You are on page 1of 23

“Phylum Cnidaria”

A presentation compiled
from various sources by
Dr. PARVISH PANDYA,
Zoology Dept. Bhavan’s College, Andheri.

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Sites from which presentations have been downloaded and later editted.
I am indeed thankful to them for their kindness and support :
http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/cb/org/organelles.html
http://faculty.pnc.edu/jcamp/parasit/parasit.html
http://www.amnh.org/rose/hope/creatinghope/
http://www.biology.eku.edu/SCHUSTER/bio%20141/POWERPOINT
%20NOTES/Intro%20to%20Protozoa_files/fullscreen.htm
http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~zoology/eeob405/
http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/pwpt/
http://www.iep.water.ca.gov/suisun/photos/wildlife.html
http://www.uta.edu/biology/marshall/2343/
http://www.uta.edu/biology/faculty/faculty.html
http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/PowerPoint.htm
http://bio.fsu.edu/
http://www.aw-bc.com/
http://www.nhm.org/
http://www.geo.cornell.edu/eas/education/course/descr/EAS302/presentations/

It is very easy to find mistakes in these presentations…..I request you to kindly


rectify them and supply me the modifications needed at parvishpandya@yahoo.com
Thanks a lot and have fun in teaching & learning Zoology….
Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
PHYLUM CNIDARIA

THE JELLYFISH, ANEMONES AND CORALS

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Jellyfishes

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Sea Anemones

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Corals

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Phylum Cnidaria

• Coelenterata or Radiata
• Differ from sponges - have rudimentary organs
• have primary radial symmetry (symmetry shown
in early development and carried throughout
life)
• the only other phylum that has radial symmetry
is Echinodermata- which has secondary radial
symmetry (ie. has bilateral symmetry in early
development and later switches to radial
symmetry Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
MORPHOLOGY

• The cnidarian body


wall has 3 basic layers
– Epidermis- outer layer
– Gastrodermis- lines the
gastrovascular cavity
– Mesoglea- between the
two tissue layers; it is a
non-cellular gelatinous
layer, not a tissue
Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
Two Basic Body Plans
• Polyp - Sessile Forms
• Medusa - Planktonic Forms
– Some species have only the polyp; a
large number of species go through
both stages in their life cycle
• Metagenesis- alternation of
generation

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Polyp
• Sessile - Polyp (hydranth or hydroid)
• Cylindrical stalk and oral end with tentacles
• Mesoglea is a thin layer

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Medusa

• Free swimming -
Medusa
–Bell shaped
–Mesoglea
constitutes
bulk

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


5 CellTypes
• Epithelio-muscle cells
• Cover and protect
• Can contract (muscular
properties)
• Interstitial cells
• Production of gametes
• Mucous secreting cells
(Gland cells)- mucous for
attachment, feeding
• Nerve cells- irritability
• Cnidocytes- protection,
predation
Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
How Cnidocytes Work

• On Tentacles
• Defense, anchoring
and feeding
• Nematocyst
• Cnidocil - trigger

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Nervous System

• First time
• Nerve net
• 2 nets
– Associated with epidermis and
gastrodermis

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Classification
• 3 Classes
• Hydrozoa
• Scyphozoa
• Anthozoa

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Hydrozoa
• Polymorphic
• Polyp
• Medusa
• Simple gastrovascular
cavity - no septa
• No nematocysts in
digestive cavity
• Solitary or colonial

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Composition of Colonies
• 3 types of individuals
• Gastrozooid -
responsible for feeding
also numerous
Gonozooid - sexual
reproduction
Dactylozooids - defense
and food capture
Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
Life Cycles

• 3 basic types
– Hydra - only polyp
– Asexual reproduction - budding
– Obelia - both polyp and medusa
stage
– Physalia - Colony attached to float
called Pneumatophore

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation


Life Cycle of Hydra

SEXUAL
REPRODUCTION

ASEXUAL
REPRODUCTION
Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
Physalia Life Cycle
• Colony attached to a float -
pneumatophore
• Individuals attached to traililng tentacles; may
be up to 9 meters long
• Reproduces sexually
– Produces planula larva
– Turns into medusa
– Comes to surface and pneumatophore is
formed and then reproduces asexually for
form colony.
Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
Scyphozoa
(true jellyfish)

• Exclusively marine
• Medusa dominant stage

•Much larger in size compared to


hydrozoan medusae
Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation
Rock Anemones

Dr. Parvish Pandya’s compilation