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It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fire safety. (Discuss) Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. In structures, be they land-based, offshore or even ships, the owners and operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a designbasis that is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire code, which are enforced by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Buildings must be constructed in accordance with the version of the building code that is in effect when an application for a building permit is made. Building inspectors check on compliance of a building under construction with the building code. Once construction is complete, a building must be maintained in accordance with the current fire code, which is enforced by the fire prevention officers of a local fire department. In the event of fire emergencies, Firefighters, fire investigators, and other fire prevention personnel called to mitigate, investigate and learn from the damage of a fire. Lessons learned from fires are applied to the authoring of both building codes and fire codes. In the United States, this term is used by engineers and code officials when referring only to active and passive fire protection systems, and does usually not encompass fire detection systems such as fire alarms or smoke detection.
Contents [hide] 1 Goals 2 Classifying fires 3 Components 4 Balanced Approach 5 Building Operation in conformance with Design 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links
Public sign to the highest level of fire (5) to a campsite in Germany
Fire protection has three major goals:
Continuity of operations - on a public scale, this is intended to prevent the interruption of critical services necessary for the public welfare (e.g., a 911 emergency call center). Property protection - on a public scale, this is intended to prevent area wide conflagrations. At an individual building level, this is typically an insurance consideration (e.g., a requirement for financing), or a regulatory requirement. Life safety - the minimum standard used in fire and building codes
When deciding on what fire protection is appropriate for any given situation, it is important to assess the types of fire hazard that may be faced. Some jurisdictions operate systems of classifying fires using code letters. Whilst these may agree on some classifications, they also vary. Below is a table showing the standard operated in Europe and Australia against the system used in the United States. Type of Fire Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper, and some types of plastics. Australia European Class A Class A North America Class A
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but with the introduction now no of an electrical appliances. offshore construction or onboard ships) is typically achieved via three means: Passive fire protection (use of integral. and potassium Class B Class B Class C Class C Class D Class D Class B Class D (Class E) Fires that involve any of the materials found in Class A and B fires. therefore a bracketed E. oil. often. Each camp tries to garner more business for itself through its influence in establishing or changing local and national building and fire codes. because of the factors mentioned above. There is no standard definition for what this means quantifiably. as electricity itself does not burn. with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductive agent is used to control the fire. See also Authority Having Jurisdiction Automatic fire suppression Occupancy Building code Firefighting Fire test  converted by Web2PDFConvert. or occupancy separations. For example. product certification of the components involved in the construction of those walls and floors. which has been achieved through passing a fire test and. Likewise. however generally refers to fires involving electricity. such as natural gas. During this time. "three alarm" (or higher) fires. if the sprinkler system or fire alarm system is inoperable for lack of knowledgeable maintenance. "two alarm". the likelihood of damage and casualties is increased. Building Operation in conformance with Design The building is designed in compliance with the local building code and fire code by the architect and other consultants. In some cities. PFP was the dominant mode of protection provided in facility designs. The relatively recent inclusion of performance based or objective based codes.  Deviations from that original plan should be made known to the AHJ to make sure that the change is still in compliance with the law to prevent any unsafe conditions that may violate the law and put people at risk. magnesium. Fires are sometimes categorized as "one alarm". having a purpose-designed fire safety plan and ensuring that building occupants. A building permit is issued after review by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). or if the building occupants prop open a fire door and then run a carpet through. its means of Active fire protection and Passive fire protection. Lifecycle costs can be shifted from capital to operational budgets and vice versa. such as sodium. In others.com . Class F Class F Class K 1T echnically there is no such thing as a "Class E" fire. However it is considered a dangerous and very deadly complication to a fire. but not cooking fats or oils Fires that involve flammable gases. which have a greater emphasis on life safety than property protection. or firewalls. It is vital for everyone to realise that fire protection within a structure is a system that relies on all of its components. as firewalls that protrude through the roof structure are used to "sub-divide" buildings such that the separated parts are of smaller area and contain smaller fire hazards. as in using and installing a Fire Sprinkler system or finding the fire (Fire alarm) and/or extinguishing it) Education (ensuring that building owners and operators have copies and a working understanding of the applicable building and fire codes. and can lead to the justification for a lesser degree of fire resistant rated construction. operators and emergency personnel know the building. The decision to favour AFP versus PFP in the design of a new building may be affected by the lifecycle costs. thus enabling firefighting and evacuation) Active fire protection (manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires. tend to support AFP initiatives.  Components  Structural fire protection (in land-based buildings. At present. paint. The high temperature of the oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids making normal extinguishing agents ineffective. and do not necessarily require sprinklers. mainly in the form of automatic fire sprinkler systems. the numeric rating refers to the number of fire stations that have been summoned to the fire. Lobby groups are typically divided into two camps favouring active or passive fire protection. some waxes & plastics. fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies that are used to form fire compartments intended to limit the spread of fire. high temperatures and flue gases within the fire compartment of origin. "(E)" denoted on various types of extinguishers. though it always refers to the level response by the local authorities.Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquefiable solids such as petrol/gasoline. At times it works the other way around. hydrogen. a significant part of the fire safety plan would not work in the event of a fire because the walls and floors that contain the firestops are intended to have a fire-resistance rating. its weak spots and strengths to ensure the highest possible level of safety) Balanced Approach  Passive fire protection (PFP) in the form of compartmentalisation was developed prior to the invention of or widespread use of active fire protection (AFP). the number counts the number of "dispatches" for additional personnel and equipment. European standards Fires involving cooking fats and oils. to keep fires. Class E. if the firestop systems in a structure were inoperable. butane Fires that involve combustible metals. propane. therefore using the incorrect extinguishing method can result in serious injury or death. With the widespread installation of fire sprinklers in the past 50 years. the reliance on PFP as the only approach was reduced. the camp favouring AFP appears to be leading. wiring. or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of Class E1 longer in the Class C the fire.
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