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“Corals and

Coral Reefs”
A presentation compiled
from various sources by
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA,
Zoology Dept. Bhavan’s College, Andheri.
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
Sites from which presentations have been downloaded and later editted.
I am indeed thankful to them for their kindness and support :
http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/cb/org/organelles.html
http://faculty.pnc.edu/jcamp/parasit/parasit.html
http://www.amnh.org/rose/hope/creatinghope/
http://www.biology.eku.edu/SCHUSTER/bio%20141/POWERPOINT
%20NOTES/Intro%20to%20Protozoa_files/fullscreen.htm
http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~zoology/eeob405/
http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/pwpt/
http://www.iep.water.ca.gov/suisun/photos/wildlife.html
http://www.uta.edu/biology/marshall/2343/
http://www.uta.edu/biology/faculty/faculty.html
http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/PowerPoint.htm
http://bio.fsu.edu/
http://www.aw-bc.com/
http://www.nhm.org/
http://www.geo.cornell.edu/eas/education/course/descr/EAS302/presentations/

It is very easy to find mistakes in these presentations…..I request you to kindly


rectify them and supply me the modifications needed at parvishpandya@yahoo.com
Thanks a lot and have fun in teaching & learning Zoology….
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
What are Coral Reefs ?

• located in coastal zones of tropical oceans


• formed by mutualism between polyps & algae
• polyps secrete hard limestone deposits that
remain when polyps die
• Limestone = calcium carbonate = CaCO3

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Corals are
Animals
Phylum : Cnidaria

“plant-like”
animals
symbiotic algae
zooxanthellae
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Coral Reefs
Importance: Coral Biodiversity
• high biodiversity,
like “tropical rain
forests of ocean”
• Removing of CO2
from the atmosphere
• protect coastlines
from storms & high
waves
• nurseries for many
fish species
• disappearing Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
Problems : Bleaching
Coral Bleaching
The algae within the corals die off.
WHY?
• Runoff of silt increases water turbidity and thereby
prevents photosynthesis.
• Increase in water temperature and UV radiation leads
to physiological stress.
Consequences
Unable to grow, and repair leads to dieing of coral reefs.
• Currently over 60% of the world’s coral reefs are
threatening by human activities.

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Picture of a Coral reef

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Corals need:
• warm water
• clear water
• nutrient-poor water

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Vulnerability & Human Impacts
Vulnerability:
• slow growing
• easily disturbed
• thrive only in clear water
Human Impacts:
• sediment runoff & effluent
• increased UV radiation
• fishing with cyanide & dynamite

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Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA’s presentation
1.Types of Coral reefs

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2.Types

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3.Volcanic Island Reefs

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4.Barrier reef & Lagoon

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5. B. Reef Lagoon System

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6.Volc Island c Reef+Lagoon

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7.Coral Reef Atolls

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8.Atolls

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9.Patch Reefs of Lagoons

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10.Cross Section of Atoll

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11.Island c reef & lagoon

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12.Frg Reef Around Cont Shelf
Island

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13.Frg reef along Cont Margin

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14.Reef Growth

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15.Reef Constr Process

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16.Scleractinian Coral
Framework builders

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17.Non-Scl Coral Frm build

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18.Coralline Algae Frm build

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19.Other Frm builders

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20.Reef Sediments

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21.Reef Cementers

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22.Reef Erosion Process

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23.Mechanical Erosion

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24.Bio-eroders

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25.Direct Bioeroder:Parrotfish

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26.Direct Bioeroder:Sea turtle

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Direct Bioeroder:Sponge

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27.Fauna of Coral Reef

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28.Charles Darwin

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29.HMS Beagle

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30.Formation of coral reef Atoll

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31.Volcanic eruption

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32.Earth

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33.Tectonic Plate Fractures

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34.Formation of Volcanic Islands

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35.Ages of Coral Islands

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Slow
Subsidence
after
Volcano
Stages of coral reef development
• If in tropical shallow water, coral reefs can form on
the tops of volcanoes

Figure 2-30

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Ocean depths during past Ages
Atoll
and
barrier
reefs
in the
Society
Islands
near
Australia

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As an island ages, it subsides and
erodes and progresses through a
series of steps:
• volcanic island
• fringing reef
• barrier reef
• atoll
• drowned seamount

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ATOLL :
ring of
coral
with a
central
Atoll
lagoon

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Subsidence Theory

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36.Subsidence Theory

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so influences the shape of atolls
Daly’s Glacial Control Theory:

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Coral Reefs and Atolls
Markers of Tropical Climate
And Sea Level Change

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