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McKinley & O'Loughlin
Chapter 1 Lecture Outline: A First Look at Anatomy
A First Look at Anatomy
Anatomy is the study of structure. The word anatomy is derived from Greek and means “to cut up” or “to cut open.”
Anatomists examine the relationships among parts of the body along with the structure of individual organs.
Introduction to Anatomy
The scientific discipline that studies the function of body structures. Structure and function cannot be completely separated. Form is related to function.
1-5 Levels of Organization in the Human Body Molecules Two or more atoms combine to form a molecule.4 Levels of Organization in the Human Body The simplest level of organization within the body is the chemical level. 1-6 2 . Macromolecules Larger and more complex molecules such as DNA and proteins. or a vitamin. a water molecule. such as a protein. Atoms are the smallest units of matter. which is composed of atoms and molecules.
1-7 Levels of Organization in the Human Body Large molecules join in specific ways to form cells. The cell is the smallest structural unit that exhibits the characteristics of living things (organisms). and it is the smallest living portion of the human body. 1-9 3 . specialized structural and functional units called organelles permit all living cells to share some common functions. 1-8 Levels of Organization in the Human Body Tissues Groups of similar cells with a common function form tissue.Levels of Organization in the Human Body At the cellular level. the basic units of structure and function in organisms. Tissues are precise organizations of similar cells that perform specialized functions.
Levels of Organization in the Human Body Organs Different tissue types that work together to perform specific. Example: The inner lining of the digestive system 1-12 4 . complex functions form an organ. Organ Systems The organ system level consists of related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function. There are 11 organ systems in the human body. the organism. 1-10 Levels of Organization in the Human Body Organism All body systems function interdependently in a single living human being. 1-11 The Four Types of Tissues in the Human Body Are: Epithelial tissue covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities.
and nerves 1-15 5 . 1-13 The Four Types of Tissues Muscle tissue produces movement. or intermediate (such as cartilage). liquid (such as blood). spinal cord. Can be solid (such as bone).The Four Types of Tissues Connective tissue protects. Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle 1-14 The Four Types of Tissues Nervous tissue conducts impulses for internal communication. and interconnects body parts and organs. supports. Brain.
Integumentary Provides protection Regulates body temperature Site of cutaneous receptors Synthesizes vitamin D Prevents water loss 1-16 Skeletal Provides support and protection Site of hematopoeisis (blood cell production) Stores calcium and phosphorus Allows for body movement 1-17 Muscular Produces body movement Generates heat when muscles contract 1-18 6 .
memory 1-19 Endocrine Consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones. intelligence. nutrients. gases. some of which regulate body and cellular growth chemical levels in the body reproductive functions 1-20 Cardiovascular Consists of a pump (the heart) that moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones.Nervous A regulatory system that controls body movement Responds to sensory stimuli Helps control all other systems of the body Also responsible for consciousness. and pick up waste products 1-21 7 .
Lymphatic Transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid) Initiates an immune response when necessary 1-22 Respiratory Responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between blood and the air in the lungs 1-23 Digestive Mechanically and chemically digests food materials Absorbs nutrients Expels waste products 1-24 8 .
g. and expels urine from the body 1-25 Male Reproductive System Produces male sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (e.Urinary Filters the blood and removes waste products from the blood Concentrates waste products in the form of urine.. testosterone) Transfers sperm to the female 1-26 Female Reproductive System Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female hormones (e. estrogen and progesterone) Receives sperm from male Site of fertilization of oocyte Site of growth and development of embryo and fetus 1-27 9 ..g.
1-29 Sections and Planes A coronal plane. transverse. The three major anatomic planes of reference are the coronal. The arms are at either side of the body with the palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body. The head is level. 1-28 Anatomical Terminology A plane is an imaginary surface that slices the body into specific sections. and the eyes look forward toward the observer.Anatomical Terminology Anatomic position is a specific body position in which an individual stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor. and sagittal planes. also called a frontal plane. is a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts. 1-30 10 .
1-31 Sections and Planes A sagittal plane or median plane. cuts perpendicularly along the long axis of the body or organ separating it into both superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves. 1-33 11 .Sections and Planes A transverse plane. 1-32 Sections and Planes A sagittal plane in the body midline is a midsagittal plane. called the oblique plane. A minor plane. A plane that is parallel to the midsagittal plane. passes through the specimen at an angle. also called a cross-sectional plane or horizontal plane. but either to the left or the right of it. is termed a parasagittal (or sagittal) plane.
toward the back surface Dorsal =At the back side of the human body Ventral = At the belly side of the human body 1-35 Relative and Directional Terms of the Body Relative to the head or tail of the body: Superior = Toward the head or above Inferior = Toward feet not head Caudal = At the rear or tail end Cranial = At the head end 1-36 12 . 1-34 Relative and Directional Terms of the Body Relative to front (belly side) or back (back side) of the body : Anterior = In front of.Directional Terms of the Body Directional terms are precise and brief. and for most of them there is a correlative term that means just the opposite. toward the front surface Posterior = In back of.
Relative and Directional Terms of the Body Relative to the midline or center of the body: Medial = Toward the midline of the body Lateral = Away from the midline of the body Deep = On the inside. and trunk which comprise the main vertical axis of our body our limbs. or appendages. called the axial and appendicular regions. underneath another structure Superficial = On the outside 1-37 Relative and Directional Terms of the Body Relative to point of attachment of the appendage: Proximal = Closest to point of attachment to trunk Distal = Furthest from point of attachment to trunk 1-38 Body Regions The human body is partitioned into two main regions. neck. the axial region includes the head. attach to the body’s axis and make up the appendicular region 1-39 13 .
40 41 42 14 .
Body Cavities and Membranes The posterior aspect of the body has two enclosed cavities A cranial cavity is formed by the cranium and houses the brain. Between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous membrane is a thin serous cavity. 1-45 15 . A visceral layer covers the external surface of organs (viscera) within the cavity. containing a lubricating film of serous fluid. 1-44 Body Cavities and Membranes Constant movement of the organs causes friction. which are composed of two layers: A parietal layer lines the internal surface of the body wall. 1-43 Body Cavities Both the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are lined with thin serous membranes. The serous fluid reduces friction and helps the organs move smoothly against both one another and the body wall. A vertebral canal is formed by the individual bones of the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord.
1-48 16 . the heart is enclosed by a two-layered serous membrane called the pericardium. thymus.46 Body Cavities and Membranes The median space in the thoracic cavity is called the mediastinum. esophagus. It contains the heart. trachea. and major blood vessels that connect to the heart. 1-47 Body Cavities and Membranes Within the mediastinum.
it covers the external surface of the lung The narrow. they are lined by a two-layered serous membrane called the pleura. potential space between them is called the pleural cavity 1-50 51 17 .Insert Fig 1. it lines the internal surface of the thoracic wall The inner layer is the visceral pleura. The outer layer is the parietal pleura.9d 49 The Thoracic Cavity The right and left sides of the thoracic cavity contain the lungs. moist.
9d 1-53 54 18 . twolayered serous . 1-52 The Abdominopelvic Cavity The peritoneum is a moist.Abdominopelvic Cavity The abdominopelvic cavity consists of an abdominal cavity and a pelvic cavity. Insert figure 1. membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity.
Abdominopelvic Regions The abdominopelvic cavity is partitioned into 9 smaller. imaginary compartments. 1-55 19 .
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