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Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

**4.4 Air Standard Otto Cycle:
**

The air-standard-Otto cycle is the idealized cycle for the spark-ignition internal combustion engines. This cycle is shown above on p-v and T-s diagrams. The Otto cycle 1-2-3-4 consists of following four process:

Process 1-2: Reversible adiabatic compression of air. Process 2-3: Heat addition at constant volume. Process 3-4: Reversible adiabatic expansion of air. Process 4-1: Heat rejection at constant volume.

3

2 4

1

Volume

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles

Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

3

2 4 1

Entropy

Fig.4.4. Otto cycle on p-v and T-s diagrams

**Air Standard Efficiency:
**

ηth = Net workdone Net heat added

Since processes 1-2 and 3-4 are adiabatic processes, the heat transfer during the cycle takes place only during processes 2-3 and 4-1 respectively. Therefore, thermal efficiency can be written as,

ηth =

Heat added - Heat rejected Heat added

Consider ‘m’ kg of working fluid,

**Heat added = mCV ( T3 - T2 ) Heat Rejected = mCV ( T4 - T1 )
**

ηth = mCV ( T3 - T2 ) - mCV ( T4 - T1 ) mCV ( T3 - T2 ) =1T4 - T1 T3 - T2

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles

Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

**For the reversible adiabatic processes 3-4 and 1-2, we can write,
**

⎛v ⎞ T4 =⎜ 3⎟ T3 ⎝ v4 ⎠

γ -1

⎛V ⎞ T and 1 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ T2 ⎝ V1 ⎠

γ -1

v 2 = v3 and v 4 = v1

⎛V ⎞ T4 T T -T = 1 = 4 1 =⎜ 2⎟ T3 T2 T3 - T2 ⎝ V1 ⎠

γ−1

η th

The ratio

⎛V ⎞ T1 = 1- ⎜ 2 ⎟ = 1 T2 ⎝ V1 ⎠

γ -1

**V1 is called as compression ratio, r. V2
**

ηth ⎛1⎞ =1- ⎜ ⎟ ⎝r⎠

γ -1

From the above equation, it can be observed that the efficiency of the Otto cycle is mainly the function of compression ratio for the given ratio of Cp and Cv. If we plot the variations of the thermal efficiency with increase in compression ratio for different gases, the curves are obtained as shown in Fig.4.4.1. Beyond certain values of compression ratios, the increase in the thermal efficiency is very small, because the curve tends to be asymptotic. However, practically the compression ratio of petrol engines is restricted to maximum of 9 or 10 due to the phenomenon of knocking at high compression ratios.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles

Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

γ=1.67

γ=1.40

γ=1.30

Compression ratio,r

Effect of CR and γ on efficiency for Otto cycle.

Fig.4.4.1. Variation of thermal efficiency with compression ratio

**Mean Effective Pressure:
**

Generally, it is defined as the ratio of the net workdone to the displacement volume of the piston. Let us consider ‘m’ kg of working substance.

Net work done = m Cv {( T3 - T2 ) - ( T4 - T1 )}

Displacement Volume =

( V1

- V2 )

m R T1 ⎛ r - 1 ⎞ 1⎞ ⎛ = V1 ⎜1 - ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ r⎠ P1 ⎝ ⎝ r ⎠

=

since, R = Cv ( γ - 1)

m C v ( γ- 1) T1 ⎧ r - 1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ P1 ⎩ r ⎭

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Gas Power Cycles

Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

mep =

m C v ⎡( T3 - T2 ) ⎣ m C v ( γ -1) T1 P1

- ( T4 - T1 ) ⎤ ⎦ ⎧⎛ r - 1 ⎞ ⎫ ⎨⎜ ⎟⎬ ⎩⎝ r ⎠ ⎭

= ⎜

⎛

1 ⎞ ⎛ p1 ⎞ ⎛ r ⎞ ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎝ γ - 1 ⎠ ⎝ T1 ⎠ ⎝ r - 1 ⎠

γ -1

{( T3

- T2 ) - ( T4 - T1

)}

Now,

T2 = T1 ( r )

Let,

rp =

**P3 T3 = = Pressure ratio P2 T2
**

P3 T2 = rp T2 = rp r γ -1 T1 P2

γ -1

T3 =

(for V = C)

So,

T4

⎛1⎞ = T3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝r⎠

= rp r

γ -1

⎛1⎞ T1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝r⎠

γ -1

= rp T1

mep =

P1 r ( r - 1) ( γ - 1)

{( r

p

r γ -1 - r γ -1

) - ( rp - 1)}

⎧⎛ r γ -1 r - 1 - r - 1 ⎞ ⎫ p p ⎪ ⎟⎪ = P1 r ⎨⎜ ⎬ ⎟⎪ ( γ - 1) ( r - 1) ⎪⎜ ⎠⎭ ⎩⎝

(

) (

)

⎧ r γ -1 - 1 r - 1 ⎫ p ⎪ ⎪ mep = P1 r ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ ( r - 1) ( γ - 1) ⎭ ⎪ ⎩

(

)(

)

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

efficiency and mep of an otto cycle...

efficiency and mep of an otto cycle...

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