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Mecanismos Físicos e

Equações de Taxas de
Transmissão de Calor

Transferência de Calor e Energia Térmica

• O que é a transferência/transmissão de calor?

A transferência/transmissão de calor é o trânsito de energia térmica


devido a uma diferença de temperaturas num meio ou entre meios.

• O que é a energia térmica?


A energia térmica está associada à translação, rotação, vibração e aos
estados electrónicos dos átomos e moléculas que constituem a matéria.

A energia térmica representa o efeito cumulativo das actividades microscópicas


e está relacionada com a temperatura da matéria.

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NÃO confundir ou trocar os significados físicos de Energia Térmica,
Temperatura e Transferência de Calor
Quantidade Significado físico Símbolo Unidades
Energia Energia associada ao comportamento
Térmica+ microscópico da matéria U ou u J ou J/kg
Temperatura Modo indirecto de determinar a
quantidade de energia térmica T º C ou K
armazenada na matéria

Transferência de Transporte de energia térmica devido a


Calor gradientes de temperatura

Calor Quantidade de energia térmica transferida


num intervalo de tempo  t > 0
Q J
Taxa de
transferência de
Energia térmica transferida por unidade
de tempo
q W
calor

Fluxo de calor Energia térmica transferida por unidade


de tempo e por unidade de área
q' ' W / m2
+
U  Energia Térmica
u  Energia Térmica específica

Modos de Transferência de Calor

Condução: Transferência de calor num sólido ou fluido estático (gás ou líquido) devida ao
movimento aleatório dos seus átomos, moléculas e/ou electrões constituintes.

Convecção: Transferência de calor devida ao efeito combinado do movimento


aleatório (microscópico) e do movimento macroscópico (advecção)
do fluido sobre uma superfície.

Radiação: Energia que é emitida pela matéria devido a mudanças das configurações
electrónicas dos seus átomos ou moléculas e que é transportada por ondas
electromagnéticas (ou por fotões).

• A condução e a convecção exigem a presença de matéria e de variações de temperatura nesse


meio material.
• Embora a radiação tenha origem na matéria, o seu transporte não exige a presença de um
meio material. Aliás, o transporte radiativo é mais eficiente no vácuo.

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Aplicações
Identificação de mecanismos

Problema 1.73(a): Identificação de mecanismos de transferência de calor para janelas de vidro simples e duplo

qs Radiação solar incidente durante o dia: a fracção transmitida pelo vidro duplo é menor que a transmitida pelo vidro simples.
q c o n v ,1 Convecção entre a superfície interior da janela e o ar interior
q r a d ,1 Fluxo radiativo útil trocado entre as paredes do quarto e a superfície interior da janela
q c o n d ,1 Condução através do vidro que tem superfície interior em contacto com ar interior
q conv ,2 Convecção entre a superfície exterior da janela e o ar exterior
q rad ,2 Fluxo radiativo útil trocado entre a envolvente e a superfície exterior da janela

q c o n d , 2 Condução através do vidro que tem superfície interior em contacto com ar exterior na janela de vidro duplo

qconv ,s Convecção no espaço entre vidros (janela de vidro duplo)


qrad ,s Fluxo radiativo útil entre as superfícies dos vidros que limitam o espaço entre vidros

Taxas de Transferência de Calor


Condução
Forma geral (vectorial) da Lei de Fourier:

Fluxo de calor Condutibilidade térmica Gradiente de temperatura


W/m 2 W/m ⋅ K º C/m ou K/m
Aplicação ao caso de condução unidimensional, estacionária através de uma
placa plana com condutibilidade térmica constante:

Fluxo de calor (W/m2):

dT T −T
qx′′ = −k = −k 2 1
dx L
T1 − T2
qx′′ = k
L

Taxa de transferência de calor (W): qx = qx′′ ⋅ A

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Taxas de Transferência de Calor
Convecção

Relação entre convecção e o escoamento sobre uma superfície e o desenvolvimento


das camadas limite hidrodinâmica e térmica:

Lei do arrefecimento de Newton :

q ′′ = h (Ts − T∞ )

h [W/m2.ºC] ou [W/m2.K]: Coeficiente de transferência de calor por convecção

Taxas de Transferência de Calor


• Advecção, difusão, convecção

• Convecção forçada, convecção natural

• Calor sensível e calor latente

• Ebulição e condensação

Gama de valores típicos do coeficiente de


convecção [W m-2 K-1]
Convecção natural - gases 2 - 25
Convecção natural - líquidos 50 - 1000
Convecção forçada - gases 25 - 250
Convecção forçada - líquidos 50 - 20000
Ebulição ou condensação 2500 - 100000

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Taxas de Transferência de Calor
Radiação
A transferência de calor por radiação numa interface gás/sólido envolve a emissão de
radiação a partir da superfície e pode também envolver a absorção da radiação incidente
da envolvente (irradiação, G ), bem como da convecção (se Ts ≠ T∞)

Fluxo de energia que sai devido à emissão:


E = ε Eb = εσ Ts4

E [W/m2]: Poder emissivo da superfície


ε (0 ≤ ε ≤1): Emissividade da superfície
Eb [W/m2]: Poder emissivo de um corpo negro (emissor perfeito)
σ = 5,67××10-8 [W m-2 K-4] (constante de Stefan-Boltzmann)

Energia absorvida devida à irradiação: Gabs = α G

Gabs [W/m2]: Radiação incidente absorvida


α (0 ≤ α ≤ 1): Absorsividade da superfície
G [W/m2]: Irradiação

Taxas de Transferência de Calor


Irradiação: Caso especial de uma superfície exposta a uma
envolvente de grandes dimensões com temperatura uniforme, Tsur

G = Gsur = σ Tsur
4

Se α = ε, o fluxo radiativo útil a partir da superfície


devido às trocas de calor por radiação com a envolvente é:

q 'rad
'
(
= ε E b (TS ) − α G = ε σ Ts4 − Tsur
4
)

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Taxas de Transferência de Calor

Em alternativa,

''
q rad = hr (TS − Tsur )
[
hr W / m 2 .K ] Coeficiente de transferência de calor por radiação

hr = ε σ (TS + Tsur )(TS2 + Tsur


2
)

Para convecção e radiação combinadas:

q ′′ = qconv ′′ = h (Ts − T∞ ) + hr (Ts − Tsur )


′′ + qrad (1.10)

Aplicações
Arrefecimento de componente electrónica

Problema 1.31: Dissipação de potência em chips que operam com uma temperatura superficial de 85°C
num quarto cujas paredes e ar estão a 25°C para (a) convecção natural e (b) convecção forçada.
Hipóteses: (1) Estacionário,
(2) Trocas de radiação entre superfície pequena e grande
envolvente,
(3) Transferência de calor desprezável das faces laterais
e da superfície de trás do chip

Pelec = q con v + q rad = hA (Ts − T∞ ) + ε Aσ (Ts4 − Tsur4 )


A = L2 = ( 0.015m ) =2.25×10-4 m 2
2

(a) Se for convecção natural,

qconv = CA (Ts − T∞ ) =4.2W/m 2 ⋅ K 5/4 ( 2.25×10-4 m 2 ) ( 60K )


5/4 5/4
=0.158W
qrad = 0.60 ( 2.25×10 m ) 5.67×10 W/m ⋅ K ( 358 -298 ) K =0.065W
-4 2 -8 2 4 4 4 4

Pelec = 0.158W+0.065W=0.223W

(b) Se for convecção forçada,


qconv = hA (Ts − T∞ ) =250W/m 2 ⋅ K ( 2.25×10-4 m 2 ) ( 60K ) =3.375W
Pelec = 3.375W+0.065W=3.44W

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Conservação de Energia

CONSERVAÇÃO DE ENERGIA
(Primeira Lei da Termodinâmica)
• Uma ferramenta importante na análise do fenómeno de transferência
de calor, constituindo geralmente a base para determinar a temperatura
do sistema em estudo.

•Formulações Alternativas
Base temporal:
Num instante
ou
Num intervalo de tempo

Tipo de Sistema:
Volume de controlo
Superfície de controlo

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APLICAÇÃO A UM VOLUME DE CONTROLO
• Num instante de tempo:

Notar a representação do sistema através de uma


superfície de controlo (linha a tracejado) nas
fronteiras.

Fenómenos superficiais

Taxa de transferência de energia térmica e/ou mecânica através da superfície de controlo,


devido à transferência de calor, escoamento de um fluido ou transferência de trabalho

Fenómenos volumétricos

Taxa de geração de energia térmica devido à conversão de outra forma de energia (e.g.
eléctrica, nuclear, química); conversão essa de energia que ocorre no interior do sistema

Taxa de variação de energia armazenada no sistema

APLICAÇÃO A UM VOLUME DE CONTROLO


• Num instante de tempo:

Notar a representação do sistema através de uma


superfície de controlo (linha a tracejado line) nas
fronteiras.

Conservação de energia

Cada termo tem unidades [J/s] ou [W].

• Num intervalo de tempo:

Ein + E g − Eout = ∆Est (1.11b ) Cada termo tem unidades [J].

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O BALANÇO DE ENERGIA SUPERFICIAL
Há um caso especial para o qual não existe massa ou volume contidos na superfície de controlo

Conservação de Energia (num instante): E& in − E& out = 0

• Aplica-se em condições estacionárias e transientes


• Sem massa nem volume, não faz sentido falar em energia armazenada ou em geração no balanço de
energia, mesmo que estes fenómenos ocorram no meio de que a superfície faz parte.

Considere a superfície de uma parede com transferência de calor (condução, convecção e radiação).

′′ − qconv
qcond ′′ − qrad′′ = 0

k
T1 − T2
L
( )
− h (T2 − T∞ ) − ε 2σ T24 − Tsur
4
=0

EXEMPLOS DE APLICAÇÃO
Exemplo 1.3: Aplicação à resposta térmica de um fio condutor com aquecimento por efeito
de Joule (geração de calor à passagem da corrente eléctrica).

E& in − E& out + E& g = E& st

E& in = 0 [
E& out = (π D L ) h (T − T∞ ) + ε σ T 4 − Tsur
4
( )]
E& g = Relect I 2 E& st =
d
(ρ c V T )
dt

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EXEMPLOS DE APLICAÇÃO
Exemplo 1.43: Processamento térmico de uma bolacha de sílica num forno de 2 zonas.

Sabe-se que a bolacha de sílica está posicionada no forno com as superfícies


inferior e superior expostas, respectivamente, à zona quente e zona fria.

Determinar
(a) Taxa inicial de aquecimento da bolacha a partir de Twi = 300K,
(b) Temperatura em regime estacionário.
A convecção é relevante?

Hipóteses:
ESQUEMA a) Temperatura da bolacha uniforme
b) Temperaturas uniformes das regiões quente e fria
c) Trocas radiativas entre corpo pequeno e
envolvente grande
d) Perdas da bolacha para o suporte desprezáveis

EXEMPLOS DE APLICAÇÃO
Exemplo 1.43: Processamento térmico de uma bolacha de sílica num forno de 2 zonas (cont)

ANÁLISE: No balanço de energia à bolacha de sílica deve contabilizar-se a convecção com o gás ambiente pelas
superfícies inferior (l) e superior (u), as trocas de radiação com as zonas quente e fria e a acumulação de energia.

E& in − E& out = E& st

Em termos de fluxo (por unidade de área)


d Tw
′′ , h + qrad
qrad ′′ , c − qcv
′′ , u − qcv
′′ , l = ρ cd
dt

( 4
εσ Tsur 4
) 4
( 4
)
, h − Tw + εσ Tsur , c − Tw − hu ( Tw − T∞ ) − hl (Tw − T∞ ) = ρ cd dt
w dT

(a) Como condição inicial temos Tw =Twi = 300K

( ) (
0.65 × 5.67 × 10−8 W / m 2 ⋅ K 4 1500 4 − 3004 K 4 + 0.65 × 5.67 × 10 −8 W / m 2 ⋅ K 4 3304 − 3004 K 4 )
−8 W / m 2 ⋅ K ( 300 − 700 ) K − 4 W / m 2 ⋅ K ( 300 − 700 ) K = 2700kg/m875J/kgK
3 ×⋅
× 0.00078 m ( d Tw / dt )i

( d Tw / dt )i = 104 K / s

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EXEMPLOS DE APLICAÇÃO
Exemplo 1.43: Processamento térmico de uma bolacha de sílica num forno de 2 zonas (cont)

Em regime estacionário o armazenamento de energia é nulo. O balanço de energia é efectuado com a temperatura
da bolacha em regime estacionário, Tw,ss

(
0.65 σ 15004 − Tw,ss
4
) (
K 4 + 0.65 σ 3304 − Tw,ss
4
) ( ) ( )
K 4 −8 W / m 2 ⋅ K Tw,ss − 700 K − 4 W / m 2 ⋅ K Tw,ss − 700 K = 0

Tw,ss = 1251 K

Para determinar a importância relativa da convecção, resolver o balanço de energia sem convecção. Obtém-se
(dTw/dt)i = 101 K/s e Tw,ss = 1262 K. Logo, a radiação controla a taxa de aquecimento inicial e o regime
estacionário.

Fourier’s Law
and the
Heat Equation

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Fourier’s Law
• A rate equation that allows determination of the conduction heat flux
from knowledge of the temperature distribution in a medium.

• Its most general (vector) form for multidimensional conduction is:


r
q ′′ = −k ∇T
Implications:
– Heat transfer is in the direction of decreasing temperature
(basis for minus sign).

– Fourier’s Law serves to define the thermal conductivity of the


medium q ′x′
kx = −
∂T ∂ x

– Direction of heat transfer is perpendicular to lines of constant


temperature (isotherms).

– Heat flux vector may be resolved into orthogonal components.

• Cartesian Coordinates: T ( x, y , z )
→ ∂T → ∂T → ∂T →
q ′′ = −k i −k j−k k
∂x ∂y ∂z
qx′′ q ′′y qz′′

• Cylindrical Coordinates: T ( r,φ , z )


→ ∂T → ∂T → ∂T →
q ′′ = −k i −k j−k k
∂r r ∂φ ∂z
qr′′ qφ′′ qz′′

• Spherical Coordinates: T ( r , φ ,θ )
→ ∂T → ∂T → ∂T →
q ′′ = −k i −k j−k k
∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ
qr′′ qθ′′ qφ′′

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• In angular coordinates(φ or φ ,θ ) , the temperature gradient is still
based on temperature change over a length scale and hence has
units of °C/m and not °C/deg.
• Heat rate for one-dimensional, radial conduction in a cylinder or sphere:

– Cylinder
qr = Ar qr′′ = 2π rLqr′′
or,
qr′ = Ar′ qr′′ = 2π rqr′′

– Sphere
qr = Ar qr′′ = 4π r 2 qr′′

The Heat Equation


• A differential equation whose solution provides the temperature distribution in a
stationary medium.
• Based on applying conservation of energy to a differential control volume
through which energy transfer is exclusively by conduction.
• Cartesian Coordinates:

∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T  • ∂T
k + k + k  + q = ρcp
∂x  ∂x  ∂y  ∂y  ∂z  ∂z  ∂t

Net transfer of thermal energy into the Thermal energy Change in thermal
control volume (inflow-outflow) generation energy storage

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• Cylindrical Coordinates:

1 ∂  ∂T  1 ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T  • ∂T
 kr + k  + k  + q = ρc p
r ∂r  ∂r  r 2 ∂φ  ∂φ  ∂z  ∂z  ∂t

• Spherical Coordinates:

1 ∂  2 ∂T  1 ∂  ∂T  1 ∂  ∂T  • ∂T
2 ∂r 
kr + 2 2 k + 2  k sin θ  + q = ρc p
r  ∂r  r sin θ ∂φ  ∂φ  r sin θ ∂θ  ∂θ  ∂t

• One-Dimensional Conduction in a Planar Medium with Constant Properties


and No Generation

∂ 2T 1 ∂T
=
∂x 2 α ∂t

k
α≡ → thermal diffusivity of the medium
ρcp

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Boundary and Initial Conditions
• For transient conduction, heat equation is first order in time, requiring
specification of an initial temperature distribution: T ( x, t )t = 0 = T ( x, 0 )
• Since heat equation is second order in space, two boundary conditions
must be specified. Some common cases:
Constant Surface Temperature:

T ( 0, t ) = Ts

Constant Heat Flux:


Applied Flux Insulated Surface

∂T ∂T
−k |x = 0 = qs′′ |x = 0 = 0
∂x ∂x

Convection

∂T
−k |x = 0 = h T∞ − T ( 0, t ) 
∂x

Thermophysical Properties
Thermal Conductivity: A measure of a material’s ability to transfer thermal
energy by conduction.

Thermal Diffusivity: A measure of a material’s ability to respond to changes


in its thermal environment.

Property Tables:
Solids: Tables A.1 – A.3
Gases: Table A.4
Liquids: Tables A.5 – A.7

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Methodology of a Conduction Analysis
• Solve appropriate form of heat equation to obtain the temperature
distribution.

• Knowing the temperature distribution, apply Fourier’s Law to obtain the


heat flux at any time, location and direction of interest.

• Applications:

Chapter 3: One-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction


Chapter 4: Two-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction
Chapter 5: Transient Conduction

Problem 2.46 Thermal response of a plane wall to convection heat transfer.

KNOWN: Plane wall, initially at a uniform temperature, is suddenly exposed to convective heating.

FIND: (a) Differential equation and initial and boundary conditions which may be used to find the
temperature distribution, T(x,t); (b) Sketch T(x,t) for the following conditions: initial (t ≤ 0), steady-
state (t → ∞), and two intermediate times; (c) Sketch heat fluxes as a function of time at the two
surfaces; (d) Expression for total energy transferred to wall per unit volume (J/m3).

SCHEMATIC:

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ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties, (3) No internal
heat generation.
ANALYSIS: (a) For one-dimensional conduction with constant properties, the heat equation has the
form,

∂ 2T 1 ∂ T
=
∂ x2 α ∂ t

Initial, t ≤ 0 : T ( x,0 ) = Ti uniform temperature



and the Boundaries: x=0 ∂ T/∂ x)0 = 0 adiabatic surface

conditions are:
 x=L − k∂ T/∂ x)L = h  T ( L,t ) − T∞  surface convection

(b) The temperature distributions are shown on the sketch.

Note that the gradient at x = 0 is always zero, since this boundary is adiabatic. Note also that the
gradient at x = L decreases with time.

c) The heat flux, q ′x′ (x, t ) as a function of time, is shown on the sketch for the surfaces x = 0 and
x = L.

d) The total energy transferred to the wall may be expressed as


E in = ∫ q′′conv As dt
0

E in = hAs ∫
0
( T∞ − T ( L,t ) )dt

Dividing both sides by AsL, the energy transferred per unit volume is

Ein h ∞
 T∞ − T ( L,t ) dt  J/m3 
V L ∫0 
=
 

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Problem: Non-uniform Generation due
to Radiation Absorption

Problem 2.28 Surface heat fluxes, heat generation and total rate of radiation
absorption in an irradiated semi-transparent material with a
prescribed temperature distribution.

KNOWN: Temperature distribution in a semi-transparent medium subjected to radiative flux

FIND: (a) Expressions for the heat flux at the front and rear surfaces, (b) The heat generation rate
q& ( x ) , and (c) Expression for absorbed radiation per unit surface area.

SCHEMATIC :

Problem : Non-uniform
Generation (Cont.)

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional conduction in medium, (3)


Constant properties, (4) All laser irradiation is absorbed and can be characterized by an internal
volumetric heat generation term q& ( x ) .

ANALYSIS: (a) Knowing the temperature distribution, the surface heat fluxes are found using
Fourier’s law,
 dT   A 
q ′′x = −k   = −k - 2 ( −a ) e-ax + B 
 dx   ka 
 A  A 
Front Surface, x=0: q ′′x ( 0 ) = − k  + ⋅ 1 + B = −  + kB <
 ka  a 
 A  A 
Rear Surface, x=L: q ′′x ( L ) = − k  + e-aL + B  = −  e-aL + kB  . <
 ka  a 

(b) The heat diffusion equation for the medium is


d  dT  q& d  dT 
 + =0 or &
q=-k  
dx  dx  k dx  dx 
d  A -ax 
q& ( x ) = − k + e + B  = Ae-ax .
dx  ka 

( c ) Performing an energy balance on the medium,


E& in − E& out + E& g = 0

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Problem : Non-uniform
Generation (Cont.)

On a unit area basis

E& ′′g = − E& in


′′ + E& out ( A
′′ = −q ′′x ( 0 ) + q ′′x ( L ) = + 1 − e-aL .
a
) <

& by integration over the volume of the medium,


Alternatively, evaluate E′′
g

( )
A L A
E& g′′ = ∫ q& ( x )dx= ∫ Ae-ax dx=-  e-ax  =
L L
1 − e-aL .
0 0 a  0 a

One-Dimensional, Steady-State
Conduction without
Thermal Energy Generation

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Methodology of a Conduction Analysis
• Specify appropriate form of the heat equation.
• Solve for the temperature distribution.
• Apply Fourier’s Law to determine the heat flux.

Simplest Case: One-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction with No Thermal Energy Generation

• Alternative conduction analysis

• Common Geometries:
– The Plane Wall: Described in rectangular (x) coordinate. Area
perpendicular to direction of heat transfer is constant (independent of x).
– The Tube Wall: Radial conduction through tube wall.
– The Spherical Shell: Radial conduction through shell wall.

The Plane Wall


• Consider a plane wall between two fluids of different temperature:

• Heat Equation:
d  dT 
k =0
dx  dx 

• Implications:
Heat flux ( q′′x ) is independent of x.
Heat rate ( qx ) is independent of x.
• Boundary Conditions: T ( 0 ) = Ts ,1, T ( L ) = Ts,2

• Temperature Distribution for Constant k :


T ( x ) = Ts,1 + (Ts,2 − Ts,1 )
x
L

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• Heat Flux and Heat Rate:
= (Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
dT k
q′′x = − k
dx L
q x = −kA
dT kA
dx
=
L
(Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
 ∆T 
• Thermal Resistances  Rt =  and Thermal Circuits:
 q 
L
Conduction in a plane wall: Rt ,cond =
kA
1
Convection: Rt ,conv =
hA
Thermal circuit for plane wall with adjoining fluids:

1 L 1
Rtot = + +
h1 A kA h 2 A
T∞,1 − T∞,2
qx =
Rtot

• Thermal Resistance for Unit Surface Area:


L 1
Rt′′,cond = Rt′′,conv =
k h
Units: Rt ↔ W/K Rt′′ ↔ m 2 ⋅ K/W
• Radiation Resistance:
1 1
Rt , rad = Rt′′, rad =
hr A hr
(
hr = εσ ( Ts + Tsur ) Ts2 + Tsur
2
)
• Contact Resistance:

TA − TB Rt′′,c
Rt′′,c = Rt ,c =
q′′x Ac

Values depend on: Materials A and B, surface finishes, interstitial conditions, and
contact pressure (Tables 3.1 and 3.2)

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• Composite Wall with Negligible Contact Resistance:

T∞,1 − T∞,4
qx =
Rtot

1  1 LA LB LC 1  Rtot′′
Rtot =  + + + + =
A  h1 k A k B kC h4  A

• Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) :


A modified form of Newton’s Law of Cooling to encompass multiple resistances
to heat transfer.
q x = UA∆Toverall
1
Rtot =
UA

• Series – Parallel Composite Wall:

• Note departure from one-dimensional conditions for k F ≠ kG .

• Circuits based on assumption of isothermal surfaces normal to x direction or


adiabatic surfaces parallel to x direction provide approximations for q x .

22
ALTERNATIVE CONDUCTION ANALYSIS:

• STEADY STATE
• NO HEAT GENERATION
• NO HEAT LOSS FROM THE SIDES
• A(x) and k(T)

IS TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ONE-DIMENSIONAL? q x = q x + dx


IS IT REASONABLE TO ASSUME ONE-DIMENSIONAL
TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN x?

dT
FROM THE FOURIER’S LAW: q x = − A( x) k (T )
dx
x T
dx
qx ∫ = − ∫ k (T )dT
0
A( x) T0

Tube Wall
The Tube Wall

• Heat Equation:
1 d  dT 
 kr =0
r dr  dr 
What does the form of the heat equation tell us about the variation of qr with
r in the wall?
Is the foregoing conclusion consistent with the energy conservation requirement?

How does qr′′ vary with r ?


• Temperature Distribution for Constant k:
Ts ,1 − Ts,2  r 
T (r ) = ln   + Ts ,2
ln ( r1 / r2 )  r2 

23
• Heat Flux and Heat Rate:

qr′′ = − k
dT
=
k
dr r ln ( r2 / r1 )
(Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
2π k
qr′ = 2π rqr′′ =
ln ( r2 / r1 )
(Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
2π Lk
qr = 2π rLqr′′ =
ln ( r2 / r1 )
(Ts,1 − Ts,2 ) (3.27)

• Conduction Resistance:
ln ( r2 / r1 )
Rt ,cond = Units ↔ K/W
2π Lk
ln ( r2 / r1 )
Rt′,cond = Units ↔ m ⋅ K/W
2π k

Why is it inappropriate to base the thermal resistance on a unit surface


area?

• Composite Wall with


Negligible Contact
Resistance

T∞ ,1 − T∞,4
qr = = UA (T∞,1 − T∞ ,4 )
Rtot

Note that
UA = Rtot −1
is a constant independent of radius.

But, U itself is tied to specification of an interface.


−1
U i = ( Ai Rtot )

24
Spherical Shell

• Heat Equation
1 d  2 dT 
r =0
r 2 dr  dr 
What does the form of the heat equation tell us about the variation of
qr with r ? Is this result consistent with conservation of energy?

How does q′′r vary with r ?

• Temperature Distribution for Constant k :

T ( r ) = Ts ,1 − (Ts ,1 − Ts ,2 )
( )
1 − r1/ r
(
1 − r1 / r 2 )

• Heat flux, Heat Rate and Thermal Resistance:

qr′′ = −k
dT
=
k
dr r 2 (1/ r1 ) − (1/ r2 ) 
(Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
4π k
qr = 4π r 2qr′′ =
(1/ r1 ) − (1/ r2 )
(Ts,1 − Ts,2 )
Rt ,cond =
(1/ r1 ) − (1/ r2 )
4π k

• Composite Shell:
∆T
qr = overall = UA∆Toverall
Rtot
UA = Rtot −1 ↔ Constant
−1
U i = ( Ai Rtot ) ↔ Depends on Ai

25
r1 r2
r T¥ ,h
Critical radius (cylindrical geometry)
T¥,1 ,h1
Isolamento

(a)

T¥,1 T¥

1 ln (r2 /r1 ) ln (r / r2 ) 1
2p r1 L h1 2p k1 L 2p k L 2p r L h
T∞,1 − T∞ ⇒ (b)
q r ,sem revest . =
1 ln (r2 r1 ) 1
+ +
2 π r1 L h1 2 π k1 L 2 π r2 L h

T∞ ,1 − T∞
q r ,com revest. =
1 ln (r2 r1 ) ln (r r2 ) 1
+ + +
2 π r1 L h1 2 π k1 L 2π k L 2π r L h

d Rtot 1 1 1 1
= −
dr 2π k L r 2π L h r 2

d Rtot k  d 2 Rtot   1  1  1  2 
=0 ⇒ rcrit = 
 d r2


= − 2  +  3  >0
dr h   r =k h  2 π k L  r  2 π L h  r  r = k h

Problem 3.23: Assessment of thermal barrier coating (TBC) for protection


of turbine blades. Determine maximum blade temperature
with and without TBC.

Schematic:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional, steady-state conduction in a composite plane wall, (2) Constant
properties, (3) Negligible radiation

26
ANALYSIS: For a unit area, the total thermal resistance with the TBC is

R ′′tot, w = h o−1 + ( L k ) Zr + R t,c


′′ + ( L k ) + h i−1
In

( )
R ′′tot, w = 10−3 + 3.85 × 10−4 + 10−4 + 2 × 10−4 + 2 × 10−3 m 2 ⋅ K W = 3.69 × 10−3 m 2 ⋅ K W

With a heat flux of

T∞,o − T∞,i 1300 K


q ′′w = = = 3.52 × 105 W m 2
R ′′tot, w 3.69 × 10−3 m 2 ⋅ K W

the inner and outer surface temperatures of the Inconel are

( )
Ts,i(w) = T∞,i + ( q ′′w h i ) = 400 K + 3.52 × 105 W m 2 500 W m 2 ⋅ K = 1104 K

Ts,o(w) = T∞ ,i + (1 h i ) + ( L k )In  q w


( ) ( )
′′ = 400 K + 2 × 10−3 + 2 × 10 −4 m 2 ⋅ K W 3.52 × 105 W m 2 = 1174 K

Without the TBC,

−1 −1 −3
wo = h o + ( L k ) In + h i
′′
R tot, = 3.20 × 10
2
m ⋅K W

(
q ′′wo = T∞ , o − T∞ ,i ) R ′′tot, wo = 4.06×105 W/m2

The inner and outer surface temperatures of the Inconel are then

Ts,i(wo) = T∞,i + ( q ′′wo h i ) = 1212 K

Ts, o(wo) = T∞ , i + [ (1 h i ) + ( L ]
k )In q wo
′′ = 1293 K

Use of the TBC facilitates operation of the Inconel below Tmax = 1250 K.

COMMENTS: Since the durability of the TBC decreases with increasing


temperature, which increases with increasing thickness, limits to its thickness are
associated with reliability considerations.

27
Problem 3.62: Suitability of a composite spherical shell for storing
radioactive wastes in oceanic waters.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Steady-state conditions,


(3) Constant properties at 300K, (4) Negligible contact resistance.

PROPERTIES: Table A-1, Lead: k = 35.3 W/m⋅K, MP = 601K; St.St.: 15.1


W/m⋅K.

ANALYSIS: From the thermal circuit, it follows that


T − T∞ 4 
q= 1 = q&  π r13 
R tot 3 

The thermal resistances are:


 1 1 
R Pb = 1/ ( 4π × 35.3 W/m ⋅ K )  −  = 0.00150 K/W
 0.25m 0.30m 
 1 1 
R St.St. = 1/ ( 4π × 15.1 W/m ⋅ K )   −  = 0.000567 K/W
 0.30m 0.31m 

( )
R conv = 1/ 4π × 0.312 m 2 × 500 W/m 2 ⋅ K  = 0.00166 K/W
 

R tot = 0.00372 K/W.

The heat rate is then


q=5 × 105 W/m3 ( 4π / 3)( 0.25m ) = 32, 725 W
3

and the inner surface temperature is


T1 = T∞ + R tot q=283K+0.00372K/W ( 32,725 W ) = 405 K < MP = 601K.

Hence, from the thermal standpoint, the proposal is adequate.

COMMENTS: In fabrication, attention should be given to maintaining a good


thermal contact. A protective outer coating should be applied to prevent long
term corrosion of the stainless steel.

28
One-Dimensional, Steady-State
Conduction with
Thermal Energy Generation

Implications of Energy Generation

• Involves a local (volumetric) source of thermal energy due to conversion


from another form of energy in a conducting medium.

• The source may be uniformly distributed, as in the conversion from


electrical to thermal energy (Ohmic heating):

E& g I2 R
q& = =
V V

or it may be non-uniformly distributed, as in the absorption of radiation


passing through a semi-transparent medium. For a plane wall,

q& ∝ exp(− α x )

• Generation affects the temperature distribution in the medium and causes


the heat rate to vary with location, thereby precluding inclusion of
the medium in a thermal circuit.

29
The Plane Wall
• Consider one-dimensional, steady-state conduction
in a plane wall of constant k, uniform generation,
and asymmetric surface conditions:

• Heat Equation:

d  dT  • d 2T q
k +q =0→ 2 + =0 (3.39)
dx  dx  dx k

Is the heat flux q′′ independent of x?

• General Solution:

T ( x ) = −  q/ 2k  x 2 + C1 x + C2

 

What is the form of the temperature distribution for


• • •
q = 0? q > 0? q < 0?


How does the temperature distribution change with increasing q ?

Symmetric Surface Conditions or One Surface Insulated:

• What is the temperature gradient


at the centerline or the insulated
surface?
• Why does the magnitude of the temperature
gradient increase with increasing x?

• Temperature Distribution:

q L2  x 2 
T ( x) = 1− + Ts
2k  L2 
(3.42)

• How do we determine Ts ?
Overall energy balance on the wall →
• •
− E out + E g = 0

−hAs (Ts − T∞ ) + q As L = 0


qL
Ts = T∞ + (3.46)
h
• How do we determine the heat rate at x = L?

30
Radial Systems
Cylindrical (Tube) Wall Spherical Wall (Shell)

Solid Cylinder (Circular Rod) Solid Sphere

• Heat Equations:
Cylindrical Spherical
1 d  dT  • 1 d  2 dT  •
 kr +q =0  kr +q =0
r dr  dr  r 2 dr  dr 

• Solution for Uniform Generation in a Solid Sphere of Constant k


with Convection Cooling:

Temperature Distribution Surface Temperature



dT q r3 Overall energy balance:
kr 2 =− + C1
dr 3 •

q r 2 C1
• • q ro
T =− − + C2 − E out + Eg = 0 → Ts = T∞ +
6k r 3h
dT
|r = 0 = 0 → C1 = 0
dr Or from a surface energy balance:

qr2
T ( ro ) = Ts → C2 = Ts + o •
6k q ro
= 0 → qcond ( ro ) = qconv → Ts = T∞ +
• •

q ro 
2
r 2 E in − E out
T (r) = 1 −  + Ts
3h
6k  ro 2 

• A summary of temperature distributions is provided in Appendix C


for plane, cylindrical and spherical walls, as well as for solid
cylinders and spheres. Note how boundary conditions are specified
and how they are used to obtain surface temperatures.

31
Problem 3.91 Thermal conditions in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor
with a tubular thorium fuel rod and a concentric
graphite sheath: (a) Assessment of thermal integrity
for a generation rate of q = 108 W/m 3. (b) Evaluation of
temperature distributions in the thorium •
and graphite
for generation rates in the range 108 ≤ q ≤ 5x108.

Schematic:

Assumptions: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional conduction, (3) Constant


properties, (4) Negligible contact resistance, (5) Negligible radiation, (6) Adiabatic surface at r1.

Properties: Table A.1, Thorium: Tmp ≈ 2000 K ; Table A.2, Graphite: Tmp ≈ 2300 K .

Analysis: (a) The outer surface temperature of the fuel, T2 , may be determined from the rate equation

T2 − T∞
q′ =

Rtot
1n ( r3 / r2 ) 1
′ =
where Rtot + = 0.0185 m ⋅ K/W
2π k g 2π r3 h

The heat rate may be determined by applying an energy balance to a control surface about the fuel
element, • •
E out = E g
• •
or, per unit length, E ′out = E ′g

Since the interior surface of the element is essentially adiabatic, it follows that

q′ = q π ( r22 − r12 ) = 17,907 W/m


Hence,
′ + T∞ = 17,907 W/m ( 0.0185 m K/W ) + 600 K = 931K
T2 = q′Rtot
With zero heat flux at the inner surface of the fuel element, Eq. C.14 yields

q r22  r12  q r12  r2 


• •

T1 = T2 + 1− − 1n   = 931K + 25K − 18K = 938 K <


4kt  r22  2kt  r1 
 

32
Since T1 and T2 are well below the melting points of thorium and graphite, the prescribed
operating condition is acceptable.

(b) The solution for the temperature distribution in a cylindrical wall with generation is

q r22  r 2 
Tt ( r ) = T2 + 1 − 
4kt  r22 
• 2 
q r  r2  1n ( r2 / r )
−  2  1 − 12  + ( T2 − T1 )  (C.2)
 4kt  r   1n ( r2 / r1 )
  2  

Boundary conditions at r1 and r2 are used to determine T1 and T 2 .

 q• r 2  r 2  
k  2  1 − 12  + (T2 − T1 )  (C.14)
 4kt  r2  

q1′′ = 0 = 1 −  
qr
r = r1 :
2 r11n ( r2 / r1 )

 qr• 2  r 2  
k  2 1 − 12  + ( T2 − T1 )  (C.17)

 4kt  r2  
U 2 (T2 − T∞ ) = 2 −  
qr
r = r2 :
2 r21n ( r2 / r1 )

−1 −1
U 2 = ( A2′ Rtot
′ ) = ( 2π r2 Rtot
′ ) (3.32)

The following results are obtained for temperature distributions in the graphite.
2500

2100
Temperature, T(K)

1700

1300

900

500
0.008 0.009 0.01 0.011
Radial location in fuel, r(m)

qdot = 5E8
qdot = 3E8
qdot = 1E8


Operation at q = 5x108 W/m3 is clearly unacceptable since the melting point of
thorium would be exceeded. To prevent softening of the material, which would occur

below the melting point, the reactor should not be operated much above q = 3x10 W/m.
8 3

The small radial temperature gradients are attributable to the large value of kt .

33
Using the value of T2 from the foregoing solution and computing T3 from the surface condition,
2π k g ( T2 − T3 )
q′ =
1n ( r3 / r2 )
(3.27)

the temperature distribution in the graphite is


T2 − T3 r
Tg ( r ) = 1n   + T3 (3.26)
1n ( r2 / r3 )  r3 

2500

2100
Temperature, T(K)

1700

1300

900

500
0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014
Radial location in graphite, r(m)

qdot = 5E8
qdot = 3E8
qdot = 1E8

Operation at q = 5x108 W/m 3 is problematic for the graphite. Larger temperature gradients
are due to the small value of k g .

Comments: (i) What effect would a contact resistance at the thorium/graphite



interface have on
temperatures in the fuel element and on the maximum allowable value of q ? (ii) Referring
to the schematic, where might radiation effects be significant? What would be the influence of such

effect on temperatures in the fuel element and the maximum allowable value of q ?

34
Extended Surfaces

35
Nature and Rationale of Extended Surfaces
• An extended surface (also know as a combined conduction-convection system
or a fin) is a solid within which heat transfer by conduction is assumed to be
one dimensional, while heat is also transferred by convection (and/or
radiation) from the surface in a direction transverse to that of conduction.

– Why is heat transfer by conduction in the x-direction not, in fact, one-


dimensional?

– If heat is transferred from the surface to the fluid by convection, what


surface condition is dictated by the conservation of energy requirement?

– What is the actual functional dependence of the temperature distribution in


the solid?
– If the temperature distribution is assumed to be one-dimensional, that is,
T=T(x) , how should the value of T be interpreted for any x location?
– How does qcond , x vary with x ?
– When may the assumption of one-dimensional conduction be viewed as an
excellent approximation? The thin-fin approximation.
• Extended surfaces may exist in many situations but are commonly used as
fins to enhance heat transfer by increasing the surface area available for
convection (and/or radiation). They are particularly beneficial when h is small,
as for a gas and natural convection.
• Some typical fin configurations:

Straight fins of (a) uniform and (b) non-uniform cross sections; (c) annular
fin, and (d) pin fin of non-uniform cross section.

36
TYPICAL FIN CONFIGURATIONS

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(g) (h) (i)

The Fin Equation


dqconv
dAs
qx
Ac (x)
q x = q x + dx + d qconv
qx+dx

dx

z x
y
x

dT d qx dT d  dT 
q x = − k Ac q x+ dx = q x + dx = −k Ac −k  Ac  dx
dx dx dx d x  d x 

d qconv = h dAs (T − T∞ )

d  dT  d As
−k  Ac + h (T − T∞ ) = 0
d x  d x  dx

d2T  1 d Ac  d T  1 h d As 
+   −   (T − T∞ ) = 0
d x2  Ac d x  d x  Ac k d x 

37
The Fin Equation
• Assuming one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in an extended surface
surface of constant conductivity ( k ) and uniform cross-sectional area ( Ac,)
with negligible generation  q• = 0  and radiation ( q′′rad = 0 ) , the fin equation
 
is of the form:  

d 2T hP
− (T − T∞ ) = 0 (3.62)
dx 2 kAc

or, with m 2 ≡ ( hP / kAc ) and the reduced temperature θ ≡ T −T∞ ,

d 2θ
− m 2θ = 0
dx 2

• Solutions (Table 3.4):

Base (x = 0) condition
θ ( 0 ) = Tb − T∞ ≡ θb

Tip ( x = L) conditions
A. Convection: − kdθ / dx |x = L = hθ ( L )
B. Adiabatic: dθ / dx |x = L = 0
C. Fixed temperature: θ ( L ) = θ L
D. Infinite fin (mL >2.65): θ ( L ) = 0

• Fin Heat Rate:



q f = −kAc |x = 0 = ∫ Af hθ ( x ) dAs
dx

38
Condição de Distribuição de temperaturas Taxa de transmissão de
Caso
fronteira em x = L θ/θb calor
cosh[m(L − x )] + sinh[m(L − x )]
h
sinh (m L ) + cosh (m L )
h
dθ
= h θ (L )
mk mk
(i) − k   M
cosh (m L ) + sinh (m L ) cosh (m L ) + sinh (m L )
 d x  x=L h h
mk mk
dθ cosh[m(L − x )]
(ii)   =0 M tanh (m L )
 d x  x= L cosh (m L )

(θ L θ b ) sinh (m x ) + sinh[m(L − x )] cosh (m L ) − θ L / θ b


(iii) θ (L ) = θL M
sinh (m L ) sinh (m L )

(iv) θ (L ) = 0 e− m x M

hP
m2 = M = h P k Ac θb
k Ac

Fin Performance Parameters


• Fin Efficiency:
qf qf
ηf ≡ =
q f ,max hA f θb
How is the efficiency affected by the thermal conductivity of the fin?
Expressions for η f are provided in Table 3.5 for common geometries.
Consider a triangular fin:
1/ 2
A f = 2w  L2 + ( t / 2 ) 
2
 
Ap = ( t / 2 ) L
1 I1 ( 2mL )
ηf =
mL I 0 ( 2mL )

• Fin Effectiveness:
qf
εf ≡
hAc , bθb
ε f ↑ with ↓ h, ↑ k and ↓ Ac / P
• Fin Resistance:
θb 1
Rt , f ≡ =
qf hA f η f

39
Correction of fin length to account for heat loss from the tip

Transmissão de calor
q f ,tip = h Ac θ (L ) ≈ h P (Lc − L )θ (L )
na extremidade

Ac
Lc = L +
P

Fin of rectangular cross section with t << w:

Lc = L + t / 2

extremidade
Fin of circular cross section :
isolada

Lc = L + D / 4

Approximation error negligible if ht / k or


hD / 2k ≤ 0.0625

Fins efficiency

1.0 1.0 y (x)


(a) t
ri
0.9
x
(b)
0.8 L 0.8

t
0.7 (c)

0.6 0.6
ro
(d)
hf hf 0.5
ro
=1 (e)
0.4
ri
0.4

1.4 0.3

0.2 1.6 0.2


3 1.8
2
4 0.1

0.0 0.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

40
Fin Arrays
• Representative arrays of
(a) rectangular and
(b) annular fins.

– Total surface area:


At = NA f + Ab
Number of fins Area of exposed base (prime surface)

– Total heat rate:


θb
qt = Nη f hA f θb + hAbθb ≡ ηo hAtθ b =
Rt , o
– Overall surface efficiency and resistance:
(1 − η f )
NA f
ηo = 1 −
At
θb 1
Rt , o = =
qt ηo hAt

• Equivalent Thermal Circuit :

• Effect of Surface Contact Resistance:

θb
qt = ηo ( c ) hAtθ b =
Rt , o ( c )
NA f  η f 
ηo ( c ) = 1 − 1 − 
At  C1 
C1 = 1 + η f hA f ( Rt′′, c / Ac , b )
1
Rt , o ( c ) =
ηo ( c ) hAt

41
Problem 3.116: Assessment of cooling scheme for gas turbine blade.
Determination of whether blade temperatures are less
than the maximum allowable value (1050 °C) for
prescribed operating conditions and evaluation of blade
cooling rate.

Schematic:

Assumptions: (1) One-dimensional, steady-state conduction in blade, (2) Constant k, (3)


Adiabatic blade tip, (4) Negligible radiation.

Analysis: Conditions in the blade are determined by Case B of Table 3.4.

(a) With the maximum temperature existing at x=L, Eq. 3.75 yields

T ( L ) − T∞ 1
=
Tb − T∞ cosh mL

( )
1/ 2
m = ( hP/kA c ) = 250W/m 2 ⋅ K × 0.11m/20W/m ⋅ K × 6 × 10−4 m 2
1/ 2
= 47.87 m-1

mL = 47.87 m-1 × 0.05 m = 2.39

From Table B.1, coshmL=5.51 . Hence,

T ( L ) = 1200o C + (300 − 1200)o C/5.51 = 1037 o C

and, subject to the assumption of an adiabatic tip, the operating conditions are acceptable.

( ) ( −900 C ) = −517W ,
1/ 2
(b) With M = ( hPkA c )1 / 2 Θ b = 250W/m 2 ⋅ K × 0.11m × 20W/m ⋅ K × 6 × 10 −4 m 2 o

Eq. 3.76 and Table B.1 yield

q f = M tanh mL = −517W ( 0.983) = −508W

Hence, q b = −q f = 508W

Comments: Radiation losses from the blade surface contribute to reducing the blade
temperatures, but what is the effect of assuming an adiabatic tip condition? Calculate
the tip temperature allowing for convection from the gas.

42
Problem 3.132: Determination of maximum allowable power qc for a 20mm
x 20mm electronic chip whose temperature is not to exceed
Tc = 85o C, when the chip is attached to an air-cooled heat sink
with N=11 fins of prescribed dimensions.

Schematic:

Assumptions: (1) Steady-state, (2) One-dimensional heat transfer, (3) Isothermal chip, (4)
Negligible heat transfer from top surface of chip, (5) Negligible temperature rise for air flow,
(6) Uniform convection coefficient associated with air flow through channels and over outer
surface of heat sink, (7) Negligible radiation.

Analysis: (a) From the thermal circuit,

T − T∞ Tc − T∞
qc = c =
R tot R t,c + R t,b + R t,o
′′ c / W 2 = 2 × 10 −6 m 2 ⋅ K / W / ( 0.02m ) 2 = 0.005 K / W
R t,c = R t,

R t, b = L b / k W ( ) = 0.003m / 180
2
W/m⋅K ( 0.02m ) 2 = 0.042 K / W

1 N Af
From Eqs. (3.103), (3.102), and (3.99) R t,o = , ηo = 1 − (1 − ηf ) , A t = N Af + A b
ηo h A t At

-4 2
Af = 2WLf = 2 × 0.02m × 0.015m = 6 × 10 m
2 2 -3 -4 2
Ab = W – N(tW) = (0.02m) – 11(0.182 × 10 m × 0.02m) = 3.6 × 10 m
-3 2
At = 6.96 × 10 m
1/2 2 -3 1/2
With mLf = (2h/kt) Lf = (200 W/m ⋅K/180 W/m⋅K × 0.182 × 10 m) (0.015m) =
1.17, tanh mLf = 0.824 and Eq. (3.87) yields
tanh mLf 0.824
ηf = = = 0.704
mLf 1.17

ηo = 0.719,
Rt,o = 2.00 K/W, and

(85 − 20 ) °C
qc = = 31.8 W
( 0.005 + 0.042 + 2.00 ) K / W

43
Comments: The heat sink significantly increases the allowable heat dissipation. If it
were not used and heat was simply transferred by convection from the surface of the chip with
h = 100 W/m 2 K , Rtot = 2.05 K/W from Part (a) would be replaced by
Rcnv = 1/ hW 2 = 25 K/W, yielding qc = 2.60 W.

Transient Conduction:
The Lumped Capacitance Method

44
Transient Conduction
• A heat transfer process for which the temperature varies with time, as well
as location within a solid.

• It is initiated whenever a system experiences a change in operating conditions


and proceeds until a new steady state (thermal equilibrium) is achieved.

• It can be induced by changes in:


– surface convection conditions ( h, T∞ ),
– surface radiation conditions ( hr , Tsur ),
– a surface temperature or heat flux, and/or
– internal energy generation.

• Solution Techniques
– The Lumped Capacitance Method
– Exact Solutions
– The Finite-Difference Method (not to be studied)

The Lumped Capacitance Method


• Based on the assumption of a spatially uniform temperature distribution
r
throughout the transient process.
T ( r ,t ) ≈ T ( t )
• Why is the assumption never fully realized in practice?

• General Lumped Capacitance


Analysis:

 Consider a general case,


which includes convection,
radiation and/or an applied
heat flux at specified
surfaces ( As , c , As , r , As , h ) ,
as well as internal energy
generation

45
 First Law:

d E st dT
= ρV C = E& in − E& out + E& g
dt dt
• Assuming energy outflow due to convection and radiation and with
inflow due to an applied heat flux q′′s ,

dT
ρV C = q's' ,h As ,h − hAs ,c ( T − T∞ ) − hs ,r As ,r ( T − Tsur ) + E& g
dt

• Is this expression applicable in situations for which convection and/or


radiation provide for energy inflow?

• May h and hr be assumed to be constant throughout the transient process?

• How must such an equation be solved?

• Special Cases (Exact Solutions, T ( 0 ) ≡ Ti )


 Negligible Radiation (θ ≡ T − T∞ , θ ′ ≡ θ − b / a ) :
h As ,c q '' As , h + E& g
a= b=
ρV C ρV C
The non-homogeneous differential equation is transformed into a
homogeneous equation of the form:
dθ ′
= −aθ ′
dt

Integrating from t=0 to any t and rearranging,

T − T∞ b/a
= exp ( −at ) + 1 − exp ( −at ) 
Ti − T∞ Ti − T∞ 

To what does the foregoing equation reduce as steady state is approached?


How else may the steady-state solution be obtained?

46
 Negligible Radiation and Source Terms  h >> hr , Eg = 0, qs′′ = 0  :
dT  
ρ∀c = − hAs , c ( T − T∞ )
dt
ρ∀c θ dθ t

hAs , c θi θ
= − dt
o ∫
θ T − T∞   hAs , c    t 
= = exp  −   t  = exp  − 
θi Ti − T∞   ρ∀c    τt 

The thermal time constant is defined as


 1 
τt ≡   ( ρ∀c )
 hA s,c 
Thermal Lumped Thermal
Resistance, Rt Capacitance, Ct

The change in thermal energy storage due to the transient process is


  t 
∆Est ≡ −Q = − ∫ Eout dt = −hAs , c ∫ θ dt = − ( ρ∀c )θi 1 − exp  −
t t
 (5.8)
o o   τt 

 h >> h, E = 0, q′′ = 0  :
 Negligible Convection and Source Terms  r g s 
 

Assuming radiation exchange with large surroundings,


dT
ρ∀c = −ε As , rσ (T 4 − Tsur
4
)
dt
ε A s , rσ t T dT
dt = ∫T 4
ρ∀c ∫o i T
sur − T
4

ρ∀c  Tsur + T T +T
t= 1n − 1n sur i
4ε As , rσ Tsur
3
 Tsur − T Tsur − Ti

  T   Ti   
+2  tan −1   − tan −1   
  T sur   T sur   

Result necessitates implicit evaluation of T(t).

47
The Biot Number and Validity of
The Lumped Capacitance Method
• The Biot Number: The first of many dimensionless parameters to be
considered.
 Definition:
hL
Bi ≡ c
k
h → convection or radiation coefficient
k → thermal conductivity of the solid
Lc → characteristic length of the solid (∀ / As or coordinate
associated with maximum spatial temperature difference)

 Physical Interpretation:

Lc / kAs Rcond ∆Tsolid


Bi = = =
1/ hAs Rconv ∆Tsolid / fluid

 Criterion for Applicability of Lumped Capacitance Method:


Bi << 1

Problem 5.11: Charging a thermal energy storage system consisting


of a packed bed of aluminum spheres.

KNOWN: Diameter, density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of aluminum spheres used in
packed bed thermal energy storage system. Convection coefficient and inlet gas temperature.

FIND: Time required for sphere at inlet to acquire 90% of maximum possible thermal energy and the
corresponding center temperature.

Schematic:

Aluminum sphere
Gas D = 75 mm, Ti = 25oC
ρ = 2700 kg/m3
Tg,i = 300oC c = 950 J/kg-K
h = 75 W/m2-K k = 240 W/m-K

48
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible heat transfer to or from a sphere by radiation or conduction due to
contact with other spheres, (2) Constant properties.
ANALYSIS: To determine whether a lumped capacitance analysis can be used, first compute Bi =
2
h(ro/3)/k = 75 W/m ⋅K (0.025m)/150 W/m⋅K = 0.013 <<1.
Hence, the lumped capacitance approximation may be made, and a uniform temperature may be
assumed to exist in the sphere at any time.
From Eq. 5.8a, achievement of 90% of the maximum possible thermal energy storage corresponds to

∆Est
− = 0.90 = 1 − exp ( − t / τ t )
ρ cVθi
3
2700 kg / m × 0.075m × 950 J / kg ⋅ K
τ t = ρ Vc / hAs = ρ Dc / 6h = = 427s.
2
6 × 75 W / m ⋅ K
t = −τ t ln ( 0.1) = 427s × 2.30 = 984s

From Eq. (5.6), the corresponding temperature at any location in the sphere is
( )
T ( 984s ) = Tg,i + Ti − Tg,i exp ( −6ht / ρ Dc )

(
T ( 984s ) = 300°C − 275°C exp −6 × 75 W / m ⋅ K × 984s / 2700 kg / m × 0.075m × 950 J / kg ⋅ K
2 3
)
T ( 984s ) = 272.5°C

3
If the product of the density and specific heat of copper is (ρc)Cu ≈ 8900 kg/m × 400 J/kg⋅K = 3.56 ×
6 3
10 J/m ⋅K, is there any advantage to using copper spheres of equivalent diameter in lieu of aluminum
spheres?

Does the time required for a sphere to reach a prescribed state of thermal energy storage change with
increasing distance from the bed inlet? If so, how and why?

Problem 5.15: Heating of coated furnace wall during start-up.

KNOWN: Thickness and properties of furnace wall. Thermal resistance of ceramic coating
on surface of wall exposed to furnace gases. Initial wall temperature.

FIND: (a) Time required for surface of wall to reach a prescribed temperature, (b)
Corresponding value of coating surface temperature.

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Constant properties, (2) Negligible coating thermal capacitance, (3)
Negligible radiation.
3
PROPERTIES: Carbon steel: ρ = 7850 kg/m , c = 430 J/kg⋅K, k = 60 W/m⋅K.

49
ANALYSIS: Heat transfer to the wall is determined by the total resistance to heat transfer
from the gas to the surface of the steel, and not simply by the convection resistance.
−1 −1
−1 1   
+ 10−2 m 2 ⋅ K/W 
1
Hence, with U = ( R ′′tot ) =  + R ′′f  = = 20 W/m 2 ⋅ K.
h   25 W/m 2 ⋅ K 

UL 20 W/m 2 ⋅ K × 0.01 m
Bi = = = 0.0033 << 1
k 60 W/m ⋅ K
and the lumped capacitance method can be used.
(a) From Eqs. (5.6) and (5.7),
T − T∞
= exp ( − t/τ t ) = exp ( − t/R t C t ) = exp ( − Ut/ρ Lc )
Ti − T∞

ρ Lc T − T∞ 7850 kg/m3 ( 0.01 m ) 430 J/kg ⋅ K 1200 − 1300


t=− ln =− ln
U Ti − T∞ 20 W/m 2 ⋅ K 300 − 1300

t = 3886s = 1.08h.
(b) Performing an energy balance at the outer surface (s,o),

( ) (
h T∞ − Ts,o = Ts,o − Ts,i / R f′′ )
hT∞ + Ts,i / R f′′ 25 W/m2 ⋅ K × 1300 K + 1200 K/10-2 m2 ⋅ K/W
Ts,o = =
h + (1/ R f′′ ) ( 25 + 100 ) W/m 2 ⋅ K

Ts,o = 1220 K.

How does the coating affect the thermal time constant?

Transient Conduction:
Spatial Effects and the Role of
Analytical Solutions

50
Solution to the Heat Equation for a Plane Wall with
Symmetrical Convection Conditions
• If the lumped capacitance approximation can not be made, consideration must
be given to spatial, as well as temporal, variations in temperature during the
transient process.
• For a plane wall with symmetrical convection
conditions and constant properties, the heat
equation and initial/boundary conditions are:
∂2T 1 ∂T
=
∂x2 α ∂t
T ( x,0 ) = T i
∂T
=0
∂x x=0

∂T
−k = h T ( L, t ) − T ∞ 
∂x x=L

• Existence of seven independent variables:


T = T ( x, t ,T i , T ∞ , k ,α , h )
How may the functional dependence be simplified?

• Non-dimensionalization of Heat Equation and Initial/Boundary Conditions:


θ T − T∞
Dimensionless temperature difference: θ*≡ =
θ i Ti − T∞
x
Dimensionless coordinate: x * ≡
L
αt
Dimensionless time: t * ≡ ≡ Fo
L2
Fo → the Fourier Number
hL
The Biot Number: Bi ≡
k solid
θ * = f ( x * , Fo, Bi )
• Exact Solution:

θ * = ∑ C n exp ( −ζ n2 Fo ) cos (ζ n x * )
n =1
4sin ζ n
Cn = ζ n tan ζ n = Bi
2ζ n + sin ( 2ζ n )
See Appendix B.3 for first four roots (eigenvalues ζ 1 ,..., ζ 4 ) of Eq. (5.39c)

51
• The One-Term Approximation ( Fo > 0.2 ) :
 Variation of midplane temperature (x*= 0) with time ( Fo ) :
(T o − T ∞ ) ≈ C exp −ζ 2 Fo
θ o* ≡ ( 1 )
(T i − T ∞ ) 1
Table 5.1 → C 1 and ζ 1 as a function of Bi
 Variation of temperature with location (x*) and time ( Fo ) :
θ * = θ o* cos (ζ 1 x * )
 Change in thermal energy storage with time:
∆E st = −Q
 sin ζ 1 * 
Q = Q o 1 − θo
 ζ1 
Q o = ρ c∀ (T i − T ∞ )
Can the foregoing results be used for a plane wall that is well insulated on one
side and convectively heated or cooled on the other?
Can the foregoing results be used if an isothermal condition (T s ≠ T i ) is
instantaneously imposed on both surfaces of a plane wall or on one surface of
a wall whose other surface is well insulated?

Placa plana Cilindro longo Esfera

Bi ζ1 c1 ζ1 c1 ζ1 c1
0.01 0.09983 1.00166 0.14124 1.00250 0.17303 1.00300
0.02 0.14095 1.00331 0.19950 1.00498 0.24446 1.00599
0.03 0.17234 1.00495 0.24403 1.00746 0.29910 1.00898
0.04 0.19868 1.00657 0.28143 1.00993 0.34503 1.01197
0.05 0.22176 1.00819 0.31426 1.01240 0.38537 1.01495
0.06 0.24253 1.00979 0.34383 1.01485 0.42173 1.01793
0.07 0.26153 1.01138 0.37092 1.01729 0.45506 1.02090
0.08 0.27913 1.01297 0.39603 1.01973 0.48600 1.02387
0.09 0.29557 1.01454 0.41954 1.02216 0.51497 1.02684
0.10 0.31105 1.01609 0.44168 1.02458 0.54228 1.02980
0.15 0.37788 1.02372 0.53761 1.03655 0.66086 1.04453
0.20 0.43284 1.03109 0.61697 1.04830 0.75931 1.05915
0.25 0.48009 1.03819 0.68559 1.05984 0.84473 1.07365
0.30 0.52179 1.04505 0.74646 1.07116 0.92079 1.08802
0.35 0.55922 1.05166 0.80140 1.08226 0.98966 1.10226
0.40 0.59324 1.05804 0.85158 1.09314 1.05279 1.11635
0.45 0.62444 1.06419 0.89783 1.10381 1.11118 1.13030
------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------

52
Graphical Representation of the One-Term Approximation
The Heisler Charts – Plane wall
• Midplane Temperature:

• Temperature Distribution:

• Change in Thermal Energy Storage:

53
Radial Systems

• Long Rods Heated or Cooled by Convection.

Bi = hr o / k
Fo = α t / r o2

(5.184a)

• Long rod:

θ (r , t ) T (r , t ) − T∞ ∞
θ* =
θi
=
Ti − T∞
(
= ∑ c n J o (ζ n r *) exp − ζ n2 Fo )
n =1

J 1 (ζ n )
cn =
2 ζ n = λn ro r * = r ro
ζ n J o2 (ζ n ) + J12 (ζ n )

Radial Systems

• Long rod – one term approximation (Fo > 0.2):

θ* =
T − T∞
Ti − T∞
( )
≈ c1 J o (ζ 1 r *) exp − ζ 12 Fo = θ o* J o (ζ 1 r *) θ *o =
To − T∞
Ti − T∞
(
= c1 exp − ζ 12 Fo )

Change in thermal energy storage with time:

∆E st = −Q

(5.184a)
Q 2 J 1 (ζ 1 ) *
=1 − θo (Fo > 0.2)
Qo ζ1

Q o = ρ c∀ (T i − T ∞ )

54
Graphical Representation of the One-Term Approximation
The Heisler Charts – Infinite cylinder
• Centerline Temperature:

• Temperature Distribution:

• Change in Thermal Energy Storage:

55
Spherical Systems
• Spheres Heated or Cooled by Convection.

Bi = hr o / k
Fo = α t / r o2

• Sphere: (5.184a)

θ (r , t ) T (r , t ) − T∞ ∞
θ* =
θi
=
Ti − T∞
(
= ∑ cn exp − ζ n2 Fo
1
ζn r*
)
sin ζ n r * ( )
n=1

4 (sin ζ n − ζ n cos ζ n )
cn =
2 ζ n − sin (2 ζ n )
r * = r ro

1 − ζ n cotan ζ n = Bi

Spherical Systems

• Sphere – one term approximation (Fo > 0.2):

sin (ζ 1 r *) sin (ζ 1 r *)
θ* =
T − T∞
Ti − T∞
≈ c1
ζ1 r *
(
exp − ζ 12 Fo = θ o* ) ζ1 r *

θo* =
To − T∞
Ti − T∞
= c1 exp − ζ 12 Fo( )
Change in thermal energy storage with time:

∆E st = −Q
(5.184a)

3 θ *o
Q
= 1− (sin ζ 1 − ζ 1 cos ζ 1 ) (Fo > 0.2)
Qo ζ 13

Q o = ρ c∀ (T i − T ∞ )

56
Graphical Representation of the One-Term Approximation
The Heisler Charts – Sphere
• Center Temperature:

• Temperature Distribution:

• Change in Thermal Energy Storage:

57
The Semi-Infinite Solid
• A solid that is initially of uniform temperature Ti and is assumed to extend
to infinity from a surface at which thermal conditions are altered.
• Problem formulation

∂2 T 1 dT
= T(x, 0) = Ti
∂ x2 α dt

T(∞, t) = Ti

• Special Cases:

Case 1: Change in Surface Temperature (Ts)

T ( 0, t ) = T s ≠ T ( x,0 ) = T i

T ( x, t ) − T s  x 
= erf  
Ti − Ts  2 αt 
k (T s − T i )
q′′s =
πα t

Case 2: Uniform Heat Flux ( q′′s = q′′o )

2q′′o (α t / π )
1
 x2 
2
T ( x, t ) − T i = exp  − 
k  4α t 
q′′ x  x 
− o erfc  
k  2 αt  (5.59)

Case 3: Convection Heat Transfer ( h, T ∞ )

∂T
−k = h T ∞ − T ( 0, t ) 
∂x x =0

T ( x, t ) − T i  x 
= erfc  
T∞ − Ti  2 αt 
  hx h 2α t    x h αt 
− exp  +  erfc  + 

  k k    2 αt k  
2
(5.60)

58
Contact between two semi-infinite bodies
• Two bodies initially at uniform temperatures,
TA and TB, are placed in contact at their free
surfaces

• If the contact resistance is neglibible, then the


temperature and the heat flux must be equal at
the contact point

k A (Ts − T A,i ) k B (Ts − TB ,i )


− =
παAt π αB t

k A ρ A c p, A T A,i + k B ρ B c p, B T B,i
Ts =
k A ρ A c p, A + k B ρ B c p,B

Multidimensional Effects
• Solutions for multidimensional transient conduction can often be expressed
as a product of related one-dimensional solutions for a plane wall, P(x,t),
an infinite cylinder, C(r,t), and/or a semi-infinite solid, S(x,t). See Equations
(5.64) to (5.66) and Fig. 5.11.

• Consider superposition of solutions for two-dimensional conduction in a


short cylinder:

T ( r , x, t ) − T ∞
= P ( x, t ) x C ( r , t )
Ti − T∞
T ( x, t ) − T ∞ T ( r,t ) − T ∞
= x
Ti − T∞ Plane Ti − T∞ Infinite
Wall Cylinder

59
 T (x,y,t ) − T∞   T (x,t ) − T∞   T ( y,t ) − T∞ 
  =   ×  
 Ti − T∞  barra de secção
rectangular (2 a×2b )
 Ti − T∞ placa infinita de  Ti − T∞
 espessura 2a
 espessura
placa infinita de
2b

 T (x,t ) − T∞   To (t ) − T∞   T ( y,t ) − T∞   To (t ) − T∞ 
=     ×    
 To (t ) − T∞   Ti − T∞  placa infinita de  To (t ) − T∞   Ti − T∞  placa infinita de
espessura 2a espessura 2b

 Q   Q   Q 
  =   + 
 Qo  barra de sec ção  Qo  placa plana de  Qo  placa plana de
rectangular 2 a×2b espessura 2 a espessura 2b

 Q   Q 
−   ×  
 Qo  espessura
placa plana de  Qo
2a
 espessura
placa plana de
2b

T ( x, t ) − T∞ T (x, t ) − T∞ T (r , t ) − T∞
S ( x, t ) = P( x, t ) = C (r , t ) =
Ti − T∞ Ti − T∞ Ti − T∞

60
Problem 5.66: Charging a thermal energy storage system consisting of
a packed bed of Pyrex spheres.

KNOWN: Diameter, density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of Pyrex


spheres in packed bed thermal energy storage system. Convection coefficient and
inlet gas temperature.

FIND: Time required for sphere to acquire 90% of maximum possible thermal
energy and the corresponding center and surface temperatures.
SCHEMATIC:

Gas Pyrex sphere


D = 75 mm, Ti = 25oC
Tg,i = 300oC ρ = 2225 kg/m3
c = 835 J/kg-K
h = 75 W/m2-K k = 1.4 W/m-K

61
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional radial conduction in sphere, (2)
Negligible heat transfer to or from a sphere by radiation or conduction due to
contact with adjoining spheres, (3) Constant properties.
ANALYSIS: With Bi ≡ h(ro/3)/k = 75 W/m2⋅K (0.0125m)/1.4 W/m⋅K = 0.67,
the lumped capacitance method is inappropriate and the approximate (one-term)
solution for one-dimensional transient conduction in a sphere is used to obtain the
desired results.
To obtain the required time, the specified charging requirement
( Q / Q o = 0.9 ) must first be used to obtain the dimensionless center temperature,
θ o* .

From Eq. (5.52),


ζ 13  Q 
θ o∗ = 1 − 
3 sin (ζ 1 ) − ζ 1 cos (ζ 1 )   Qo 

With Bi ≡ hro/k = 2.01, ζ 1 ≈ 2.03 and C1 ≈ 1.48 from Table 5.1. Hence,
0.1( 2.03)
3
0.837
θ o∗ = = = 0.155
3  0.896 − 2.03 ( −0.443 )  5.386

From Eq. (5.50c), the corresponding time is


r2 θ∗ 
t = − o 2 ln  o 
αζ 1  C1 

( )
α = k / ρ c = 1.4 W / m ⋅ K / 2225 kg / m 3 × 835 J / kg ⋅ K = 7.54 × 10 −7 m 2 / s,
( 0.0375m ) 2
ln ( 0.155 /1.48 )
t=− = 1,020s
7.54 × 10−7 m 2 / s ( 2.03)
2

From the definition of θ o* , the center temperature is

( )
To = Tg,i + 0.155 Ti − Tg,i = 300°C − 42.7°C = 257.3°C

The surface temperature at the time of interest may be obtained from Eq. (5.50b)
with r ∗ = 1,

θo∗ sin (ζ 1 )  0.155 × 0.896 


(
Ts = Tg,i + Ti − Tg,i ) ζ1
= 300°C − 275°C 
 2.03
 = 280.9°C

Is use of the one-term approximation appropriate?

62
Problem: 5.82: Use of radiation heat transfer from high intensity lamps
( q′′s = 10 4 W/m 2 ) for a prescribed duration (t=30 min) to assess
ability of firewall to meet safety standards corresponding to
maximum allowable temperatures at the heated (front) and
unheated (back) surfaces.
KNOWN: Thickness, initial temperature and thermophysical properties of
concrete firewall. Incident radiant flux and duration of radiant heating.
Maximum allowable surface temperatures at the end of heating.

FIND: If maximum allowable temperatures are exceeded.

SCHEMATIC:
x L = 0.25 m
Concrete, Ti = 25oC
qs = 104 W/m2 ρ = 2300 kg/m3
c = 880 J/kg-K
k = 1.4 W/m-K
αs = 1.0
Tmax = 325oC Tmax = 25oC

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in wall, (2) Validity of semi-


infinite medium approximation, (3) Negligible convection and radiative exchange
with the surroundings at the irradiated surface, (4) Negligible heat transfer from
the back surface, (5) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: The thermal response of the wall is described by Eq. (5.59)

2 q ′′o (α t / π )
1/ 2
 − x 2  q′′o x  x 
T ( x, t ) = Ti + exp  −
 4α t 
erfc  
k   k  2 αt 
−7
where, α = k / ρ c p = 6.92 × 10 m / s and for
2

t = 30 min = 1800s, 2q′′o (α t / π ) / k = 284.5 K. Hence, at x = 0,


1/ 2

T ( 0,30 min ) = 25°C + 284.5°C = 309.5°C < 325°C

( 2
)
At x = 0.25m, − x / 4α t = −12.54, q ′′o x / k = 1, 786K, and x / 2 (α t )
1/ 2
= 3.54.
Hence,

( )
T ( 0.25m, 30 min ) = 25°C + 284.5°C 3.58 × 10−6 − 1786°C × ( ~ 0 ) ≈ 25°C

63
Both requirements are met.

Is the assumption of a semi-infinite solid for a plane wall of finite thickness


appropriate under the foregoing conditions?

COMMENTS: The foregoing analysis may or may not be conservative, since


heat transfer at the irradiated surface due to convection and net radiation
exchange with the environment has been neglected. If the emissivity of the
surface and the temperature of the surroundings are assumed to be ε = 1 and Tsur
= 298K, radiation exchange at Ts = 309.5°C would be
( )
q′′rad = εσ Ts4 − Tsur
4
= 6, 080 W / m 2 ⋅ K,
which is significant (~ 60% of the prescribed radiation). However, under actual
conditions, the wall would likely be exposed to combustion gases and adjoining
walls at elevated temperatures.

5.89
Um cilindro de cobre, com 100 mm de comprimento e 50 mm de diâmetro
encontra-se inicialmente à temperatura uniforme de 20ºC.
As duas bases são aquecidas muito rapidamente, a partir de um determinado
instante, ficando à temperatura de 500 ºC, enquanto a superfície lateral do
cilindro é aquecida por uma corrente de gás a 500 ºC e com um coeficiente de
convecção de 100 W/m2K.

a) Determinar a temperatura do centro do cilindro ao fim de 8 segundos.


b) Atendendo aos parâmetros adimensionais que determinam a distribuição de
temperaturas nos problemas de difusão transiente do calor, é possível admitir
hipóteses simplificativas na análise deste problema?
Apresente uma explicação resumida.

Propriedades do cobre

64
CILINDRO CURTO: 2D
PROPRIEDADES CONSTANTES →
h CONSTANTE

PARA O CILINDRO INFINITO C(r,t):

PARA O PLACA PLANA INFINITA P(x,t):

PARA O CILINDRO CURTO:

PARÂMETROS ADIMENSIONAIS QUE CONTROLAM A CONDUÇÃO TRANSIENTE:


Fourier e Biot.

NO CASO DO CILINDRO → Bi < 0,1 → DESPREZAM-SE GRADIENTES


RADIAIS

65
5.90
Considerando que a carne fica cozida quando atinge uma temperatura de 80ºC,
calcule o tempo necessário para assar uma peça de carne com 2,25 kg.
Admitir que a peça de carne é um cilindro com diâmetro igual ao comprimento e
que as suas propriedades são equivalentes às de água líquida.
Considere que a carne se encontra inicialmente à temperatura de 6ºC e que a
temperatura do forno é 175ºC e o coeficiente de convecção é de 15 W/m2K.

Propriedades da água:

CÁLCULO DAS DIMENSÕES DO CILINDRO:

CÁLCULO DA TEMPERATURA NO CENTRO DO CILINDRO:

66
SOLUÇÃO TENTATIVA-ERRO:

Introduction to Convection:
Flow and Thermal Considerations

67
Boundary Layers: Physical Features
• Velocity Boundary Layer

– A consequence of viscous effects


associated with relative motion
between a fluid and a surface.
– A region of the flow characterized by
shear stresses and velocity gradients.
– A region between the surface
u ( y)
and the free stream whose δ→ = 0.99
thickness δ increases in u∞
the flow direction.
∂u τs
– Why does δ increase in the flow direction? τs = µ Cf =
y =0 1
∂y ρ u ∞2
– Manifested by a surface shear 2
stress τ s that provides a drag FD = ∫ τ s dAs
force, FD . As

– How doesτ s vary in the flow


direction? Why?

• Thermal Boundary Layer

– A consequence of heat transfer


between the surface and fluid.

– A region of the flow characterized


by temperature gradients and heat
fluxes.
– A region between the surface and Ts − T ( y )
δt → = 0.99
the free stream whose thickness δ t Ts − T∞
increases in the flow direction.
– Why does δ t increase in the ∂T
q′′s = −k f y=0
flow direction? ∂y
– Manifested by a surface heat
flux qs′′ and a convection heat − k f ∂T / ∂y y =0
transfer coefficient h . h≡
Ts − T∞
– If (Ts − T∞ ) is constant, how do q′′s and
h vary in the flow direction?

68
Distinction between Local and
Average Heat Transfer Coefficients
• Local Heat Flux and Coefficient:

q′′ = h (Ts − T∞ )

• Average Heat Flux and Coefficient for a Uniform Surface Temperature:

q = hAs (Ts − T∞ )

q = ∫As q′′dAs = (Ts − T∞ ) ∫A hdAs


s

1
h= ∫ hdAs
As As

• For a flat plate in parallel flow:


1
h = ∫oL hdx
L

Governing equations
Equação da continuidade ∂ ρ ∂ ( ρ u ) ∂ ( ρ v ) ∂ ( ρ w)
• + + + =0
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Equação de balanço da quantidade de (


∂ (ρ ui ) ∂ ρ u j ui )
∂ p ∂τ ij
+ =− + + ρ gi
movimento ∂t ∂ xj ∂ xi ∂ x j

 ∂ ui ∂ u j  2 ∂ uk
τ ij = µ  + − µ δ
 ∂ x j ∂ xi  3 ∂ x k ij
 
Equação de conservação da
energia
 ∂T  ∂u j ∂ ui
• Energia interna ∂
∂t ∂xj
(
(ρ e ) + ∂ ρ u j e = ∂
∂xj
) k − p
 ∂xj  ∂ x
+ τ ij
∂ xj
+ q& ′′′
  j

∂ ui  ∂u ∂u j  ∂ ui 2  ∂ u k  2
Dissipação µ Φ = τ ij = µ i +  − µ  =
∂xj  ∂ x j ∂ xi  ∂ x j 3  ∂ x k 
 
viscosa de energia
 ∂ u  2  ∂ v  2  ∂ w  2   ∂ u ∂ v  2  ∂ u ∂ w  2  ∂ v ∂ w  2 
= 2 µ   +   +    + µ  +  +  +  +  ∂ z + ∂ y   −
 ∂ x   ∂ y   ∂ z    ∂ y ∂ x  ∂z ∂x   
  
2
2  ∂u ∂ v ∂ w
µ + + 
3  ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z 

69
Governing equations
p
h =e+
ρ

 ∂T  ∂p
• Entalpia específica ∂
∂t ∂xj
(
(ρ h) + ∂ ρ u j h = ∂
∂xj
) k
 ∂xj
+
 ∂t
+uj
∂p
∂xj
+ µ Φ + q& ′′′
 

dh = c p dT + (1 − β T )
1
dp
ρ

1 ∂ρ 
Coeficiente de expansão térmica: β =−  
ρ  ∂ T  p
Gás perfeito: β = 1/T

Fluido incompressível: β = 0

 ∂T   
• Temperatura cp

∂t
(
(ρ T ) + c p ∂ ρ u j T = ∂
∂xj
)
∂ xj
k
 ∂xj
 + β T  ∂ p + u j ∂ p  + µ Φ + q& ′′′
  ∂t ∂ x 
   j 

The Boundary Layer Equations

• Consider concurrent velocity and thermal boundary layer development for steady,
two-dimensional, incompressible flow with constant fluid properties µ , c p , k and ( )
negligible body forces.
• Apply conservation of mass, Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion and conservation of energy
to a differential control volume and invoke the boundary layer approximations.
Velocity Boundary Layer:
u >> v
∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v
>> , ,
Thermal Boundary Layer:
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x
∂T ∂T
>>
∂y ∂x

70
• Conservation of Mass:
∂u ∂v
+ =0
∂x ∂y
In the context of flow through a differential control volume, what is the physical
significance of the foregoing terms, if each is multiplied by the mass density of
the fluid?
• Newton’s Second Law of Motion:
x-direction :
 ∂u ∂u  dp ∂ 2u
ρ u +v =− +µ 2
 ∂x ∂u  dx ∂y

What is the physical significance of each term in the foregoing equation?

Why can we express the pressure gradient as dp/dx instead of ∂p / ∂x ?


y-direction :
∂p
=0
∂y

• Conservation of Energy:
2
 ∂T ∂T  ∂ 2T  ∂u 
ρcp  u +v  = k 2 + µ 
 ∂x ∂y  ∂y  ∂y 

What is the physical significance of each term in the foregoing equation?

What is the second term on the right-hand side called and under what conditions
may it be neglected?

71
Boundary Layer Similarity
• As applied to the boundary layers, the principle of similitude is based on
determining similarity parameters that facilitate application of results obtained
for a surface experiencing one set of conditions to geometrically similar surfaces
experiencing different conditions. (Recall how introduction of the similarity
parameters Bi and Fo permitted generalization of results for transient, one-
dimensional condition).
• Dependent boundary layer variables of interest are:
τ s and q′′ or h

• For a prescribed geometry, the corresponding independent variables are:


Geometrical: Size (L), Location (x,y)
Hydrodynamic: Velocity (V)
Fluid Properties:
Hydrodynamic: ρ , µ
Thermal : c p , k

Hence,
u = f ( x, y , L , V , ρ , µ )
τ s = f ( x , L, V , ρ , µ )

and
T = f ( x, y , L , V , ρ , µ , c p , k )
h = f ( x , L, V , ρ , µ , c p , k )

• Key similarity parameters may be inferred by non-dimensionalizing the momentum


and energy equations.
• Recast the boundary layer equations by introducing dimensionless forms of the
independent and dependent variables.
x y
x* ≡ y* ≡
L L
u v
u* ≡ v* ≡
V V
T − Ts
T* ≡
T∞ − Ts

• Neglecting viscous dissipation, the following normalized forms of the x-momentum


and energy equations are obtained: ∂u * ∂u * dp* 1 ∂ 2u *
u * * + v* * = − * +
∂x ∂y dx Re L ∂y *2
∂T * * ∂T
*
1 ∂ 2T *
u* + v =
∂x* ∂y * Re L Pr ∂y *2

72
ρVL VL
Re L ≡ = → the Reynolds Number
µ v
cpµ v
Pr ≡ = → the Prandtl Number
k α δ
How may the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers be interpreted physically? ≈ Pr n n>0
δt
• For a prescribed geometry,
(
u * = f x* , y* ,Re L )
∂u  µV  ∂u
*
τs = µ =  *
∂y y=0  L  ∂y y* = 0

The dimensionless shear stress, or local friction coefficient, is then


τs 2 ∂u *
Cf ≡ =
ρV / 2 2
Re L ∂y* y* = 0

∂u
( )
*
= f x* ,Re L
∂y* *
y =0

Cf =
2
Re L
f x* , Re L ( )
What is the functional dependence of the average friction coefficient, Cf ?

• For a prescribed geometry,

(
T * = f x* , y* ,Re L ,Pr )
− k f ∂T / ∂y k f (T∞ − Ts ) ∂T * k f ∂T *
y =0
h= =− =+
Ts − T∞ L (Ts − T∞ ) ∂y *
y* = 0
L ∂y * y* = 0

The dimensionless local convection coefficient is then

hL ∂T *
Nu ≡
kf
= *
∂y *
(
= f x* , Re L , Pr )
y =0

Nu → local Nusselt number

What is the functional dependence of the average Nusselt number?

How does the Nusselt number differ from the Biot number?

73
Boundary Layer Transition

• How would you characterize conditions in the laminar region of boundary layer
development? In the turbulent region?
• What conditions are associated with transition from laminar to turbulent flow?
• Why is the Reynolds number an appropriate parameter for quantifying transition
from laminar to turbulent flow?
• Transition criterion for a flat plate in parallel flow:
ρu x
Re x , c ≡ ∞ c → critical Reynolds number
µ
xc → location at which transition to turbulence begins
105 < Re x , c < 3 x 106
~ ~

What may be said about transition if ReL < Rex,c? If ReL > Rex,c?

• Effect of transition on boundary layer thickness and local convection coefficient:

Why does transition provide a significant increase in the boundary layer thickness?

Why does the convection coefficient decay in the laminar region? Why does it increase
significantly with transition to turbulence, despite the increase in the boundary layer
thickness? Why does the convection coefficient decay in the turbulent region?

74
The Reynolds Analogy
• Equivalence of dimensionless momentum and energy equations for
negligible pressure gradient (dp*/dx*~0) and Pr~1:

∂u * ∂u * 1 ∂ 2u *
u* + v* * =
∂x *
∂y Re ∂y*2

Advection terms Diffusion

∂T * ∂T * 1 ∂ 2T *
u* + v* * =
∂x *
∂y Re ∂y*2

• Hence, for equivalent boundary conditions, the solutions are of the same form:
u* = T *
∂u * ∂T *
=
∂y* y* = 0
∂y * y* = 0

Re
Cf = Nu
2

or, with the Stanton number defined as,


h Nu
St ≡ =
ρVc p Re Pr

With Pr = 1, the Reynolds analogy, which relates important parameters of the velocity
and thermal boundary layers, is
Cf
= St
2
• Modified Reynolds (Chilton-Colburn) Analogy:
– An empirical result that extends applicability of the Reynolds analogy:
Cf 2
= St Pr 3
≡ jH 0.6 < Pr < 60
2
Colburn j factor for heat transfer

– Applicable to laminar flow if dp*/dx* ~ 0.

– Generally applicable to turbulent flow without restriction on dp*/dx*.

75
Problem 6.28: Determination of heat transfer rate for prescribed
turbine blade operating conditions from wind tunnel data
obtained for a geometrically similar but smaller
blade. The blade surface area may be assumed to be
directly proportional to its characteristic length ( As ∝ L ) .

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Constant properties, (3) Surface area A is
directly proportional to characteristic length L, (4) Negligible radiation, (5) Blade shapes are
geometrically similar.

ANALYSIS: For a prescribed geometry,


hL
Nu = = f ( ReL , Pr ) .
k

The Reynolds numbers for the blades are

ReL,1 = ( V1L1 /ν1 ) = 15m 2 / s ν1 ReL,2 = ( V2 L 2 /ν 2 ) = 15m 2 / s ν 2 .

Hence, with constant properties ( v1 = v2 ) , ReL,1 = ReL,2 . Also, Pr1 = Pr2

Therefore,
Nu 2 = Nu 1
( h 2 L2 / k 2 ) = ( h1L1 / k1 ) L L q1
h 2 = 1 h1 = 1
L2 (
L2 A1 Ts,1 − T∞ )

The heat rate for the second blade is then


L A 2 Ts,2 − T∞ ( )
(
q 2 = h 2 A 2 Ts,2 − T∞ = 1 ) q1
L 2 A1 Ts,1 − T∞ ( )
Ts,2 − T∞ ( 400 − 35)
q2 = q1 = (1500 W )
Ts,1 − T∞ ( 300 − 35) q 2 = 2066 W.

COMMENTS: (i) The variation in ν from Case 1 to Case 2 would cause ReL,2 to differ from
ReL,1. However, for air and the prescribed temperatures, this non-constant property effect is
small. (ii) If the Reynolds numbers were not equal ( Re L,1 ≠ Re L 2 ) , knowledge of the specific form of

( )
f Re L, Pr would be needed to determine h2.

76
Problem 6.35: Use of a local Nusselt number correlation to estimate the
surface temperature of a chip on a circuit board.

KNOWN: Expression for the local heat transfer coefficient of air at prescribed velocity and
temperature flowing over electronic elements on a circuit board and heat dissipation rate for a 4 × 4 mm
chip located 120mm from the leading edge.

FIND: Surface temperature of the chip surface, Ts.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Power dissipated within chip is lost by convection
across the upper surface only, (3) Chip surface is isothermal, (4) The average heat transfer coefficient
for the chip surface is equivalent to the local value at x = L.

PROPERTIES: Table A-4, Air (Evaluate properties at the average temperature of air in the boundary
layer. Assuming Ts = 45°C, Tave = (45 + 25)/2 = 35°C = 308K. Also, p = 1atm): ν = 16.69 ×
-6 2 -3
10 m /s, k = 26.9 × 10 W/m⋅K, Pr = 0.703.

ANALYSIS: From an energy balance on the chip,


qconv = E& g = 30mW.

Newton’s law of cooling for the upper chip surface can be written as
Ts = T∞ + q conv / h A chip (2)

where A chip = l2 .

( )
Assuming that the average heat transfer coefficient h over the chip surface is equivalent to the local
coefficient evaluated at x = L, that is, h chip ≈ h x ( L ) , the local coefficient can be evaluated by
applying the prescribed correlation at x = L.
0.85
h x  Vx 
Nu x = x = 0.04   Pr1/ 3
k ν 
0.85
k  VL 
h L = 0.04 Pr1/ 3
L  ν 

77
0.85
 0.0269 W/m ⋅ K   10 m/s × 0.120 m 
h L = 0.04     ( 0.703)1/ 3 = 107 W/m 2 ⋅ K.
 0.120 m 16.69 × 10-6 m 2 / s 

From Eq. (2), the surface temperature of the chip is


Ts = 25o C + 30 × 10-3 W/107 W/m 2 ⋅ K × ( 0.004m ) = 42.5o C.
2

COMMENTS: (1) The estimated value of Tave used to evaluate the air properties is reasonable.
(2) How else could h chip have been evaluated? Is the assumption of h = hL reasonable?

Internal Flow:
General Considerations

78
Entrance Conditions
• Must distinguish between entrance and fully developed regions.
• Hydrodynamic Effects: Assume laminar flow with uniform velocity profile at
inlet of a circular tube.

– Velocity boundary layer develops on surface of tube and thickens with increasing x.
– Inviscid region of uniform velocity shrinks as boundary layer grows.
 Does the centerline velocity change with increasing x? If so, how does it change?
– Subsequent to boundary layer merger at the centerline, the velocity profile
becomes parabolic and invariant with x. The flow is then said to be
hydrodynamically fully developed.
 How would the fully developed velocity profile differ for turbulent flow?

• Thermal Effects: Assume laminar flow with uniform temperature, T ( r ,0 ) = Ti , at


inlet of circular tube with uniform surface temperature, Ts ≠ Ti , or heat flux, q′′s .

– Thermal boundary layer develops on surface of tube and thickens with increasing x.
– Isothermal core shrinks as boundary layer grows.

– Subsequent to boundary layer merger, dimensionless forms of the temperature


profile ( for Ts and q′′s ) become independent of x.

 Is the temperature profile invariant with x in the fully developed region?

79
 For uniform surface temperature, what may be said about the change
in the temperature profile with increasing x?

 For uniform surface heat flux, what may be said about the change in the
temperature profile with increasing x?

 How do temperature profiles differ for laminar and turbulent flow?

The Mean Velocity and Temperature


• Absence of well-defined free stream conditions, as in external flow, and hence a
reference velocity ( u∞ ) or temperature (T∞ ) , dictates the use of a cross-
sectional mean velocity ( um ) and temperature (Tm ) for internal flow.

• Linkage of mean velocity to mass flow rate:

m = ρ um Ac
or,

m = ∫Ac ρ u ( r , x ) d Ac
Hence,
∫ Ac ρ u ( r , x ) d Ac
um =
ρ Ac

For incompressible flow in a circular tube of radius ro ,

ro
2
um = ∫ u ( r , x ) r dr
2 o
ro

80
• Linkage of mean temperature to thermal energy transport associated with flow
through a cross section:

E t = ∫ Ac ρ ucυ T dAc ≡ m cυ Tm
Hence,
∫ Ac ρ ucυ T dAc
Tm =
m cυ

• For incompressible, constant-property flow in a circular tube,

ro
2
Tm =
um ro
2 ∫ u ( x, r )T ( x, r ) r dr
0

• Newton’s Law of Cooling for the Local Heat Flux:


q′′s = h (Ts − Tm )

What is the essential difference between use of Tm for internal flow and T∞
for external flow?

Hydrodynamic and Thermal Entry Lengths


• Entry lengths depend on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, which, in turn,
depend on Reynolds number.

ρ um Dh
Re D ≡
µ
The hydraulic diameter is defined as
4 Ac
Dh ≡
P
in which case,
ρ um Dh 4 m
Re D ≡ =
µ Pµ

For a circular tube,


ρ um D 4 m
Re D = =
µ π Dµ

81
– Onset of turbulence occurs at a critical Reynolds number of
Re D , c ≈ 2300

– Fully turbulent conditions exist for


Re D ≈ 10,000

• Hydrodynamic Entry Length


Laminar Flow: ( x fd , h / D ) ≈ 0.05Re D
Turbulent Flow: 10 < ( x fd , h / D ) < 60

• Thermal Entry Length


Laminar Flow: ( x fd , t / D ) ≈ 0.05 Re D Pr
Turbulent Flow: 10 < ( x fd , t / D ) < 60

• For laminar flow, how do hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths compare for a gas?
An oil? A liquid metal?

Fully Developed Conditions


• Assuming steady flow and constant properties, hydrodynamic conditions, including
the velocity profile, are invariant in the fully developed region.

What may be said about the variation of the mean velocity with distance from the
tube entrance for steady, constant property flow?

• The pressure drop may be determined from knowledge of the friction factor
f, where,

f ≡−
( dp / dx ) D
ρ um2 / 2

Laminar flow in a circular tube:


64
f =
Re D

Turbulent flow in a smooth circular tube:


f = ( 0.790 1n Re D − 1.64 )
−2

82
Turbulent flow in a roughened circular tube:

Pressure drop for fully developed flow from x1 to x2:


ρ um2
∆ p = p1 − p2 = f ( x2 − x1 )
2D
and power requirement
∆ pm
P = ∆ p∀ =
ρ

• Requirement for fully developed thermal conditions:


∂  Ts ( x ) − T ( r , x ) 
  =0
∂x  Ts ( x ) − Tm ( x )  fd ,t

• Effect on the local convection coefficient:


∂  Ts − T  − ∂T / ∂r r = r
  = o
≠ f ( x)
∂r  Ts − Tm  r = r Ts − Tm
o

Hence, assuming constant properties,


q′′s / k h
= ≠ f ( x)
Ts − Tm k

h ≠ f ( x)
Variation of h in entrance and fully developed regions:

83
Determination of the Mean Temperature
• Determination of Tm ( x ) is an essential feature of an internal flow analysis.
Determination begins with an energy balance for a differential control volume.

dqconv = m d ( cυ Tm + pυ ) ≈ m c p dTm

Why is the second equality in the foregoing expression considered to be approximate?


Integrating from the tube inlet to outlet,

qconv = m c p (Tm, o − Tm,i ) (1)

A differential equation from which Tm ( x ) may be determined is obtained by


substituting for dq = q′′s ( P dx ) = h (Ts − Tm ) P dx.
conv

dTm q′′s P P
= = h (Ts − Tm ) (2)
dx m c m cp
p

• Special Case: Uniform Surface Heat Flux


dTm q′′s P
= ≠ f ( x)
dx m c
p

q′′s P
Tm ( x ) = Tm ,i + x
m cp

Why does the surface temperature vary with x as shown in the figure?
In principle, what value does Ts assume at x=0?
Total heat rate:
qconv = q′′s PL

84
• Special Case: Uniform Surface Temperature
From Eq. (2), with ∆T ≡ Ts − Tm
d Tm d ( ∆T ) P
=− = h ∆T
dx dx mcp
Integrating from x=0 to any downstream location,
 
Ts − Tm ( x ) Px
= exp  − hx 
Ts − Tm ,i  
 m cp 
1 x
hx = ∫o hx dx
x
Overall Conditions:
   
∆To Ts − Tm , o PL  hA
= = exp  − h = exp  − s 
∆Ti Ts − Tm ,i    
 m cp   m cp 
qconv = h As ∆Tlm
∆To − ∆Ti
∆Tlm = ( 3)
1n ( ∆To / ∆Ti )

• Special Case: Uniform External Fluid Temperature

   
∆To T∞ − Tm , o U As  1
= = exp  − = exp  − 
∆Ti T∞ − Tm ,i    
 mc p   m c p Rtot 
∆T
q = UAs ∆Tlm = lm
Rtot

∆Tlm → Eq. (3) with Ts replaced by T∞ .

Note: Replacement of T∞ by Ts,o if outer surface temperature is uniform.

85
Problem 8.17: Estimate temperature of water emerging from a thin-walled
tube heated by walls and air of a furnace. Inner and outer
convection coefficients are known.

KNOWN: Water at prescribed temperature and flow rate enters a 0.25 m diameter, black thin-walled
tube of 8-m length, which passes through a large furnace whose walls and air are at a temperature of
Tfur = T∞ = 700 K. The convection coefficients for the internal water flow and external furnace air are
300 W/m2⋅K and 50 W/m2⋅K, respectively.

FIND: The outlet temperature of the water, Tm,o.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions; (2) Tube is small object with large, isothermal surroundings; (3)
Furnace air and walls are at the same temperature; and (3) Tube is thin-walled with black surface.

PROPERTIES: Table A-6, Water: cp ≈ 4180 J/kg⋅K.

ANALYSIS: The linearized radiation coefficient may be estimated from Eq. 1.9 with ε = 1,

(
h rad ≈ σ ( Tt + Tfur ) Tt2 + Tfur
2
)
where Tt represents the average tube wall surface temperature, which can be estimated from an energy balance
on the tube.

As represented by the thermal circuit, the energy balance may be expressed as


Tm − Tt Tt − Tfur
=
R cv,i 1/ R cv,o + 1/ R rad

The thermal resistances, with As = PL = πDL, are


R cv,i = 1/ h i As R cv,o = 1/ h o As R rad = 1/ h rad

86
and the mean temperature of the water is approximated as
(
Tm = Tm,i + Tm,o / 2 )
The outlet temperature can be calculated from Eq. 8.46b, with Tfur = T∞,
 
T∞ − Tm,o  
= exp  − 1 
T∞ − Tm,i  
 m cp R tot 
 
where
1
R tot = R cv,i +
1/ R cv,o + 1/ R rad

with
R cv,i = 6.631 × 10−5 K / W R cv,o = 3.978 × 10−4 K / W R rad = 4.724 × 10−4 K / W

it follows that
Tm = 331 K Tt = 418 K Tm,o = 362 K

Internal Flow:
Heat Transfer Correlations

87
Fully Developed Flow
• Laminar Flow in a Circular Tube:
The local Nusselt number is a constant throughout the fully developed
region, but its value depends on the surface thermal condition.
– Uniform Surface Heat Flux (q′′s ) :
Nu D = hD = 4.36
k
– Uniform Surface Temperature (Ts ) :
Nu D = hD = 3.66
k
• Turbulent Flow in a Circular Tube:
– For a smooth surface and fully turbulent conditions ( Re D > 10,000 ) , the
Dittus – Boelter equation may be used as a first approximation:
Nu D = 0.023Re 4D/ 5 Pr n n = 0.3 (Ts < Tm )
n = 0.4 ( Ts > Tm )
– The effects of wall roughness and transitional flow conditions ( Re D > 3000 )
may be considered by using the Gnielinski correlation:
Nu D =
( f / 8)( Re D − 1000 ) Pr
1 + 12.7 ( f / 8 ) ( Pr 2 / 3 − 1)
1/ 2

Smooth surface:
f = ( 0.790 1n Re D − 1.64 )
−2

Surface of roughness e > 0 :


f → Figure 8.3
• Noncircular Tubes:
– Use of hydraulic diameter as characteristic length:
4A
Dh ≡ c
P
– Since the local convection coefficient varies around the periphery of a tube,
approaching zero at its corners, correlations for the fully developed region
are associated with convection coefficients averaged over the periphery
of the tube.
– Laminar Flow:
The local Nusselt number is a constant whose value (Table 8.1) depends on
the surface thermal condition (Ts or qs′′ ) and the duct aspect ratio.
– Turbulent Flow:
As a first approximation, the Dittus-Boelter or Gnielinski correlation may be used
with the hydraulic diameter, irrespective of the surface thermal condition.

88
Effect of the Entry Region
• The manner in which the Nusselt decays from inlet to fully developed conditions
for laminar flow depends on the nature of thermal and velocity boundary layer
development in the entry region, as well as the surface thermal condition.

Laminar flow in a
circular tube.

– Combined Entry Length:


Thermal and velocity boundary layers develop concurrently from uniform
profiles at the inlet.

– Thermal Entry Length:


Velocity profile is fully developed at the inlet, and boundary layer development
in the entry region is restricted to thermal effects. Such a condition may also
be assumed to be a good approximation for a uniform inlet velocity profile if
Pr >> 1. Why?

• Average Nusselt Number for Laminar Flow in a Circular Tube with Uniform
Surface Temperature:
– Combined Entry Length:

 Re D Pr/ ( L / D )  ( µ / µ s )0.14 > 2 :


1/ 3

0.14
µ
1/ 3
 Re Pr 
Nu D = 1.86  D  µ 
 L/ D   s
 Re D Pr/ ( L / D )  ( µ / µ s )0.14 < 2 :
1/ 3

Nu D = 3.66
– Thermal Entry Length:
0.0668 ( D / L ) Re D Pr
Nu D = 3.66 +
1 + 0.04 ( D / L ) Re D Pr 
2/3

89
• Average Nusselt Number for Turbulent Flow in a Circular Tube :
– Effects of entry and surface thermal conditions are less pronounced for
turbulent flow and can be neglected.
– For long tubes ( L / D > 60 ) :
Nu D ≈ NuD , fd

– For short tubes ( L / D < 60 ) :


Nu D ≈ 1 + C
Nu D , fd ( L / D )m
C ≈1
m ≈ 2/3

• Noncircular Tubes:
– Laminar Flow:
Nu Dh depends strongly on aspect ratio, as well as entry region and surface
thermal conditions.

– Turbulent Flow:
As a first approximation, correlations for a circular tube may be used
with D replaced by Dh .

• When determining Nu D for any tube geometry or flow condition, all


properties are to be evaluated at
T m ≡ ( Tm ,i + Tm , o ) / 2

Why do solutions to internal flow problems often require iteration?

90
The Concentric Tube Annulus
• Fluid flow through
region formed by
concentric tubes.

• Convection heat transfer


may be from or to inner
surface of outer tube and
outer surface of inner tube.

• Surface thermal conditions may be characterized by


uniform temperature (Ts ,i , Ts , o ) or uniform heat flux ( qi′′, qo′′ ) .

• Convection coefficients are associated with each surface, where


qi′′ = hi ( Ts ,i − Tm )

qo′′ = ho (Ts , o − Tm )

hi Dh ho Dh
Nui ≡ Nuo ≡
k k
Dh = Do − Di

• Fully Developed Laminar Flow


Nusselt numbers depend on Di / Do and surface thermal conditions (Tables 8.2, 8.3)

• Fully Developed Turbulent Flow


Correlations for a circular tube may be used with D replaced by Dh .

91
Convecção Natural

Considerações Gerais
• A convecção natural tem lugar quando há movimento de um fluido
resultante de forças de impulsão.

• A impulsão tem lugar num fluido onde há gradientes de densidade e uma


força mássica (por exemplo, força gravítica) proporcional à densidade.
• Em transmissão de calor, os gradientes de densidade são devidos a
gradientes de temperatura e a força mássica é a força gravítica.

• Gradientes de temperatura estáveis e instáveis

92
• Escoamentos sem superfície adjacente (esteira, jacto, camada de mistura)
 Ocorre num meio (em princípio, infinito), em repouso (velocidade
nula longe da origem do escoamento).

 Plumas e jactos com impulsão:

• Escoamentos com superfície adjacente (camada limite)

 Escoamento de camada limite numa superfície quente ou fria (Ts ≠ T∞ )


induzido por forças de impulsão.

Placas verticais
• Desenvolvimento da camada limite numa placa vertical aquecida

 Escoamento ascendente com velocidade máxima dentro da camada limite e


velocidade nula na superfície da placa e na extremidade (y = δ).

 Quais as diferenças relativamente a convecção forçada?

 Quais as diferenças relativamente a uma placa arrefecida (Ts < T∞) ?

93
• Equação de balanço de quantidade de movimento na direcção x
(escoamento laminar)

∂u ∂u 1 ∂p ∂2 u
u +v =− − g +ν
∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂ y2

∂ p ∂ p
  =  
 ∂ x  dentro da camada limite  ∂ x  fora da camada limite

∂p 1 ∂ρ  1 ρ∞ − ρ
= − ρ∞ g β =−   ≈−
∂x ρ  ∂ T  p ρ T∞ − T

∂u ∂u g ∂2 u
u +v = (ρ ∞ − ρ ) + ν
∂x ∂y ρ ∂ y2

∂u ∂u ∂2 u
u +v = g β (T − T∞ ) + ν
∂x ∂y ∂ y2

• Equação de balanço de quantidade de movimento na direcção x


(escoamento laminar)

u ∂u + υ ∂u = g β (T − T∞ ) + ν ∂ u2
2

∂x ∂y ∂y

Forças de inércia Força de impulsão Força viscosa

 Dado que u (x,y) depende de T (x,y), a solução desta equação tem de ser
obtida juntamente com a solução para a equação de camada limite da
energia T (x,y).

u ∂T + υ ∂T = α ∂ T2
2

∂x ∂y ∂y

– As soluções estão acopladas.

94
• Adimensionalização das equações
x y
x* = y* =
L L
u v T − T∞
u* = v* = T* =
uo uo Ts − T∞

∂u* ∂ u * g β (Ts − T∞ ) L 1 ∂2 u *
u* + v* = T * +
∂ x* ∂ y* uo2 Re L ∂ y *2

∂T * ∂T * 1 ∂2 T *
u* + v* =
∂ x* ∂ y * Re L Pr ∂ y *2

g β (Ts − T∞ ) L  u o L  g β (Ts − T∞ ) L3
2

GrL = ×  =
uo2
1 ν 3
424  ν2
Re 2

∂u* ∂ u * GrL 1 ∂ u* 2
u* + v* = T *+
∂ x* ∂ y * Re 2 Re L ∂ y *2

• Parâmetros adimensionais relevantes

 Número de Grashof:
g β (Ts − T∞ ) L3 Forças de impulsão
GrL = ~
ν2 Forças viscosas
L: dimensão característica da superfície
∂ρ
β = 1  
Coeficiente de expansão térmica da superfície (propriedade
ρ  ∂T  p termodinâmica do fluido

• Líquidos: β  Tabelas A.5, A.6 de Incropera e de Witt

• Gás perfeito: β = 1/T (K)

 Rayleigh Number

g β (Ts − T∞ ) L3
RaL = GrL Pr =
να

95
Método integral
• Equação de balanço integral de quantidade de movimento:

d  δ δ  ∂u 
 ∫ 0 ρ u dy  = ∫ 0 ρ g β (T − T∞ ) dy − µ  
2

dx   ∂ y  y =0

• Equação de balanço integral de energia:


δ
(T∞ − T ) u dy = α  ∂ T 
 

d
d x 0  ∂ y  y =0

• Exemplo de aplicação: placa vertical isotérmica

Vamos assumir um perfil de velocidades cúbico

u ( x,0) = 0 u ( x, δ ) = 0

 ∂u   ∂2 u 
  = 0 µ   = − ρ g β (Ts − T∞ )
2 
 ∂ y  y =δ  ∂ y  y =0

e um perfil de temperaturas quadrático


T(x,0)=Ts  ∂T 
  = 0
 ∂ y  y =δ
T(x,δ)=T∞

Perfis de velocidades e de temperatura

ρ g β (Ts − T∞ ) 2 y  y 
2 2
y  y
u= δ  1 −  = u o ( x ) 1 − 
4µ δ  δ δ  δ

T − T∞  y 
2

= 1 − 
Ts − T∞  δ 

Substituindo nas equações de balanço integral e integrando resulta


ν uo
1 d 2
105 d x
( 1
3
)
uo δ = g β (Ts − T∞ ) δ −
δ

1 d
30 d x
(
uo δ =
δ
)

96
Vamos assumir que uo e δ são funções do tipo

uo (x ) = C1 x m δ ( x ) = C2 x n

daqui resulta
2m + n 2
C1 C2 x 2 m + n −1 = 2 g β (Ts − T∞ ) x n − 1 ν x m −n
C C
105 3 C2
m+n 2 α −n
C1 C2 x m + n −1 = x
30 C2

Para as equações estarem dimensionalmente correctas, o expoente de x tem de


ser o mesmo em todos os termos de cada equação, de onde resulta

2m + n − 1 = n = m − n
⇒ m=1/2, n=1/4
m + n − 1 = −n
 g β (Ts − T∞ ) 
−1 2
Logo  20 
12

C1 = 5.17 ν  + Pr   
 21  ν2
 g β (Ts − T∞ )
14 −1 4
 20 
C2 = 3.93ν  + Pr    Pr −1 2
 21  ν2

Obtém-se então
= 5.17 ν (0.952 + Pr ) Grx
uo −1 2 12

δ
= 3.93 Pr −1 2 (0.952 + Pr ) Grx
14 −1 4

pelo que
 ∂T 
− k  
 ∂ y  y =0 x 2 x
= 0.508 Pr1 2 (0.952 + Pr ) Grx
hx −1 4
Nu x = = =
14

k Ts − T∞ k δ

ou, de modo equivalente,


14
 Pr 
Nu x = 0.508 Ra x
14
 
 0.952 + Pr 
Por sua vez,
14
hL 14  Pr 
Nu L = = 0.68 Ra L  
k  0.952 + Pr 
• Esta solução está em bom acordo com a solução exacta e com dados
experimentais

97
• Solução de semelhança
 Usando a seguinte variável de semelhança, η a equação de balanço
de quantidade de movimento na direcção x pode ser transformada de
uma equação com derivadas parciais (em x e y) numa equação
diferencial ordinária expressa exclusivamente em termos de η.
1/ 4
η ≡  x 
y Gr
x 4 

 Equações de balanço de quantidade de movimento e energia

f ′′′ + 3 ff ′′ − 2 ( f ′ ) + T ∗ = 0
2

T ∗′′ + 3Pr fT ∗′ = 0
T − T∞
= x ( Grx−1/ 2 ) u
df
f ′ (η ) ≡ T∗ ≡
dη 2ν Ts − T∞

 A integração numérica das equações conduz aos seguintes resultados


para f ’ (η) e T*:

 Espessura da camada limite hidrodinâmica (δ ) → η ≈ 5 for Pr > 0.6


−1/ 4
 Gr  x
 Pr > 0.6 : δ = 5 x  x  = 7.07 ∝ x1/ 4
( Grx )
1/ 4
 4 

98
 Números de Nusselt ( Nu x and Nu L ) :
1/ 4 1/ 4
 Gr 
Nu x = hx = −  x  dT ∗  Gr 
= x  g ( Pr )
k  4  dη η = 0  4 

0.75 Pr1/ 2
g ( Pr ) = ( 0 < Pr < ∞ )
( 0.609 + 1.221 Pr + 1.238 Pr )
1/ 2 1/ 4

h = 1 ∫oL h dx → Nu L = 4 Nu L
L 3

• Transição para regime turbulento


 A ampliação de perturbações
depende do valor relativo das forças
de impulsão e das forças viscosas
 A transição ocorre para o seguinte
número de Rayleigh crítico:
g β (Ts − T∞ ) x3
Ra x , c = Grx , c Pr = ≈ 109
να

• Correlações empíricas (Churchill e Chu)


 Escoamento laminar ( Ra L < 109 ) :

0.670 Ra1/ 4
Nu L = 0.68 + L
4/9
1 + ( 0.492 / Pr )9 /16 
 

 Todas as condições
2
 
 0.387 Ra1/L 6 
Nu L = 0.825 + 4/9 
 1 + ( 0.492 / Pr )9 /16  
   

99
Placas inclinadas
• Componente da aceleração gravítica paralela à placa: g cos θ

Ts < T∝ Ts > T∝

• Quando o fluido se mantém junto à parede, as correlações de Churchill e


Chu podem ser usadas, desde que 0 ≤ θ ≤ 60º e substituindo g por g cos θ

• Quando o fluido tem tendência a afastar-se da parede, o coeficiente de


convecção aumenta e as correlações apresentadas não são válidas

Placas Horizontais
• A força de impulsão é normal às placas

• O escoamento e a transmissão de calor dependem de a placa estar


aquecida ou arrefecida e de a troca de calor se dar na face superior ou
inferior.
• Face superior de placa aquecida ou Face inferior de placa arrefecida

T s > T∞ Ts < T∞
Nu L = 0.54 Ra 1/ 4
L (10 4
< RaL < 107 )

Nu L = 0.15 Ra1/L 3 (10 7


< RaL < 1011 )

• Como é que h varia com L quando Nu L ∝ Ra1L 3

100
• Face inferior aquecida ou face superior arrefecida

Ts > T∞ Ts < T∞

Nu L = 0.27 Ra1/
L
4
(10 5
< RaL < 1010 )

 Por que razão estas condições conduzem a uma menor taxa de


transmissão de calor do que as do slide anterior?

Problem 9.31: Convection and radiation losses from the surface of a


central solar receiver.

KNOWN: Dimensions and emissivity of cylindrical solar receiver. Incident solar flux.
Temperature of ambient air.

FIND: (a) Heat loss and collection efficiency for a prescribed receiver temperature, (b) Effect
of receiver temperature on heat losses and collector efficiency.

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, (2) Ambient air is quiescent, (3) Incident solar flux is
uniformly distributed over receiver surface, (4) All of the incident solar flux is absorbed by the
receiver, (5) Negligible irradiation from the surroundings, (6) Uniform receiver surface
temperature, (7) Curvature of cylinder has a negligible effect on boundary layer development,
(8) Constant properties

101
PROPERTIES: Table A-4, air (Tf = 550 K): k = 0.0439 W/m⋅K, ν = 45.6 × 10-6 m2/s, α =
66.7 × 10-6 m2/s, Pr = 0.683, β = 1.82 × 10-3 K-1.

ANALYSIS: (a) The total heat loss is

q = q rad + q conv = As εσ Ts4 + hAs ( Ts − T∞ )

With RaL = gβ (Ts - T∞)L3/να = 9.8 m/s2 (1.82 × 10-3 K-1) 500K (12m)3/(45.6 × 66.7 × 10-12
m4/s2) = 5.07 × 1012, the Churchill and Chu correlation yields
2
 
k
 
0.387 Ra1L/ 6
0.0439 W / m ⋅ K
h = 0.825 +
8 / 27
 = {0.825 + 42.4}2 = 6.83 W / m2 ⋅ K
L 1 + ( 0.492 / Pr )9 /16   12m
   

Hence, with As = πDL = 264 m2

q = 264 m 2 × 0.2 × 5.67 × 10−8 W / m 2 ⋅ K 4 ( 800 K ) + 264 m 2 × 6.83 W / m 2 ⋅ K ( 500 K )


4

q = q rad + q conv = 1.23 × 106 W + 9.01 × 105 W = 2.13 × 106 W

With As q s′′ = 2.64 × 107 W, the collector efficiency is

 A q ′′ − q 
η = s s 100 =
( 2.64 ×107 − 2.13 ×106 ) W (100) = 91.9%
′′  A s qs  2.64 × 107 W

(b) As shown below, because of its dependence on temperature to the fourth power, qrad
increases more significantly with increasing Ts than does qconv, and the effect on the efficiency is
pronounced

5E6 100

4E6
95
Collector efficiency, %
Heat rate, W

3E6
90
2E6

1E6 85

0 80
600 700 800 900 1000
Receiver temperature, K
75
Convection 600 700 800 900 1000
Radiation
Total Receiver temperature, K

COMMENTS: The collector efficiency is also reduced by the inability to have a perfectly
absorbing receiver. Partial reflection of the incident solar flux will reduce the efficiency by at
least several percent.

102
Cilindro horizontal
• Desenvolvimento da camada limite e variação do número de Nusselt
local para um cilindro aquecido:

• Número de Nusselt médio:


2
 
 0.387 Ra1/ 6

Nu D = 0.60 + D
 RaD < 1012
9 /16 8 / 27
 1 + ( 0.559 / Pr )  
   

• Como variam as condições para um cilindro arrefecido?

Esferas
• Número de Nusselt médio:

0.589 Ra1/D 4
Nu D = 2 + 4/9
1 + ( 0.469 / Pr )9 /16 
 

 O que sucede quando RaD → 0 ?

103
Convecção entre placas paralelas

• L/S pequeno: camadas limites não chegam a coalescer e cada placa


comporta-se como se estivesse isolada

• L/S elevado: há interacção entre camadas limites

Convecção entre placas paralelas


• Correlações de Elenbaas

a) Placas isotérmicas à mesma temperatura, Ts


34
1 S   35 
Nu s = Ra s 1 − exp − 
24 L  Ra s S L 

q A S g β (Ts − T∞ ) S 3
Nu s = Ras =
Ts − T∞ k αν

No limite de escoamento completamente desenvolvido, S/L  0:

1 S
Nu s , fd = Ra s
24 L

b) Uma placa isotérmica à temperatura Ts,1 e a outra isolada; para a placa


isotérmica tem-se

1 S
Nu s , fd = Ra s
12 L

104
Convecção entre placas paralelas

c) Placas com fluxo constante e igual nas superfícies:


12
 S
Nu s , L , fd = 0.144  Ra *s 
 L
q′s′ S g β q′s′ S 4
Nu s , L = Ra *s =
Ts , L − T∞ k kαν

d) Uma placa com fluxo fluxo constante e a outra isolada:

12
 S
Nu s , L , fd = 0.204  Ra *s 
 L

Convecção entre placas paralelas


• Correlações de Bar.Cohen e Rohsenow:
−1 2
(a) Condições isotérmicas  C1 C2  Ts + T∞
Nu s =  + 12 T =
Casos (i) e (iii)  (Ra s S L ) (Ra s S L ) 
2
2
−1 2
(b) Condições isotérmicas  C C2  Ts , L + T∞
Nu s =  * 1 + 25 T =
Casos (ii) e (iv)  Ra s S L (Ra s S L )  2

Caso Condições de fronteira C1 C2 Sopt Smax/Sopt

576 2.87 2.71 (Ras S 3 L )


Placas simétricas isotérmicas, −1 4
(i) 1.71
Ts,1=Ts,2

2.51 2.12 (Ras* S 4 L )−1 5


Placas com fluxo constante
(ii) qs′′,1 = q′s′, 2 48 4.77

144 2.87 2.15 (Ras S L )


3 −1 4
(iii) Uma placa isotérmica e uma isolada 1.71

2.51 2.51 (Ras S 4 L )


Uma placa com fluxo constante e −1 5
(iv) uma isolada 24 4.77

105
• Placas isotérmicas

• S diminui ⇒ Nu s diminui, mas nº placas pode aumentar


Logo, existe Sopt que maximiza a taxa de transmissão de calor

• Smax é a distância entre placas que maximiza o calor trocado em


cada placa

• Placas com fluxo constante

• S diminui ⇒ diminui a taxa de t.c. por unidade de volume; Ts aumenta


Como Ts não pode aumentar indefinidamente, existe Sopt que maximiza
a taxa de t.c. por unidade de diferença de temperatura Ts(L) - T∞

• Smax é a distância entre placas que, para um dado fluxo, minimiza a


temperatura da superfície

Cavidades
• Cavidades Rectangulares

 Paredes opostas a temperaturas diferentes e restantes paredes


perfeitamente isoladas
g β ( T1 − T2 ) L3
 RaL ≡
αν
q′′ = h (T1 − T2 )
 Cavidade horizontal → τ = 0, 180deg
 Cavidade vertical → τ = 90 deg

106
• Cavidades horizontais
 Aquecimento na base (τ = 0 )
– RaL < RaL , c = 1708 :
Camada de fluido termicamente estável
Nu L = hL = 1
k
–1708 < Ra L < 5 × 104 :

Instabilidade térmica provoca correntes de convecção regulares de


forma celular

– 3 ×105 < RaL < 7 × 109 :


O escoamento passa a turbulento
Nu L = 0.069 Ra1/ 3
L Pr
0.074

 Aquecimento no topo (τ = 180º)


– Camada de fluido incondicionalmente estável
Nu L = 1

• Cavidades verticais (τ = 90º)

 RaL < 10 :
3

Nu L = 1

 RaL > 10 :
3

– Forma-se uma célula primária, com a


velocidade na região central da cavidade
cada vez menor, e desenvolvem-se células
secundárias junto aos cantos à medida que
RaL aumenta
 Correlations for Nu L → Eqs. (9.50) - (9.53).

 Correlações para Nu L  ver Eqs. (9.50) – (9.53) do livro de Incropera e


de Witt

107
• Cavidades inclinadas
 Relevante para colectores solares planos

 A taxa de transmissão de calor depende do ângulo de inclinação τ


relativamente a um ângulo de inclinação crítico τ*, cujo valor é
função de H/L (Tabela 9.4).

 A taxa de transmissão de calor depende também de RaL relativo a um


valor crítico RaL,c =1708/cos τ.

 Correlações: Eqs. (9.54) – (9.57).

Cavidades anulares
• Cilindros concêntricos

2π keff
 q′ = (Ti − To )
1n ( Do Di )

 keff: condutibilidade térmica efectiva


 Numero de Rayleigh crítico:
1n ( Do / Di ) 
4

Rac* = RaL
L3 ( Di−3 / 5 + Do−3 / 5 )
5

L ≡ ( Do − Di ) / 2

108
 Rac < 100 :
*

keff / k = 1

 100 < Rac < 10 :


* 7

( 0.861Pr+ Pr )
1/ 4
( Ra )
keff * 1/ 4
= 0.386 c
k
• Esferas concêntricas
DD 
 q = keff π  i o  (Ti − To )
 L 
 Número de Rayleigh crítico:
 
RaL
Ras* =  L 
 ( Do / Di ) ( D −7 / 5 + D −7 / 5 ) 
4 5
 i o 
 Ras < 100 : keff / k = 1
*

 100 < Ras < 10 :


* 4

( 0.861Pr+ Pr )
1/ 4
( Ra )
keff * 1/ 4
= 0.74 s
k

• Regime misto convecção forçada – convecção natural

 Os efeitos de convecção forçada e natural são ambos importantes se


(Gr L )
Re 2L ~ O(1)

 O efeito de convecção natural é dominante se (Gr


L )
Re 2L >> O(1)

 O efeito de convecção forçada é dominante se (Gr L )


Re 2L << O(1)

 Correlações para transmissão de calor por convecção em regime misto

Nu n ≈ NuFC
n
± Nu NC
n

+ : Força de impulsão actua no mesmo sentido ou


perpendicularmente ao escoamento
- : Força de impulsão actua no sentido oposto ao do escoamento

n≈3

109
Problem 9.74: Use of saturated steam to heat a pharmaceutical in a batch reactor.

KNOWN: Volume, thermophysical properties, and initial and final temperatures of a


pharmaceutical. Diameter and length of submerged tubing. Pressure of saturated steam
flowing through the tubing.

FIND: (a) Initial rate of heat transfer to the pharmaceutical, (b) Time required to heat the
pharmaceutical to 70°C and the amount of steam condensed during the process.

SCHEMATIC:

Saturated steam
Tubing
psat = 2.455 bars D = 15 mm, L = 15 m
ρ = 1100 kg/m3
Pharmaceutical c = 2000 J/kg-K
Ts = 127oC k = 0.250 W/m-K
Ti = 25oC, Tf = 70oC ν = 4.0x10-6 m2/s
T(t) V = 200 L Pr = 10, β = 0.002 K-1

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Pharmaceutical may be approximated as an infinite, quiescent fluid of


uniform, but time-varying temperature, (2) Free convection heat transfer from the coil may be
approximated as that from a heated, horizontal cylinder, (3) Negligible thermal resistance of
condensing steam and tube wall, (4) Negligible heat transfer from tank to surroundings, (5)
Constant properties.

PROPERTIES: Table A-4, Saturated water (2.455 bars): Tsat = 400K = 127°C, hfg = 2.183 ×
106 J/kg. Pharmaceutical: See schematic.

ANALYSIS: (a) The initial rate of heat transfer is q = hAs ( Ts − Ti ) , where As = πDL = 0.707
m2 and h is obtained from Eq. 9.34.

110
With α = ν/Pr = 4.0 × 10-7 m2/s and RaD = gβ (Ts – Ti) D3/αν = 9.8 m/s2 (0.002 K-1) (102K)
(0.015m)3/16 × 10-13 m4/s2 = 4.22 × 106,
2 2
( )
   1/ 6 
 0.387 Ra1/ 6   0.387 4.22 × 106 
 D   
Nu D = 0.60 +  = 0.60 +  = 27.7
8 / 27 8 / 27
 1 + ( 0.559 / Pr )9 /16    1 + ( 0.559 /10 )9 /16  
       

Hence, h = Nu D k / D = 27.7 × 0.250 W / m ⋅ K / 0.015m = 462 W / m 2 ⋅ K

and q = hAs ( Ts − Ti ) = 462 W / m 2 ⋅ K × 0.707 m 2 (102°C ) = 33, 300 W

(b) Performing an energy balance at an instant of time for a control surface about the liquid,

d ( ρ∀c T )
= q ( t ) = h ( t ) A s ( Ts − T ( t ) )
dt

where the Rayleigh number, and hence h , changes with time due to the change in the
temperature of the liquid.

Integrating the foregoing equation numerically, the following results are obtained for the
variation of T and h with t.
75 470
Convection coefficient, hbar (W/m ^2.K)

65 450
Temperature, (C)

55 430

45 410

35 390

25 370
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Time, t(s ) Time, t(s)

The time at which the liquid reaches 70°C is

t f ≈ 855s <

The rate at which T increases decreases with increasing time due to the corresponding
reduction in (Ts – T), and hence reductions in Ra D , h and q.

The Rayleigh number decreases from 4.22 × 106 to 2.16 × 106, while the heat rate decreases
from 33,300 to 14,000 W.

The convection coefficient decreases approximately as (Ts – T)1/3, while q ~ (Ts – T)4/3.

111
The latent energy released by the condensed steam corresponds to the increase in thermal
energy of the pharmaceutical. Hence, mc h fg = ρ∀c ( Tf − Ti ) ,

and

ρ∀c ( Tf − Ti ) 1100 kg / m3 × 0.2 m3 × 2000 J / kg ⋅ K × 45°C


mc = = = 9.07 kg <
h fg 2.183 × 106 J / kg

COMMENTS: (1) Over such a large temperature range, the fluid properties are likely to vary
significantly, particularly ν and Pr. A more accurate solution could therefore be performed if
the temperature dependence of the properties were known. (2) Condensation of the steam is a
significant process expense, which is linked to the equipment (capital) and energy (operating)
costs associated with steam production.

Heat Exchangers:
Design Considerations

112
Heat Exchanger Types
Heat exchangers are ubiquitous to energy conversion and utilization. They involve
heat exchange between two fluids separated by a solid and encompass a wide
range of flow configurations.

• Concentric-Tube Heat Exchangers

Parallel Flow Counterflow

 Simplest configuration.

 Superior performance associated with counter flow.

• Cross-flow Heat Exchangers

Finned-Both Fluids Unfinned-One Fluid Mixed


Unmixed the Other Unmixed

 For cross-flow over the tubes, fluid motion, and hence mixing, in the transverse
direction (y) is prevented for the finned tubes, but occurs for the unfinned condition.

 Heat exchanger performance is influenced by mixing.

113
• Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

One Shell Pass and One Tube Pass

 Baffles are used to establish a cross-flow and to induce turbulent mixing of the
shell-side fluid, both of which enhance convection.
 The number of tube and shell passes may be varied, e.g.:

One Shell Pass, Two Shell Passes,


Two Tube Passes Four Tube Passes

• Compact Heat Exchangers


 Widely used to achieve large heat rates per unit volume, particularly when
one or both fluids is a gas.
 Characterized by large heat transfer surface areas per unit volume, small
flow passages, and laminar flow.

(a) Fin-tube (flat tubes, continuous plate fins)


(b) Fin-tube (circular tubes, continuous plate fins)
(c) Fin-tube (circular tubes, circular fins)
(d) Plate-fin (single pass)
(e) Plate-fin (multipass)

114
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
• An essential requirement for heat exchanger design or performance calculations.

• Contributing factors include convection and conduction associated with the


two fluids and the intermediate solid, as well as the potential use of fins on both
sides and the effects of time-dependent surface fouling.

• With subscripts c and h used to designate the hot and cold fluids, respectively,
the most general expression for the overall coefficient is:

1 = 1 = 1
UA (UA )c (UA) h

1 R′′f , c R′′f , h 1
= + + Rw + +
(ηo hA )c (ηo A)c (ηo A )h (ηo hA )h

 R′′f → Fouling factor for a unit surface area (m ⋅ K/W)


2

→ Table 11.1
 Rw → Wall conduction resistance (K/W)

 ηo → Overall surface efficiency of fin array (Section 3.6.5)


 A 
ηo,c or h = 1 − f (1 − η f ) 
 A c or h

A = At → total surface area (fins and exposed base)


Af → surface area of fins only

Assuming an adiabatic tip, the fin efficiency is

 tanh ( mL ) 
η f , c or h =  
 mL c or h

mc or h = ( 2U p / kwt )
c or h

 
U p , c or h =  h  → partial overall coefficient
 1 + hR′′ 
 f c or h

115
A Methodology for Heat Exchanger
Design Calculations
- The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Method -
• A form of Newton’s Law of Cooling may be applied to heat exchangers by
using a log-mean value of the temperature difference between the two fluids:
q = U A ∆ T1m
∆ T1 − ∆ T2
∆ T1m =
1n ( ∆ T1 / ∆ T2 )

Evaluation of ∆ T1 and ∆ T2 depends on the heat exchanger type.

• Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger:

∆ T1 ≡ Th,1 − Tc ,1
= Th, i − Tc , o

∆ T2 ≡ Th,2 − Tc ,2
= Th , o − Tc ,i

• Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger:

∆ T1 ≡ Th,1 − Tc ,1
= Th, i − Tc , i

∆ T2 ≡ Th,2 − Tc ,2
= Th, o − Tc , o

 Note that Tc,o can not exceed Th,o for a PF HX, but can do so for a CF HX.
 For equivalent values of UA and inlet temperatures,
∆ T1m ,CF > ∆ T1m, PF

• Shell-and-Tube and Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers:


∆ T1m = F ∆ T1m, CF
F → Figures 11.10 - 11.13

116
117
Overall Energy Balance
• Application to the hot (h) and cold (c) fluids:

• Assume negligible heat transfer between the exchanger and its surroundings
and negligible potential and kinetic energy changes for each fluid.

q = m h ( ih, i − ih, o )

q = m c ( ic , o − ic ,i )

i → fluid enthalpy
• Assuming no l/v phase change and constant specific heats,
q = m h c p , h ( Th ,i − Th , o ) = Ch (Th ,i − Th , o )

q = m c c p , c (Tc , o − Tc , i ) = Cc ( Tc , o − Tc , i )

Ch ,Cc → Heat capacity rates

Special Operating Conditions

 Case (a): Ch>>Cc or h is a condensing vapor ( Ch → ∞ ) .


– Negligible or no change in Th (Th, o = Th,i ) .
 Case (b): Cc>>Ch or c is an evaporating liquid ( Cc → ∞ ) .
– Negligible or no change in Tc (Tc , o = Tc , i ) .
 Case (c): Ch=Cc.
– ∆ T1 = ∆ T2 = ∆ T1m

118
Heat Exchangers:
The Effectiveness – NTU Method

General Considerations
• Computational Features/Limitations of the LMTD Method:

 The LMTD method may be applied to design problems for


which the fluid flow rates and inlet temperatures, as well as
a desired outlet temperature, are prescribed. For a specified
HX type, the required size (surface area), as well as the other
outlet temperature, are readily determined.
 If the LMTD method is used in performance calculations for which
both outlet temperatures must be determined from knowledge of the
inlet temperatures, the solution procedure is iterative.

 For both design and performance calculations, the effectiveness-NTU


method may be used without iteration.

119
Definitions

Definitions
• Heat exchanger effectiveness, ε :

q
ε=
qmax

0 ≤ ε ≤1

• Maximum possible heat rate:

qmax = Cmin (Th ,i − Tc ,i )

Ch if Ch < Cc
Cmin = or
 Cc if Cc < Ch

 Will the fluid characterized by Cmin or Cmax experience the largest possible
temperature change in transit through the HX?

 Why is Cmin and not Cmax used in the definition of qmax?

• Number of Transfer Units, NTU


NTU ≡ UA
Cmin
 A dimensionless parameter whose magnitude influences HX performance:
q ↑ with ↑ NTU

120
Heat Exchanger Relations



q = m h ih,i − ih, o ( )
• or
 q = Ch (Th, i − Th, o )


q = mc ( ic , o − ic , i )


• or
 q = Cc ( Tc , o − Tc ,i )

• q = ε Cmin ( Th ,i − Tc , i )

• Performance Calculations:
 ε = f ( NTU , Cmin / Cmax )

Cr
 Relations → Table 11.3 or Figs. 11.14 - 11.19

ε-NTU Expressions (Table 2.2 of the book, more detail in book)


Type of HEX ε(NTU,C*) NTU(ε,C*)

[( ) ]

1 − exp − 1 − C NTU 1  1 − εC ∗ 
ln 
 1 − ε 
[( ) ]
ε = NTU =
Counterflow ∗ ∗ ∗
1 − C exp − 1 − C NTU 1−C  

Parallel Flow
ε =
1

[1 − exp[− (1 + C ∗ )NTU ]] NTU = −
1

[ (
ln 1 + ε 1 + C

)]
1+ C 1+C

 1 − exp(− C ∗ NTU )
[ )]
Cross flow, Cmin
mixed and Cmax ε = 1 − exp  ∗  NTU = −
1


ln 1 + C ln 1 − ε (
unmixed  C  C

Cross flow, Cmax


mixed and Cmin ε =
1
[ ∗
{ [
1 − exp − C 1 − exp − NTU ( )]}] NTU = -ln 1 +


1

(
ln 1 − εC

)
unmixed C
∗ C 

ε =
2   1 / 2 
2 − ε 1 + C ∗ −  1 + C ∗ 2  
  1 / 2   
1 to 2 shell-and- 1 + exp − NTU  1 + C ∗ 2   NTU =
1  
1 + C + (1 + C )
 
(1 + C ∗2 )1/ 2
ln
∗ ∗2 1 / 2    ∗  1 / 2 
tube HEX
2 − ε 1 + C +  1 + C ∗
  1 / 2 
2
 
1 − exp − NTU 1 + C ∗ 2    
   
 

121
122
• Design Calculations:
NTU = f ( ε , Cmin / Cmax )

 Relations → Table 11.4 or Figs. 11.14 - 11.19

• For all heat exchangers,


ε ↑ with ↓ Cr

• For Cr = 0, a single ε − NTU relation applies to all HX types.

ε = 1 − exp ( − NTU )
or

NTU = −1n (1 − ε )

Radiação: Considerações gerais


• Estuda-se radiação térmica, cujas origens estão ligadas à emissão da matéria a
uma temperatura absoluta T>0
• A emissão é devida oscilações e transições electrónicas dos muitos electrões que
constituem a matéria que, por sua vez, são mantidos pela energia térmica da matéria
• A emissão corresponde à energia transferida da matéria (calor) e, portanto, corresponde
à redução de energia térmica armazenada na matéria.
• A radiação também pode ser intersectada e absorvida pela matéria.
• A absorção resulta em transferência de calor para a matéria e, portanto, corresponde
a um amento de energia térmica armazenada na matéria.
• Considere um sólido à temperatura Ts num recinto
fechado com vácuo, cujas paredes estão à temperatura Tsur

 Que fenómeno ocorre se Ts > Tsur? Porquê


 Que fenómeno ocorre se Ts < Tsur? Porquê

123
Radiação: Considerações gerais
• A emissão de gases ou sólidos semi-transparentes ou líquidos é um
fenómeno volumétrico.
•A emissão de sólidos ou líquidos opacos é um fenómeno superficial (com a
emissão originária em átomos ou moléculas a 1 µm da superfície).

• A natureza dual da radiação:


– Nalguns casos, as manifestações físicas da radiação podem ser explicadas
olhando-as como partículas (aka fotões ou quanta).
– Noutros casos, a radiação comporta-se como uma onda electromagnética.

Radiação: Considerações gerais

Em qualquer dos casos, a radiação é caracterizada por um comprimento de onda λ


e frequência υ que estão relacionados pela velocidade de propagação da radiação
no meio em causa, c: λ = c
ν
No vácuo: c = co = 2.998 x 108 m/s

O espectro electromagnético

124
Radiação: Considerações gerais

A quantidade de radiação emitida por uma superfície opaca varia com o


comprimento de onda, podendo falar-se em distribuição espectral em todos os
comprimentos de onda ou de componentes monocromáticas/espectrais associadas a
comprimentos de onda específicos.

Radiação: Considerações gerais

Efeitos direccionais

A radiação emitida por uma superfície sê-lo-á em todas as


direcções do hemisfério e segundo uma distribuição direccional

A direcção pode ser representada em coordenadas esféricas pelo


ângulo polar ou zenital θ e pelo ângulo azimutal ϕ.

125
Radiação: Considerações gerais

Intensidade de radiação

A quantidade de radiação emitida por uma superfície, dA1, e que se


propaga numa direcção particular, (θ,ϕ), é quantificada em termos
de um ângulo sólido diferencial associado à direcção em causa.

dAn
dω ≡
r2

dAn – elemento unitário de superfície de uma esfera hipotética na direcção (θ,ϕ),

Radiação: Considerações gerais


Intensidade de radiação

dAn = r 2 sin θ dθ d φ

dAn
dω = = sin θ dθ d φ
r2

O ângulo sólido ω tem unidades steradianos (sr).


2π π/2
ωhemi = ∫ 0 ∫0 sin θ dθ d φ = 2π sr

Intensidade Espectral : É a quantidade usada para especificar o fluxo de energia radiante


(W/m2) num ângulo sólido unitário numa direcção prescrita (W/m2.sr) e num intervalo
unitário de comprimentos de onda (W/m2.sr.µm).

126
Radiação: Considerações gerais
Intensidade de radiação
A intensidade espectral, I λ ,e , associada à emissão de um elemento de área unitário, dA1,
num ângulo sólido, d ω (em torno de θ e φ),e num intervalo de comprimento de onda, d λ,
(em torno de λ), é:
dq
I λ ,e ( λ ,θ ,φ ) ≡
( dA1 cos θ ) ⋅ d ω ⋅ d λ
O argumento para definir o fluxo radiativo em termos da área projectada da superfície
( dA1 cos θ ) emerge do facto de haver superfícies para as quais, com boa aproximação,
I λ ,e é independente da direcção: superfícies difusas, e a radiação é isotrópica.

A área projectada é como dA1 apareceria


Se observada segundo os ângulos θ ,φ

– Quanto vale a área projectada para θ = 0 ?

– Quanto vale a área projectada para θ = π / 2 ?

Radiação: Considerações gerais

Intensidade de radiação
A taxa de calor espectral e o fluxo de calor espectral associados à emissão a partir de
dA1 são, respectivamente,

dq
dqλ ≡ = I λ ,e ( λ ,θ ,φ ) dA1 cos θ d ω

dqλ′′ = I λ ,e ( λ ,θ ,φ ) cos θ d ω = I λ ,e ( λ ,θ ,φ ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ

127
Relação da intensidade com poder
emissivo, irradiação e radiosidade
O poder emissivo espectral (W/m2.µm) corresponde à emissão espectral em todas as
direcções possíveis: 2π π / 2
Eλ ( λ ) = ∫ 0 ∫0 I λ ,e ( λ ,θ ,φ ) cos θ sin θ dθ d φ

O poder emissivo total (W/m2) corresponde à emissão espectral em todas as


direcções e comprimentos de onda possíveis: ∞
E= ∫0 Eλ ( λ ) d λ

Para superfícies difusas, a emissão é isotrópica e: Eλ ( λ ) = π I λ ,e ( λ ) E = π I e

A intensidade espectral da radiação incidente numa superfície, I λ ,i


é definida em termos do ângulo sólido unitário em torno da
direcção de incidência, do intervalo de comprimento de onda, d λ
em torno de, λ , e da área projectada do receptor, dA1 cos θ .

Relação da intensidade com poder


emissivo, irradiação e radiosidade
A irradiação espectral ( W/m 2
⋅ µ m ) vale:
2π π/2
Gλ ( λ ) = ∫0 ∫0 I λ ,i ( λ ,θ ,φ ) cos θ sin θ dθ d φ

e a irradiação total é ( W/m 2 ) :



G = ∫ 0 Gλ ( λ ) d λ

 Quantos Gλ e G são expressos se a radiação for difusa?

A radiosidade de uma superfície opaca contabiliza


toda a radiação que abandona a superfície em todas
as direcções e pode incluir as contribuições da
reflexão e emissão.

128
Relação da intensidade com poder
emissivo, irradiação e radiosidade
Com I λ ,e + r a designar a intensidade espectral associada à radiação emitida pela superfície
e a reflexão da radiação incidente, a radiosidade espectral é ( W/m 2 ⋅ µ m ) :

2π π/2
Jλ (λ ) = ∫0 ∫0 I λ ,e + r ( λ ,θ ,φ ) cos θ sin θ dθ d φ

E a radiosidade total é ( W/m 2 ) :


J = ∫0 Jλ (λ ) d λ

 Quantos J λ e J podem ser expressos se a superfície emitir e reflectir de forma difusa?

Radiação de CORPO NEGRO


• O Corpo Negro
 Uma idealização que fornece os limites da radiação emitida e absorvida
pela matéria.

– Para uma dada temperatura e um dado comprimento de onda,


nenhuma superfície é capaz de emitir mais que um corpo negro: emissor
ideal.

– Um corpo negro é um emissor difuso.

– Um corpo negro absorve toda a radiação incidente: absorvedor ideal.

129
Radiação de CORPO NEGRO
• A Cavidade Isotérmica (Hohlraum):
parede interior a temperatura uniforme.

(a) Depois de múltiplas reflexões, toda a


radiação entrada na cavidade é
virtualmente absorvida ⇒ corpo negro.

(b) A emissão a partir da abertura é a máxima que se pode atingir, para a


temperatura associada à cavidade, e é difusa (independente da direcção) ⇒
⇒ corpo negro.
(c) O campo radiativo no interior da cavidade (efeito acumulado da radiação emitida
e da reflectida pela parede da cavidade) tem por efeito assegurar uma irradiação
difusa (correspondente à emissão de um corpo negro numa forma igual à radiação emergente
pela abertura). O campo radiativo no interior da cavidade é de corpo negro.
Qualquer superfície no interior da cavidade é irradiada de forma difusa: ( Gλ = Eλ ,b )

– Esta condição depende da superfície da cavidade ser acentuadamente


reflectora ou absorvedora?

Lei da distribuição de Plank


• A distribuição espectral do poder emissivo de um corpo negro (determinado teoricamente
e confirmado experimentalmente) é (Plank):
C1
Eλ ,b ( λ , T ) = π I λ ,b ( λ ,T ) =
λ 5 exp ( C2 / λT ) − 1

Primeira constante:
C1 = 3.742 x 108 W ⋅ µ m 4 / m 2
Segunda constante: C2 = 1.439 x 104 µ m ⋅ K

 Eλ ,b varia continuamente com λ e aumenta com T.


 A distribuição é caracterizada por um máximo para o qual λmax é dado
pela lei deslocamento de Wien :
λmaxT = C3 = 2898 µ m ⋅ K
 A quantidade fraccional da emissão total de corpo negro que aparece a baixos
comprimentos de onda aumenta com o aumento de T.

130
Lei de Stefan-Boltzmann
• O poder emissivo total de um corpo negro é obtido integrando a distribuição de Planck
em todos os comprimentos de onda possíveis. ∞
Eb = π I b = ∫ 0 Eλ ,b d λ = σ T 4
a lei de Stefan-Boltzmann, em que:

σ é a constante se Stefan-Boltzmann, σ = 5,670 × 10-8 W/m2.K4

• A fracção total da emissão de um corpo negro que está contida num intervalo de comprimento
σ ou banda λ −< λ < λ K é:
de onda prescrito ( 1 2)

λ λ
∫ 02 Eλ ,b d λ − ∫ o1 Eλ ,b d λ
F( λ1 − λ2 ) = F( 0 − λ2 ) − F( 0 − λ1 ) =
σT 4

λ
∫ 0 Eλ ,b d λ
F( 0 − λ ) = = f ( λT )
σT

Lei de Stefan-Boltzmann – fracção de


energia

C1
Eλ ,b ( λ ,T ) = π I λ ,b ( λ ,T ) =
λ 5 exp ( C2 / λT ) − 1

σ −
K

131
Band Emission (cont)

Note ability to readily determine I λ ,b and its relation to the maximum intensity from
the 3rd and 4th columns, respectively.
 If emission from the sun may be approximated as that from a blackbody at
5800K, at what wavelength does peak emission occur?
 Would you expect radiation emitted by a blackbody at 800K to be discernible
by the naked eye?
 As the temperature of a blackbody is increased, what color would be
the first to be discerned by the naked eye?

Problem 12.6: Evaluation of total solar irradiation at the earth’s surface


from knowledge of the direct and diffuse components of
the incident radiation.

KNOWN: Flux and intensity of direct and diffuse components, respectively, of solar
irradiation.

FIND: Total irradiation.

132
SCHEMATIC:

ANALYSIS: Since the irradiation is based on the actual surface area, the contribution due to
the direct solar radiation is
′′ ⋅ cos θ .
G dir = qdir

For the contribution due to the diffuse radiation


G dif = π Idif .

Hence
′′ ⋅ cos θ + π Idif
G = G dir + G dif = qdir

or

G = 1000 W / m 2 × 0.866 + π sr × 70 W / m 2 ⋅ sr

G = ( 866 + 220 ) W / m 2

G = 1086 W / m 2 .

COMMENTS: Although a diffuse approximation is often made for the non-direct component
of solar radiation, the actual directional distribution deviates from this condition, providing
larger intensities at angles close to the direct beam.

133
Problem 12.18: Determination of the sun’s emissive power, temperature
and wavelength of maximum emission, as well as the
earth’s temperature, from knowledge of the sun/earth
geometry and the solar flux at the outer edge of the earth’s
atmosphere.

KNOWN: Solar flux at outer edge of earth’s atmosphere, 1353 W/m2.

FIND: (a) Emissive power of sun, (b) Surface temperature of sun, (c) Wavelength of
maximum solar emission, (d) Earth equilibrium temperature.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Sun and earth emit as blackbodies, (2) No attenuation of solar
radiation enroute to earth, (3) Earth atmosphere has no effect on earth energy balance.

ANALYSIS: (a) Applying conservation of energy to the solar energy crossing two concentric
spheres, one having the radius of the sun and the other having the radial distance from the edge
of the earth’s atmosphere to the center of the sun, it follows that

( )
2
 D 
Es π Ds2 = 4π  R s − e − e  q ′′ .
 2  s
Hence

( ) × 1353 W / m2 = 6.302 × 107 W / m2 .


2
4 1.5 × 1011 m − 0.65 × 107 m
Es =
(1.39 × 109 m )
2

(b) From the Stefan-Boltzmann law, the temperature of the sun is


1/ 4
E 
1/ 4  6.302 × 107 W / m 2 
Ts =  s  =  = 5774 K.
σ   5.67 × 10−8 W / m 2 ⋅ K 4 
 

(c) From Wien’s law, the wavelength of maximum emission is


C 2897.6 µ m ⋅ K
λmax = 3 = = 0.50 µ m.
T 5774 K

134
(d) From an energy balance on the earth’s surface

( ) (
Ee π De2 = qS′′ π De2 / 4 . )
Hence, from the Stefan-Boltzmann law,
1/ 4 1/ 4
 q ′′   1353 W / m 2 
Te =  S  =  = 278 K.
 4σ  4 × 5.67 × 10−8 W / m 2 ⋅ K 4 
   

COMMENTS: The average earth temperature is higher than 278 K due to the shielding effect
of the earth’s atmosphere (transparent to solar radiation but not to longer wavelength earth
emission).

Processos e propriedades radiativas.


Propriedades radiativas de superfícies
Emissividade de uma Superfície
Introduzindo uma propriedade específica, (a emissividade), a radiação emitida por uma
superfície pode ser determinada, o que contrasta com o seu comportamento ideal como corpo
negro à mesma temperatura.
A definição de emissividade depende de estarmos interessados em calcular o carácter
direccional e/ou espectral da radiação emitida, em contraste com médias em todas as direcções
(radiação hemisférica) e/ou em todos os comprimentos de onda (total).
• A emissividade espectral directional :
I λ ,e ( λ ,θ , φ , T )
ε λ ,θ ( λ ,θ ,φ ,T ) ≡
I λ ,b ( λ ,T )

• A emissividade espectral hemisférica (uma média direccional):

Eλ ( λ ,T ) ∫ 20π ∫π0 / 2 I λ ,e ( λ ,θ ,φ ,T ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ


ε λ ( λ ,T ) ≡ =
Eλ ,b ( λ ,T ) ∫ 02π ∫ π0 / 2 I λ ,b ( λ ,T ) cos θ sin θ dθ d φ

135
Processos e propriedades radiativas.
Propriedades radiativas de superfícies
• A emissividade total hemisférica (uma média direccional e espectral):

E (T ) ∫ 0 ε λ ( λ , T ) Eλ ,b ( λ ,T ) d , λ
ε (T ) ≡ =
Eb ( T ) Eb (T )
Com um boa de aproximação, a emissividade hemisférica é igual à emissividade normal: ε = ε n

Valores típicos da emissividade total normal :

Notas:
 Baixas emissividades dos metais polidos e
crescente emissividade de metais não polidos
e superfícies oxidadas.
 Emissividades comparativamente elevadas
dos não condutores.

Processos e propriedades radiativas.


Propriedades radiativas de superfícies
• Variações espectrais típicas

Notar decréscimo de ε λ ,n com o


aumento de λ para metais
e comportamento diferente dos não metais

• Variações de temperatura típicas :

Porque é que ε n aumenta com o aumento de λ


para o tungsténio e não aumenta para o óxido de alumínio?

136
Absorção, reflexão e transmissão:
resposta à radiação incidente
• Pode haver 3 respostas de um meio semi transparente à irradiação:

 Reflexão pelo meio ( Gλ ,ref ) .


 Absorção pelo meio ( Gλ ,abs ) .
 Transmissão através do meio ( Gλ ,tr ) .

Balanço de Radiação

Gλ = Gλ ,ref + Gλ ,abs + Gλ ,tr

• Contrastando com o que se disse para meios semitransparentes, efeitos volumétricos,


a resposta de um material opaco à irradiação é governado por fenómenos superficiais
e Gλ ,tr = 0.
Gλ = Gλ ,ref + Gλ ,abs + Gλ ,tr

O comprimento de onda da radiação incidente e a natureza do material determinam se o


material é semitransparente ou opaco.
 O vidro e a água são semitransparentes ou opacos?

Absorção, reflexão e transmissão:


resposta à radiação incidente
• A menos que um material opaco esteja a uma temperatura suficientemente alta para emitir
radiação visível, a sua cor é determinada pela dependência espectral da reflexão em resposta
à irradiação visível.

 O que se pode dizer sobre a reflexão de uma superfície branca?


 E sobre uma negra?

 Porque é que as folhas são verdes?

137
Absorsividade de uma superfície opaca
• A absorsividade espectral direccional, desprezando dependência de T:
I λ ,i ,abs ( λ ,θ ,φ )
α λ ,θ ( λ ,θ ,φ ) ≡
I λ ,i ( λ ,θ ,φ )

• A absorsividade espectral hemisférica :


Gλ ,abs ( λ ) ∫ 02π ∫π0 / 2 α λ ,θ ( λ ,θ ,φ ) I λ ,i ( λ ,θ ,φ ) cos θ sin θ dθ d φ
αλ ( λ ) ≡ =
Gλ ( λ ) ∫ 02π ∫ π0 / 2 I λ ,i ( λ ,θ ,φ ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ
 Se a radiação for difusa, em que é que se simplifica o resultado anterior?
E se a superfície for difusa?

• A absorsividade total hemisférica : G ∫ α ( λ ) Gλ ( λ ) d λ
α ≡ abs = o λ∞
G ∫ 0 Gλ ( λ ) d λ
 Se a irradiação for de corpo negro, como se escrevem as equações anteriores?
 A absorsividade é aproximadamente independente da temperatura da superfície,
mas se a irradiação for de corpo negro, porque é que α depende da temperatura
do corpo negro?

Reflectividade de uma superfície opaca


• A reflectividade espectral direccional, desprezando dependência de T:
I λ ,i ,ref ( λ ,θ ,φ )
ρλ ,θ ( λ ,θ ,φ ) ≡
I λ ,i ( λ ,θ ,φ )

• A absorsividade espectral hemisférica :


π/2
Gλ ,ref ( λ ) ∫ 20π ∫ 0 ρ λ ,θ ( λ ,θ ,φ ) I λ ,i ( λ ,θ ,φ ) cos θ sin θ dθ dφ
ρλ ≡ =
Gλ ( λ ) I λ ,i ( λ ,θ ,φ )
 Se a radiação for difusa, em que é que se simplifica o resultado anterior?
E se a superfície for difusa?
• A reflectividade total hemisférica :

G ∫ ρ ( λ ) Gλ ( λ ) d λ
ρ ≡ abs = 0 λ∞
G ∫ 0 Gλ ( λ ) d λ

• Condições limitativas de reflexão difusa e


espectral. Superfícies polidas e rugosas.

138
Reflectividade de uma superfície opaca

 Notar forte dependência de ρλ (e αλ = 1- ρλ) em λ


 A neve é uma substância muito reflectora? E a tinta branca?

Transmissividade
• A transmissividade espectral hemisférica ,desprezando dependência de T:

Gλ ,tr λ
τλ ≡
Gλ ( λ )

Notar que a pequenos e elevados comprimentos de onda há mudança de


condições de semitransparente para opaco ∞
Gtr ∫ 0 Gλ ,tr ( λ ) d λ
τ ≡ = ∞
∫ 0 Gλ ( λ ) d λ
• A reflectividade total hemisférica :
G
• Para um meio semitransparente,
ρλ + α λ + τ λ = 1 • Para um meio opaco,
ρλ + αλ = 1
ρ +α +τ = 1 ρ +α =1

139
Lei de Kirchhoff
• A Lei de Kirchhoff estabelece que a emissividade total hemisférica de uma
superfície é igual à sua absorsividade total hemisférica :
ε =α
Contudo, as condições associadas à sua derivação são muito restritivas:
A irradiação da superfície corresponde à emissão de um corpo negro à mesma
temperatura do corpo.

• Ainda assim, a lei de Kirchhoff pode aplicar-se às propriedades espectrais direccionais


sem restrições:
ε λ ,θ = α λ ,θ

Porque é que não há restrições ao uso da equação anterior?

Supefícies difusas/cinzentas
Com ∫ 02π ∫π0 / 2 ε λ ,θ cos θ sin θ dθ d φ
ελ =
∫ 02π ∫π0 / 2 cos θ sin θ dθ d φ
e ∫ 02π ∫ π0 / 2 α λ ,θ I λ ,i cos θ sin θ dθ dφ
αλ =
∫ 20π ∫π0 / 2 I λ ,i cos θ sin θ dθ dφ
Em que condições se pode igualar ελ a αλ ?

• Com ∫ ε E (λ ) d λ
ε = 0 λ λ ,b
Eb (T )

e ∫ 0 α λ Gλ ( λ ) d λ
α=
G
Em que condições se pode igualar ε a α ?

• Condições associadas com a


hipótese de superfície cinzenta

140
Problem 12.49: Determination of the solar absorptivity and total emissivity
of a diffuse surface from knowledge of the spectral
distribution of α λ ( λ ) and the surface temperature.

KNOWN: Spectral, hemispherical absorptivity of an opaque surface.

FIND: (a) Solar absorptivity, (b) Total, hemispherical emissivity for Ts = 340K.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Surface is opaque, (2) ελ = αλ, (3) Solar spectrum has Gλ = Gλ,S
proportional to Eλ,b (λ, 5800K).

ANALYSIS: (a) The solar absorptivity may be expressed as


∞ ∞
αS = ∫ α λ ( λ ) E λ ,b ( λ ,5800K ) dλ / ∫ ( λ , 5800K ) dλ.
0 λ ,b
E
0

The integral can be written in three parts using F(0 → λ) terms.


αS = α1 F( 0 → 0.3) + α 2  F( 0 →1.5 ) − F( 0 → 0.3)  + α 3 1 − F( 0 →1.5 )  .
   

From Table 12.1,


λT = 0.3 × 5800 = 1740 µm⋅K F(0 → 0.3 µm) = 0.0335
λT = 1.5 × 5800 = 8700 µm⋅K F(0 → 1.5 µm) = 0.8805.

141
Hence,
αS = 0 × 0.0355 + 0.9 [ 0.8805 − 0.0335] + 0.1[1 − 0.8805] = 0.774.

(b) The total, hemispherical emissivity for the surface at 340K may be expressed as

ε = ∫ ε λ ( λ ) Eλ ,b ( λ ,340K ) dλ / E b ( 340K ) .
0

With ελ = αλ , the integral can be written in terms of the F(0 → λ) function. However, it is readily
recognized that since
F( 0 →1.5 µ m, 340K ) ≈ 0.000 at λ T = 1.5 × 340 = 510 µ m ⋅ K

there is negligible emission below 1.5 µm.

It follows that
ε = ε λ = α λ = 0.1

COMMENTS: The assumption ελ = αλ is satisfied if the surface is irradiated diffusely or if


the surface itself is diffuse. Note that for this surface under the specified conditions of solar
irradiation and surface temperature, αS ≠ ε. Such a surface is spectrally selective.

Problem 12.90: Determination of the emissivity and absorptivity of a coated


vertical plate exposed to solar-simulation lamps and the magnitude
of the irradiation required to maintain a prescribed plate
temperature.

KNOWN: Vertical plate of height L = 2 m suspended in quiescent air. Exposed surface with
diffuse coating of prescribed spectral absorptivity distribution subjected to simulated solar
irradiation, GS,λ. Plate steady-state temperature Ts = 400 K.

142
FIND: Plate emissivity, ε, plate absorptivity, α, and plate irradiation, G.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Ambient air is extensive, quiescent, (3)
Spectral distribution of the simulated solar irradiation, GS,λ , proportional to that of a blackbody at
5800 K, (4) Coating is opaque, diffuse, and (5) Plate is perfectly insulated on the edges and the
back side, and (6) Plate is isothermal.

PROPERTIES: Table A.4, Air (Tf = 350 K, 1 atm): ν = 20.92 × 10-6 m2/s, k = 0.030 W/m⋅K, α
= 29.90 × 10-6 m2/s, Pr = 0.700.

ANALYSIS: (a) Perform an energy balance on the plate as shown in the schematic on a per unit
plate width basis,

E& in − E out = 0

α G − εσ T 4 − h ( T − T )  L = 0
 s s ∞ 

where α and ε are determined from knowledge of αλ and h is estimated from an appropriate
correlation.

Plate total emissivity: Expressing the emissivity in terms of the band emission factor, F(0 - λT),

ε = α1F( 0 − λ T ) + α 2 1 − F( 0 − λ T ) 
1 s  1 s 

ε = 0.9 × 0 + 0.1[1 − 0 ] = 0.1 <

where, from Table 12.1, with λ,Ts = 1µm × 400 K = 400 µm⋅K, F(0-λT) = 0.000.

143
Plate absorptivity: With the spectral distribution of simulated solar irradiation proportional to
emission from a blackbody at 5800 K,

α = α1F( 0 − λ T ) + α 2 1 − F( 0 − λ T ) 
1 s  1 s 

α = 0.9 × 0.7202 + 0.1[1 − 0.7202] = 0.676 <

where, from Table 12.1, with λ1Ts = 5800 µm⋅K, F(0 -λT) = 0.7202.

Estimating the free convection coefficient, h : Using the Churchill-Chu correlation with
properties evaluated at Tf = (Ts + T∞ )/2 = 350 K,

gβ ( Ts − T∞ ) L3
Ra L =
να

9.8 m s 2 (1 350 K ) × 100 K ( 2 m )


3
10
Ra L = = 3.581 × 10
20.92 × 10−6 m 2 s × 29.90 × 10−6 m 2 s
2
 
 0.387Ra1L/ 6 
Nu L = 0.825 +  =377.6
8 27
 1 + ( 0.492 Pr )9 16  
   

h L = Nu L k L = 377.6 × 0.030 W m ⋅ K 2 m = 5.66 W m 2 ⋅ K <

Irradiation on the Plate: Substituting numerical values into Eq. (1),


4
0.676G − 0.1 × 5.67 × 10−8 W m 2 ⋅ K ( 400 K )4 −5.66 W m 2 ⋅ K ( 400 − 300 ) K = 0
2
G = 1052 W m

144
Solar Radiation
• The sun is a nearly spherical source of radiation whose outer diameter is
1.39 x 109 m and whose emissive power approximates that of a blackbody at 5800K.

• The distance from the center of the sun to the center of the earth varies with time
of year from a minimum of 1.471 x 1011 m to a maximum of 1.521 x 1011 m, with
an annual average of 1.496 x 1011 m.

• Due to the large sun-to-earth distance, the sun’s rays


are nearly parallel at the outer edge of the earth’s
atmosphere, and the corresponding radiation flux is
q′′S = f x Sc

Sc → the solar constant or heat flux (1353 W/m 2 )


when the earth is at its mean distance from the sun.
f → correction factor accounting for eccentricity
of the earth's orbit ( 0.97 < f <1.03)

• Extraterrestrial irradiation of a surface whose normal is at a zenith angle θ


relative to the sun’s rays is
GS ,o = f x Sc x cos θ

• Interaction of solar radiation with earth’s atmosphere:


 Absorption by aerosols over the entire spectrum.
 Absorption by gases (CO2, H2O ( v ), O3) in discrete wavelength bands.
 Scattering by gas molecules and aerosols.

145
• Effect of Atmosphere on Spectral Distribution of Solar Radiation:

 Attenuation over the entire spectrum but more pronounced in spectral bands
associated with polar molecules.
 Note concentration of all radiation in the spectral region 0.3 < λ < 3µ m and
peak at λ ≈ 0.5µ m.
 Why is the assumption of graybody behavior often inappropriate for
surfaces experiencing solar irradiation?

• Effect of Atmosphere on Directional Distribution of Solar Radiation:

 Rayleigh scattering is approximately uniform in all directions (isotropic


scattering), while Mie scattering is primarily in the direction of the sun’s
rays (forward peaked).

 Directional distribution of radiation


at the earth’s surface has two components.
– Direct radiation: Unscattered and in
the direction θ of the sun’s rays.
– Diffuse radiation: Scattered radiation
strongly peaked in the forward direction.
 Calculation of solar irradiation for a
horizontal surface often presumes the
scattered component to be isotropic.
′′ cosθ + π I dir
GS = GS ,dir + GS ,dif = qdir

0.1 < ( GS ,dir / GS ) < 1.0


Clear skies Completely overcast

146
Terrestrial Radiation
• Emission by Earth’s Surface:
E = εσ T 4

 Emissivities are typically large. For example, from Table A.11:


Sand/Soil: ε > 0.90
Water/Ice: ε > 0.95
Vegetation: ε > 0.92
Snow: ε > 0.82
Concrete/Asphalt: ε > 0.85

 Emission is typically from surfaces with temperatures in the range of


250 < T < 320K and hence concentrated in the spectral region
4 < λ < 40µ m, with peak emission at λ ≈ 10 µ m.

• Atmospheric Emission:
 Largely due to emission from CO2 and H2O (v) and concentrated in the
spectral regions 5 < λ < 8 µ m and λ > 13µ m.

 Although far from exhibiting the spectral characteristics of blackbody emission,


earth irradiation due to atmospheric emission is often approximated by a
blackbody emissive power of the form
Gatm = σ Tsky
4

Tsky → the effective sky temperature

230K< Tsky < 285K


Cold, clear sky Warm, overcast sky

• Can water in the natural environment freeze if the ambient air temperature
exceeds 273K? If so, what environmental conditions (wind and sky)
favor ice formation?

147
Surface Radiative Properties
• Concentration of solar ( 0.3 < λ < 3µ m ) and terrestrial ( 4 < λ < 40 µ m ) in
different spectral regions often precludes use of the gray surface approximation
(ε ≠ α S ) .

 Note significant differences in ρλ and α λ for the two spectral regions: snow,
human skin, white paint.
 In terms of net radiation transfer to a surface with solar irradiation, the parameter
α S / ε has special significance. Why?

Surface αS / ε
Snow 0.29

Human skin 0.64 Rejection

White paint 0.22

Black paint 1.0


Collection
Evaporated Al film 3.0

148
Problem 12.119: Determination of preferred roof coating (Parsons Black,
Acrylic White, or Zinc Oxide White) and corresponding
heat load for prescribed operating conditions.

KNOWN: Dimensions and construction of truck roof. Roof interior surface temperature. Truck
speed, ambient air temperature, and solar irradiation.

FIND: (a) Preferred roof coating, (b) Roof surface temperature, (c) Heat load through roof,
(d) Effect of velocity on surface temperature and heat load.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Turbulent boundary layer development over entire roof, (2) Constant
properties, (3) Negligible atmospheric (sky) irradiation, (4) Negligible contact resistance.

PROPERTIES: Table A.4, Air (Ts,o ≈ 300 K, 1 atm): ν = 15 × 10−6 m 2 s , k = 0.026 W m⋅ K ,


Pr = 0.71.

ANALYSIS: (a) To minimize heat transfer through the roof, minimize solar absorption relative
to surface emission. Hence, from Table A.12, use zinc oxide white for which αS = 0.16
and ε = 0.93.

′′
(b) Performing an energy balance on the outer surface of the roof, αSGS + q conv ′′
− E − q cond = 0,
it follows that
4
αSG S + h(T∞ − Ts,o ) = εσ Ts,o + (k t)(Ts,o − Ts,i )

149
where it is assumed that convection is from the air to the roof. With
VL 30 m s(5 m)
Re L = = = 107
ν 15 × 10 −6 m 2 s

Nu L = 0.037 Re 4L / 5 Pr1 / 3 = 0.037(107 ) 4 / 5 (0.71)1/ 3 = 13,141

h = Nu L (k L) = 13,141(0.026 W m⋅ K/5 m = 68.3 W m 2⋅ K .

Substituting numerical values in the energy balance and solving by trial-and-error, we obtain

Ts,o = 295.2 K.

(c) The heat load through the roof is

q = (kAs t)(Ts,o − Ts,i ) = (0.05 W m ⋅ K × 10 m 2 0.025 m)35.2 K = 704 W .

(d) From parametric calculations based on the foregoing model, the following results are
obtained.

300 700

295 650
Temperature, Tso(K)

Heat load, q(W)

290 600

285 550

500
280
5 10 15 20 25 30
5 10 15 20 25 30
Velocity, V(m/s)
Velocity, V(m/s)

The surface temperature and heat load decrease with decreasing V due to a reduction in the
convection heat transfer coefficient and hence convection heat transfer from the air.

COMMENTS: The heat load would increase with increasing αS/ε.

150
Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos
fechados com meio não participativo
Conceitos básicos
• Recinto fechado consiste de 2 ou mais superfícies que englobam uma região do espaço
(tipicamente preenchida com gás) e que trocam energia radiativa entre si.

• Um meio não participativo, num recinto fechado, não emite, não absorve,
nem sofre scattering de energia radiativa. Portanto, não produz qualquer efeito nas
trocas de radiação entre as superfícies.

• Cada superfície que limita o recinto fechado é suposta ser isotérmica, opaca, difusa
e cinzenta, sendo caracterizada por radiosidade e irradiação uniformes.

Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos


fechados com meio não participativo
O Factor de Forma
• O factor de forma, Fij , , é uma quantidade geométrica correspondente à fracção da
radiação que abandona a superfície i e que é intersectada pela superfície j.

qi → j
Fij =
Ai J i

Considere a troca entre duas áreas diferenciais:

cosθi cosθ j
dqi → j = I i cosθ i dAi dω j − i = J i dAi dAj
π R2

cosθi cosθ j
Fij = 1 ∫ A ∫ Aj dAi dA j
Ai i π R2

151
Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos
fechados com meio não participativo
Relações para o Factor de Forma
cosθi cosθ j
• Relação de Reciprocidade:
Fji = 1 ∫ Ai ∫ A j dAi dA j
Aj π R2
Ai Fij = A j Fji

• Regra da Somatório para recintos fechados.

N
∑ Fij = 1
j =1

Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos


fechados com meio não participativo
Relações para o Factor de Forma
• Geometrias Bi-Dimensionais (Tabela 13.1). Por exemplo,

Um Plano Infinito e uma


Fileira de Cilindros

( ) ( )
1/ 2
 2
 1/ 2
+ D tan−1  s − 2D 
2 2
Fij = 1 − 1 − D 
 s  s  D 

152
Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos
fechados com meio não participativo
Relações para o Factor de Forma
• Geometrias Tri-Dimensionais (Tabela 13.2). Por exemplo,

Discos Coaxiais Paralelos

 2 1/ 2 
Fij = 1  S −  S 2 − 4 ( rj / ri )  
2   

1 + R 2j
S = 1+
Ri2

Ri = ri / L R j = rj / L

Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos


fechados com meio não participativo
FACTORES DE FORMA – MÉTODO DAS CORDAS
PERMITE CALCULAR ÁREAS DE PERMUTA, AiFij, ENTRE 2 SUPERFÍCIES i E j QUE
OBEDECEM ÀS SEGUINTES CONDIÇÕES:

A1

A2

• COMPRIMENTO MUITO MAIOR QUE A DISTÂNCIA QUE AS SEPARA


• SECÇÕES RECTAS CONSTANTES E PERPENDICULARES AO COMPRIMENTO
• DISTÂNCIA QUE AS SEPARA SER CONSTANTE

153
Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos
fechados com meio não participativo
FACTORES DE FORMA – MÉTODO DAS CORDAS

L3
L1

L2

L4

A1F12 =
∑ cordas cruzadas − ∑ cordas não cruzadas
2

A1F12 =
(L1 + L2 ) − (L1 + L2 )
2

Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos


fechados com meio não participativo
FACTORES DE FORMA ENTRE RECTÂNGULOS DIAMETRALMENTE OPOSTOS
cosθi cosθ j
dqi → j = Ii cosθNA
APLICA-SE QUANDO HÁ SIMETRIA OU SEMELHANÇA i dAd ω j −i = J i
i GEOMETRIA dAdA
π R2 i j

A1 cosθi cosθ j
Fij = 1 ∫ A ∫ A dAdA
Ai i j π R2 i j

R
A3

A1F12 = A3 F34
A4

A2

154
Trocas radiativas entre superfícies: recintos
fechados com meio não participativo
FACTORES DE FORMA – OUTRAS RELAÇÕES

n
Fi ( j ) = ∑ Fik
k =1

n
A( j )F( j )i = ∑ Ak Fki
k =1
n

∑AF k ki
F( j )i = k =1
A( j )

Trocas radiativas entre superfícies negras


• Para um corpo negro, J i = Ebi .

• Troca de calor útil entre duas superfícies


que podem ser aproximadas como corpos
negros taxa útil à qual a radiação
abandona a superfície i devido
à sua interacção com j

ou taxa útil à qual a superfície j


qij = qi → j − q j →i
ganha radiação devido à qij = Ai Fij Ebi − A j F ji Ebj
qij = Ai Fijσ (Ti 4 − T j4 )
sua interacção com i

Transferência de radiação útil da superfície i devido a trocas com todas as (N)


superfícies num recinto fechado:
qi = ∑ Ai Fijσ (Ti 4 − T j4 )
N

j =1

155
Troca radiativa entre as N superfícies opacas,
difusas e cinzentas de um recinto fechado

• Expressões alternativas para transferência radiativa


útil a partir da superfície i:

qi = Ai ( J i − Gi ) → Fig. (b) (1)

qi = Ai ( Ei − α iGi ) → Fig. (c) (2)

Ebi − J i
qi = → Fig. (d) (3)
(1 − ε i ) / ε i Ai

Sugere uma resistencia da superfície


radiativa da forma: (1 − ε i ) / ε i Ai

Troca radiativa entre as N superfícies opacas,


difusas e cinzentas de um recinto fechado
Ji − J j
qi = ∑ Ai Fij ( J i − J j ) = ∑
N N

(AF )
−1 (4)
j =1 j =1
i ij

Sugere uma resistência espacial


( i ij )
ou geométrica da forma: A F −1

• Igualando as Eqs. (3) e (4) corresponde a um balanço de energia radiativa


à superfície i:
Ebi − J i N Ji − J j
=∑ (5)
(1 − ε i ) / ε i Ai j =1
(AF )
i ij
−1

que pode ser representado


por um análogo eléctrico do tipo:

156
Metodologia de análise para recintos fechados
 Aplicar Eq. (4) a cada superfície para a qual o fluxo útil de radiação qi
é connecido.
 Aplicar Eq. (5) a cada uma das restantes superfícies para a qual a temperatura Ti ,
e, portanto, Ebi ,, é conhecida.

 Calcular todos os factores de forma que aparecem nas equações

 Resolver o sistema de N equações para as radiosidades (incógnitas) J1 , J 2 ,...., J N .

 Usar Eq. (3) para determinar qi para cada superfície onde se conhece
Ti e para determinar Ti para cada superfície onde se conhece qi.

• Tratamento de superfície virtual correspondente a abertura de área Ai , através da


as superfícies interiores de um recinto fechado trocam radiação com a envolvente
(de grandes dimensões) à temperatura Tsur :

 Aproximar a abertura a um corpo negro de área, Ai , temperatura, Ti = Tsur ,


e propriedades, ε i = α i = 1 .

Recintos fechados com duas superfícies


Recinto mais simples para o qual a troca de calor por radiação se dá
exclusivamente entre duas superfícies e em que uma expressão para a
troca de calor por radiação pode ser determinada directamente através do
análogo eléctrico.

σ (T14 − T24 )
q1 = − q2 = q12 =
1 − ε1 1− ε2
+ 1 +
ε1 A1 A1F12 ε 2 A2

157
• A tabela 13.3 apresenta resultados para alguns casos especiais. Por exemplo:

 Placas paralelas e infinitas

A1 = A2 ≡ A A1σ (T14 − T24 )


q12 =
F12 = 1 1 + 1 −1
ε1 ε 2

 Pequena superfície plana/convexa rodeada por uma superfície muito maior

As
=0
Asur
(
q = As ε s σ Ts4 − Tsur
4
)
Fs , sur = 1

Escudo de radiação
α = ε
• Superfície com reflectividade elevada (baixo α = ε) colocada entre duas
superfícies cuja troca de calor por radiação se pretende reduzir

• Considere um único escudo de radiação num reconto fechado, tal como é o caso de
duas placas planas paralelas e infinitas.

Note que, embora raramente, a emissão pode ser diferente para as duas superfícies do
escudo de radiação.

158
Análogo eléctrico

σ (T14 − T24 )
q12 = q1 = − q2 =
1 − ε1 1 − ε 3,1 1 − ε 3,2 1− ε2
+ 1 + + + 1 +
ε1 A1 A1F13 ε 3,1 A3 ε 3,2 A3 A3 F32 ε 2 A2

• O resultado anterior pode ser facimente estendido para ter em conta múlitplos
escudos de radiação e aplicado a cilindros longos e concêntricos, esferas
concêntricas e placas longas e paralelas.

A superficie re-radiante

• Uma idealização para a qual: GR = J R . Portanto, qR = 0 and J R = EbR .

• Corresponde a superfícies que são bem isoladas de um lado e para as quais


a convecção é desprezável do lado oposto (radiante).

• Recinto fechado com três superfícies sendo uma delas re-radiante :

σ (T14 − T24 )
q1 = −q2 =
1 − ε1 1 1− ε2
+ +
ε1 A1 A1F12 + (1 / A1F1R ) + (1 / A2 F2 R ) −1 ε 2 A2

159
A superficie re-radiante

• Temperatura da superfícre re-radiante TR pode ser determinada a partir do conhecimento


da sua radiosidade J R .

J1 − J R J − J2
= R
(1 / A1F1R ) (1 / A2 F2 R )

1/ 4
J 
TR =  R 
σ 

Problem 13.88: Power requirement for a cylindrical furnace with two


reradiating surfaces and an opening to large surroundings.

KNOWN: Cylindrical furnace of diameter D = 90 mm and overall length L = 180 mm.


Heating elements maintain the refractory lining (ε = 0.8) of section (1), L1 = 135 mm, at T1 =
800°C. The bottom (2) and upper (3) sections are refractory lined, but are insulated. Furnace
operates in a spacecraft vacuum environment.

FIND: Power required to maintain the furnace operating conditions with the surroundings at
23°C.

160
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) All surfaces are diffuse gray, and (2) Uniform radiosity over the
sections 1, 2, and 3.

ANALYSIS: By defining the furnace opening as the hypothetical area A4, the furnace can be
represented as a four-surface enclosure.

The power required to maintain A1 at T1 is q1, the net radiation leaving A1.

To obtain q1, we must determine the radiosity at each surface by simultaneously solving
radiation energy balance equations of the form
E bi − Ji N J −J
j j
q = =∑ (1,2)
i (1 − ε i ) / ε i Ai 1/ Ai Fij
j =1

However, since ε4 = 1, J4 = Eb4, and only three energy balances are needed for A1, A2, and A3.
E b1 − J1 J1 − J 2 J −J J − J4
A1: = + 1 3 + 1 (3)
(1 − ε1 ) / ε1A1 1/ A1F12 1/ A1F13 1/ A1F14
J 2 − J1 J − J3 J − J4
A2: 0= + 2 + 2 (4)
1/ A 2 F21
1/ A 2 F23 1/ A 2 F24
J −J J − J2 J − J4
A3: 0= 3 1 + 3 + 3 (5)
1/ A3 F31 1/ A3 F32 1/ A3 F34
where q2 = q3 = 0 since the surfaces are insulated (adiabatic) and hence reradiating.

From knowledge of J1, q1 can be determined using Eq. (1).

Of the N2 = 42 = 16 view factors, N(N – 1)/2 = 6 must be independently evaluated, while the
remaining can be determined by the summation rule and appropriate reciprocity relations. The
six independently determined Fij are:

By inspection: (1) F22 = 0 (2) F44 = 0

161
Coaxial parallel disks: From Table 13.2,

 1/ 2 
F24 = 0.5 S − S2 − 4 ( r4 / r2 ) 
2
(3)    = 0.05573
 
where
2 2
1 + R4 1 + 0.250
S = 1+ = 1+ = 18.00 R 2 = r2 / L = 45 / 180 = 0.250 R 4 = r4 / L = 0.250
2 2
R2 0.250

Enclosure 1-2-2′: From the summation rule for A2,

(4) F21 = 1 – F22′ = 1 – 0.09167 = 0.9083


where F22′ can be evaluated from the coaxial parallel disk relation, Table 13.2, with R2 = r2/L1 =
45/135 = 0.333, R2′ = r2/L1 = 0.333, and S = 11.00.

From the summation rule for A1,


(5) F11 = 1 – F12 – F12′ = 1 – 0.1514 – 0.1514 = 0.6972
From symmetry F12 = F12′ and using reciprocity
F12 = A 2 F21 / A1 = [π ( 0.090m )( 2 / 4 )] × 0.9083 / π × 0.090m × 0.135m = 0.1514

Enclosure 2′ -3-4: From the summation rule for A4,


(6) F43 = 1 – F42′ – F44 = 1 – 0.3820 – 0 = 0.6180
where F44 = 0 and using the coaxial parallel disk relation from Table 13.2, F42′ =0.3820 with R4 =
r4/L2 = 45/45 = 1, R2′ = r2/L2 = 1, and S = 3.

The View Factors: Using summation rules and appropriate reciprocity relations, the remaining 10 view
factors can be evaluated. Written in matrix form, the Fij are
0.6972* 0.1514 0.09704 0.05438
0.9083* 0* 0.03597 0.05573*
0.2911 0.01798 0.3819 0.3090
0.3262 0.05573 0.6180* 0*
The Fij shown with an asterisk were independently determined.

From knowledge of the relevant view factors, the energy balances, Eqs. (3, 4, 5), can be solved
simultaneously to obtain the radiosities,
J1 = 73, 084 W / m 2 J 2 = 67, 723 W / m 2 J3 = 36, 609 W / m 2

The net heat rate leaving A1 can be evaluated using Eq. (1) written as
E b1 − J1 ( 75,159 − 73, 084 ) W / m 2
q1 = = = 317 W <
(1 − ε1 ) / ε1A1 (1 − 0.8 ) / 0.8 × 0.03817 m2
where Eb1 = σ T14 = σ(800 + 273K)4 = 75,159 W/m2 and A1 = πDL1 = π × 0.090m × 0.135m =
0.03817 m2.

COMMENTS: Recognize the importance of defining the furnace opening as the hypothetical
area A4 which completes the four-surface enclosure representing the furnace. The temperature
of A4 is that of the surroundings and its emissivity is unity since it absorbs all radiation incident
on it.

162
Problem 13.93: Assessment of ceiling radiative properties for an ice rink
in terms of ability to maintain surface temperature above
the dewpoint.

KNOWN: Ice rink with prescribed ice, rink air, wall, ceiling and outdoor air conditions.

FIND: (a) Temperature of the ceiling, Tc, for an emissivity of 0.05 (highly reflective panels) or
0.94 (painted panels); determine whether condensation will occur for either or both ceiling
panel types if the relative humidity of the rink air is 70%, and (b) Calculate and plot the ceiling
temperature as a function of ceiling insulation thickness for 0.1 ≤ t ≤ 1 m; identify conditions
for which condensation will occur on the ceiling.

SCHEMATIC:
Insulation, k = 0.035 W/m-K, thickness t = 0.3m
Too,o = -5oC
Ceiling (c), Tc, ε = 0.05 or 0.94

Walls (w)
Rink air Tw = 15 oC
Too,i = 15oC
L = 10 m hi = 5 W/m2-K

Ice (i), Ti = - 5oC

D = 50 m

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Rink comprised of the ice, walls and ceiling approximates a three-
surface, diffuse-gray enclosure, (2) Surfaces have uniform radiosities, (3) Ice surface and walls
are black, (4) Panels are diffuse-gray, and (5) Thermal resistance for convection on the outdoor
side of the ceiling is negligible compared to the conduction resistance of the ceiling insulation.

163
PROPERTIES: Psychometric chart (Atmospheric pressure; dry bulb temperature, Tdb = T∞,i
= 15°C; relative humidity, RH = 70%): Dew point temperature, Tdp = 9.4°C.

ANALYSIS: Applying an energy balance to the inner surface of the ceiling and treating all
heat rates as energy outflows,
E& in − E& out = 0
−q o − q conv,c − q rad,c = 0 (1)
where the rate equations for each process are
(
q o = Tc − T∞,o / R cond )
R cond = t / kA c (2,3)

qconv,c = h i A c Tc − T∞,i ( ) (4)


q rad,c = ε E b ( Tc ) Ac − α A w Fwc E b ( Tw ) − α Ai Fic E b ( Ti ) (5)

Since the ceiling panels are diffuse-gray, α = ε.


From Table 13.2 for parallel, coaxial disks
Fic = 0.672

From the summation rule applied to the ice (i) and the reciprocity rule,
Fic + Fiw = 1 Fiw = Fcw (symmetry)
Fcw = 1 − Fic
Fwc = ( A c / A w ) Fcw = ( A c / A w ) (1 − Fic ) = 0.410
where Ac = π D2/4 and Aw = π DL.

Using the foregoing energy balance, Eq. (1), and the rate equations, Eqs. (2-5), the ceiling
temperature is calculated using radiative properties for the two panel types,
Ceiling panel ε Tc (°C)
Reflective 0.05 14.0
Paint 0.94 8.6 Tc < Tdp <

. Condensation will occur on the painted panel since Tc < Tdp.

b) Applying
(b) Applyingthe
theforegoing
foregoingmodel
modelforfor ≤ t≤≤t1≤
0.10.1 .01.0 m the
m, the following
following result
result is obtained
is obtained

15
Ceiling temperature, Tc (C)

10

5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Ceiling insulation thickness, t (m)

Painted ceiling, epsc = 0.94


Reflective panel, epsc = 0.05

164
For the reflective panel (ε = 0.05), the ceiling surface temperature is considerably above the
dew point. Therefore, condensation will not occur for the range of insulation thicknesses. For
the painted panel (ε = 0.94), the ceiling surface temperature is always below the dew point, and
condensation occurs for the range of insulation thicknesses.

COMMENTS: From the analysis, recognize that radiative exchange between the ice and the
ceiling has the dominant effect on the ceiling temperature. With the reflective panel, the rate is
reduced nearly 20-fold relative to that for the painted panel. With the painted panel ceiling,
condensation will occur for most of the conditions likely to exist in the rink.

165