S. F. Stiemer
Table of Content
DESIGN OF COMPOSITE DECKS
1.0 Introduction............................................................................................. 2 2.0 Influence of the Construction Method .................................................... 2 3.0 Effective Area of Concrete ..................................................................... 3 4.0 Strength Calculation................................................................................ 3 5.0 Shear Connectors .................................................................................... 5 6.0 Deflection................................................................................................ 7 7.0 Longitudinal Planes Shear Strength ........................................................ 9 Appendix A................................................................................................. 12 Appendix B................................................................................................. 16
Composite Deck Design
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The composite cross-section is only available to carry all subsequently imposed loads after the concrete has fully hardened. This reduction in steel weight. Although a composite crosssection has lots of benefits. interconnected with either a reinforced concrete slab or a steel deck with a concrete cover slab”. the added dead load of the concrete around the beam is considerable. The steel section alone must carry the loads imposed at this moment. the hardened concrete will tend to creep under the sustained action of long-term loads. the composite sections react to load differently. Although fireproofing of the steel is taken into consideration. Therefore. not only directly saves cost. Except for lightly loaded or short spans. According to the Handbook of Steel Construction “composite designs consist of steel sections. or joists. As load applies.Composite Design
S. For other detail definitions about composite section. 130mm deep channels are usually used. 75. Rapid Installation can be done either in shop or in field. This also causes major savings in a multi-storey building. The beams and the slabs deflect together and the concrete slabs are usually adjacent to the compression side of the beam cross-section. but also reduces the overall depth of the beam and the slab.01 (buildings) or S6-00 (bridges)). 3) Steel beam is completely encased in concrete and the load transfers would be attained by bond between these two elements. The stresses due to these loads are thereby increased over their nominal value. a structurally and economically advantageous system might be accomplished. Three methods are commonly used to attain composite action. In the following issues of S16. However.doc
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. Studs range in diameter from 14 to 22 mm and normally are about 75 mm long. Two construction methods are usually applied: 1) Steel beams are shored (supported at close intervals) during the pouring of slab and the shores remain in place until the concrete has attained a reasonable amount of its 28-day strength (usually 75%). trusses. while S6-00 being rather similar may deviate in some details. Stiemer
1. A welding “gun” is used to hold the stud in position and make a weld at its contact with the beam simultaneously. Adequate cover must be provided between the top of the channel and the slab surface. the saving provided by the reduction in beam size is usually greater than the cost of the necessary connectors. total load is assumed to be
composite_deck_design. Assuming that adequate interconnections are provided between the concrete slab and the steel beam. F. Deflections of a composite system will also be reduced under superimposed load. The principle force that must be transferred is the horizontal shear at the interface of the slab and the beam if they are acting as a unit.0 Introduction
Buildings and bridges frequently use concrete slabs supported by steel beams. or a low-rise building. 100. it is obvious that the composite system results advantages especially when heavy loads and long spans are involved. This is a composite cross-section. They are also the most commonly used type of shear connectors. Tests have shown that the ultimate load that can be carried by a given cross-section is independent of the method of construction. 2) Attachment of welded studs to the beam flange.0 Influence of the Construction Method
With different construction method. regardless of differences in the two construction methods that have previously been discussed. This arrangement is seldom used in modern building construction. 1) Connectors are imbedded in the concrete as the slab is poured and will bear against the hardened concrete when loads are applied. 2) Forms carrying wet concrete are supported directly by steel beam (unshored construction). additional cost of providing connection between the slab and the beam arises.
2. The overload capacity of a composite system is better than that of a non-composite system of the same size because the former system is stiffer. Slabs transfer floor and deck loads to steel beams and these beams bear the entire structure loading. both the steel beam and the concrete slab act together to carry the load so that the size of the required steel beam will be less than that for the non-composite section. refer to the standards (at the time of this writing: CAN/CSA S16.01 are being treated. Then the composite section is available to carry all loads upon removal of the shores. Attaching connectors to the top flange of the steel beam allows this
transfer of force. If these two elements could act together with mechanical connection to resist bending.
b not greater than the width of the top flange of the steel section or top chord of the steel joist or truss plus the lesser of i) 0. or ii) the average distance from the center of the steel section.25 times the composite beam span.11 states that the stresses in the tension flange of the steel section are not to exceed the yield strength of steel Fy. Based on these considerations and results of tests. the shape of the moment diagram.4 are presented as follows: a) For slabs or cover slabs extending on both sides of the steel section or joist shall be deemed to have a design effective width. The requirements for buildings as given in the Handbook (CAN/CSA S16. the area of the concrete slab must be transformed into an equivalent area of steel in the ratio of the moduli of elasticity of the two materials. It is customary to apply the reduction to the slab width. and Poisson’s ratio for the material.0 Effective Area of Concrete
The area of slab that may be considered tributary to each beam must be established for strength calculation.doc
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. F. and is also known that the effective slab widths at ultimate are less than those described above for the interior beams case and greater for the exterior beams case. this is a function of the span length. truss. truss. However.0 Strength Calculation
Deflection of a member acting under working loads. The loads to be considered are those applied both prior to hardening of the concrete and those applied after.
4. This is a serviceability problem. of the steel section alone St = elastic section modulus. which is a condition that will influence deflections. rather than to its thickness or to some proportion of each. the above rules for effective slab width based on elastic analysis are still valid. The following equation expressed the above relationship:
3. shear and flexural capacities are calculated to evaluate the strength of a beam
M1 M 2 + ≤ Fy Ss St
(2. specified loads are considered in analysis. referred to the bottom flange. the adequacy of the steel section under the dead load of the wet concrete in addition to formwork must be checked. Clause 17. Although the elastic design rules can underestimate the effective slab width for an interior beam by a large margin (up to 20%). or ii) 0. It is the best to describe the strength of a composite section using its ultimate capacity. rules have evolved to provide a sufficiently accurate judgment. Stiemer
applied to the composite section. b. Theoretically.1)
where M1 = moment caused by the specified loads that act on the member PRIOR to attainment of 75 % of the required concrete strength M2 = moment caused by the specified loads that act on the member SUBSEQUENT to attainment of 75% of the required concrete strength Ss = elastic section modulus. prior to hardening of the concrete. referred to the bottom flange. These rules are applicable to calculate the strength of a composite section on an elastic stress basis. This modular ratio
Es is usually prescribed in the Ec
applicable building code.1-94). Clause 17. or joist and the adjacent parallel support. the effect on the moment capacity is relatively small (up to 4%).Composite Design
S. Therefore. In order to prevent the bottom flange of an unshored steel beam during construction from yielding under the specified loads.1 times the composite beam span. therefore.5 times the clear distance between the steel section. equal to the lesser of i) 0. or joist to the centers of adjacent parallel supports b) For slabs or cover slabs extending on one side only of the supporting section or joist shall be deemed to have a design effective width. of the composite steel-concrete section To calculate the section modulus of the composite section St.
made of only one material. where f’c is the 28-day compressive strength.1:
From the above equation. It is convenient to use tensile force represents the horizontal shear force.1) Vr = φ * AW * FS where AW = shear area (d*w) for rolled steel shapes in mm2 FS = 0. an equilibrium equation for horizontal forces can be written as follows:
0.1: (4. or the total tensile force. a designer must ensure that these two components act as a single unit.4.1.85 * φc * f ' c * b * a = φ * As * Fy a=
The flexural capacity of a composite beam is evaluated based on that the concrete does not resist tension. Tr.1 Neutral axis falls within the concrete slab The stress conditions for a cross-section in which the neutral axis lies in the slab are shown in Figure 4. In the case of steel beams.1. In addition. As shown in the Clause 13. to be transferred as described in Clause 17.1. These requirements also apply to the composite section.0.9. the unknown value a can be solved:
φ * As * Fy 0. The total force can be defined by either the total compressive force.3) It is obtained by summing moments about the location of the resultant compressive force in the slab.66 FY (except for deep members) in MPa φ = resistance factor
d = depth of steel section in mm e’ = lever arm between the compressive and the tensile forces in mm C’r = total compressive force in kN Tr = total tensile force in kN In accordance with the ultimate strength evaluation of concrete. and cross sectional dimensions t and d. See Example 1 in Appendix A for sample calculation. The lever arm between the compressive and the tensile forces can be calculated by the known value a.5: (4.
composite_deck_design. it is assumed that the beam web carried all of the vertical shear force.9.4) Vh = φ * AS * FY
If the neutral axis lies in the slab. Composite Cross Section with Neutral Axis in Slab where φc = resistance factor for concrete. either one can be used. 4. More detail design of shear connectors will be discussed in Section 5. and the principles of strength calculation are based on a steel beam and a solid concrete slab.1. Two cases will be considered: neutral axis falls within the concrete slab and neutral axis falls within the steel section.doc
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. the ultimate moment resistance can be evaluated as in Clause 17.1. The corresponding compressive force is: C ' r = 0. which is taken to be 0.3(a): Mrc = φ * As * Fy * e' (4. F.85 * φc * f ' c * b * a (4.1.6 b = effective slab width in mm a = depth of concrete in compression zone in mm t = thickness of concrete slab in mm
This factored shear force should be smaller than the factored resistance of the shear connectors to ensure that the system is valid. and the same approach is applied to composite beams. Vh. the ultimate compressive stress in the concrete is taken as 0. Since they are equal.85 * φc * f ' c * b
(4. C’r.85 f’c. Shear connectors must transfer the total force at the interface of the concrete slab and the steel section.Composite Design
S. This is determined by trial to determine which case is applied.1) Calling the cross sectional area of the steel As.
See Example 2 in Appendix A for sample calculation. as described in Clause 17.4)
Taking the moments of forces about the centroid of the tensile force. C’r. can be solved by equations 4.1 Full Shear Connection For end-welded stud with a height to diameter ratio of at least four.2:
Cr = Cr =
φ * As * Fy − C ' r
(4. Therefore.Composite Design
Substituting equation 4.5: Vh = 0. in newtons per stud. 5. the full depth of the concrete slab is in compression and the steel section is fully yielded in compression above the neutral axis and fully yielded in tension below the neutral axis.3(b): Mrc = Cr * e + C ' r * e' (4. is the less of the followings:
qrs = 0. 4.2:
The value of the compressive force in steel. In most commonly encountered situations.1 for C’r with a = t:
φ * As * Fy − 0.1.doc
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.1 specifies a factored shear resistance qrs.2.9.1) (5. the location of the neutral axis can be obtained: Tr = C r + C ' r (4.2.
5.2 Neutral Axis in the Steel Section If the neutral axis lies in the steel section. F.2.2.5) It is implicit that the steel section must accommodate plastic strains in both tension and compression whenever the neutral axis lies in the steel section. This condition is shown in Figure 4.0 Shear Connectors
The strength of shear connectors can be established from tests in order to ensure that the shear connectors are able to transmit the forces at the slab-steel section interface.6)
Figure 4. Class 1 or Class 2 section must be chosen in order to be capable of developing plastic moment capacity. total forces transfer by shear connectors can be described using the compressive force above the interface.5 * φsc * Asc * qrs = φsc * Asc * Fu
f ' c * Ec
(5. Cr. the other alternative has to be examined.85 * φc * b * t * f ' c (4.85 * φc * f ' c * b * t
(4. When neutral axis locates in the steel section.7. the assumption that the neutral axis lies in the slab is wrong.2. values based on test results are given in the Standard. Stiemer
If the calculated a is not equal to or less than the slab thickness t.1. and 4.2.9. the flexural resistance can be evaluated as in Clause 184.108.40.206)
composite_deck_design. Clause 17.2.1) Another expression for the tensile force can be written: Tr = φ * As * Fy − Cr (4. Composite Cross Section with Neutral Axis in Steel Section where Cr = the compressive force in the steel section above the neutral axis C’r = the compressive force in the concrete in kN Tr = tensile force in the steel section below the neutral axis in kN e’ = lever arm between C’r and Tr in mm e = lever arm between Cr and Tr in mm Considering equilibrium of the horizontal forces.1.1.2.
If neutral axis is assumed in the slab. by the definition of partial shear connection.2.7. this will be beneficial for a heavy loaded span only. which are less frequently used. See Example 3 & 4 in Appendix A for sample calculation.1. Connectors can be uniformly distributed between the point of maximum moment and an adjacent zero moment location.1. When design is controlled by deflections. refer to Clause 220.127.116.11 or equation 5. Therefore. the number of shear connectors must be at least 40% of that needed for full composite action to ensure that the member will behave compositely throughout its full loading history.1. equation 4.16. all composite construction in buildings in Canada is done on the basis of partial shear connection. the force to be transferred (i. for commonly available studs is 415 MPa Asc = cross-sectional area in mm2 per stud Ec = Modulus of elasticity of concrete in MPa φcs = factor of resistance for studs.4 and equation 4.e. On the other hand. F. there is no advantage in providing all the shear connectors for full shear transfer.1. If design is controlled by deflection. and in ribbed slabs with ribs perpendicular to the beam. the actual force transferred is less than that found in
composite_deck_design. This allows higher utilization of the concrete and the steel section. 5.1. it is required that if flexural strength controls the design. the shear force transferred if full composite action were present would be Vh = φ * As * Fy as evaluated in equation 4. Stiemer
where Fu = tensile strength of the stud material in MPa.2. However. it might be simply more economical to reduce the number of shear connectors from 100% of the required amount for full shear transfer and to accept the drawback of a reduced flexural capacity.3 for detail respectively.2 and 17.4.Composite Design
S.1.2. In Clause 17.1 is mainly based on test results and is applicable to studs that are fully embedded in solid slabs of normal or lightweight concrete. refer to Clause 17.2 is an expression for the tensile capacity of the stud.1. The total factored resistances of all shear connectors between points of maximum and zero moment (Qr) is given:
Qr = ∑ qr
(5. The flexibility of the shear connectors permits the usage of uniform spacing.2 Partial Shear Connection In reality. The steel weight would likely be less but additional cost in attaching the
coverplate is involved.3 for more information.1)
qr = capacity of an individual connector as calculated by equation 5.1. Refer to Clause 17. the amount of shear force transferred will be less than 100%.9. Since the same tests showed that failure of the stud itself occurred only after considerable bending of the stud. equation 5.e.1-94. As stated in CAN/CSA-S. full shear connection is either not necessary or not economical.4. i.2) are evaluated. The number of shear connectors supplied will be the force actually transferred at the slab-steel section interface. Practically. This represents the stud capacity as achieved when the concrete adjacent to the stud fails by crushing. For factored shear resistance for end-welded studs in ribbed slabs with ribs parallel to the beam. which is usually taken to be 0. the degree of shear transfer is permitted to be as low as 25%.9.6) and the aforesaid resistance per connector (i. It can be the case that a shear transfer of about 50% is able to produce ultimate flexural capacities of approximate 80% of the corresponding to full composite action.8 Equation 5. The neutral axis can be brought down below the level of the slab by attaching a coverplate on the bottom flange of the steel beam.1 and equation 5. See Example 5 in Appendix A for sample calculation. certain restrictions are applied on the number of shear connectors when concentrated loads are present.doc
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.2.8 for applied restrictions. For factored shear resistance for channel connectors.e. To determine the required number of shear connectors. equation 5.
Figure 5. Under this circumstance. Partial shear connection should be recognized if it is present.4. The moment of inertia of the composite section should be used to calculate the deflections due to short-term live loads applied after the concrete has hardened.85 * φc * f ' c * b
(5. This effect is taken into consideration in Clause 17.3.85 * φc * f ' c * b * a (5.
Then the location of the neutral axis within the steel section can be determined such that equilibrium of horizontal forces is satisfied.4)
This is also equal to:
Ie = Is + 0.25 * (It − Is)
Recall that the expression for Cr is:
φ * As * Fy − C ' r
[4. An adjustment will apply even for the case of full shear transfer.3) The depth of concrete slab required to accommodate the shear force actually transferred can be obtained by equating equation 5. This is further complicated if a slab is continuous over beam-to-girder connections and around columns.1(a): (6. the continuity will reduce deflections as compared to the system that is truly simple connections. effects of increased flexibility caused by partial shear connection and from interface slip. However. and effects of creep due to specified load. will affect the deflections of a composite beam. and equation 5.1(b) suggested that these deflections be calculated as
C' r = Qr = ∑ qr
(5. and the resisting moment is: Mrc = Cr * e + C ' r * e' [18.104.22.168 for full shear connection) It = transformed moment of inertia of composite section Is = moment of inertia of steel section alone. the moment arms e between Cr and Tr .2.doc
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.2.2. The resulting stress block model is shown in Figure 5. Stiemer
equation 4. Clause 17.3. That means for all cases of shear transfer less than 100%.2. F.2. Plastic flow (creep) in concrete will be produced due to dead load and long-term live loads.1
See Example 6 in Appendix A for sample calculation.2. and this becomes: a= Qr 0.0 Deflection
Shrinkage of concrete.85 * (p) 0. The modular ratio n is used to transform the concrete into an equivalent amount of steel. This reflects the observation that the inherent (and desirable) flexibility of the shear connectors will increase beam deflections over those calculated using elastic beam theory. Once the neutral axis location is found.2)
C ' r = 0.Composite Design
composite_deck_design.1) where Ie = effective moment of inertia p = fraction of full shear connection (p = 1. and e’ between C’r and Tr can be calculated. the location of the neutral axis must lie within the steel section. Connection
The compressive force in the concrete is given by:
Calculation of composite beam deflections should start with an identification of those that result from the loads that are applied before composite action is attained.3. only the steel beam alone is effective. In order to take this into consideration. and not in the slab.
as tensile strain due to the reducing volumetric change increases. the actual deflection would be much less than the calculated deflection. i. F. See Example 7 in Appendix A for sample calculation.2) and σ c = Ect * ε f (6. However. Again. It is unattractive to have a slab that is either “bowed” upward or “sag” downward. by adjustments in slab thickness. and the resulting deflection can be a significant part of the total deflection of the composite system. requires curvatures to be taken place. Appendix L of Standard suggests that
ε f = 800*10−6 is
used for free shrinkage strain if no better data is provided. which is a time-dependent value Ac = effective area of the concrete slab This force acts at the centroid of the concrete slab and this produces a moment about the elastic neutral axis of the cross-section: M = F * y = Ect * ε f * Ac * y (6. the shrinkage deflection induced by this tensile strain is not time sensitive to the modulus of elasticity: both the effective moment of inertia and the distance y vary with modulus of elasticity. Since deflections are usually accommodated. The induced force in the concrete as a result of the slab shrinkage: F = σ c * Ac (6. This is because the deflection due to creep is usually a small part of the total deflection of a composite system. such as water/cement ratio.4) where where y = distance from the centroid of effective area of concrete slab to the elastic neutral axis
In Standard Appendix L suggests that the appropriate values for the modular ratio nt for composite design are in the range 40-60.doc
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.4. entrained air. and this assumption gives reasonable result. 2) the concrete slab in the composite system will likely to be continuous over all beam-to-girder regions and around the columns. or by shoring of the steel beam at the time of placing of the concrete. Appendix L of Standard provides guidance on appropriate values to be used.6)
composite_deck_design. The selected value for the free shrinkage stain depends on properties of the concrete. which is based on the assumption of simple connections.e. the continuity of the two-part system.5 is obtained using area-moment principles. a reduction based on experience or judgment should be applied to the calculated deflections. and curing conditions. it is important to try to estimate the effects of structural continuity by cambering.Composite Design
though they were elastic and then a 15% increase is applied. the modulus decreases. percent fines. Proper value should be used for free shrinkage strain and effective modulus of concrete in tension. and nt for the ratio of E/Ect. As concrete in the composite section shrinks. By substituting the value of M obtained in equation 6.3. a reduction based on the application of negative end moments equal to 25% of the mid-span moment of a uniformly loaded beam will give a reasonable estimate of the
Assumed that this effect is uniform along the length of the member. its volume changes while the steel section does not change length as concrete curves.1(c) is:
εf * Ac * L2 * y
8 * nt * It
Equation 6. The modulus E is for steel and the moment of inertia will be that of the transformed section. enforced by the shear connectors. However. This assumption results an overestimate of actual deflection by a rather large amount.3) εf = free shrinkage strain Ect = effective modulus of concrete in tension. the deflection that will occur in a simply supported beam of length L is:
M * L2 8 * E * It
(6. The selected value for modulus of concrete in tension is time dependent. The resulting system will actually be much stiffer.. This is due to two major factors: 1) neither beam-to-girder nor girder or beam-to-column connections are truly simple. To make this calculation more practical. the deflection due to shrinkage of the concrete as stated in Clause 17. even though the member may have been analyzed on that basis. Thus. Designers regularly calculate deflection by assuming members are simply supported. From previous experience.
where C’r1. A hollow composite beam is shown in Figure 7. C’r2. or at the steel section to slab interface. Shear capacity of a composite system is generally reduced as compared to that of a non-composite system.1(b) shows another possible shear-out for solid slab composite beams. the longitudinal shear forces in the slab must be equal and opposite to those illustrated in Figure 7.
7. the middle section of the slab shown in Figure 7.1(a). F. The directions of the longitudinal shear forces illustrated in the figure are associated with compressive forces.1. Extra reinforcement should be placed near the top of the slab to minimize cracking due to the fact that the continuity of the slab will create negative moment region which causes concrete tends to crack at the top surface. Therefore.Composite Design
S. The horizontal surface has been taken through the shear connectors. Stiemer
continuity effect for framing that is usually found in an office building construction.0 Longitudinal Planes Shear Strength
Figure 7. Longitudinal Shear in Composite Beams Forces or stresses acting along longitudinal shear planes in the concrete should be checked. either at the neutral axis if it is within the slab. Figure 7. contribution of shear to the total deflection may be very important if the loads are high or the spans are too short.1(a). Based on this. In order to investigate the longitudinal shear in composite system thoroughly.1(c). designers should be alert to recognize situations in which the effect of shear upon the deflections is significant. C’r3 = compressive force Vu = longitudinal shear of composite beams with solid slabs and steel deck parallel to the beam In Figure 7.
composite_deck_design.1(a) is enlarged and shown in Figure 7.2.doc
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.1(a) illustrates these forces in a solid slab composite beam. total compressive force in the slab is broken down into components according to the assumed location of the longitudinal shear planes. Figure 7.
Assumed that the neutral axis will fall within the steel beam. the tendency of both local and lateral buckling is increased. It is better to neglect this contribution to have conservative design. the slab reinforcement that runs parallel to the beam and lies within the effective slab width can be considered to carry part of the negative moment. shear connectors are provided in this region and reinforcement has adequate embedment in a zone of positive moment.8 * φ * Ar * Fyr + 2. However.85* f ' c * Ac − φ * Ar * Fyr
Ac = area of concrete in compression within the region containing the shear connectors Ar = area of longitudinal reinforcing within the area Ac Fyr = specified minimum yield strength of the reinforcing steel.85 * φc * f ' c * Ac − φ * Ar * Fyr
(7. In Clause 17. research work is not available to quantify this contribution.2. adjustments should be made. it will serve to transfer load more gradually into the reinforcement than the embedment length of the bars alone. To calculate the number of shear connectors required between maximum negative moment and an adjacent zero moment location with consideration of the ultimate strength.doc
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. Therefore. The number of connectors must be obtained by considering that there must be sufficient shear connectors to produce yielding in the longitudinal slab reinforcement.e.1) (7. a conservative approach which is similar to that in positive moment region is take into account.1(b) or (c). The total ultimate shear force acting on the two longitudinal planes shown in Figure 7.9.4)
Vr = 0. Vh is calculated as: Vh = φ * Ar * Fyr (8. provided that certain conditions.7.1(a) can be expressed as:
Vu = Qu − 0.9.5 * φc * f ' c * Acv (7. F.76 * φc * Acv (7.3)
In Clause 17. are fulfilled. Theoretically. corresponding resistance for normal-weight concrete is the less of the following: Vr = 0. the horizontal shear. On the other hand. i. Additional shear resistance is provided by the steel if a metal deck is present.Composite Design
C 'r 2 = 0. and a portion of the steel beam acting in tension. In most situations. a larger portion of the beam crosssection will be in compression than that in a non-composite steel beam. shear connectors are not necessary in this region as concrete is assumed to be cracked and ineffective. Stiemer
8. the ultimate capacity can be calculated by considering the reinforcing bars.5) where Acv = total area of the two longitudinal shear planes extending from the point of maximum moment to an adjacent location of zero moment Ar = area of transverse reinforcement crossing shear planes
If the potential planes of longitudinal shear are like those shown in Figure 7.0 Behaviour under Negative Moment The concrete slab in a composite system will be subjected to tension and is regarded as ineffective when the section is under the action of a negative bending moment.1. Free Body Diagram of Longitudinal Shear For equilibrium:
Vu = Qu − C 'r 2
In equation 7. if the short portion uncracked concrete is anchored to the steel beam.1) where Ar = area of longitudinal reinforcement contained within the effective slab width Fyr = minimum specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing steel
Figure 7. while the rotation capacity is likely to be reduced.
composite_deck_design. Ultimate strength analysis can be applied to the cross-section if the above described conditions are met.9. C’r2 can be written as: where
(7. while the remainder of the steel beam acting in compression.
Permanent sheet steel forms with a modest corrugation (less than 0.2. it is assumed that the underside of the concrete has been formed with temporary plywood forms.1.0 Other Composite Floor Members As the span length in multi-storey commercial buildings is increased. specifically by the web members. F. Opening of passage of mechanical services are provided by the gaps between these short lengths of beam. For flexural strength calculation.2. i. Once composite action has been achieved. If it is placed transversely. except the effective slab thickness is to be taken as the thickness of the concrete between the top of the steel deck and the top of the slab. In Warren or modified Warren configuration. Slab reinforcement is then placed and concrete is poured. When the truss carries the loads under construction. Although composite beams and composite girders are the most frequently used steel floor framing system. Once the steel deck has been placed on the supporting beams.e. and the stub-girder system. Two other types composite floor members are developed successfully: the composite truss.Composite Design
S. studs are attached by welding through the sheet steel. These chords are subject to axial loads. as is done for unshored girders. The sidewalls and the bottom of the trough of the steel deck have kind of embossment to interlock with concrete. the number of shear connectors required in a negative moment region can be calculated. procedures are same as those for calculating vertical shear. the part between the top of the steel section and the top of the profile of the steel deck. In Clause 17. The zinc-coated sheet-steel steel deck may be placed either parallel to the steel supporting member or transversely to it. is assumed to be totally ineffective. and shears due to the Vierendeel action of the girder. one should recognize that it is common to use steel deck containing relatively large corrugations as the formwork for the concrete. Vertical shear must be taken entirely by the steel truss.9. i. The shape of the profile of the steel deck and the conditions under which the stud welding can be done are subject to limitations stated in the Standard also. In either case. it is assumed that the entire shear is carried by the web of the steel section. the overall thickness of the slab is used in the capacity calculations. 9. the steel deck itself will act compositely with the slab to transfer slab loads to the beams.
10. truss chords will consist of structural T sections or hollow structural sections. One should recognize that there is now a portion of the cross-section. For vertical shear strength calculation. However. the depth of the floor-ceiling sandwich and the necessitate passing the mechanical ducts through the girder web. Nevertheless. This is usually called hollow composite construction.25 times the slab thickness) to provide form strength are also used. it is designed that the truss acts non-compositely. usually from about 310mm to 460mm deep section. A truss provides holes through which mechanical and other underfloor utilities services can pass easily due to its configuration. a conservative simplification is used: the cross-section of steel comprising the top chord is to be neglected in the calculations as stated in Clause 17.75 * f ' c . the moment resistance of the composite truss is determined in a similar way as for a girder.0 Formed Metal Deck Throughout the discussion. minimum thickness of concrete above the top of the steel deck of 65mm is required. Stiemer
Using equation 8. refer to Appendix B. This provides for composite action between the steel deck sheet and the concrete slab as it spans from beam to beam. A stub girder is a form of truss.doc
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. fc = 0. Trusses are proved to be cost-effective for spans from about 10m to 23m. bending moments. with angle or hollow structural section web members. For review of key concept. especially a Vierendeel truss where the top chord is the deck slab and the bottom chord is a rolled steel section.
composite_deck_design. and fabrication costs are increased also. the depth of the member.e. Both the top and bottom chords are interconnected using short lengths. structural-mechanical integration system is required. they are always used to span from the central core of a building to the perimeter columns.
Note: Examples as presented may be according CSA S16.21 350W. Composite Cross-Section for Example 1. the 28day strength of the concrete is 22 MPa and the steel is G40.Composite Design
S.1 (7th edition Handbook of Steel Construction) Example 1: Neutral Axis in Concrete Slab Determine the flexural capacity. F.4. Calculate shear force to be transferred by equation 4.5 mm flange width (b_f) = 127 mm Calculate unknown “a” by equation 4. and the horizontal shear to be transferred of the cross-section (W610x174) shown below.21 350W. Steps to solve: (similar to Example 1)
composite_deck_design. shear capacity. and the horizontal shear to be transferred of the cross-section (W360x33) shown below.1.1. the 28-day strength of the concrete is 20 MPa.9 g) parameters of steel section: area (As) = 4170 mm2
Figure A2. The effective slab width has been established as 1830 mm. shear capacity.3.6 f) performance factor (φ) = 0.1. Obtain shear capacity by equation 4.1. Composite Cross-Section for Example 2. Assess moment arm “e’” Calculate flexural capacity by equation 4.doc
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. The effective slab width has been established as 2250 mm. and the steel is G40. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)
depth (d) = 349 mm web thickness (t_w) = 5. Steps to solve: 1) Identify input parameters: a) effective width (b) = 2250 mm b) thickness of slab (t) = 125 mm c) compressive strength of concrete (f’c) = 22 MPa d) yield strength of steel (Fy) = 350 MPa e) resistance factor of concrete (φc)= 0.
Example 2: Neutral Axis in the Steel Section Determine the flexural capacity.8 mm flange thickness (t_f) = 8.
The 28-day strength of concrete is 20 MPa.1.
composite_deck_design.2 or 4.4 to find the required As and locate the NA. 4) Calculate Cr by equation 4. 9) Calculate shear capacity by equation 4.Composite Design
S. Equate Cr with equation 4.2.5. ultimate tensile strength of connector is 415 MPa.
Example 3: Number of Shear Connectors Determine the capacity of a 19mm diameter studs x 75 mm long.6 mm b_f = 325 mm 2) Calculate unknown “a” by equation 22.214.171.124 f) φ = 0.1 with a = t. If it falls in flange.2. Stiemer
1) Identify input parameters: a) b = 1830 mm b) t = 150 mm c) f’c = 20 MPa d) Fy = 350 MPa e) φc = 0. NA must be found. Also. 8) Assess flexural capacity by equation 4.1. and the steel is G40. Calculation will show that the NA falls into the steel section.2. 10) Obtain the shear force to be transferred by equation 4.1 or 5. Steps to slove: 1) Identify all parameters: a) ultimate tensile strength of connector (Fu) = 415 MPa b) modulus of elasticity (Ec) = 24600 MPa c) diameter of shear studs (d_sc) = 19 mm d) resistance factor of shear connector (φsc) = 0. determine the required number of shear connectors (assume 19 mm shear studs with 75 mm long is used) and their total resistance. 7) Calculate moment arm e for Cr and moment arm e’ for C’r. determine the total capacity of the shear connectors if 20 of them are used.21 350W. 3) Determine the total capacity of shear connectors by multiplying the number of shear connectors with shear resistance of one shear connector obtained in step 2).1. F.doc
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.2. and modulus of elasticity is 24600 MPa.2. This means the concrete slab is entirely in compression 3) Calculate C’r by equation 4.1. (Assume it is a simply-supported beam) In addition. whichever is less.2 to locate the neutral axis (NA).1.
Example 4: Design of Composite member with full shear transferred Determine a suitable W-shape for the cross section as shown in the figure below. otherwise.9 g) parameters of steel section: As = 22200 mm2 d = 616 mm t_w = 14 mm t_f = 21. such that the moment capacity and shear capacity are able to resist the applied load stated as follows. Given that the 28-day strength of the concrete is 25 MPa. name it as dw. 5) In order to calculate e and e’.3. modulus of elasticity is 24600 MPa. 6) Obtain the centroid of the area below the NA by summing area moments about the bottom of the section.8 e) f’c = 25 MPa 2) Obtain the shear resistance of the shear connector by equation 5. name it as df.
and 17.065 kPa 0.8 j) dead load factor = 1.2 (i. F.4 to find the required As and locate the NA.8 mm t_f = 8. 7) Calculate the applied moment and applied shear. whichever is less. 6) Determine the tributary width of beam.1. and obtain flexural capacity by equation 4.6 e) φ = 0. 8) Compare the applied moment with the moment resistance and applied shear with shear resistance and check the validity. Stiemer
Figure A3.5. In order to calculate es and es’.095 kPa 0. 10) Obtain the shear resistance of the shear connector by equation 5. Composite Cross Section for Example 4. forms tile florring hung ceiling. otherwise.05 kPa 0. NA must be found.25 k) live load factor = 1. obtain Cr and C’r as indicated the method in step 3) and 4) in example 2.
Steps to solve: 1) Select a steel section.1. Then obtain the centroid of the area below the NA by summing area moments about the bottom of the section.g.1.1 or 5.1. Discussion in section 3. ii) If NA locates in steel section.doc
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. 5) Calculate shear capacity by equation 4.9 f) Fu = 415 MPa g) Ec = 24600 MPa h) d_sc = 19 mm i) φsc = 0.3. 11) Determine the required number of connectors and the total resistance. W360x33 2) Obtain and identify necessary parameters: a) t = 125 mm b) f’c = 20 MPa c) Fy = 350 MPa d) φc= 0. lights.0) 4) Obtain unknown “a” to check the NA location.
Loading: Dead load: 125 mm concrete slab. name it as df.1. Equate Cr with equation 4. and finally assess flexural capacity by equation 126.96.36.199.e. E. name it as dw. Calculate moment arm es for Cr and moment arm es’ for C’r.Composite Design
S. etc movable steel partitions Live load: From National Building Code
3. find moment arm ec’.19 kPa 2. 9) Obtain the shear force to be transferred by equation 4. i) If NA locates in concrete slab.2.5 mm b_f = 127 mm weight of beam (m) = 33 kg 3) Calculate the effective width of concrete by applying Clause 17.5 l) parameters of steel section: As = 4170 mm2
d = 349 mm t_w = 5. If it falls in flange.6. Beams are 9000 mm long continuous beam with 2750 mm center to center.
5) Obtain Cr and C’r as indicated the method in step 3) and 4) in example 2.
Figure A4. and 17. Steps to solve: 1) Choose a steel section. Adding another plate (cover plate) of the same width to the bottom flange can do this. otherwise. The material used in the W-shape is of G40. name it as df. Stiemer
Example 5: Design of Cover Plate A composite beam consists of a concrete slab (thickness 150 mm and effective width 2000 mm) and a W310x60 (see the following figure).1. 4) Obtain the depth of cover plate by minus As from As required and then divide the result by the width of the plate (which is same as the flange width in this example)
Example 6: Design of Composite member with partial shear transferred Repeat Example 4 except partial shear of 70% is transferred.21 350W steel. Calculate moment arm es for Cr and moment arm es’ for C’r. Equate Cr with equation 4. W360x33 2) Obtain and identify necessary parameters 3) Calculate the effective width of concrete by applying Clause 17.4.1.e.
t_f = 13.9 g) parameters of steel section: As = 7590 mm2 d = 303 mm t_w = 7.2 (i.doc
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composite_deck_design.4. 6) Followed step 5) to 11) in example 4.0) 4) Obtain unknown “a” to check the NA location by equation 188.8.131.52 mm b_f = 203 mm 2) Since we would like to move down the NA to the steel section. name it as dw.6 f) φ = 0. In order to calculate es and es’. If it falls in flange. 28-day strength concrete is 25 MPa. Discussion in section 3.Composite Design
S. Cross Section of Composite Beam with Cover Plate for Example 5 Steps to solve: 1) Identify parameters: a) b = 2000 mm b) t = 150 mm c) f’c = 20 MPa d) Fy = 350 MPa e) φc = 0. Therefore. E.2. Suppose you want the neutral axis of the cross-section to be at the top of the W section when the full moment resistance of the composite section is developed.2. Then obtain the centroid of the area below the NA by summing area moments about the bottom of the section.g. NA must be found. and finally assess flexural capacity by equation 4. The concrete has a 28-day compressive strength of 20 MPa. Vh is obtained from equation 4.4 to find the required As and locate the NA. Determine the thickness of the cover plate. 3) Equate tensile force to Vh and find the As required.4. and diameter of shear connector is 20 mm. F.
The effective slab thickness is to be taken as the thickness of the concrete between the top of the steel deck and the top of the concrete slab. A cover plate can be attached on the bottom flange of the steel beam to bring down the neutral axis below the level of the slab. Stiemer
Example 7. the number of shear connectors must be at least 40% of the full composite action. For partial shear. if shear transfer less than 100%.
composite_deck_design. hung ceiling. 2) Determine deflection for composite beam with short term load: half the specified live load acts on a long-term basis and half on a short-term basis. 3) Determine deflection for composite beam with long term load: half of the specified live load plus weight of tile.doc
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. Sai-shun To for the CIVL598 course. Shear connectors must transfer the total force at the interface of the concrete slab and the steel section. The location of the neutral axis in a composite deck is important during the capacity analysis because concrete is not able to carry tension. partitions.6.
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Review of key concepts: • • • • • The “modular ratio” defines the relationship between modulus of elasticity of steel and concrete. Transformed moment of inertia is used and is determined by taking area moment about the base of the steel beam. etc. even though the member may be analyzed on this basis. In order to avoid cracks in the concrete slab of a composite floor in the region of negative moment add steel reinforcement in the concrete.
q r = 0. For partial shear. formwork plus its own dead load. Steps to solve: 1) Determine deflection for non-composite action: steel beam acts alone to carry the slab load. the location of the neutral axis must lie within the steel section. Although elastic design rules underestimate the effective slab width for an interior beam by a large amount.1. the effect on the moment capacity is relatively small.Composite Design
S. if deflection controls the design. In all cases. F. Shear connectors must transfer the total force at the interface of the concrete slab and the steel section. No composite system connections are truly simple. In a composite design the concrete deck can carry compression. The shear resistance of a steel stud can be computed by
Most composite floors are presently constructed using concrete poured on a formed steel metal deck.5φ sc Asc
f 'c E 'c . if flexural strength controls the design. Partial shear connection is possible when design is controlled by deflections. 4) Determine deflection from shrinkage of the concrete by equation 6. lights. Effective moment of inertia is used. Appropriate values for the modular ratio in composite design are 40 to 60. Deflection Determine the deflection of the composite beam designed in Example 4. the number of shear connectors can be as low as 25% of the full composite action. and not in the slab. Effective moment of inertia is used and is calculated by equation 6.
The text above has been based on a term project done by Ms.