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HVAC for Large Spaces: The Sustainable Benefits of HVLS (High Volume/Low Speed) Fans
In the face of common wisdom that higher fan speeds deliver better cooling effect, HVLS fans are proven to be considerably more effective and energy efficient for large spaces.
Sponsored by MacroAir Technologies
Karin Tetlow For centuries, people living in hot climates have known the cooling powers of slowly moving air. Large ceiling fans were favored in southern antebellum dining rooms, and in British India, servants used a foot to push overhead swinging fans called punkas. With the advent of the electric motor, fans were among the first devices to be mechanized. Thinking that moving more air was better for cooling, engineers increased the speed of fans in order to increase air displacement. But as anyone knows, a gentle breeze is cooling, while a wind is unpleasant and disruptive - as unfortunate diners in excessively cooled and draughty hotel banquet rooms will testify. Air speed beyond four or five miles per hour usually offers little, if any, additional cooling benefit. In fact, in very hot, low humidity conditions, very slow moving air cools and ventilates best. Until a couple of decades ago, large spaces were mostly cooled by small high-speed fans that didn't cover a wide enough area. They were inefficient, consumed excessive and costly energy, and required ongoing maintenance. In 1995 mechanical engineer and race car designer Walter Boyd applied the law of physics to how ceiling fans cool and developed what are now known as High-Volume/Low-Speed, or HVLS, fans for use in large open spaces in commercial, institutional, industrial, and agricultural buildings. For some designers, raised in the belief that cooling and heating is delivered via HVAC systems or not at all, the application of HVLS fans for cooling large spaces was, and still is, new and virtually unknown. Just as significant for engineers who are aware of the effectiveness of fans is the fact that it is the aerodynamic design of the fan blade itself that impacts airflow.
Continuing Education Use the following learning objectives to focus your study while reading this month’s Continuing Education article. Learnin g Objectives - After reading this article, you will be able to: 1. Explain how the simple physics of moving air makes HVLS fans a low energy, more sustainable alternative to traditional high-speed fan and HVAC solutions. 2. Identify the numerous applications where HVLS fans offer an equal or better alternative to traditional HVAC approaches. 3. Identify the design aspects and ventilation benefits of HVLS fans that contribute to sustainability and LEEDÂ® credits. 4. Specify HVLS fans that efficiently meet client and user needs.
The key metric for evaluating fan effectiveness is the amount of air moved, measured in cubic feet (of air moved) per minute (CFM). Performance is based on the energy cost of moving that amount of air.
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Also important is the fact that a large column of air travels farther than a small one.McGraw-Hill Construction . Paso Robles. see References). without generating a great deal of noise and dust. The large.Continuing Education Center http://ce. MO. The physics are the same. Airflow Pattern From A 24-ft Diameter 2 Horsepower. is not the whole story. and $5. Instead it is the downstream effects of that air movement that are important. Carbon and Cost Savings After Installing HVLS Fans on page 8). 6-Blade Hvls Fan 2 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . slow moving air mass moves throughout the space. only in reverse. circulating and cooling air efficiently. MN.construction.if unimpeded .on page 2). In one actual 'before' and 'after' study. quoted in Report on Measurement. Warm air is mixed with cooler air and distributed efficiently (Pignet and Saxena. when the fan is close to the ceiling or when the direction of blade rotation is reversed. Displacement.com/article_print. Louis. CA Photo courtesy of MacroAir Technologies The physics of cooling air is relatively simple (for a more detailed explanation see sidebar The Physics of Moving Air . 23. the benefits obtained for cooling are equally applicable to heating.php?L=193&C=635 Six-blade HVLS fan cools the wine tasting room in the OSO Libre Winery.350 in St.360 degrees. In cooler weather. mixing. the amount of air actually moved through a fan. BEING GREEN Energy Efficiency of HVLS Fans Calculations based on ASHRAE (American Society of Heating. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) data and conservative facility design criteria (see Heat Savings Chart on page 7) show a five year return on investment after installing HVLS fans of $11. data show average energy cost savings averaging 49 percent plus consequent reductions in the generation of CO2 and carbon (see table: CO2. HVLS fans generate a large column of air that gently flows down to the ground and outward along the floor plane in all directions .530 in Minneapolis.
Note the absence of air dropping close to the fan's hub (no green). see References) show that HVLS fans are the most energy efficient air circulating fans available. performed at UC Davis.000 sq. This means that doubling the size of a fan requires less than twice the power. a high speed commercial fan delivering air at 20 mph requires about 64 times as much power as one of the same size delivering air at five mph. the body that certifies fan performance has defined airflow (CFM) as a function of fan diameter and thrust.McGraw-Hill Construction . the furthest compared with airflow from the end of the fan (blue). According to the fan laws.construction. The Air Movement and Control Association International (AMCA). mostly open spaces with a minimum ceiling height of 15 feet. Regardless of diameter. HVLS fans. warehouse with 30-ft ceilings is very revealing. If you double the speed of a fan. a common subset of the laws of physics. see References) Image courtesy MacroAir Technologies HVLS fans are best suited for large. to move air. increasing either diameter or thrust results in an increase in CFM. In addition to the size (tonnage) of the unit required for such a large space. (Santolucito. an 3 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . on the other hand. not speed. High-speed fans focus on using their speed to increase air displacement.php?L=193&C=635 Airflow nearest the fan hub (green) drops and extends over 100 feet. determined that two 20-ft 1HP fans were as effective as twelve 3-ft high-speed fans at ventilating a 200-cow pen.Continuing Education Center http://ce. For example. A number of independent studies reveal that a few HVLS fans can provide as much air movement in a given space as several high-speed fans. One such study. ft. while providing an 86% reduction in electrical consumption (Shultz. 1 HP fans) use the same motor and draw approximately the same current through the controller. it requires (2 times 2 times 2) or 8 times the amount of electrical power. all HVLS fans in the same series (for example. Additionally. not just commercial dairies. which reaches only half the distance. focus on using size. the power to drive a fan is equal to the cube of the speed. Studies by mechanical efficiency experts (Report on Measurement. Under this AMCA formula. 1). while increasing diameter does not. This kind of efficient performance translates into any environment. considering the sheer mechanics of moving air with conventional forced air units in something like a 200.com/article_print. increasing thrust requires more input power. Image courtesy MacroAir Technologies Airflow Pattern Resulting From 24-ft 2 Horsepower Blade With Winglets Airflow drawn into the fan (red and blue) drops with an irregular flow and extends a shorter horizontal distance compared with the airflow moved by a fan with no winglets.
HVLS fans can make a significant contribution to cutting those costs while increasing the effectiveness of the building's HVAC system. By comparison. ft.construction. often with six blades. with an average calculated airspeed of only 609 ft/minute. Heated air from radiant heaters can be circulated more efficiently with HVLS fans reducing or eliminating pooling.php?L=193&C=635 enormous amount of ducting would be needed for merely adequate coverage.Continuing Education Center http://ce. these lower-horsepower HVLS fans can efficiently circulate cooled air throughout the structure.) COOLING. they reduce the load of a building's HVAC system in many ways. (Report on Measurement. thermostats can be adjusted to more energy-efficient settings. they can continue to operate during power outages or intentional shutdowns during the hottest times of the day. 6-blade. Because HVLS fans circulate air so efficiently. In addition several supplementary fans would be required to move the air nearly 30 feet to the floor and feed it back to the system. In spaces with large. relatively open floor plans. In addition to many applications in a range of building types. All this would create both high initial and high energy costs and make maintenance difficult and costly .000 sq.usgbc. AMCA testing (non-certified) shows that one manufacturer's 24-foot.com/article_print. LEED v. In cold storage or refrigerated rooms. and higher horsepower (1Â½-2 HP) models best suited for extreme moisture or wet conditions and areas where some turbulence is acceptable. 17 public school jurisdictions and 39 institutions of higher education have adopted various LEED initiatives and requirement (www.org/PublicPolicy/SearchPublicPolicies. This makes them an excellent alternative or supplement to forced air units in large spaces. and mechanical heating and cooling times.000 sq ft per 2HP 24-ft fan. they could be well suited for facilities that require constant cooling or refrigeration. Energy operating costs of these models will approach zero. 3/8HP to 1HP.694 CFM. within the fan's coverage area of up to 20. Since heating and cooling systems make up a large part of a building's energy use. and increasing the efficiency of the heaters while potentially reducing the number of heaters required. another manufacturer's 30-inch high speed 1HP fan delivers 12. Indoor Environmental Quality (15 possible points) and Innovation in Design (6 possible points. When installed at a height of 18-ft. lower horsepower (3/8 HP to 1 HP) models specifically designed to enhance the comfort of people. the deep wall of horizontal moving air is relative to the diameter of a fan and.can be achieved with fewer ventilation fans due to the high volume of air moved by energy efficient HVLS fans.3 categories where HVLS fans can contribute to prerequisites and points are: Energy and Atmosphere (35 possible points). 1HP HVLS fan produces 275.000 CFM at an average calculated airspeed of 4. 3. 194 localities.which means the same air quality . deliver non-disruptive cooling that helps improve productivity and comfort of the work environment.. on the other hand. HEATING AND VENTILATION There are two major categories of HVLS fans: more efficient.all very good reasons why many people choose to go without any air-moving system. air-conditioned air can be moved farther with less ductwork and even reduced tonnage. HVLS plus HVAC HVLS fans reduce thermal loads. 2009. When used in conjunction with air conditioning or evaporative cooling systems.aspx?PageID=1776). lower horsepower HVLS fans. see References) More efficient.) LEED® Credits As of September 1. The Physics of Moving Air Called a horizontal floor jet. 45 states. HVLS fans can provide a cooling effect equal to a reduction in temperature of up to 8 degrees F. are designed to move air in just this type of space without the huge up-front investment or the follow-on operating and maintenance costs.McGraw-Hill Construction . This can reduce the chance of the product warming above unsatisfactory temperature levels due to stratification (the building up of layers of air at different temperatures. to a 4 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . The same number of air exchanges . Adding solar In 2010. this is an effective coverage area of over 15.800 ft/minute. 13 federal agencies or departments. as in the AMCA test. HVLS fans. electricity use. 8-ft to 24-ft in diameter. Cooling When used as a stand-alone cooling system. Thanks to the destratifying effect (mixing of air in order to eliminate layers of air at different temperatures) of HVLS fans. standalone solar-powered HVLS fans will become available.
mildew. continually forcing it to circulate down and throughout the structure without creating an uncomfortable windy effect. and therefore.' The height of the floor jet is determined by the diameter of the column of air. â€¢ In un-insulated buildings and those with large open doors and/or open-sides. metal casting and forging. â€¢ Where the dehydrating effect of air-conditioning is undesirable. in commercial bakeries. Under ideal conditions. 5 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . this accelerates evaporation to produce a cooling effect. an 8-ft fan produces a floor jet of air approximately 36 inches deep. or produce handling/packing operations. Higher horsepower HVLS fans. or painting and finishing. The larger the HVLS air circulating fan. for example.construction. HVLS fans provide adequate ventilation while requiring less cooled air to be replaced with hot air from outside. â€¢ For even-air distribution in buildings with conventional evaporative coolers. Slowly moving air at three to five miles per hour breaks up the moisturesaturated boundary layer surrounding the body. â€¢ For operations which produce smoke or fumes requiring continuous ventilation. food processing plants. such as wet floors. the speed of a fan. they can also be used with more traditional HVAC systems. it migrates outward until it meets a side wall or other vertical surface. or shipping/receiving operations where conveyor systems would interfere with installing ducting.' The air column from a 3-ft diameter fan has more than 6 times as much â€˜friction interface' per cubic foot as the air column from a 20-ft fan. For example. following the floor. renovations in large factories where existing machinery will not be removed. Once the floor jet reaches its potential. sparsely populated warehouses where air-conditioning would be wasteful.000 sq ft. Trapped heat stagnates and interferes with proper ventilation. which reduces energy consumption and cuts operating costs while still producing a pleasant open-air environment. â€¢ In a system designed around HVLS fans. â€¢ Anywhere the costs of air-conditioning are prohibitive or irrecoverable. the larger the column and the higher the floor jet. for example. away from the column in all directions. However. Image courtesy of MacroAir Technologies A large column of air â€˜travels' farther than a small one. Adding HVAC. the large column has proportionately less periphery. â€¢ Where an excessive amount of heat has risen and become trapped near the ceiling. bacteria. The friction between moving and stationary air occurs at the periphery of the moving column. The air flowing outward is called the â€˜horizontal floor jet.php?L=193&C=635 lesser degree. There it continues to entrain and circulate additional air. When the down column of air off a HVLS air circulating fan reaches the floor the air turns in the horizontal direction.com/article_print.1Â½ or 2 HP. operations requiring the application of chemicals. The perimeter of a column varies directly with the diameter. â€¢ In large. aircraft hangars or facilities over 500. 20-ft to 24-ft in diameter. â€¢ Where the installation of air-conditioning would disrupt operations. HVLS fans circulate the trapped heat. â€¢ On hot days.McGraw-Hill Construction . since slow-moving air produces a cooling effect. often fitted with six blades. â€¢ Due to better air mixing. new or existing. to increase the efficiency of the overall system. mold. and wet conditions. industrial-size HVLS fans can be run without air conditioning. are an efficient and cost-effective alternative when higher velocities are required or where extreme moisture. they can be run with the air-conditioning thermostat set 10 degrees to 15 degrees warmer for equivalent cooling effect (See Chart For 24 Foot Diameter 2 Hp 6 Blade Fan on page 1). such as welding and fabrication. HVLS fans provide superior benefits in many situations: â€¢ For hot months in facilities without air conditioning. For instance. cool air distribution costs will consequently be reduced.Continuing Education Center http://ce. exist in. And while the cross-sectional area varies with the square of the diameter. less â€˜drag. A 24-ft fan produces a floor jet 108 inches deep.Under moderate heat conditions.
5 to 1 degree (SaÃ¯d.S. for each degree the thermostat setting can be lowered. Winter Destratification HVLS fans help to destratify heat levels in winter. McDonald. Unfortunately. Department of Energy. â€¢ Thermostats are effectively lowered and heating costs reduced.com/article_print. A space with a 25-ft ceiling could have a variance of 12 to 25 degrees from ceiling to floor. â€¢ Virtually eliminates the pool of overheated air above the heaters. more air is drawn in from the sides of the fan than the top. â€¢ Provides adequate ventilation while requiring less heated air to be replaced with cold air from outside. On the other hand. In most commercial and industrial buildings heaters are mounted overhead so as to not interfere with working space. pushing it to the walls and down to the floor. 6 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM .doe.Continuing Education Center http://ce. the cost of the industrial fans may be completely offset by the elimination of expensive ducting and the reduction in required air-conditioning capacity.gov /emeu/consumptionbriefs/recs/thermostat_settings/thermostat. â€¢ Quiet and non-disruptive operation. â€¢ In new construction. Image courtesy MacroAir Technologies Following are some of the benefits of HVLS fans for heating: â€¢ More effective and energy efficient than the high-speed fans that are typically used to draw warm air down from high-mounted heaters.especially important in buildings where people are working at different elevations.construction.php?L=193&C=635 â€¢ In new construction.especially important when employees are working at different levels within a generally open structure. Heating Cutting heating costs with HVLS fans. an HVLS fan run in reverse clears warm air off the ceiling. and Durrant). this results in a heat gradient differential or heat stratification of 10 degrees F to 35 degrees F from the floor to the ceiling depending on the height of the ceiling. â€¢ Mixes air to eliminate hot and cold spots on the floor as well as overall stratification .McGraw-Hill Construction . HVAC tonnage. the cost of HVLS commercial fans may be completely offset by elimination of ducting.html). and auxiliary system fans. which provides a more even distribution of heat from top to bottom . According to the U. temperatures rise . leaving some warm air undisturbed close to the ceiling.eia. thus reducing heat loss through roof vents and skylights and increasing heater efficiency. While running an HVLS fan in forward mode will draw heated air down. a three percent reduction in fuel consumption can be achieved (http://www. For every foot of ceiling height.
but it's the devil in the details. usually expressed in cubic feet per minute. and use a formula to convert that number to CFM. or force the fan produces as a reaction to the air it is moving. converted CFM value. Some HVLS manufacturers have hired AMCA to test their fans' performance and certify those 12 feet in diameter and below. which increases surface tension and makes the surface less 7 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . and AMCA's testing facility lacks a large enough room to certify fans larger than 12 feet in diameter. There's a lot more going on than meets the eye. Recent developments have been made to reduce the number of blades (to six. You'd think something as basic as a fan would be simple. it is important to consider how much effort a manufacturer has made to ensure that their numbers are accurate. sometimes widely. FAN DESIGN Compared with helicopters and airplanes. so less incoming air is required to produce the correct number of air exchanges in any given building. across the ceiling. They have built equipment especially for measuring the thrust of large HVLS fans. and out through the fan.construction. As Jeff Johnson. cutting exhaust fan power consumption accordingly. Applications Engineer at MacroAir Technologies and former race car builder. This metric is generally referred to as CFM for the sake of convenience and consistency. Measuring the CFM of a very large-diameter fan is challenging because of its sheer size and the low pressures created by HVLS fans. must be installed between the fan and its mounting point on a structure.com/article_print. typically up the wall. fresh air tends to travel from the inlet opening (door. But between air and electricity and electronics they have come up with real surprises. says. EMI compliancy. following ANSI's testing guidelines. a non-profit international association of air system equipment manufacturers. for example) and improve their design." CFM rating. The accepted method of obtaining this performance measurement is to measure the thrust. One such redesigned airfoil blade has all the properties and attributes of the original design with the addition of an anodized finish.thus reducing heating or air-conditioning costs. Since HVLS fans continually mix the air in a space. an apparatus that measures force. When evaluating HVLS fan performance. CFM ratings The amount of air that passes through the swept area of a fan is measured as a volume of air over a period of time. air is considered a fluid). in some cases eliminating them altogether. As most manufacturers build their own testing equipment. This reduced volume requirement: â€¢ Reduces the number of high-speed exhaust fans needed. AMCA. This means that most of the air that is exhausted from the building is the fresh air that has just been drawn in instead of the stale air that was supposed to be exhausted.Continuing Education Center http://ce. I thought it would be boring. Some use measured thrust value. Airfoil blade design The original HVLS fans had ten blades manufactured from extruded aluminum. (ASHRAE Standard 62) â€¢Reduces the loss of heated or cooled air since less "virgin" air must be drawn in from outside .php?L=193&C=635 Ventilation Due to the Coanda effect. their results can vary. ceiling fans arouse little curiosity as to what makes them work. larger fans cannot be certified because to meet ANSI requirements. airfoil blade design. including HVLS fans. Yet they follow the same complex principles of aerodynamics and must be constructed in such a way that they are both efficient and do not negatively interfere with other environmental fields. and/or AMCA certified values when listing their fans' airflow. In order to measure thrust. window or vent) to the exhaust fan along the path of least resistance. (PDF). Unfortunately. Different manufacturers describe the performance of their fans in different ways. or CFM. such certification would require a room whose length and width would each be twice the diameter of the fan.McGraw-Hill Construction . "When I took a job to work on fans. stale air gets mixed with the incoming fresh air and exhausted. Design professionals should be acquainted with them when evaluating HVLS fans. Air Performance Certified Ratings Click on image to see details. which is the tendency of a fluid jet to be attracted to a nearby surface (in physics. and solidity ratios are some of those details. Others do not describe how their fans' performance is measured. measures and certifies the performance of all types of air moving equipment.
any interference could have serious repercussions.pdf). The NFPA provides very specific guidelines regarding potential fire sprinkler obstructions. â€˜Solidity ratio' refers to the obstruction potential of the rotor disc and is determined by the total area of the blades and the width of the blades plus the size of the solid hub section (the â€˜solid' component of the rotor disc) compared with the total area of the rotor disc. The best solution is to use fans from manufacturers who have taken these steps for the customer.McGraw-Hill Construction . These steps include using an input filter on the controller. Typically.where blade and hub are indistinguishable. so design professionals should check with manufacturers to learn the solidity ratios for particular models (NFPA research is available atÂ www. In general. Solidity Ratio From an engineer's perspective.com/article_print. While research and testing are currently being conducted to determine if these rules need to be changed. design 8 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . For ease of maintenance and replacement. It also has a much longer chord length that yields more air flow and higher mechanical efficiencies. making their standard package compliant. and doing so can risk losing the warranty due to controller modification. Paying extra for optional equipment drives up the price of the fan. FAN CONSTRUCTION Typical 10-blade one-piece cast aluminum hub (left). (The â€˜chord' is a line that touches the circumference of an imaginary circle drawn around the profile of a fan blade in its installed position at two points. including moving HVLS fans. so design professionals should be aware of the potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI) from HVLS fans.org/assets/files //PDF/Research/HVLS.) EMI and RFI compliancy Example of hollow extruded aluminum airfoil blade used in recent HVLS models has a longer chord length than earlier models.construction. Image courtesy of MacroAir Technologies Just as electromagnetic energy radiated by laptops and personal digital devices might interfere with an airliner's avionics.nfpa. The solidity ratio of a fan is a major component of the NFPA guidelines. New model 6-Blade Hybrid Hub (right) Image courtesy of MacroAir Technologies Motors. and adding non-standard equipment can also increase installation costs. If a fan has fewer blades and/or the blades are narrow extrusions. Because virtually all facilities rely on some level of computerization. since fans with lower solidity ratios offer less potential sprinkler obstruction. they have the potential for disrupting any or all electronic systems within a building.known as a â€˜rotor disc' . and reducing the length of the cable run between the controller and the fan (which also increases the life of the fan's motor and gearbox). They appear as a disc .php?L=193&C=635 porous and therefore resistant to corrosion. design professionals should ask manufacturers if their fans as sold are compliant with worldwide RFI and EMI standards and FCC part #15 legislation or whether optional additional equipment is needed to achieve compliancy. therefore. its solidity ratio is lower. fans are viewed in plan and in motion. using shielded motor cable between the controller and the fan.Continuing Education Center http://ce. Published solidity ratios varyÂ from approximately 30 percent to 70 percent. HVLS fans are powered by 1HP to 2 HP insulated motors. they will no doubt continue to be an important consideration when selecting fans. Unless several steps are taken to reduce the EMI or RFI produced by a fan's controller and motor. With this in mind. Retrofitting a non-compliant installation can be difficult and costly. The longest chord length is from the leading edge of the blade to the trailing edge of the blade and represents the surface that moves air. its solidity ratio is higher. if the fan has more blades and/or its blades are wide. they are preferred to fans with higher solidity ratios.
bolt-on blade struts made from extruded aluminum to allow for easy installation and replacement of a damaged blade. parts are easier (therefore cheaper) to replace and cost less if replacement is required after the warranty period expires.php?L=193&C=635 professionals should consider manufacturers who use only over-the-counter gearboxes and motors and non-custom frames. however. Mounting options for each of these should be available at little to no added cost. Example of a free floating mount for an HVLS fan. HVLS fan manufacturers offer warranties that vary from 3 to 12 years for service life. or an oversized beam. hubs. a second yoke that bolts to the fan's motor frame. Most manufacturers offer custom colors and finishes for most components. and can be adapted for beams of various sizes and construction. in place of "winglets".construction. Design professionals should also ask about materials and methods used in constructing such parts as motor frames and mount components. Some hub designs allow the blades to be easily turned over in order to blow air upward. In addition. and safety systems. When a fan is manufactured using standard motor and gearbox components. It is important to be sure that any mounting system include safety cables and guy wires that are easy to install and strong enough to support the hanging weight of the fan.com/article_print. bushings. allowing the fan to be reversed more efficiently. This type of mount is vibration resistant. they should ask how extensively a manufacturer works with its suppliers to ensure that components are perfectly matched for each model. bushings. length of warranty is a useful measure for design professionals. 9 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . glued laminated timber construction. It is also important to specify a mounting system that does not transmit vibration to the building structure. Some manufacturers also offer a lifetime warranty on items such as motor frames.McGraw-Hill Construction . Hubs. Sizes and finishes.Continuing Education Center http://ce. standard forward and reverse modes for use in both hot and cold weather helps maximize the customer's ROI. including faux wood finishes and color anodizing. One company uses an innovative hybrid hub with a cast aluminum body and. can be mounted at nearly any angle. and a post or universal joint to attach the two together. Reliability and durability. A typical HVLS fan hub is a one-piece cast aluminum unit with integral "winglets" to hold the blades. and safety systems. Some issues that often arise when placing HVLS fans into various kinds of structures include attaching the fan to either an angled beam. New designs are emerging. Finally. Image courtesy of MacroAir Technologies Mounting system. Standard fan sizes start at 8-ft and go to 24-ft in 2-ft increments. these include a yoke that attaches to the beam in some fashion. Typical mounting systems for HVLS fans consist of several pieces. In general. Always an indication of the reliability and durability of any product.Â hubs. as these can also vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Some areas have special utility incentives that may be available after installing energy-efficient HVLS fans. â€¢ Allowance for fan clearance: 3 ft but 5 ft is optimal â€¢ Allowance for blade clearance: 15% of fan diameter or more â€¢ Power source: 208-230 single or three phase. Their cooling and destratification effects can improve employee comfort in all kinds of seasons while reducing the need for heating or air conditioning. manufacturing. especially in colder regions. and production In these types of facilities. For a 100. Installation basics â€¢ HVLS fans are best suited where ceilings are at least 15 ft high. government buildings. assembly. Yet HVLS fans have multiple applications.plus the capability to interface with most building management systems. facility. The slow moving air they produce provides these other benefits without the detriment of disturbing papers and settled dust and particulate debris. ft. with the result that milk production slows or ceases).php?L=193&C=635 Components of a typical six-blade HVLS fan Image courtesy of MacroAir Technologies APPLICATIONS Boyd's original challenge was to help create an efficient system to cool dairy cattle in California (dairy cattle stop eating when they suffer from heat stress. 10 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM .construction. typically five to ten fans will provide optimal airflow and coverage. HVLS fans offer several benefits. 480 volt three phase The solar fan does not need line power or grid power. including cooling in commercial. reducing the load on air handling equipment.Continuing Education Center http://ce. they contribute energy savings. schools.000 sq. and innumerable one-of-a-kind spaces . Their ability to effectively circulate air provides efficient removal of light airborne contaminants such as smoke. When used with traditional heating systems. Most manufacturers have engineers on staff who will estimate fan needs according to the requirements of individual facilities. and distribution facilities.com/article_print.McGraw-Hill Construction . (See chart "Typical Fan Diameters and Specifications" on page 9) Manufacturing.
conservative facility design criteria and a ceiling height of 20-ft).Continuing Education Center http://ce.500 per fan and an annual interest rate of 6 percent.30 per 1000 cu ft).php?L=193&C=635 Heat savings is based on ASHRAE data (city-specific heating degree days. current natural gas cost estimates per BTU ($11.000 sq ft of facility may vary. Actual installed fan costs per 20. Return on investment (ROI) and net present value (NPV) assumes an installed cost of $5.com/article_print.construction. No energy cost increase over five years is assumed.McGraw-Hill Construction . Image courtesy of MacroAir Technologies 11 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM .
HVLS fans destratify the air. In high stakes horse barns and other animal environments deficient cooling and ventilation can negatively impact performance. In commercial dairy barns.McGraw-Hill Construction . Birds also react to large slow moving fan blades and stay outside. Solar-powered HVLS fans can continue to operate during power outages or intentional shutdowns. Beverly Hills. resulting in significant increases in milk production. They also help circulate the air over and through product racks. for example.php?L=193&C=635 Six-blade 14-ft HVLS fan cooling the service center at Mercedes Benz of Beverly Hills. heating. obstructive machinery.construction. ever-changing environments requiring open doors.Continuing Education Center http://ce. reducing the chance of the product warming to unsatisfactory levels. and almost constant movement. improving the effectiveness of the cooling units. HVLS fans can help by providing ventilation in areas that are far from side walls or hemmed in by equipment. In cooler months. cooling. In addition. HVLS fans can reduce the tonnage requirements for HVAC systems in these spaces because they do what they were designed to do: circulate air effectively and efficiently and provide a cooling effect in the process. increasing comfort 12 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . forcing cooling units to do extra work. auditoriums. Cold rooms Cold rooms present their own unique challenges. and proper ventilation are often challenging undertakings. lower temperatures reduce spoilage and encourage flying insects to stay away or keep on the ground. Image courtesy of MacroAir Technologies Distribution and warehousing In these large. HVLS fans redistribute warmer air generated by animals. often supplemented with small high-speed fans. allowing the cooling units to do less work. they can be positioned to provide ventilation for people working inside trailers and containers without creating an uncomfortable windy sensation. and sports complexes.com/article_print. Agricultural applications such as horse and dairy barns High temperatures have an adverse affect on both workers and animals. In addition. repeated studies have found that HVLS barn fans lower temperatures by 6-8 degrees F. This is usually achieved by installing substantial air-conditioning and heating systems. customers must be kept comfortable. Commercial facilities From big box retailers and shopping malls to auto dealerships. They can circulate air from air conditioning or heating systems to hard-to-reach or reconfigurable spaces without requiring extensive ducting systems. Temperatures stratify in these rooms just as in other areas. CA.
design professionals should take into account not only the amount of air moved or maximum effective area. production. manufacturers of High Volume/Low Speed fans offer a viable option for architects and designers seeking sustainable design. Durrant. Most manufacturers are happy to work with architects and engineers to develop custom solutions for all sorts of situations.A. Comprehensive summary "Report on Measurement of the Air Velocities from Industrial Ceiling Mounted. When specifying HVLS fans. HVLS fans contribute to LEED® certification and building system economies in many building types including manufacturing. SaÃ¯d.McGraw-Hill Construction .C. 2001. CONCLUSION By employing the physics that explain the effectiveness of a centuries-old method of cooling. 6/23/09 Schirmer Engineering. they provide an efficient. March 20. ASHRAE Standard 62. commercial and numerous one of a kind spaces such as churches and gymnasiums.com/article_print. MacDonald. and G.A. References ASHRAE. and Floor Mounted Fans for HVLS Fan Company. As a standalone cooling system or in conjunction with HVAC. Memo to Tom Helms. R. HVLS fans allow designers to think outside the box because they can be adapted to many different environments. MacroAir Technologies. San Bernardino. Phillip.php?L=193&C=635 for both animals and workers without requiring a significant investment in expensive heating equipment." Marietta. Animal Sciences Dept.. Yielding documented cost savings. Abstract-21st Annual Dairy Day. but also details such as mounting system safety and usability. Measurement of Thermal Stratification in Large Single-Cell Buildings Santolucito. One-of-a-kind spaces HVLS fans have been used in a wide variety of unique spaces. and warranted service and component life. HVLS Fans and Sprinkler Operation Phase 1 Research Program: Final Report Shultz. Tom. 2002. EMI/RFI compliancy. UC Davis: Electric Power Saving Options for Cow Cooling Â 13 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . CA. warehousing. GA. from churches to fitness centers.Continuing Education Center http://ce. M.construction. cost-effective solution to cooling and heating large open spaces that enhances the comfort and productivity of occupants.N.
and agricultural/farm buildings.macro-air.Continuing Education Center http://ce. and a family-owned company since its inception in 1995.McGraw-Hill Construction . MacroAir combines technology with a unique application of the laws of physics to produce air-circulating fans for use in large industrial.php?L=193&C=635 Founded by Walter Boyd.com/article_print. the inventor of HVLS commercial fan technology.com Originally published in the December 2009 issue of Architectural Record 14 of 14 7/5/2011 7:23 AM . For more information about MacroAir Technologies visit: Â www. commercial.construction.
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