clean earth as a substitution for ablution when water cannot be obtained Temerity Temper Temperance Temperate Temple ‫مجازفة - تهور‬ ‫مزاج - طبع‬ ‫اعتدال - عفة‬ ‫معتدل - عفيف‬ ‫هيكل - معبد‬ ‫اغراء‬ ‫ميل‬ ‫عقيدة - اعتقاد- مذهب‬ ‫توتر‬ ‫مقاطعة - قطر‬ ‫فزع - رعب‬ ‫الجل‬ ‫وصية - عهد - ميثاق‬ ‫يشهد‬ ‫شهادة‬ ‫شاهد - شهادة‬

Temptation Tendency Tenet Tension Territory Terror Term Testament Testify Testimonial Testimony

Thamud

‫ثـمـود‬

Successors to the people of 'Ad. They lived in north-western Arabia between what is now known as Madinah and Syria. Their prophet was Saleh (peace be on him). Allah Ta'ala
224

destroyed them with an earthquake. See Holy Qur' an, Al-A'raf (7):73-79, Hud (11):61-68, Ash'Shu'araa (26):141-159, AnNaml (27):45-53, Az-Zariyat (51):43-45,Al-Qamar(54):23-31. Theism Theologians Theology Theosophy Thicket Thrall Thralldom Threat ‫علم الكلم‬ ‫تصوف‬ ‫ايكة‬ ‫رق‬ - ‫عبودية‬ ‫عبودية - استعباد‬ ‫تهديد - وعيد‬ ‫التأليه‬ ‫علماء الكلم‬

The Throne of Allah

The Throne of Allah. The 'Arsh is the immense starless heaven that encompasses the visible Universe, which is referred to as the Kursi. Sayyidina 'Ali, may Allah he pleased with him, said that the relationship of the Kursi to the 'Arsh is like that of a small ring lying in the middle of a vast desert. This is why 'Arsh is correctly translated as 'Throne' and Kursi as 'Seat or 'Foot-stool', although sometimes those who are unaware of the existence and nature of the Arsh translate Kursi as 'Throne'. Thunder Thunderbolt Tidiness ‫رعد‬ ‫صاعقة‬ ‫اتقان‬

'Arsh

‫العرش‬

Tilawat

‫تـــــــلوات‬

This word has a variety of meanings, depending on the context:

225

Studying the Qur'an in order to understand it in the way it should be understood. See Al-Baqara (2):121. Meditating and reflecting on the Qur'an's meanings in order to enrich one's life and knowledge. Reading and reciting the Qur'an by oneself. Reading and reciting and conveying its meanings to others. Approaching and acting on the Qur'an in such a way that it becomes part of one's inner self, thus helping one to attain perfect prayer and to avoid any form of evil or shameful deeds and to be an upright person in the sight of Allah Ta'ala. See Holy Qur'an,Al -'Ankaboot(29):45. Tolerance Tomb ‫التسامح‬ ‫قبر‬

Toor

The Mount

‫طـــور‬

"The Mount". Toori Sineen is the original name for Mount Sinai, on which the Prophet Musa (Moses) received the revelation of the Torah from Allah. Surah 52 of the Holy Qur' an. Torture Traditional Traditions Tranquility Treachrry Treasury Treatment Treaty ‫معاهدة‬ ‫هدوء‬ ‫عذاب تعذيب‬ ‫النقلى‬ ‫تراث - تقاليد‬ - ‫سكينة‬ ‫خيانة - غدر‬ ‫بيت المال‬ ‫معاملة - تصرف‬

226

Asabiyyah tirbal loyalty
It means tirbal loyalty, nationalism. Tribe ‫قبيلة - عشيرة‬

‫العصبية‬

Tribe of Israel

Bani Israeel

‫بني اسرائيل‬

"Tribe of Israel". The descendants of the twelve sons of Yacoub, who was also called Israeel, the son of Ishaq, who was, the son of the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be on them all. Another name for Suratul al-Isra. Surah 1 7of the Holy Qur' an. Tribute Trifles Triumph Troth Truce Truth ‫جزية - خراج‬ Abateel ‫امانة - ميثاق‬ Hudnh ‫هدنة‬ ‫الرشد‬ ‫أباطيل‬ ‫نصر - فوز‬

The Truthful

As-Siddiq

‫الصديق‬

"The Truthful". This title was given to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related his experience of al-Isra (his night journey to the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem) wal Mi'raj (and his ascension through the seven heavens) to Abu Bakr , may Allah he pleased with him, he immediately and without any reservation replied "Sadaqt" : "You have spoken the truth". From that time on, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, came to be known as Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The Truthfulness

‫صدق‬

Trustworthy

Ameen

‫المين‬
227

The Honest : An attribute of the Prophet (peace be upon him) Trusty Turban Tyrant ‫امين - صادق‬ ‫عمامة‬ ‫ مستبد‬‫ظالم‬ ‫طاغية‬

228

U Uhud ‫)جبل‬ ‫) أحد‬

A mountain just outside Madina, much loved by the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, at the foot of which the Muslims fought their second major battle against the pagan Qur'aish of Makka in 3AH. The Qur'aish army of 3,000 men, under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, attacked the Muslim army of about 700-1,000 men. The battle went well at first, but the Muslims nearly lost the battle for two reasons. Firstly, some fifty archers disobeyed the Prophet Muhammad and left their posts, leaving the Muslims open to an attack from their rear; and secondly, there was treachery on the part of some 300 Munafiqeen (hypocrites) led by 'Abdallah ibn Ubai, who deserted the Muslims during the battle. Many great companions, and in panicular the uncle of the Prophet, Hamza, 'the lion of Allah', were killed in this battle. See Bani Nadheer. See Holy Qur'an, Aali 'Imran (3):121-128, 140- 180.

Ulil 'Amr

‫أولى المر‬

Muslims who are in charge or in authonty, or who are leaders. The Muslims are ordered to obey all their commands as long as they do not contradict the commandments of Allah Ta'ala and the teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Holy Qur' an, An-Nisaa (4):59.

Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, May Allah be pleased with him ‫عمر بن الخطاب‬
Umar ibn al-Khattab. The second of the four "Al-Khulafaa arRashideen", the Rightly-Guided Khalifas, the other three being: 1. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. 2. Uthman ibn 'Affan. 3. Ali ibn Abi Talib. May Allah be pleased with all of them. Umar was renowned for his justness and strength, and for his refusal to compromise
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the teachings of Islam in any way. He was the Khalifaa from 13AH to 23 AH. He asked Allah for martyrdom in the way of Allah in Madina, and his request was answered. Umar died after be ing stabbed in the stomach while doing the dawn prayer in the Mosque of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

Umm'me

An unlettered person. This term is used in the Qur'an to describe the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who could neither read nor write and who never received any formal education. To the unbeliever here is food for thought: how could an illiterate man have brought such a completely perfect book (the Holy Qur'an), perfect in its meaning, message, grammar and overall content, if it were not with divine help? No other book exists on earth that has such perfect content and structure. A challenge to all unbelievers! Mankind and Jinn! Assemble together and try to produce just one Surah (chapter) like it. You will never be able to do it, even if you were to try until the Day of Resurrection you will not succeed! No created being has ever been or ever will be able to meet this challenge, for the Holy Qur'an is truly the Book of Allah. Plural: Ummiyeen. See Khatam Anbiyaa. The Umayyad Caliphs (40-132 A.H./661-750 A.D.)

‫المي‬

‫الخلفة الموية‬

The Umayyad Caliphs (40-132 A.H./661-750 A.D.) : The Muslim Umayyad Caliphs belong to the Banu Umayyah of the Quraish. The first among them was Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan and the last was Marwan II. Damascus was their capital. After being overcome by the Abbasids, they moved to Andalusia and ruled in Cordoba from 138-422 A.H./756-1031 A.D. Their first ruler in Andalusia was `Abdul-Rahman Al-Dakhil. Their rule was brought to an end at the hands of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (Kings of Petty States).

Ummah

Nation

‫أمــــه‬

Community or Nation. The body of the Muslims as one distinct and integrated community. The Unimah of Muhammad, may
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Allah bless him and grant him peace, refers to every Ins wal Jinn (mankind and Jinn) born after the final message was revealed through the Holy Prophet Muhammad who have embraced Islam. The Ummah ofMuhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him and all his community (those who have lived in the past, those who are alive now and those who will live in the future), can be subdivided into two groups: 1. Ummat ad-Da'wa - the nation that was called upon to believe in Allah Ta'ala and the Last Day. 2. Ummat al-Isteajaba - the nation that responded to the call of Muhammad. Another name for this Ummah is "Al- Ummah al-Islamiah" ("the Islamic Nation"). Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala commanded the Ummat al-Isteajaba to hold together and not to disagree. Unfonunately , this decree has been ignored, and in fulfilment of the Last Messenger's prophecy, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, there are now 73 different groups of Muslims, only one of whom possesses and protects the original teachings of Islam as brought and embodied by him.

Ummiyeen Unlettered persons ‫أميين‬
Unlettered persons. Singular: Umm-me.

Umra

‫عمــــــره‬

A pilgrimage to Makkah, but not during the Hajj period. It is also called "the Lesser Pilgrimage". Umra consists of four steps: 1. Put on the Ihram at the appointed Miqat station. Then proceed to Makka reciting the Talbiyah (aloud for men and quietly for women). See Ihram, Miqat. Talbiyah. 2. Do Tawaf of the Ka'aba seven times. During the Tawaf one may do any Du'a (and in any language) to Allah Ta'ala if one wishes. But remember to point the palm of the right hand and say "Allahu
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Akbar" at the start of each circuit. Each circuit starts and ends at the Hajar al-Aswad (the Black Stone). See Tawaf, Du'a. 3. Go to Safa and start the Sa'i to Marwa. The Sa'i consists of walking between Safa and Marwa seven times (each direction is considered as one time). Men must jog between two prescribed points. 4. Shave or trim the hair after the completion of the Sa'i. It is then permissible to change out of lhram. Synonym for Ruqba. See Ruqba. ‫مسلم به‬ ‫معصوم‬ ‫ظالم - جائر‬ ‫موحد‬ ‫فريد‬ ‫العالم‬ ‫الكون‬

Undisputed Unerring Unfair Unified Unique Universe Uulawful Unqualified Unread Unreserved Unrest

‫غير شرعى - حرام‬ ‫عديم الهلية‬ ‫امى‬ ‫صريح - مخلص‬

‫اضطراب - قلق‬

The Unseen.

‫الغيب‬

1. 'Ilmul Ghaib : Knowledge of the Unseen. No human has 'Ilmul Ghaib. Only Allah Ta' ala has total command of that knowledge.
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2. BiI Ghaib : In the unseen. All Muslims believe in the Unseen, i.e. all that is revealed to us by Allah Ta'ala in the Holy Qur'an and by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about the Malaika (angels) and the life in the Akhira (Hereafter) in all its aspects, even though they are invisible to our eyes. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):3. Uprising Urbanization Usage Usurer Usury ‫مرابى‬ ‫الربا‬ ‫انتفاضة‬ ‫تحضر‬ ‫استعمال - عادة - تقليد - عرف‬

Uthman Ibn 'Affan, may Allah be pleased with him ‫عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه‬
One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He was the third of the four Rightly-Guided Khalifaas (Al-Khulafaa arRashideen). He ruled from 24AH to 36AH. He was martyred at his home by the supporters of Abdallah ibn Sabaa, the infamous Jew who pretended he had become a Muslim in order to cause discord between Uthman and the Muslim Ummah by creating a new and false sect within Islam. See Khalifaa.

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V
Vain Vanities Vainglory Valiant ‫ عبث‬Abateel ‫باطل‬ ‫أباطيل‬ ‫غرور‬

‫غطرسة‬ ‫ صنديد‬‫شجاع‬

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Valid Validity Valorous Valour Valuable Value Variable Variance Vassal Vault

‫شرعى - قانونى‬ ‫ قانونية - صدق‬‫جرىء - جسور‬ ‫شرعية‬ ‫باسل‬

‫جراءة - شجاعة- بأس‬ ‫ثمين - نفيس‬ ‫ثمن - قيمة‬ ‫متغير - متبدل‬ ‫اختلف - تباين‬ ‫المزارع القطاعى‬ ‫سرداب‬ ‫محترم - مبجل‬ ‫احترام - كرم‬ ‫انتقام - ثأر‬ ‫مجازفة - مغامرة‬ ‫لفظى‬ - ‫شفهى‬

Venerable Veneration Vengeance Venture Verbal

verdict

Hukm ‫فتوى حكم‬

The closest equivalent in the English language is "verdict". It usually applies to a judgement on legal issues, especially with regard to religious matters. Verification Verity ‫صدق‬ ‫تثبت‬ ‫تحقيق‬ ‫صحة‬

Verse

Ayah

‫آية‬
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A verse of the Holy Qur'an. Literally means "a sign". Plural: Ayat. Verve Vestal Vicar Victor Victory Vindication Violation Violators Violence Virgin Virtual Vitue Visible Vitiation ‫حمية‬ - ‫حماس‬

‫طاهر - عذرى - راهبة‬ ‫قسيس‬ ‫غالب - منتصر‬ ‫النصر - الغلبة‬ ‫تبرير - تزكية‬ ‫نقض‬ ‫اغتصاب‬

‫منتهكى الحرمات‬ ‫قسوة‬ ‫بكر - عذراء‬ ‫حقيقى - جوهرى - فعال‬ ‫فضيلة‬ ‫منظور - مرأى‬ ‫افساد - اتلف‬ - ‫عنف‬

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Vizier

‫وزير‬

Vizier is the Anglicized form of the Arabic word wazir, a minister, usually chief minister, to a Caliph or Muslim ruler or sultan. On occasion a vizier was in effect the governor. Vocation Volition Voluntary Volunteer Voracity Vortex Votary ‫الدعوة‬ ‫ارادة - مشيئة - اختيار‬ ‫تطوعى - اختيارى - ارادى‬ ‫متطوع‬ ‫شراهة - نهم‬ ‫اعصار - دوامة‬ ‫نذير‬

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W Wag Wakil ‫ماجن‬ ‫وكيل‬

Other Commonly Used Spellings: WAKEEL A person who is an authorized repesentative or proxy. Also can mean lawyer in Urdu.

Walee A guardian

‫والـــــي‬

A guardian, aperson who has responsibility for another person; used particularly for the person who 'gives' a woman in marriage. Also someone who is a 'friend' of Allah, one of the Sabiqoon and Muqarraboon. Singular of Awliyaa. See Awliyaa. War ‫حرب‬ ‫حذر‬ ‫تحذير‬ ‫حلل - مباح‬

Wariness Warning Warrantable Warrior

‫محارب‬

Wasaya Wills and testaments

Wills and testaments. Bequests. Allah Ta'ala commands us to make a bequest of our goods to our parents and next of kin. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Baqara (2):180. The exact manner of distribution of one's goods is complicated and therefore should be studied very carefully before writing out one's will. Basically one can bequeath up to one-third of one's property to whomever one wishes, but the remaining two-thirds must be

‫وصيه‬

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divided between one's surviving relatives in fixed shares, as delineated by the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Singular: Wasaya.

Washm Tattoo mark ‫وشم‬
Tattoo mark. It is forbidden for a Muslim to have a tattoo on his or her body. Wasm = tattoo. Wasteful Wayfarer Weal Welfare Whim Will ‫مبذر‬ ‫عابر سبيل‬ ‫رخاء - خير‬ ‫رفاهية سعادة‬ ‫هوى - ميل‬ ‫ارادة - مشيئة‬ ‫حكمة- فطنة‬ ‫عاقل‬ ‫استرداد - سحب‬ ‫تشهد‬

Wisdom Wise Withdrawal Witness

Witr

‫وتـــر‬

A Salat which has an odd number of Rak'at: two Rak'at, followed by one Rak'a. This Salat is prayed last thing at night before one goes to sleep, or else delayed and prayed at the end of the Tahajjud Salat by those who rise in the night, seeking the pleasure and the face of Allah Ta'ala.

Wizard Worship

‫عراف‬

‫منجم‬

‫ساحر‬ ‫عبــــــــاده‬

Ibadah

Acts of worship and adoration in utmost submission and obedience and with utmost love to Allah Ta'ala. In other words, a term that indicates all that pleases Allah, including sayings

239

and actions of the heart or limbs. Love, fear, reverence, desire (hope), trust and sincerity are some forms of worship from within the heart. Prayers, attending to someone's needs, invocation, supplication and sacrifices are some forms of worship of the limbs. Ibadah is to worship Allah as He wishes to be worshipped. See Arkan . Worshipful Worshipper Worth Worthiness Wound Wrathful Wreak Wrestle Wrongdoer Wrongful ‫جرح‬ ‫ساخط - غاضب‬ ‫نقمة‬ ‫كفاح - صراع‬ ‫فاعل الثم‬ ‫مسىء‬ ‫مبجل‬ ‫عابد‬ ‫قيمة - فضل‬ ‫استحقاق - اهلية‬

Wudu ‫وضـــــــوء‬
Ritual washing with water alone to be pure for the prayer. The way to do Wudu is: 1. Wash hands thrice*. 2. Wash mouth thrice*. 3. Wash nostrils thrice*. 4. Wash face thrice*. 5. Wash right forearm thrice*. 6. Wash left forearm thrice*. 7. Wipe scalp and nape of neck and then ears once,(or twice or thrice).
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8. Wash right foot thrice*. 9. Wash left foot thrice*. *Once or twice is also allowed. See Holy Qur'an, An-Nisa (4):43, Al-Ma'idah (5):7. You must already be in Ghusl for Wudu to be effective. You should ensure that your private parts and underclothes are clean before doing Wudu. Once you have done Wudu you remain in Wudu until it is broken by: 1. Any of the conditions which make it necessary to have a Ghusl. See Ghusl. 2. Emission of impurities from the private parts: urine, faeces, wind, prostatic fluid, or other discharge. 3. Loss of consciousness by whatever means: usually by sleep or fainting. 4. Physical contact between man and woman where sexual pleasure is either intended or experienced. 5. Touching your penis with the inside of your hand or fingers. 6. Leaving Islam. It is necessary to be in Ghusl and in Wudu (or alternatively to do Tayammum under certain circumstances) to do the Salat (Prayer) and to hold a copy of the Qur'an. See Tayammum .

Wusta

‫) العصر‬

‫)الوسطى‬

Middle. Salatul Wusta refers to the middle prayer, which is the 'Asr prayer (the third of the five compulsory daily prayers), for those whose day begins at dawn. However, some say it refers to the Fajr prayer. This is because the Muslims follow a lunar calendar: the first day of a new lunar month is only determined when the new moon is sighted shortly after sunset. Therefore the Muslim day begins at Maghreb, and the first prayer of that new day is Maghreb, which makes the third (middle) prayer Fajr.

241

Y Yacoub, Peace be upon him ‫السلم‬ ‫يعقوب عليه‬

Jacob. A prophet of Islam. He was also known as Israel. His twelve sons each became head of their own tribe and these were known as the twelve tribes of Israel. Jacob was the son of Ishaaq, who was the son of Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on them. See Mursaleen.

Yahoud The Jews

‫يهــــــود‬

The Jews. This term is correctly used to describe the three tribes of Israel - the tribes of Judah, Levi and Benjamin - who after the twelve tribes had escaped from Egypt with Moses, peace be on him, and settled in the Holy Land, separated from the other tribes of Israel (who were known as the Israelites) and became known as the Judahites. The term 'Judahite' was shortened to 'Judean', which was then eventually shortened to 'Jew'. The Judahite Jews re-wrote and altered the Torah several times and formulated the Talmud (incorporating the Mishnah, the Jerusalem Gemara, the Babylonian Gemara and the Midrash), and their religion became known as Judaism. 'Yahoud' is the Arabic equivalent of 'Judahite'. It is clear, therefore, that the term 'Yahoud' can only really be correctly used to describe the Middle Eastern and Sephardhic Jews; and can only be very loosely applied to the Ashkenazim Jews who are descended from the turkic Russian tribe of the Khazars who embraced Judaism in the seventh century, but who were not originally descended from any of the twelve tribes of Israel. It is for this reason that some commentators identify the Ashkenazim Jews with 'Jewj wa Majewj', Gog and Magog, (since they are 'Jews', but not Judahite Jews), about whom it is prophesied in Ezekiel 38-39 that they will come from their place in the far north (Russia), helped by many nations, and

242

attack the land of Israel, and that eventually there will be a mightly battle in which they will all be destroyed.

Yahya, Peace be upon him

‫يحي عليه السلم‬

John the Baptist. A prophet of Islam. Son of the Prophet Zakaria and Al-Yasaabat (Elizabeth), and the maternal cousin of Mariam (Mary), Mother of Isa (Jesus), peace be on all of them. He was therefore a cousin of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), Son of Mariam (Mary). He was sent by Allah Ta'ala to prepare the way for the Prophet Isa. The Prophet Yahya was imprisoned, then later beheaded by Herod in order to prove his infatuation for a dancing girl (his niece). It is unfortunate that the Nasara (Christians) choose to call him John, because the name Yahya has a special place in history. He was the first man ever to be called Yahya. See Holy Qur'an, Aali'Imran (3):39,Al-An'am (6):85, Maryam (19):12-15, Al-Anbiya (2l):90-91.

Yarmuk Yaum al-jaza

‫اليرموك‬ ‫يوم الجزاء‬

A place in Shaam. Site of a famous battle.
Literally means the Day of Payment. Another name for the Day of Judgement, when mankind and Jinn will be paid what is due to them, either by being sent to Jannah (Paradise) or to Nar (Hellfire).

Yaum-al-qiama

‫يوم القيامه‬

Literally means the Day of Standing. This is the day when we will be raised from our graves and will stand while waiting to be judged by Allah Ta'ala. This day has many names, including: 1. Al-Qari'a (Day of Clamour). 2. At-Taama al-Kubra (The Complete Covering). For a complete list of the names and description of the Yaum al-Qiama.

243

Yaqeen Certainty ‫يقين‬
Certainty. Faith in general is based on the Yaqeen of the believer. It has three stages: 1. Ilm al-Yaqeen - knowledge of certainty. 2. Ayn al-Yaqeen - source of certainty. 3. Haqq al-Yaqeen - truth of certainty. The Raja of Mahmudabad defined them thus in this metaphor: 1. You are told there is a fire in the forest. 2. You reach the fire in the forest and see it for yourself. 3. You are the fire in the forest. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Hijr (15):99

Yatama Orphans

‫اليتامى‬

Orphans. Singular: Yateem. See Yateem.

Yateem Orphan ‫يتيم‬
Orphan. It is a major sin to harm, abuse or cheat orphans in any way whatsoever. Allah Ta'ala will give a great reward to anyone who takes care of orphans. Plural: Yatama. See Holy Qur'an,Al-Baqara(2):220, An-Nisa(4):2,6,10,127,Al-Isra (17):34.

Yathrib

‫يثرب‬
Yathrib : The old name of Medina

Yunus, , Peace be upon him ‫السلم‬

‫يونس عليه‬

"Jonah" or "Jonas". A prophet of Islam. He was sent to the city of Nineveh (on the left bank of the Tigris, opposite the city of Mosul, in Iraq, to preach against their wickedness and call them to the worship of Allah. The people of Nineveh at first rejected him, but when he pronounced the curse of Allah upon them, repented their sins. However, he still left the city in anger, forgetting that Allah is full of mercy, as well as forgiveness. As a punishment, Allah Ta'ala caused a whale to
244

swallow him up for a limited time. In the darkness of the whale's stomach, in the darkness of the ocean, in the darkness of the night, Yunus turned to his Lord and asked for His forgiveness. The whale spewed him up on the beach and, after recovering from his ordeal, Yunus returned to the city whose inhabitants all became his followers. He then came to be known as Dhu'l-Noon (man of the whale). See Holy Qur'an, As-Saffa at(37):139-149. Surah 10 of the Holy Qur'an. See Mursaleen.

Yusuf, , Peace be upon him ‫السلم‬

‫يوسف عليه‬

"Joseph". A prophet of Islam. One of the sons of Yacoub (Jacob), peace be on them. Surah 12 of the Holy Qur'an. See: Mursaleen.

Z

245

Zaboor Zaid

‫الزبـــــــور‬ ‫زيد بن حارثه‬

Holy Book revealed to the Prophet Dawood (David), peace be on him. Zaid ibn Haritha was one of the first people to accept Islam. He was a freedman of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who treated him like his own son. In the eighth year before Hijra, the Prophet Muhammad, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, gave to Zaid in marriage his own cousin Zainab bint Jahsh. The marriage ended in divorce. It was Allah Ta'ala's will that the Holy Prophet himself should marry her. The Prophet Muhammad's marriage to her, in 5AH, made it clear that an adopted son is not to be legally regarded as a natural son as regards remarriage and inheritance. If Zaid had been the Prophet's natural son, then the Prophet would not have been allowed to marry Zainab, since a man is not permitted to marry the ex-wife of his natural son. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ahzab (33):37-38.

Zainab (Bint Jahsh) ‫جحش‬

‫زينب بنت‬

Wife of Zaid ibn Haritha. She later married the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. For further information See Zaid ibn Haritha. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Ahzab (33):28, 37-38, 50.

Zakariah, Peace be on him ‫السلم‬

‫زكريا عليه‬

The Prophet Zacchariah. A prophet of Islam. He looked after Maryam, the mother of Jesus, in the Temple of Solomon, when she was a child. He was the father of the Prophet Yahya, peace be on them all.

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Zallah A major error ‫زلــــه‬
A major error, e.g. unintentional backbiting. Generally speaking, a person seeks Allah's forgiveness immediately after realizing that he or she has committed a Zallah.

Zaqqum

‫زقــــوم‬

An extremely bitter and thorny tree that grows at the bottom of Hellfire. See Holy Qur'an, Al-Isra (17):60, As-Saffat (37):6266, Ad-Dukhan (44):43-46, Al-Waqi'ah (56):52. Zeal Zealous ‫حمية‬ ‫غيرة‬

‫غيور متعصب‬

Zindeeq

‫زنديق‬

Hypocrite or unbeliever. Anyone who does not believe in Allah and who rejects His Messengers, may Allah bless them and grant them peace

Zion ‫صهيون‬ Zionism ‫الصهيونية‬ Zoor ‫زور‬
Giving false evidence. The act of committing perjury.

Zukhruff (Al) The Gold Ornaments ‫الزخرف‬
"The Gold Ornaments". Surah 43 of the Holy Qur'an.

Zummar (Al) The Troops ‫الزمره‬ "The Troops". Surah 39 of the Holy Qur'an.

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