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M Z7K T YX\ [Z T ^ OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O
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O  O e T ^.^wT ZLY ‰T [ V K*P`K [ V K KNZ7K Y . K T ^ K O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O 
O  O  YI T •&K P K …^ O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O 
O c Q ^ ‰T ‘Y K ^ [  K ‰T zK ^ YX\ K ^©TWV ¡T K Y ^ ‰TWV O’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O 
O c Ou> ‰T \ T LTWV 0^ K  "T ¡T zK V^wT [ V YX\gY V YX\ ^yT ^ „[ Y Y K T ^ ‰T ‰T zK O’O‘O’OO’OO’O
SUT \ K Q ^ YXZXZ ª[XY O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O
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O c O e K Y ‰T [ ^ [ ¨ILY T [ ^ ‰T zK ^ YX\ K ^ OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O 
O b M T  T \ Y T NYXZXZg\ T K  [ T K YI T OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O 
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O b O e JK ^wT ]V [ m:Q 4ŒZ7K T zK V …^ OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O 
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O  6  K ^ ‰T [ VL^ O’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O 
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AO  AO  K‘Ou> ILYX\ T # ¡^ T NK [ ? [K z? [ [V A z;[ [ V A K7¡\gT ILY YX\ T Y# OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO
AO  O e HY \gK V K K ŸY K KDVY g!^ ŒT YKD;Y ^ K [ VK YPI}\ YK # T Y ‰O’T [ O’V OO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO
ŽY K¢Y ªKY’I}Y T Y ‰T [ V O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O 
O  –Y T Y ‰T [ VL^ [  K ŽY K’Y ªKY _ OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O 

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AO c O e Q:47YK  TWY V?TWK’V Y ªKYNK &K ^ P []K \  ‰…T^ [ V OO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO
¨Y K\ gVK V K ¡KYXT K Ÿ\ Y [YKD^V Y‰TW!\V Œ^wT YT [;;VLY ^K ?K TWR[ V &KK P K.K 47Y …Y ^¢Y O’ZX\OK K¢O’TA^ ‰OOc T OO’e K*O‘P`KO’O’O’O’…^ OOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O‘O‘O‘O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O’O’O’OOO
S ªY K ?[ TWVV ¡K T ‰^wT [T V KK**K P`P`K K +e$¥O’YOIK O’„O[ 5O’;O’Y ‰OT [ O’V/ OO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO
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AAOO b JK ^w3K T ]# VVKY VLª^y[ T ) K ^.Y ^ ‰TO’[ VORO’[ OVLO’^yT  O’K O‘Y O’‰T [OV O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO
AAOO A M6   TK ^ ;‰T Y[ VL(^ O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OO     

   

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O e K ? [Tz[ VA z[  K7\ ^ O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  
O e Ou> ŽY K Q ^ z[  K7\O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’O  
O e O e KI T Q ^¢S [  K7\£O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@>
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O e O  KI T Q ^ T  \ Y %z[  K?\JO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ e 
O e O c SUT \ K Q ^m^   Y K<z [  K?\OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ e 
O  K‘ILYX\ T ¡ T N[ K ? [ z [ VA z [  K7\ ^ OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@  
O  Ou> ŽY K Q ^ z[  K7\O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@  
O  O e KI T Q ^ z [  K7\ ^ O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ 
^   Y K<z  [  K?\ O’Q ^ O’O‘O’ OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ 
#…¢Z [7ILK ŽY K z[ K7\šOO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ 
O  O  SUT \ K Q ^ z [  K7\0O’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O’OO’OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’Oˆ>D@ 
cO  OO c K=OOuc> E K*„ Q [ 5zK K Q  ^K*„ z[ S 5[ z[   K K?K? \N\ + ; V:O’[ zO’K7KO‘\TO’O’YXOO\NO’O’z OO[ O’O’K?O’O’\ / OOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O‘O‘O‘O’O’O’O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O‘O‘O‘O’O’O’OOOO’O’O’O’O’O’OˆOˆOˆ>D>D>D@@@ ccc 
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CONTENTS

O e O e K uO > ? [Q¡TY zœ\ [ V+œKA zO / [  zK?[\ ^  K7O’\ O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>?>?>>@@
O e O e SUT \ K Q ^ z[  K7\UO‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O«>?>g> 
O ¨K V K YX\ T ^ L^.^wT [ V OO’O‘O’O’OO’OO’OO’O’OO’O‘O’OO’O’OO’OO’OO’O’O‘O’OO’OO’O«>?> e
OO cb E K ^&K H\ …^ V YXY \ V^yT ^ O’T ^ OLO’^.^wOT [ O’V O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>?>?>> b
OO A M6   TK ^ ;‰T Y[ VL(^ OO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>?>?>> 
       

       

  

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H©H©OO c EE K*K*„„KK ªªKDKDKK e OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O’O’O‘O‘O’O’OOO’O’OOO’O’O«O«>> ee   

     

       

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Section 1.4. Historical Background 

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Section 1.5. Numerical Simulations     

     

   

      

    

  

   

  

 

  
     

 
 

     

 

 

  

   

   

      

  

     

     

    

    

    

  

 

   

 
  

 



  

 



 

        

   

 

 

    

  


    

   

      

  

       

   

  

  

 

       

 

 
  

    



 

    

  

     

    

 

 

  

   

 

  

 

 
 
  

    

 

   

  

     

   

 

 
 

    

    
    
   
  

 
   

     

   

 

  

  

  

    

 
      

  

    

 

   

 
     

     

        



       

  

   

  

  

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IK?\ [ T T ^‘V [ [ V ‰TWV [ L^ Y V=ŒT P`K K V  ª[' K YX\  \ Y K  O

Chapter 1. Introduction 

    
 
  
 
   

  

     

  

      

   

  

      

   

 

   

   

 


   

  

  

 
    

        

    

     

 

  



       

 

  

 

   
  
     

  
 
  
   

 
  

  

  

 
     

 
      

 
   
    

 

  
  

   

 
 
  

    

  
 
  

 

  

 

  

   



  

 
      

 

 

 

  
        

 

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UZ# KK^ ^ K"K*K KX4 V  Z7Y K ^ ‰TT [ zVŒKY _ V YX7K \ŒT K^ ªIK -5T^ K K:K Y V T ^ K K K ^*^K zYX\ …[\ ^^ VL[ ^ ^ [Y Y K K  K Y Y ? Z7[ŒK [K ª^&K A  T\ ^‘…^ [ V [gVK^& ( Y [ ˆ-5YK Y VTWV!+ K S  TWV7Y T„?‰[ T ^ YX~K \ V\ YY[ VVTWV ¡Y T ‰MX4T I[ Y K VLVV^  gC^ .KO  V >:# V   \ K :V / K O 
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Section 1.6. “Integral” Models  

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Chapter 1. Introduction      



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Chapter 7. pQ2 Diagram Calculations

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4 RYV<MF587 [Y29z– • x U xvX<M a5>N`“*=5Eu-”367E5

Chapter B. My Relationship with Die Casting Establishment

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