University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora

CHAPTER I

The Problem and its Settings

Introduction

The investigation is about the government cost of employment of private security guards in the government offices of five selected municipalities in Metro Manila. A private security guard is formally employed person who is paid to protect properties, assets or people. Often, security guard act to protect property by maintaining a high visibility presence to determine illegal and inappropriate actions, observing either directly, through patrols or by watching alarm systems or video cameras. For signs of crime, fine or disorder; then taking action and reporting any incidents to their client and emergency services as appropriate. The number of the private security guards is comparable to the number of public police officers. Their phenomenon as an example of the general withdrawal of the affluent from existing communities where government provides public services instead the wealthy to pay to provide their own premium services. It is our observation that providing a security needed in the government offices will be based on the prerogative of the local chief executive. Our government has protected the interest of every client to make sure that everybody is safe and secured. That is why many government offices in the Philippines turn to private security

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guards to handle their 24/7 security needs. Whereas, Philippine Association of Detective and

University of efforts to professionalize the industry is Protective Agency Operators (PADPAO), in its Caloocan City
desirous of standardizing the contract note for security guards services. th

7 Avenue, Tandang Sora

Background of the Study

The study is all about the government cost of employment of private security guards in the government offices of five selected municipalities in Metro Manila. The researcher would like to determine why government offices hiring private security guards instead of having its local police and local enforcer. The researcher would be able to investigate regarding the double expenses of the government offices especially the five selected municipalities conducted survey study. Safe guard the premises with 24/7 private security agencies together with their security guards is their main concern. Police are excellent protectors for private communities and centers. However, relying on public security may not be enough. A police cannot be available to guard the entire premises on constant basis and other precedence. This is why many government offices in the Philippines handle their 24/7 hour security needs. A private security guard can guard the premises of government offices day and night and work with police to make sure that they are safe. The researcher also would like to identify the legal contract of private security guard under the law of labor existing in the Philippines including the Private Security Agency Law (RA 5487).

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 2 Importance and Significance of the Study

a.) To the Filipino people, to know the reasons why private security guards hired in the

public instead using public purposes. b.) To emphasize the importance of private security guard in the government offices.
c.) To know the reason why private security guard serving in the government offices

instead having the military and policemen in its localities of municipalities.

We believe that by identifying about the government cost of employment of private security guards in the government offices including the reasons of the selected respondents on why there is a private security guard in the government offices instead of having its own government employment and benefits for public purposes.

Hence, the importance of the study.

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 3 Scope and Delimitation

This study would be conducted to determine the cost of government employment of private security guards in selected five municipalities/cities in Metro Manila. The findings would apply only to the data gathered from the private security guards respondents, 20082009. The aspects looked into the legal contract of employing private security guards in government offices.

General purpose

: To determine the employment cost of private security guards posted in five selected municipalities/cities.

Subject matter

: The cost of government employment of private security guards in government offices.

Topics studied

: Private security guards in government offices, salary given by the private security agencies and the legal contract based on RA 5487 (Private Security Agency Law)

Population

: Private security guards and government employees

Locale of the study: Selected five municipalities/cities in Metro Manila Period of the study: School year 2008-2009

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Statement of the Problem
1.) What is the demographic profile of the selected respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age? 1.2 Gender? 1.3 Educational Attainment? 1.4 Name of Agency? 1.5 Years of Service/ 2.) What is the distribution of the private security guards among the? 2.1 Municipality of Caloocan? 2.2 Municipality of Valenzuela? 2.3 Municipality of Quezon City? 2.4 Municipality of Makati? 2.5 Municipality of Pasay? 3.) Is there a significant difference in the cost of government employment of private security guards in the government offices? 4.) What are the reasons of the respondents on why the city halls are employing private security guards? 5.) How do the security guards and policemen differ in their wages?

Hypothesis

There is no significant difference in the cost of employment of private security guards in the government offices.

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Definition of Terms
1 Individual applicant (License to Possess) – any person who is applying for or renewing a license to possess firearms as well as permit to carry firearm outside residence. 2. Juridical Entity (License to Possess) – refers to any entity applying for a license to possess firearms through its duly authorized representative who is either the proprietor, manager and/or operator. 3. License – an authority or permit to possess, own, carry, deal, and manufacture firearms. In the case of private security agencies, company guards and government security units, this refers to an authority to operate. 4. Authorized Representative – any person designated and authorized by a business entity or law enforcement unit to apply for and obtain a license to possess, deal and/or manufacture firearms. With regard to Private Security Agencies, Company Guards and Government Security Units, this person is the designated proprietor, operator and/or manager. 5. Warehouse Personnel – any person who is designated and authorized to manage a private warehouse or storage area of firearms and ammunition or the different vaults of the firearms dealer and to conduct inventory thereof.

6. Vault Keeper – any person who is designated and authorized by a firearms dealer to secure and manage his or her own vault in the PNP-CSG-FED warehouse. 7. PNP-CSG-FED Supervised Storage and/or Warehouse – refers to a CSG, FED supervised and managed warehouse or storage where the different vaults of firearms dealers are safekept.

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8. PTCFOR – a written authority issued to a person by the Chief of the Philippine National Police or his duly authorized representative which entitles him/her to possess and carry firearm outside of residence for the duration and purpose specified therein. 9. Security Guard or Watchman – any person who is licensed to render personal service to secure or watch over a private residence, business establishment, or buildings, compounds, and other areas and to conduct security inspection thereon. The terms, “Security Guard and Watchman” are generic and synonymous as far as this definition is concerned. 10. Security Officer – any person designated by the management of a security agency to supervise security guards/watchmen detailed in private residences, business establishments, buildings, compounds or other areas. 11. Private Detective/Investigator – any private individual who does detective or investigative work in behalf of another person or entity for compensation, reward or commission, other than

members of the AFP, the PNP, the guards of BJMP, municipality or city jail guards or of any other law enforcement agencies of the government. 12. Private Security Agency – any entity which is either a sole proprietorship, a partnership or a private corporation which is licensed to recruit, train, and provide security guards to any person or entity to perform security services or consultation for a compensation. 13. Company Guard – is a security force maintained and operated by any private company/corporation utilizing any of its employees to watch, secure or guard its business establishment premises, compounds or properties.

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14. Government Security Unit – is a security unit maintained and operated by any government entity other than the military or police, which is established and maintained for the purpose of securing the office or compound and/or extension of such government facility or utility. 15. Training Instructor – an individual who is accredited by the Philippine National Police-Civil Security Group-Security Agencies and Guards Supervision Division (PNP-CSG-SAGSD) to teach security and related subjects in the Commission on Higher Government (CHED) institutions offering Bachelor of Science in Criminology Courses (BS Crim Courses), and/or in the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) licensed Security Guard Training Schools.

16. Training Officer – an individual who is accredited by PNP-CSG-SAGSD responsible in making training programs for the Security Guard Training Schools and/or CHED institutions offering BS Crim. Courses. 17. Training Director – an individual accredited by PNP-CSG-SAGSD and responsible in managing the Security Guard Training Schools and/or CHED institutions offering BS Crim. Courses. 18. Security Guard Training School – an institution licensed by TESDA and accredited by SAGSD to conduct pre-licensing, in-service training, supervisory training and other special courses to and for security guards in private agencies, companies and government units. 19. End-User or consumer – any person or agency or a business entity which requires the mandatory drug test. At CSG, it refers to either CSG-FED or CSG-SAGSD or both when processing applicant for license and renewal thereof.

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7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 8
20. Mandatory Drug Test – refers to compulsory submission of an applicant for license to undergo a drug testing as required by RA 9165. 21. Random Drug Test – refers to compulsory submission of a licensed warehouse personnel and/or vault keeper, private security personnel and security training personnel after having been employed to undergo drug testing as required by RA 9165. This is being conducted to

selected individual or group of individuals without following a specific pattern and without prior notice.

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CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature and Related Studies

Foreign Related Literature

Issues in Cooperation A recurring theme in the literature is conflict between law enforcement and private security. “Historically there has been a tension between public police and private security agents. This tension has several components. First, the roles and functions of public and private police are often unclear or poorly understood. While much public attention has been focused on the ‘police’ in recent years, there has been little public assessment of the privatepolice, despite the fact thatprivate policing has been growing exponentially over the past decade.” As early as 1978, the Private Security Advisory Council was able to outline such areas of conflict as lack of mutual respect, lack of communication, lack of cooperation, lack of law enforcement knowledge of private security, perceived competition, lack of standards in security, and perceived corruption on both sides.

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Status Security officers have long been known by the unflattering term “rent-a-cops,” and lawenforcement officers often hold them in contempt; by contrast, the stature of police hasbeen high since the professionalization efforts of the 1960s. The low esteem is partly due to the “lack of selection standards for private guards, resulting in guards who are not respected by the law enforcement officer, [and the] lack of standards for training of private guards, resulting in a lack of confidence on the part of the law enforcement officer that the guard would not be a problem during a criminal incident.” In sum, “Many of the problems in communication between police and private security are rooted in the working officer’s perception of the security guard.” Law enforcement officials sometimes state that private security is not accountable to anyone. Others disagree. Private Security is accountable to customers, regulators, and the market, which penalizes them for failing to meet specific obligations. Also, private security practitioners can be fired for sub-optimal performance, a threat that few law enforcement officials face. Like the police, they are also accountable to civil and criminal law and the media. In fact, private security sometimes sees law enforcement as the agency that always comes after the fact, has little accountability for crime, and shows disdain for private security. Private Security officers

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indeed receive less training than most police, but even law enforcement practitioners observe that “the key is to ensure that professional level training for the specific duties and jobs to be undertaken by the private sector is provided.”Before law enforcement would feel comfortable

University of Caloocan contracting out some of its service to privateCity security “the private sector security industry must 7th professional members be prepared to accept that only its Avenue, Tandang Sora

will be asked to share in the work of the public police.” The status problem is not new. In a national study during the early 1980s, “Law enforcement executives and line officers (patrol and detective personnel) both rated the performance of private security personnel as fair to poor and the overall contributions of private security as only somewhat effective . . . . Private Security was not perceived as an equal partner in crime prevention and control, but rather as a junior or silent partner.” However, some evidence suggests that the relationship may be improving: A recent survey of 127 police officers and 109 security professionals in Michigan revealed interesting findings on the relationship between public law enforcement and private security . . . . Nearly two-thirds of all security respondents have prior law enforcement experience while 43 percent of police officers worked in the security field before joining law enforcement agencies . . . . Security professionals were more likely to believe they were equal partners than were police officers. Police officers were more likely than security professionals to rank the police/securityrelationship positively. . . . Security professionals appear more optimistic and hopeful than police officers in evaluating various strategies for improved relations. The strategies considered include, among others, improving interagency communications, creating joint databases, training exchanges, and conducting regular

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meetings of agency representatives . . . .City police and security professionals predicted Both greater cooperation between the two sectors Tandang Sora 7th Avenue, in the future.

Competition Another barrier comes from market competition. Some observers feel that as private security grows, law enforcement (especially overtime and off-duty work) may have to shrink. Thus, law enforcement practitioners may fear that cooperating with private security will erode their own responsibilities and opportunities. In fact, the knife cuts both ways. When police provide guard duty for pay, some securitycompanies see that practice as government-subsidized competition. A 1996 lawsuit filed in federal court by four private security companies in Virginia accused the state and seven localities of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act and of pricefixing. “Since the police officers are using their uniforms, badges, guns, and cars supplied by the government for off-duty private security work], it creates unfair competition. The government basically is subsidizing private business,” said a lawyer representing the security companies. The suit was dismissed but at this writing is on appeal in the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals in Richmond. Ignorance To a great extent, law enforcement practitioners are unaware of the role and resources of private security. Why? “The private sector has put forth little effort to educate the police as to the impact of corporate losses and how the impact is passed on to the citizen/customer, nor the loss/benefit ratios utilized in determining the acquisition and commitment of security resources.” Further, “there is a definite perception of differing motivating factors (profit vs. the

University of Caloocan
protection of citizenry), when, in actuality, both law enforcement and private security are City motivated by a very common 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora factor—loss prevention.”

False Alarms

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False alarms both divide and unite law enforcement and private security. On one hand, alarms are a private security activity that has become a law enforcement headache. “Unnecessary calls for police service due to false burglar alarms have grown into a tremendous problem. Burglar alarms serve as useful deterrents to crime, but the amount of time and money police spend responding to the 7 million to 15 million or more false alarm calls every year has become intolerable to many law enforcement agencies. Projected growth in the use of alarms portends a worsening problem.” On the other hand, the issue has created several occasions for cooperation among local law enforcement agencies, alarm companies, International Association of Chiefs of Police, National Burglar and Fire Alarm Association, Central Station Alarm Association, and Security Industry Association. Refusal to Recognize Authority Sometimes private security would like to participate more fully in stopping crime but is prevented from doing so. “Armed private security officers in Northern Virginia have the power of arrest, yet are prevented from carrying out that authority by magistrates and commonwealth attorneys who are reluctant to accept an official summons issued by a security officer. Security is a legitimate crime-fighting body—separate from public law enforcement yet dependent on its cooperation.”

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Government’s Relationship with Business

In some places, government is unfriendly to business; in others, the relationship is more cooperative. The latter type of relationship led to the development of one of the most successful, longest-lived law enforcement- private security cooperative programs, the Washington Law Enforcement Executive Forum (WLEEF), which includes law enforcement leaders of that state’s major cities and counties, state and federal law enforcement professionals, and “captains of industry.” The rationale behind WLEEF is that “although there are those who would impugn it and attach negative images to the concept, ours is a democracy supported by capitalism in a free enterprise system. Therefore, it is important that law enforcement be sure that its relationships transcend not only our neighborhoods and various units of government, but that we develop a viable interface in the commercial sphere in the State of Washington.”

Constitutional Issues An issue that does not necessarily cause conflict but may complicate cooperation has to do with legal accountability. In some ways, private security’s legal accountability may not be as great as that of law enforcement. On the other hand, when private security acts alongside or under the direction of law enforcement, it may be acting under “color of state law,” meaning it must meet the same legal standards that apply to law enforcement.

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Umbrella Programs

Many cooperative programs are best described as umbrella programs, as they are designed to develop law enforcement – private security relationships, teams, and task forces that address a wide range of concerns. One of the most notable is the Washington Law

Enforcement Executive Forum, mentioned earlier, which, among other activities, funds a statewide loaned-executive program to enhance management of local police agencies; provides support for the Law Enforcement Executive Journal, the nation’s first law enforcement/business publication; sponsored legislation on the regulation and training of private security personnel and on computer crime; and created an “Economic Crime Task Force to assess the nature and extent of white-collar crime in the state, develop strategies to reduce such crime, promote appropriate legislation initiatives and revisions, and collect and disseminate information on economic crime.” Similarly, the Downtown Detroit Security Executive Council (DDSEC), which includes corporate security executives and local, state, and federal law enforcement professionals, tackles such projects as identifying security problems from police reports and incidents reported to private security and promoting crime prevention through environmental design in new construction and renovation projects. Likewise, the Business/Law Enforcement Alliance (BLEA), created in 1994, is a formal partnership between California businesses and city, county, state, and federal law en-forcement agencies. An arm of the California Peace Officers Association, it includes some 200 participants from various industries and law enforcement

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and has a 10-member board of directors.City BLEA’s purpose is to create a link between the California business community th Avenue, Tandangthat both can work together to solve 7 and law enforcement so Sora

University of Caloocan

specific problems in the state. “The organization’s leadership recognizes, for example, that some law enforcement agencies do not have the specialized expertise, tools, or time to investigate and prosecute certain high-tech offenders.” BLEA is currently working on three projects: reducing check fraud, stopping the theft of rental equipment, and reducing false alarms. It may soon develop alliances with trade organizations to combat audio and video piracy. Another umbrella program is the Baltimore County Police and Private Security Association, which meets once a month, has a newsletter, organizes joint training, works on legislation and reducing false alarms, addresses specific crimes (such as graffiti), organizes training of security officers to make better witnesses, and conducts other activities. The Area Police-Private Security Liaison Program (APPL), formed in 1985, consists of high-ranking New York City Police Department members and respected security directors in New York City. “The program’s main goals are to engage in cooperative efforts to protect people and property, exchange information to aid in the accomplishment of mutual goals, [and] eliminate the ‘credibility gap’ between police and private security.” Police members provide information on local crime trends, patterns, and incidents; offer expertise to help private security protect assets and clientele; and provide an atmosphere conducive to trust and cooperation. Private security members learn how to cooperate with and help the police, and they offer expertise in technology, building security and aset protection. The group holds quarterly regional meetings with speeches on specific topics. Members train each other and work together on legislation. In Missouri, the Creve Coeur Joint Crime

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University of Caloocan Prevention Program consists of the CreveCity Police Department, Monsanto Corporate Coeur
Security and St. John’s Mercy 7 Avenue, Tandang Sora Department. It has initiated Medical Center Safety and Security
th

a community-wide project to develop a mobile crime prevention display and command center trailer for the education and safety of the community. It holds Neighborhood Watch appreciation awards dinners to recognize citizens of the community for their efforts in assisting the police and preventing crime. Other activities include a bike rodeo with a crime prevention theme; crime prevention booths at local festivals; participation in National Night Out; Halloween parties for children; crime prevention displays at program members’ sites; one-day seminars at program members’ sites on sexual assault, burglary prevention, drug and alcohol abuse, traffic safety, vacation safety, and security checks; and a phone notification system to alert neighborhood and business watch groups about crimes.Some umbrella programs operate on the national level. For example, the Private Sector Liaison Committee of IACP has produced, for national distribution to law enforcement And private security practitioners, several resource and guideline documents. Examples include “Non-Sworn Alarm Responder Guidelines: Guidelines for Employers and Law Enforcement” and “False Alarm Perspectives: A Solution-Oriented Resource.” Other papers have addressed product tampering, workplace drug crimes, and workplace violence. Recently, such efforts have been able to reach a wider audience by being posted on the Internet (www.amdahl.com/ext/iacp), which was itself an instance of cooperation, as the site space was donated by Amdahl Corporation. Similarly, since the early 1980s, the Law Enforcement Liaison Committee (LELC) of ASIS has promoted cooperation by sponsoring seminars and presentations on (1) security and police issues, such as improving communications and working relationships; (2) trends in outsourcing and

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University of Caloocan City
privatization; (3) training law enforcement personnel about private security functions; and (4) 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora encouraging the establishment of law enforcement and security partnerships. In the late 1980s the LELC produced a video describing the roles and typical functions of private security. The video was distributed to virtually every major police training academy in the United States. The LELC has also worked to develop a closer association with such law enforcement organizations as IACP and the National Sheriffs’ by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice) to develop guidelines for establishing and improving partnerships between public law enforcement and private security. Trends The literature reflects a number of trends that are affecting or will affect cooperation between law enforcement and private security. The most powerful trend is the continued growth of the private security industry, both in real terms and relative to law enforcement. In 1987 the director of the U.S. Justice Department’s National Institute of Justice (NIJ) wrote that “cooperation becomes increasingly essential with the growth of the private security industry.” In policing, “resources to meet the increasing demand have dwindled. In most major cities, police personnel have declined, and the number of police employees per 1,000 population dropped 10 percent between 1975 and 1985. Shrinking tax revenues throughout the country and outright taxpayer revolts . . . have curtailed growth in government. Police, like other public administrators, have become familiar with cutback management.”Another trend is the change in law enforcement’s approach to much of its work. The philosophies of community policing, neighborhood-oriented policing, and problem-oriented policing all call on law enforcement to cooperate with the community, which includes private security. Similarly, “where law

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University of Caloocan City enforcement is actively involved in crime prevention activities, cooperation with private
security is better because the 7 Avenue, Tandang Sora more closely aligned.” For interests of the two agencies are
th

example, at the Detroit Police Department, security industry representatives sit on the Chief’s Crime Prevention Advisory Committee. In addition, increasing professionalism in private

security has slowly been improving law enforcement’s attitude toward security practitioners, and “each successful contact aids in establishing further ties and acts as a building block for increased communication and joint programs.” Another trend is the private sector’s increasing need to prosecute. “[C]orporations have been deterred from criminally prosecuting their employees by the prospects of bad publicity, unsympathetic juries, counter lawsuits, and other real and perceived problems. Instead, employers frequently settle for the offender’s dismissal or resignation. The current reluctance of the business world to fight its internal crime wave with a joint private-public offensive cannot last forever, however. The entrance of the high-tech white-collar criminal, whose skillful predations can prove disastrous for a corporation, will likely be the most significant catalyst bringing together the private sector and the various components of the criminal justice system for mutual assistance.” Also driving cooperation is the evolutionary loss of preexisting relationships. “Informal levels of communication and cooperation are dissipating as private security firms promote managers more from within rather than from the field of law enforcement. The ‘good ole boy’ network cannot be relied upon for communication in future years.” Finally, the issue of privatization is likely to continue to drive cooperation. According to a former director of NIJ, “nearly as much money is now paid by governments to private security

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companies as is spent for public law enforcement by the federal and state governments combined.” There are many examples of privatization requiring cooperation between law

enforcement and private security. “Instead of using regular police officers for security and crowd control at its civic center and other city-owned buildings, Phoenix contracts that service to Anderson Agency, Inc. . . . The company’s marketing director says lower costs are not the only benefit the city receives from its private security force. ‘Our men are trained to prevent things from happening, while police officers are trained to stop crimes in progress or solve them after they have happened.’ . . . In New York City, badge wearing employees of a private company patrol streets in search of cars with outstanding parking tickets.” The Future An experienced participant in law enforcement–private security collaborations makes these comments about the possible future of cooperation: This interaction will probably produce different benefits for each participant, including enhanced professionalization of public law enforcement. Corporate people eventually will learn to operate more comfortably with some of the openness and public accessibility required of criminal justice agencies. Private sector executives will also learn to interact with people who are action-oriented, who show a great deal of initiative, and whose freshness in attacking problems is devoid of some of the intrigue and subtleties that frequently are found in the corporate bureaucracy. On the other side, law enforcement officials will be exposed to a higher degree of organizational sophistication. They will learn to view corporate problems through the eyes of chief executive officers, upwardly mobile corporate managers, and stockholders . . . . They will learn, too, that realistic planning and effective marketing are basic to survival. The police managers also will become sensitized

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to the fact that corporate entities, unlike police agencies, must measure up to competing firms City or go out of business.

7th Avenue, Tandang Sora

Local Related Literature and Studies . GUIDELINES GOVERNING THE EMPLOYMENT AND WORKING CONDITIONS OF SECURITY GUARDS AND SIMILAR PERSONNEL IN THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. . For the purpose of ensuring the private security personnel of their rights to the minimum benefits mandated by law, these guidelines are hereby issued for compliance of all concerned. SECTION 1. Coverage. - This issuance shall apply to all private security agencies or operators, their principals or clients, all companies allowed to directly employ security guards and to all security guards, whether agency or company employees, for compliance and entitlement, respectively, to existing labor standards laws and benefits. Sec. 2. Definition of terms. - For the purpose of this Guidelines, the following terms are defined: a. "Principal" refers to any employer, company or establishment to whom a security job, service or work is provided by a security service contractor, whether or not the arrangement is covered by a written contract.

b. "Security service contractor" is synonymous with a private security agency which means any person, association, partnership, firm or private corporation, who contracts, recruits, trains, furnishes or posts any security guard or similar personnel to individuals, corporations,

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offices and organizations, whether private or public, for their security needs as the Philippine National Police may approve. Sec. 3. Employment status. 3.1 Employer-employee relationship. - The security service contractor is the employer of its security guard and similar personnel. The principal where the security guards are as-signed is considered an "indirect employer" for unpaid wages and other wage related benefits based on the joint and several liability of the principal with the service contractor under the Labor Code, unless the private security agency is owned, managed or controlled by the prin-cipal or the facts show that the principal controls the manner by which the security service is performed or where the security guard is directly hired by the establishment. 3.2 Probationary employment. - The probationary period of a newly hired security guard or similar personnel in the private security industry shall not exceed six (6) months. While engaged on probationary basis, his/her services may be terminated for failure to meet the reasonable standards or criteria made known by the security agency/employer to the guard at the time of engagement or for just cause/s.

3.3 Regular employment. - Any security guard or similar personnel in the private se-curity industry who is allowed to work after the probationary period shall be considered a regular employee. Sec. 4. Service contracts. - The security service contractor and/or the principal shall produce or submit the original copy of their service contract when directed to do so by the Regional Director or his/her duly authorized representative. The service contract shall stipulate, among City others:

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7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 23

a. A statement that the security guards/personnel shall be paid not less than the minimum wage and other benefits under the Labor Code and other existing laws; b. An escalation clause to immediately effect the common provision in the wage orders that the prescribed increase in the wage rates of the workers shall be borne by the principal or client of the service contractors and the contracts shall be deemed amended accordingly. c. A statement that security service contractor and/or the principal shall comply with Social Security, Employees Compensation, Philippine Health Insurance Corporation and Home Development Mutual Fund laws on employees' coverage or membership. d. The kind or nature of security service. e. The schedule of payment of 13th month pay per P. D. 851 and re-tirement pay per R. A. 7641. Sec. 5. Employment contracts. -

5.1 The security service contractor shall provide his security guards, detachment commanders/supervisors and other security personnel, a copy of the employment contract duly signed by the parties which shall contain the terms and conditions of employment, such as those provided under Section 5 hereof. 5.2 For every assignment of a security guard/personnel to a principal, the duty detail order shall contain the following, among others: a. Description of job, work or service to be performed b. Hours and days of work, work shift and applicable premium, overtime and night shift pay rates.

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Sec. 6. Terms and conditions of employment. -

6.1 The security guards and similar personnel in the employ of any private security agency or company should be duly licensed and must have passed the physical and neuro-psychiatric examinations required by the PNP. They are entitled to the mandatory benefits under the Labor Code and other existing laws, including coverage by SSS, ECC, Philhealth and HDMF. 6.2 The basic wage rate of security guard/personnel shall not be less than the minimum wage rate for the non-agricultural sector in the Region where he/she is assigned, regardless of the nature of business of the principal, or in the Region where the security guard has been engaged, whichever is higher.

Where a security guard/personnel is recruited through a branch office in another Region where the principal is likewise located, the non-agricultural minimum wage rate applicable in the workplace of the principal shall govern. Security guards or other personnel employed and/or assigned by a security service contractor in one Region but who are transferred, moved or assigned to another Region shall be paid based on the more beneficial wage rate. In case of transfer or reassignment to another principal within a Region, the wage rates may be adjusted provided that the same shall not be less than the applicable regional minimum wage rate. 6.3. Statutory Benefits. - The security guards/personnel are entitled to not less than the following benefits depending on the working hours, work shift and workdays under the given conditions, which benefits should be included ofthe cost distribution in the service contract: University in Caloocan

City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 25

a. Basic salary for all actual workdays and for the ten regular holidays (as holiday pay) which must not be lower than the minimum wage rates above described and to be computed by using the factors recommended herein or by more favorable practice of the employer. In addition, one hundred percent (100%) of the basic salary is due whenever work is rendered on a regular holiday. b. Allowance in addition to the basic salary, if any, is prescribed by the applicable Regional Wage Order.

c. Premium pay of 30% of the daily rate for work on special days and rest days, which is increased to 50% whenever work is performed on coinciding rest days and special days. d. Overtime pay for work rendered in excess of eight (8) hours a day, equivalent to at least 25% of the regular wage rate on ordinary days and 30% on regular holidays, special days and rest days. e. Night shift pay equivalent to 10% of the regular hourly rate for work rendered between 10:00 pm to 6:00 am of the following day. f. Five (5) day service incentive leave for every year of service which benefits can be availed of during days of absence and, if not used, are convertible into its cash equivalent. A proportionate leave benefit per month may be derived by dividing 5 days by 12 months times the daily rate. g. Paternity leave of seven (7) days with full pay. This leave shall be granted before, during or after childbirth or after spontaneous miscarriage by his legal spouse. The paternity leave with pay is granted for only four deliveries, including miscarriage.

h. 13th month pay which is 1/12 of the total basic salary earned within a calendar year.

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7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 26

6.4 Recommended Computation of Equivalent Monthly Rates Using the applicable daily wage rate (ADR) and a factor representing the number of paid days in a year, the following procedures are recommended to facilitate computation of equivalent monthly rates (EMR).

For those who are required to work everyday including Sundays or rest days, special days and regular holidays: EMR = (ADR x 391.5) / 12 where 391.5 is derived from: 302.0 18.0 2.6 66.3 2.6 ordinary working days 9 regular holidays x 200% a regular holiday on last Sunday of August x 200% + (30% of 200%) 51 rest days x 130% 2 special days x 130%

391.5 days considered paid in a year For those who are considered paid on all days including unworked Sundays or rest days, special days and regular holidays: EMR = (ADR x 365) / 12 where 365 days derived from: 302 ordinary working days 51 10 2 rest days regular holidays

University of 365 days Caloocan special days City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 27

For those who do not work and are not considered paid on Sundays/ rest days:

EMR = (ADR x 314.6) / 12 where 314.6 is derived from: 302.0 2.6 10.0 ordinary working days 2 special days (if worked) x 130% regular holidays

314.6 days considered paid in a year

For those who do not work and are not considered paid on Saturdays and Sundays or rest days EMR = (ADR x 262.6) / 12 where 262.6 is derived from: 250.0 2.6 10.0 262.6 days ordinary working days 2 special days (if worked) x 130% regular holidays

By using the above indicated factors, the basic wage for the worked days and holiday pay for the 10 regular holidays are included in the monthly rates. Thirty percent (30%) rest day premium has been integrated in factor 391.5 for all the Sundays/rest days in a year including the last Sunday of August and in factors 314.6 and 262.6 for the two special days (November 1 and December 31) under Executive Order No. 203 of 1987.

28

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora

Not included in the above formula is the premium pay due an employee whenever work is rendered on an ordinary working day proclaimed by the President as a special day (that is other than Nov. 1 and Dec. 31). 6.5 Other Mandatory Benefits. In appropriate cases, security guards/similar per-sonnel are entitled to the mandatory benefits as listed below, although the same may not be included in the monthly cost distribution in the contracts, except the required premiums for their coverage: a. Maternity benefit as provided under the SS Law; b. Separation pay if the termination of employment is for authorized cause as provided by law and as enumerated below: Half-Month Pay Per Year of Service, but in no case less than One Month Pay, if separation is due to: 1. Retrenchment or reduction of personnel effected by management to prevent serious losses; 2. Closure or cessation of operation of an establishment not due to serious losses or financial reverses; 3. Illness or disease not curable within a period of 6 months and continued employment is prohibited by law or prejudicial to the employee's health or that of co-employees; or

4. Lack of service assignment for a continuous period of 6 months. One Month Pay Per Year of Service, if separation is due to: 1. Installation of labor-saving device, such as replacement of employees by

equipment/machinery;

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 29

2. Redundancy, as when the position of the employee has been found to be surplusage or unnecessary in the operation of the agency; 3. Impossible reinstatement of the employee to his/her former position or to a substantially equivalent position for reasons not attributable to the fault of the employer, as when the reinstatement ordered by a competent authority cannot be implemented due to closure or cessation of op-erations of the establishment/employer, or the position to which the employee is to be reinstated no longer exists and there is no substan-tially equivalent position to which he/she can be assigned. c. Cash income benefits under the State Insurance Fund in case of work-related sickness or other contingencies. d. Retirement pay granted by R. A. 7641 to any security guard/personnel who retires under an applicable employer plan or policy.

For this purpose, the security service contractor shall create or put up a trust fund for retirement benefit. The Trust Fund Agreement shall be executed by and between the trustor and trustee in favor of the employee-beneficiary for payment of re-tirement benefit in accordance with R. A. 5487 and R. A. 7641. The Fund shall be administered and maintained by a trust company, bank, in-vestment house, pre-need company or corporation duly authorized to perform trust function exclusively for collective investment or re-investment of certain money received in its capacity as trustee, or similar arrangement as may be agreed upon in ac-cordance with law. As such, any payment for retirement benefits collected in advance by the contractor from the principal/s shall be deposited by the contractor/trustor to the trustee in favor of the University of Caloocan security

City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 30

guard as benefit upon retirement or when his/her employment is terminated due to authorized causes. e. Other benefits granted by law, individual or collective agreement or company policy or practice. Sec. 7. Deductions from salary, - No deduction shall be made from the salary of the security guards/personnel, except for: a. SSS contribution b. EC contribution

c. HDMF contribution d. Philhealth contribution e. Withholding tax from income, provided a proper withholding tax receipt is issued to the employee before the filing of income tax return every year f. Union dues, if applicable g. Other deductions authorized by Sec. 8. Liability and responsibilities of contractors and clients/principals. 8.1 Joint and several liability. - When the security service contractor fails to pay the wages of its security guards/personnel, the principal shall be jointly and severally liable with the security service contractor to the extent of the work performed by such em-ployees under the contract, in the same manner and extent that the principal is liable to its direct employees. If there are wage increases or adjustments after the execution of the service contract, the prescribed increases in the wage rates of guards shall be borne by the principal and the

University of Caloocan service contract shall be deemed amended accordingly. In the event that the principal fails
to

City 31 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora

pay the prescribed increases, the security service contractor shall be jointly and severally liable with the principal. The security guards' contractual relationship is with their employer, the security ser-vice contractor. Thus, their immediate recourse for payment of wage increase before litigation is

with their direct employer, the security service contractor. In order for the security service contractor to comply with the new rates, the consideration paid by the principal for the security guards' wages has to be adjusted in conformity with the mandated wage increase. In case of finding of violations on wages and other labor standards due the security guards, the DOLE Regional Director shall serve summons to both the security service con-tractor and the principal to determine the extent of liability of the parties. 8.2 Solidary liability. - For purposes of immediate relief, the principal shall be deemed as the direct employer of the security guard/personnel in any of the following cases, and therefore shall be solidarily liable for whatever monetary claims the security guard/personnel may have against his employer: a. When the security service contractor is found to be engaged in labor-only contract-ing; contracting out of work which will either displace its employees or reduce their regular work hours or any other prohibited activity; b. When the security service contractor is declared guilty of unfair labor practice, i.e., contracting out of a job, work or service being performed by union members when such will interfere with, restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their rights to selforganization; or

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 32

c. When a violation of the relevant provisions of the Labor Code has been established by the Regional Director in the exercise of his/her enforcement powers. The principal shall also be deemed solidarily liable with the security service contractor to the extent of accrued claims and benefits that the latter may owe to its security guards/personnel in the following instances: a. When the license or business permit of the security service contractor is cancelled, revoked or not renewed by the competent authority, or b. When the contract between the principal and the security service contractor is preterminated for reasons not attributable to the fault of the latter. 8.3. Responsibilities and Obligations of Security Service Contractors and Principals in the Execution of Service Contracts. - The service contracts or agreements between a security service contractor and its principal/s shall ensure compliance with the minimum wage and other labor standards under the laws, including the mandatory coverage by the SSS, EC, Philhealth and HDMF. Government agencies or instrumentalities engaging security services from private security agencies shall likewise observe compliance with all labor laws and shall require the security service contractor to submit, among others requirements and as part of their bid, an undertaking to pay their workers the above benefits.

8.4. Keeping of records. - The principals as indirect employers shall keep and maintain their own separate records or files on the assignment of security guards in their premises during the period of the service contract, which shall be open for inspection and verification by this

University of Caloocan City

7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 33
Department. The security agency, however, as the direct employer shall observe the rule on general record keeping under the Labor Code, as amended. Sec. 9. Right to security of tenure and due process. 9.1 Security guards and similar personnel who have become regular employees shall enjoy security of tenure in their employment as provided by law. Their services can only be terminated for just or authorized causes after due process. Termination for a just cause or causes as stated in Art. 281 of the Labor Code does not entitle the security guard/personnel to separation pay, unless otherwise provided in the employer policy or individual contract or collective agreement. 9.2 Notice of Termination. - In case of termination of employment due to authorized causes provided in Art. 283 and 284 of the Labor Code and in the succeeding subsection, the employer shall serve a written notice on the security guard/personnel and the DOLE at least one (1) month before the intended date thereof. 9.3 Reserved Status. - A security guard or similar personnel may be placed in a workpool or on reserved status due to lack of service assignments after expiration or termination of the

service contract with the principal where he/she is assigned, or due to the temporary suspension of agency operations. No security guard or personnel can be placed in a workpool or on reserved status in any of the following situations: (a) after expiration of a service contract if there are other principals where he/she can be assigned; (b) as a measure to constructively dismiss the security guard; and (c) as an act of retaliation for filing complaints against the employer on violations of labor laws, among others.

University of Caloocan City

7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 34

If, after a period of 6 months, the security agency/employer cannot provide work or give an assignment to the reserved security guard, the latter can be dismissed from service and shall be entitled to separation pay as described in subsection 5.6. Security guards on reserved status who accept employment in other security agencies or employers before the end of the above six-month period may not be given separation pay. 9.4. Preventive suspension. - Subject to the constitutional rights of the workers to security of tenure and the right to be protected against dismissal except for a just and authorized cause and without prejudice to the requirement of notice under Art. 282 of the Labor Code, a security guard/personnel may be preventively suspended if his continued employment poses a serious and imminent threat to life or property of the employer, its principal or the guard's co-workers.

No preventive suspension shall last longer than thirty (30) days. The security agency shall thereafter reinstate the security guard/personnel in his/her former position or it may extend the period of suspension, provided that during the period of extension, the agency pays the wages and other benefits due the guard/personnel. The employer shall designate a day, time and place within the period of preventive suspension, with notice to the employee, to hold a fact-finding investigation thus enabling the suspended employee to be heard and assisted by a counsel or representative, if he/she so desires, of the charge against him/her and thereby be exonerated; or, upon the employee's failure to vindicate himself/herself, to find the employee guilty and thereby, to

University of however, shall terminate his/her employment. Such termination,Caloocan not prejudice the right of
the employee to ques-tion the severance of relationship in the appropriate forum.

City

7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 35

The above procedure shall likewise be observed by the employer/agency in case the employment is terminated due to any of the just causes. 9.5. Report of dismissal, termination or retirement. - The security service contractor shall submit a monthly report of all dismissals or termination, including retirement, effected during the month to the DOLE Regional Office having jurisdiction over its main or branch office using the prescribed form and indicating all information as required by DOLE for policy and statistical purposes. Sec. 10. Right to self-organization and collective bargaining. -

The security guards and other personnel employed by the security service contractor shall have the right to form, join or assist in the formation of a labor organization of their own choosing for purposes of collective bargaining and to engage in concerted activities which are not contrary to law including the right to strike. Sec. 11. Penal provision. - Violation of any of the provisions of this Guidelines which are declared unlawful or punishable by law shall be punished accordingly. Sec. 12. Effect on existing issuances and agreements. This issuance shall serve as a guide for the DOLE and its agencies in the administration and enforcement of applicable labor and social legislations and their implementing regulations. Nothing herein shall be construed to authorize diminution or reduction of benefits being enjoyed by the security guards and similar personnel at the time of issuance hereof. This Guidelines supersedes Department Order No. 40 s. 1994 and other existing orders

University of immediately. which are inconsistent hereto and shall take effect Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 36 Review of Related Studies

Before 1st October,1996, the security service personnels are under management of "Watchmen Ordinary" (Chapter 299), but because many imperfect in the ordinary (for example: there is no any limit to set up a company that provides security service, and there is no limit to a person if he/she work as a security devices installer), and some employer hired "Caretakers" instead of Security Guards to avoid the responds to the law (because "Caretakers" is providing basically facilities management service,although security service to a residential property is a part of facilities services), so,Hong Kong Government enforce a new law - Security Guarding Personnel Ordinary (Chapter 460) to instead the old Watchmen Ordinary . According the law (Chapter 460, Security Guarding Personnel Ordinance): No individual shall do, agree to do, or hold himself/herself out as doing or as available to do, security work for another person unless he/she does so• •

under and in accordance with a permit; or otherwise than for reward.

"security work" means any of the following activities• •

guarding any property; guarding any person or place for the purpose of preventing or detecting the occurrence of any offence; (Replaced 25 of 2000 s. 2)

• •

installing, maintaining or repairing a security device; designing for any particular premises or place a system incorporating a security device.

37

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora

"security device" means a device designed or adapted to be installed in any premises or place, except on or in a vehicle, for the purpose of detecting or recording- (Amended 25 of 2000 s. 2)
• •

the occurrence of any offence; or the presence of an intruder or of an object that persons are, for reasons of security, not permitted to bring onto the premises or place or any other premises or place.

Although The Security and Guarding Services Industry Authority ( SGSIA ) is the "in-charge" agency of the security service industry, all applicants must submit their application and pay the fee by mail or in person to Hong Kong Police Force(License Section). Security officers and the police Security personnel are not police officers, unless they are security police, but are often identified as such due to similar uniforms and behaviors, especially on private property. Security personnel in the U.S. derive their powers not from the state, as public police officers do, but from a contractual arrangement that give them 'Agent of the Owner' powers. This includes a nearly unlimited power to question with the absence of probable cause requirements that frequently dog public law enforcement officers, provided that the security officer does not tread on the rights and liberties of others as guaranteed by the United States Constitution. This does not come without checks, however, as private security personnel do not enjoy the benefit of civil protection, as public law enforcement officers do, and can be sued directly for false arrests and illegal actions if they commit such acts.

University of security officers and give them limited Some jurisdictions do commission or deputize Caloocan
additional powers, particularly when employed in protecting public property such as mass

City

7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 38

transit stations. This is a special case that is often unique to a particular jurisdiction or locale. Additionally, security officers may also be called upon to act as an agent of law enforcement if a police officer, sheriff's deputy, etc. is in immediate need of help and has no available backup. Some security officers do reserve police powers and are typically employed directly by governmental agencies. Typically, these are sworn law enforcement personnel whose duties primarily involve the security of a government installation, and are also a special case. Other local and state governments occasionally enter into special contracts with security agencies to provide patrol services in public areas. These personnel are sometimes referred to as "private police officers." Sometimes police officers work as security personnel while not on duty. This is usually done for extra income, and work is particularly done in hazardous jobs such as bodyguard work and bouncers outside nightclubs. In some countries, including the United Kingdom, it is illegal for police officers to take private security work. Except in these special cases, security personnel who misrepresent themselves as police officers are committing a crime. However, security personnel by their very nature often work in cooperation with police officials. Police are called in when a situation warrants a higher

degree of authority to act upon reported observations that could not be directly acted upon safely by the security personnel. Security personnel were often distrusted by police, who viewed them as uneducated, illtrained guards.[12] That attitude has been changing, however. In 1976, the Law Enforcement

University of Caloocan City

7th Avenue, Tandang Sora
Assistance Administration's National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards 39 and Goals reported:[13]

One massive resource, filled with significant numbers of personnel, armed with a wide array of technology, and directed by professionals who have spent their entire adult lifetimes learning how to prevent and reduce crime, has not been tapped by governments in the fight against criminality. The private security industry, with over one million workers, sophisticated alarm systems and perimeter safeguards, armored trucks, sophisticated mini-computers, and thousands of highly skilled crime prevention experts, offers a potential for coping with crime that can not be equalled by any other remedy or approach...Underutilized by police, all but ignored by prosecutors and the judiciary, and unknown to corrections officials, the private security professional may be the only person in this society who has the knowledge to effectively prevent crime. ”

In New York, the Area Police/Private Security Liaison program was organized in 1986 by the NYPD commissioner and four former police chiefs working in the private security industry to

promote mutual respect, cross-training, and sharing of crime-related information between public police and private security. In British Columbia, Canada contract Security Guards are NOT permitted to carry firearms (guns), batons, pepper spray, or handcuffs.[14] Violation of the act can carry a fine the possibility of losing their Security License. Provincial Inspectors, designated as Special Provincial Constables conduct inspections to ensure compliance with Provincial Regulations. "In-House" Security organizations, and their employees are currently exempt

University of Caloocan from Provincial Regulations. This means "In-House" Security Officers could, if permitted by
their employer,

City 40 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora

carry and use handcuffs, and/or a baton. The Province of BC is currently re-drafting the provincial legislation to cover all security, and certain restrictions, as the current legislation was file on January 9, 1981.[15]

Criticisms Some people fear that security guards are ex-cons. However, some jurisdictions do regulate who can work in the profession. Oregon, for example, has a list of disqualifiers that invalidate an ex-con's eligibility for the job for either seven years, ten years or life. In many locations, mall security personnel are largely discouraged from intervening with guests, but with some serious situations occurring, many in the industry are calling for a

change, to get guards to be more proactive and discourage retailers from not wanting mall security in their stores at all.

Trends Economist Robert B. Reich, in his 1991 book The Work of Nations, stated that in the United States, the number of private security guards and officers was comparable to the number of publicly paid police officers. He used this phenomenon as an example of the general withdrawal of the affluent from existing communities where governments provide public services. Instead, the wealthy pay to provide their own premium services, through voluntary, exclusive associations. As taxpayer resistance has limited government budgets, and as the demand for secure homes in gated communities has grown, these trends have continued in University of Caloocan the 1990s and 2000s.

City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 41

The trend in the UK at the time of writing (March 2008) is one of polarisation. The market in Manned Guarding (the correct security industry term for the security guards most people are familiar with) is diverging towards two opposite extremes; one typified by a highly trained and well paid security officer; the other with security officers on or about minimum wage with only the minimum training required by law. Within the “in-house” sector, where security personnel are not subject to licensing under the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the same divergence can be seen; with some companies opting for in-house security to

maintain control of their standards, whilst others use it as a route to cheaper, non-regulated, security.

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 42
Synthesis of the Study Research

A.) The government cost of employing private security guards in the government offices is mandatory for the protection of lives and properties. Local government offices is hiring private security agencies in the different establishments of the government offices, for the reason that: Private Security Guards can guard 24/7, day and night, shift and work with local police and local enforcement to make sure that everything or everyone is safe. In the event also of emergency, a private security guard will do an immediate response. B.) The salary cost of private security guards in the five selected municipalities is less than the minimum wages were received. At present, there was a memorandum circular NR I, Series of 2001 passed and approved by the legislative body regarding the basic salary of every private security guard under the existing laws of the labor code of the Philippines. The monthly salary rate of each guard is P14, 000.00 Almost all of the private

(fourteen thousand pesos) effective February 4, 2002.

security agencies on the five selected municipalities in Metro Manila did not comply on the said minimum wage salary existing under the labor code of the Philippines. To ensure the standard living of every family especially private security guards. The SAGSD and PADPAO should be and must be monitoring all agencies to ensure that they are complying with the minimum wage salary of their private security guards.

43

They must also issue a memorandum circular to every private security agency

University of Caloocan operators regarding the policy of strictly implementing minimum wage salary City
including allowable benefits to th

7 Avenue, Tandang Sora

C.) every private security guard.

To adhere strictly with the provision of Section 1,

paragraph C and F of the Rules and Regulations Implementing Republic Act. No. 5487, as amended by Presidential Decree No. 1919, which among others, authorize the Chief of the Philippine National police to cancel the license of any security agency for their violation, as in the following cases: (C) When a security agency has been found to engage in cut-throat competition by under cutting its contract rate for a price lower than the standard of minimum rates for security services adopted by PADPAO, Inc. with the concurrence of the Chief of the Philippine National Police. (F) When a security agency or company security force has been found to be violating the minimum wage rates that should be lawfully granted to their private security / company guards. This memorandum circular shall be binding upon all private

security and detective agencies existing presently and those to be licensed hereafter in accordance with law.

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 44 Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework of the government cost of employment of private security guards in the selected municipalities in Metro Manila can be: the importance of private security guards on the government offices, the demographic profile of the selected respondents and the implementation of private security agency law or RA 5487 specifically in the determining of legal contract and wages of security guard.

Paradigm

45

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora

Inputs

Process

Outputs

Importance and significance of private security guards in the government offices Demographic profile of the selected respondents Implementation of R.A .5487 (Private Security Agency Law) specifically in its execution in determining legal contract and wages of security guard

Survey the reason of city halls in hiring private security guard Identification of the budget

Protection of government properties and lives of employees Committee in public safety is in charge in the budget of private security guards

Justification of the Study

The researcher will investigate and study regarding on the government cost of employment of private security guards in the government offices of selected municipalities. The researcher proudly stated that this study will be the first kind of research in the Philippines and nobody will be able to research and investigate this kind of research study. The information gathered from the selected respondents will be based on the fact findings of

the study are true and correct. That is why with the relevant and pertinent of all the data gathered on this study will make the researcher a success.

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 46

CHAPTER III

Methodology Research Method

The descriptive method of survey research will be used in this study. The descriptive survey method research is a fact finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. It describes with emphasis what actually exist such as current conditions, practices, situations or any phenomena. Since the present investigation is concerned, the descriptive method survey of research will be the most appropriate method to use in the topic, “The Government Cost of Employment of Private Security Guards”.

Respondents of the Study: A.) Atty. Joaquin Trinidad is the General Manager and the owner of the Private Security Agency serving in the city hall of Valenzuela City. Trinsata Private

Security Agency is found at the Sampaloc, Manila. Based on the information I have gathered from him, there are 24 private security guards posted in the city hall of Valenzuela and for 8 months they are serving in the said municipality. According to him, the Agency was entered in the municipality by winning the “bid”.

47

According to him also, private security guards posted in Valenzuela City Hall is

University lives and property important for the protection of the of Caloocan as well as protection of City
present Chief Local Executive office, including employees of the City Hall. th

7 Avenue, Tandang Sora

B.) Mr. Leonardo C. Castro is the General Manager as well as the owner of Exbataan Security Agency posted and serving in the City Hall of Caloocan located somewhere in located. Based on the information I have gathered, there are 32 private security guards designated in the city hall of Caloocan. According to him, the agency is almost 4 years serving in the city hall of Caloocan. The Ex-bataan Security Agency was entered in the municipality by winning the “bid”. Mr.

Leonardo C. Castro said that private security guards posted in the city hall is very much important not only for the chief local executives and city hall employees but also for the clients of the said municipality.

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 48
Sampling Technique

Number of Private Security Guards designated in the five selected municipalities/city halls. Number
1.) Caloocan City Hall 2.) Valenzuela City Hall 3.) Quezon City Hall 4.) Pasay City Hall 5.) Makati City Hall

20% 6 4 9 5 8 Total: 32

32 24 45 28 40 Total: 169

As far as the government employment of private security guards is concerned, 169 is the total population of the private security guards designated in the five selected municipalities in Metro Manila government offices and 32 is the sample which is representative.

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 49
Development and Validation of Research

The method of collecting data will be the survey method. This is concerned with looking into the commonality of some elements. Since the present research is about the government cost of Employment of Private Security Guards in the five selected government offices in Metro Manila. The normative method of survey research will be the most

appropriate method to use in gathering data. The instrument to be used to collect data and informations will be the questionnaires as well as an interview for the selected respondents specifically the private security guards and the owner of the private security agencies including the Administration staff of the city halls. The researcher will be able to see and observe that the data and informations gathered from the selected respondents are true and correct.

University of Caloocan City 7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 50
Procedure Statistical Treatment of Data

A.) What is the demographic profile of every private security guard?

Weight No. 5 4 3 2 1 Age Gender Educational Attainment Name of Agency Years of service

B.) How much is the salary of every private security guard in the government offices? Weight No. 5 4 3 2 1 12,000 above per month 12, 000 exactly per month 11, 000 per month 10, 500 per month 10, 000 per month

C.) How much is the contract of every private security guard per head given by the local

government offices to the security agency? Weight No.

5 4 3 2 1

-

21, 000 a month 18, 500 a month 18, 000 a month 15, 000 a month

University of Caloocan City

14, 0007thmonth a Avenue, Tandang Sora

51 Bibliography
William C. Cunningham and Todd H. Taylor, Private Security and Police in America: The Hallcrest Report I (Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1985), p. 189. Mahesh K. Nalla and Donald Hummer, “Relations Between Police and Security in Michigan,” report published by the School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, 1997. Greene, Seamon, and Levy, p. 6. “Summary of a Feasibility Conference,” p. 12. David R. Green, “Joining Forces Against Crime,” Security Management, May 1998, pp. 9598. Bob Stewart, p. 14. Ronald L. Kuhar and Jon C. Paul, “The Milwaukee Experience,” ASIS Dynamics, July/August 1996, pp. 5-7. Directory, ASIS and Wisconsin Chiefs of Police Association, 1995. “Security Group Honors Anti-stalking Police Unit,” SECURITY, July 1997, pp. 7-8. Association. In 1997, the LELC provided the initiative for a national project (supported

Anthony M. Voelker, “Area Police–Private Security Liaison Program,” New York City Police Department document. Circa 1988. “1991 Annual Report,” Creve Coeur (Missouri) Joint Crime Prevention Program. Peter A. Holmes, “Taking Public Services Private,” Nation’s Business, August 1985, pp. 2022.Shanahan, “Private Enterprise and the Public Police: The Professionalizing Effects of a New Partnership,” p. 455.

University of Caloocan City

7th Avenue, Tandang Sora 52 Table of Contents

CHAPTER I The Problem and It’s Settings ………..……………………………………………………1 Introduction ………..…………………………………………………………….1 ………..…………………………………………………….2

Background of the Study

Importance and Significance of the Study ……………………………………………3 Scope and Delimitation ………..…………………………………………………….4

Statement of the Problem ………..…………………………………………………….5 Definition of Terms ………..…………………………………………………………….6 CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and Related Studies 37 Foreign Related Literature …..…..……………………………………………………10 Local Related Literature ………..…………………………………………………..22

Review of Related Studies

…..……………………………………………………37

Synthesis of the Study Research……..………………………………………………43 Conceptual Framework Justification of the Study CHAPTER III Methodology Research Method ………..………………………………………………….47 Sampling Technique………..………………………………………………….49 Development and Validation of Research Procedure Bibliography ...……………………………………50 ………..…………………………………………………..45 ………..…………………………………………………..46

………..…………………………………………………………………51 ………..………………………………………………………………..52

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