“Corals and Coral Reefs”

A presentation compiled from various sources by

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA,
Zoology Dept. Bhavan’s College, Andheri.
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

Sites from which presentations have been downloaded and later editted. I am indeed thankful to them for their kindness and support :
http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/cb/org/organelles.html http://faculty.pnc.edu/jcamp/parasit/parasit.html http://www.amnh.org/rose/hope/creatinghope/ http://www.biology.eku.edu/SCHUSTER/bio%20141/POWERPOINT %20NOTES/Intro%20to%20Protozoa_files/fullscreen.htm http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~zoology/eeob405/ http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/pwpt/ http://www.iep.water.ca.gov/suisun/photos/wildlife.html http://www.uta.edu/biology/marshall/2343/ http://www.uta.edu/biology/faculty/faculty.html http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/PowerPoint.htm http://bio.fsu.edu/ http://www.aw-bc.com/ http://www.nhm.org/ http://www.geo.cornell.edu/eas/education/course/descr/EAS302/presentations/ It is very easy to find mistakes in these presentations…..I request you to kindly rectify them and supply me the modifications needed at parvishpandya@yahoo.com Thanks a lot and have fun in teaching & learning Zoology….
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What are Coral Reefs ?

• located in coastal zones of tropical oceans • formed by mutualism between polyps & algae • polyps secrete hard limestone deposits that remain when polyps die • Limestone = calcium carbonate = CaCO3

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Corals are Animals Phylum : Cnidaria

“plant-like” animals symbiotic algae zooxanthellae
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Coral Reefs
Importance: • high biodiversity, like “tropical rain forests of ocean” • Removing of CO2 from the atmosphere • protect coastlines from storms & high waves • nurseries for many fish species • disappearing
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Coral Biodiversity

Problems : Bleaching
Coral Bleaching The algae within the corals die off. WHY? • Runoff of silt increases water turbidity and thereby prevents photosynthesis. • Increase in water temperature and UV radiation leads to physiological stress. Consequences Unable to grow, and repair leads to dieing of coral reefs. • Currently over 60% of the world’s coral reefs are threatening by human activities.
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Picture of a Coral reef

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Corals need:
• warm water • clear water • nutrient-poor water
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Vulnerability & Human Impacts
Vulnerability: • slow growing • easily disturbed • thrive only in clear water Human Impacts: • sediment runoff & effluent • increased UV radiation • fishing with cyanide & dynamite

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation

1.Types of Coral reefs

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2.Types

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3.Volcanic Island Reefs

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4.Barrier reef & Lagoon

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5. B. Reef Lagoon System

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6.Volc Island c Reef+Lagoon

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7.Coral Reef Atolls

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8.Atolls

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9.Patch Reefs of Lagoons

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10.Cross Section of Atoll

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11.Island c reef & lagoon

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12.Frg Reef Around Cont Shelf Island

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13.Frg reef along Cont Margin

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14.Reef Growth

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15.Reef Constr Process

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16.Scleractinian Coral Framework builders

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17.Non-Scl Coral Frm build

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18.Coralline Algae Frm build

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19.Other Frm builders

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20.Reef Sediments

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21.Reef Cementers

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22.Reef Erosion Process

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23.Mechanical Erosion

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24.Bio-eroders

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25.Direct Bioeroder:Parrotfish

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26.Direct Bioeroder:Sea turtle

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Direct Bioeroder:Sponge

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27.Fauna of Coral Reef

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28.Charles Darwin

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29.HMS Beagle

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30.Formation of coral reef Atoll

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31.Volcanic eruption

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32.Earth

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33.Tectonic Plate Fractures

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34.Formation of Volcanic Islands

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35.Ages of Coral Islands

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Slow Subsidence after Volcano

• If in tropical shallow water, coral reefs can form on the tops of volcanoes

Stages of coral reef development

Figure 2-30

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Ocean depths during past Ages

Atoll and barrier reefs in the Society Islands near Australia

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As an island ages, it subsides and erodes and progresses through a series of steps:
• • • • • volcanic island fringing reef barrier reef atoll drowned seamount
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Atoll

ATOLL : ring of coral with a central lagoon

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Subsidence Theory

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36.Subsidence Theory

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so influences the shape of atolls Daly’s Glacial Control Theory:

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Coral Reefs and Atolls
Markers of Tropical Climate And Sea Level Change

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