Part 7 Audio-Visual Communication

AUDIO VISUAL COMMUNICATION Module Notes Nature of Audio Visual Production

We all watch films that we treasure and identify with – for their laughs, their thrills, or their haunting images of terror. Movie stars become cult figures or active politicians. Movies inform many parts of our lives and therefore we should enjoy them in many ways including the challenging pleasure of trying to think about, explain and write about our experience. Audio visual communication is something where audiences feel involved. By using audio visual medium, a story can be viewed from different point of views. In this medium of communication, sound has been carefully woven on the fabric of the film. Although video, an audio of a film are created separately and presented together to create a greater meaning. The need and importance to study Audio Visual: Audio Visual has a wide connotation and is evident in every sector the society; there are various advantages of the same: It records and preserves historical events, provides public with information, instructs people with tools and machines, teaches children in the classroom and students in the lecture hall, educates and enlightens grown up with the current and social affairs, assists scientists and technicians, brings people together to understand each other and instructs, informs and educates people who cannot read and write. Film is an art form which requires sophisticated technology; it’s a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful method for citizens.

Images and Expression: Images express mental states, feelings, emotions etc. The image is a virtual object and not a real object. For example: The photograph of a tree is a virtual object and not the real object. Virtual objects only exist for a perception. Image Virtual

Real

Perception

While making a film, the person would have felt, experienced, heard or understood an event. Each of these will have an inner structure of significance or a skeleton. The inner structure of the image should be representative of the inner thing in order to transfer feelings, emotions. One also needs to select and choose the video and audio segments. They need to be rearranged in a particular sequence according to the inner structure of the artist’s mind. Composition: Composition means exclusion of things that the film maker doesn’t want and inclusion of the things that he wants. Each artist makes a unique composition and eventually delivers a unique meaning. Composition is the artist way of saying the complexity of the subject. When you create a composition, you create a meaning. When the composition of the picture changes; its meaning also changes. What is said by a picture cannot be separated from the way it is said. All the rules of any art form is governed by our day to day life.

The three important elements of composition include: - Visual - Audio - Editing The three basic elements of film making include: - Camera - Microphone - Editing A camera gives the artist an eye to recreate the image in mind. There is an audio medium that involves the selection and recreation of sounds for the audio perception to understand the experience. Editing involves the rearranging of the elements in a particular order. Camera – The camera is so versatile that it makes you look at things in many different ways. The film maker can portray different compositions and meaning by placing the camera in different distance from the subject and in different angles or levels the film. The film maker also decides whether the camera should be static or moving depending upon the mood or message that he wants to convey. Depending on distance of camera from the subject, the shots can be divided into different types: - Extreme close up shots - Close up shots - Medium shot - Long shot - Extreme long shot The three important decisions while shooting include: - Distance – how far from the subject - Height – how much height from the ground

- Movement – whether it is still or moving Distance – The first step to analyse the film is the distance between the camera and the subject. What we see is a virtual subject. Changing the distance of the camera from the subject will change the size of the image. The moment the size of the image changes, the meaning or the composition also changes. Height – When you raise the camera or lower it, you are changing the height of the camera. When you tilt the camera upwards or downwards, it changes the perspective of the subject making it look different thus leaving a different meaning. Different angles of a camera are: - High angle - Eye level - Low angle The angles can be varying. It can be very low or high which is the extreme case of changing the viewpoint. The eye level shot is a very neutral and normal shot, there is no distortment of the subject. These shots describe powerful eye contact.

Movement – The different kinds of camera movement include: - Panning - Tilting - Tracking

Often. While shooting. shots. and sequences form a hierarchy of units fundamental to many tasks in the creation of moving-image works. more specific examples include the extreme long shot. the over the shoulder shot. the aerial shot. and the two shot. and close-ups. In film. While editing. Frames.SHOT. scenes. medium shots. created of a series of frames. The three basic kinds of shots are long shots. Extreme Wide/ Long Shot (EWS) In the extreme wide shot. a shot refers to the action between two adjacent edit points. the point of view shot. that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. Shots are generally filmed with a single camera and can be of any duration. The distance from the camera to the subject greatly affects the narrative power of a shot. SCENE AND SEQUENCE SHOT: A shot is the basic unit of a film and refers to one length of continuous (unedited) action. the bird's eye shot. the view is so far from the subject isn't even visible. a shot is created when you turn the camera on (begin recording) and then turn it off. The point of this shot is to show the subject's surroundings designed to show the audience where the action is taking place. . SHOTS IN RELATION TO DISTANCE: 1. a director will record multiple takes (attempts) of each shot in order to get one perfect take to be edited into the final film. a shot is a continuous strip of motion picture film. The EWS is also known as an extra long shot.

The most common close-ups are ones of . For example. 5. a scene about a murder in a college lecture hall might begin with a shot that shows the entire room — including the lecturing professor and the students taking notes. a scene's setting and/or its participants. it is not as far away as an extreme long shot would be. MEDIUM SHOT A medium shot is a camera shot from a medium distance. and sometimes when. 3.2. occasionally. Typically it is a shot at the beginning (or. CLOSE-UP SHOT A close-up tightly frames a person or object. For example. the remainder of the scene takes place. LONG SHOT A long shot (sometimes referred to as a full shot or a wide shot) typically shows the entire object or human figure and is usually intended to place it in some relation to its surroundings. however. a shot of the person from the knees up or the waist up is a close-up shot. or "establishes". 4. followed by an interior shot of people talking. the Colosseum or the Statue of Liberty – to identify a city. Establishing shot An establishing shot sets up. an exterior shot of a building at night. Establishing shots may also use famous landmarks – such as the Eiffel Tower. Or an establishing shot might just be a long shot of a room that shows all the characters from a particular scene. end) of a scene indicating where. implies that the conversation is taking place at night inside that building. For example. the TV show Seinfeld often uses a "Restaurant" establishing shot — an exterior shot of a restaurant that is followed by interior shots of the characters inside.

Extreme Close Up : The shot is so tight that only a fraction of the focus of attention. Bird's eye shot: . Close Up: A certain feature. They are also used extensively in stills photography. Close shots shows the character’s emotions. they are especially common in soap operas. such as someone's eyes. can be seen SHOTS IN RELATION TO CAMERA ANGLE 1.actors' faces. Medium Close Up: Half-way between a mid shot and a close-up. Leading characters will have multiple close-ups. Usually cover's the subject's head and shoulders. Major characters are often given a close-up when they are introduced as a way of indicating their importance. such as someone's head. Close-ups are also used for distinguishing main characters. Types of close-up: There are various degrees of close-up depending on how zoomed in the shot is. takes up the whole frame. Close cuts to characters' faces are used far more often in television than in movies.

or to emphasise the smallness or insignificance of the subjects. and a shot showing the character's reaction. It is usually established by being positioned between a shot of a character looking at something. 3. and there are many common two-shots which have one subject in the foreground and the other subject in the background. This type of shot is very common when two characters are having a discussion and will usually follow an establishing shot which helps the audience place the characters in their setting. 5. Two shot A Two shot is a type of shot in which the frame encompasses a view of two people (the subjects). The back of the shoulder and head of this person is used to frame the image of whatever (or whomever) the camera is pointing toward. The subjects do not have to be next to each other. Over the shoulder shot An over the shoulder shot (also over shoulder. or third-person shot) is a shot of someone or something taken over the shoulder of another person. These shots are normaly used for battle scenes or establishing where the character is. OTS. The shots are also used to show the emotional reactions between the subjects. 4. This shot can be used to give an overall establishing shot of a scene. Point of view shot A point of view shot also known as POV shot is a short film scene that shows what a character is looking at. Aerial shots . making the subject appear short and squat.A Bird's eye shot refers to a shot looking directly down on the subject. 2. OS. The perspective is very foreshortened.

theme. not the entire film. High angle shot A high angle shot is usually when the camera is located high (often above head height) and the shot is angled downwards (in contrast to a low-angle shot). more powerful or threatening. concept. establish a setting. deliver some relevant information. Good scenes make good movies. This sort of shot would be restricted to exterior locations. if the shot represents a character's point of view the shot can also be used to make the character tall. They may introduce a problem or resolve one. space. The purpose of the scene is to move the story forward. A good area to do this shot would be a scene that takes place on a building. often at knee height. or they may introduce a complication. The subject of a high angle shot looks vulnerable or insignificant. Scenes will introduce characters. A scene is a part of the action in a single location. reveal character relationships. SCENE The scene is the single most important element in the screenplay. This shot is used sometimes in scenes of confrontation and fights to show which person has the higher power. A scene is a unit containing a single and continuous dramatic action unified by time. If the aerial shot is of a character it can make them seem insignificant or vulnerable. it is typically much shorter than a stage play scene. is a shot from a camera positioned low on the vertical axis. looking up. 6.Aerial shots are usually done with a crane or with a camera attached to a special helicopter to view large landscapes. or express a theme. they realize a beat in the story line. 7. . This technique is sometimes used in scenes of confrontation to illustrate which character holds the higher position of power. create a mood. you remember scenes. or motif. While it could conceivably be a single shot a scene is usually a cohesive series of related shots. present exposition (to fill in the back story). Scenes advance the story. character. Due to the ability to edit recorded visual works. content. When you think of a good movie. and is a common element in the aesthetic texture of certain genres such as film noir. Low-angle shot A low-angle shot.

and so on. Rao and his wife are on the railway station and Bhola is runs to stop them. acts include one or more sequences. for example the robbery sequence might consist of an entry sequence. For example a film might include an extended recruitment sequence in which the leader of the gang collects together the conspirators. a safe-cracking sequence. Rao receives a telegram which informs him about his transfer and he gives this news to his wife.Various scenes • Master scenes . but is not allowed from doing so by her jealous husband. The sequence is one of a hierarchy of structural units used to describe the structure of films in varying degrees.g. a robbery sequence. Rao leaving the village is made from three distinct scenes: 1.which are the key scenes to the bulk of the plot. a sequence is a series of scenes which form a distinct narrative unit. In film. 3.where characters are introduced for the first time. a film is composed of one or more acts. • Flash back scenes . Rao goes to meet Bindu is composed of fourteen different shots for 96 seconds. and scenes may be thought of as being built out of shots (if one is thinking visually) or beats (if one is thinking in narrative terms). usually connected either by unity of location or unity of time. Rao goes to meet Bindu. • Introduction scenes . sequences comprise one or more scenes. and so on. their events may occur at different times and places just as long as they are related to each other. close up of Dr. OTS (from the husband) of Dr Rao. Each of these sequences might further contain sub-sequences. E. • Static Scenes . close up of Bindu.where there is very little motion of the subject or camera. Rao. 2. Sequences need not be continuous. Dr. Bindu is sifting grains and looks up to see Dr. an escape sequence. Analyzed this way. EXAMPLE: MANTHAN The sequence of Dr. The scene where Dr. Dr. Rao coming. long shot of the three. Dr. etc .where the audience is taken into the past to reveal crucial story points. Sequence A sequence is a longer segment made up of a series of closely related scenes that together form a unified whole.

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.IMAGE SIZE We understand the physical nature of the world through a comparison of size.. It reveals that s/he is standing on a large scale bridge or on top of a building.a small child in a large space or an ocean liner being pulled by a tug. This type of image appeals to most peoples general fascination with model lay outs where the spectator can take up a detached position and observe a scene without being part of it. Eg. into a valley to see a winding road with a vehicle moving along it or a train puffing through the hills. for eg. a human face. More attractive compositions can be achieved by using a high angle position looking down. We recognize an object through an object by it’s proportions and it’s normal size relationship with other objects. A composition can achieve an impact by introducing an indication of scale or size comparison. A 3-m-high shirt button would require a moment to categorize before we had established a new frame of reference. A frame around an image seals of it’s context (frame of reference) and become unrecognizable unless it is a very familiar object. for eg. People can be tricked by a close shot of a model replica until the camera pulls back and reveals it to be a fraction of the size of the original. The human figure is most easily recognized and used most often in size comparisons. Some objects need to be set in their context before they can visually communicate clearly without any confusion about their identity. An over used technique is the familiar zoom out from the presenter.. The size of an unknown object is understood through comparison with an object of known size or with the background or by it’s appearance in relation to the frame. This shows scale but requires a lot of ‘dead’ visual between the start and the end shot which are the only two images being compared. But it would be instantly recognizable at it’s normal size.

Filming at a high angle makes the small group being filmed overflow the frame. 5. Sometimes the art director designs ‘converging sets’with built in ‘forced perspective’ in which normal sizes players appear in the foreground and undersized or even midget players are positioned in the distance. Regardless of their actual physical size. Relative size. the 3-m.high shirt button. A figure or object can be made to appear taller by angling the camera upwards particularly if the image consists of vertical parallel lines tending to converge. images that ‘crowd’ the frame are considered large. the television image is always in proximity with the objects surrounding the TV set Fig. Such a device can be used to film troops of soldiers and make them look like a large army going to battle. machines and instruments are filmed with an operator in position to reveal their proportionate size.24a the cinema image is viewed in near darkness with no visible object surrounding the screen. To create an effect of height the simplest means is to have the actor stand on a block. The moving image on the screen holds the attention against the surrounding competition of wall paper.The proximity of a subject allows a frame of reference to be established and associations and comparisons to be made. We are easily deceived by apparent size. A low angle wide angle lens shot of a tall building will make it appear taller. Eg. The same factors are at work over time with adjacent shots allowing a development of new information or continuity in story telling. furniture .24b. when viewed. However these are devices of theatrical films. Seeing less than the whole relays the impression that the entire picture is to vast and complicated to capture in it’s entirety. distance. Proximity in time allows continuity and the relationship between visual references which constructs an argument whereas in Fig. The combined two dimensional designed composition including scale indicators has now to contend. or by positioning him forward of the other players and lowering the cameras making him appear taller. A low angle . perspective may all be distorted. To create an impression of a large group of people we can ‘crowd’ the smaller group we have so that they overlap the frame and we can create the impression that there are more outside the picture. This actually tiny object appears huge because it’s edges touch the edges of the screen (crowding). Tools . with a three dimensional environment. In non theatrical films the exact size of objects are made known. ornaments and people. 5. Proximity of subject allows judgments of scale and connections.

Non theatrical films may also use extreme long shots and extreme close ups for dramatic effects. looking downward at a tiny group of pioneers inching their way up a vast rugged landscape instantly portrays the hardships and privations endured on a long. Theatrical films make extensive use of such contrasting shots for visual variety and to provoke involver the audience more closely by provoking an emotional response from them. An extreme long shot. may be exploited to produce emotional responses from the viewers. . Psychological aspects of image size and angling . lonely trek.subjective shot of a person from a child’s viewpoint so that he crods the screen will make him appear even taller. in relation to the frame (the space or lack of space surrounding the object in a picture).

It tends to diminish a subject. It has a tendency to make characters or environments look threatening. and its effects are the opposite as well. The camera is placed above the subject. LOW-ANGLE SHOT A low-angle shot is one in which the camera is below the subject. of the camera in relationship to the subject. The low angle shot can also give a distorted perspective.CAMERA VIEWPOINT ANGLES Although the term angle is often used on the set to designate simple camera position. HIGH-ANGLE SHOT The high-angle shot is obviously the opposite of low-angle. This can produce a sense of both disorientation and foreboding. showing a world out of balance. EYE-LEVEL SHOT Eye-level shots are those taken with camera on or near the eye-level of the character . pointing down. This is the conventional way of making characters look insignificant. powerful or intimidating. or level. the height and orientation. angled upward. it also has a more limited meaning in terms of camera resources. making it look intimidated or threatened. that is.

of course.or subject being filmed. It is used for dramatic effects or for showing a different spatial perspective. It enable the audience to see things which the characters cannot. an eye-level shot puts the viewer on equal footing with the subject being filmed. also called an overhead shot. frantic or desperate . Much like the medium shot. Eye-level shots tend to be neutral. It is generally used to give an overwhelming sense of the world being unbalanced or out of kilter. This angle is used for dramatic effects & helps portray unease. BIRD’S-EYE VIEW The bird’s-eye view. are shot at eye-level. The oblique shot takes the straight lines of the world and presents them as diagonals. This shot is from directly above and tends to have a God-like. as well as a high percentage of shots in episodic television. the camera is tilted laterally on a tripod so it is no longer parallel with the horizon. OBLIQUE SHOT In an oblique shot. Many classic examples of the bird’s-eye shot are. This view is also used in sports & documentaries. disorientation. is actually a variation of the highangle shot but is so extreme that it has an effect all its own. also called the Dutch angle. people look ant-like and insignificant. omniscient point of view. It has none of the diminishing or exaggerating qualities of the high and low-angle shots. A significant majority of shots in theatrical films. found in Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds (1963).

intoxication. not recognizable shots of actors in different angles. It is not used as frequently as one might at first presume. it is an objective.e. close up of properties. who remains visible on the screen. Pick up shots will be taken after taking of the main shots of the scene. madness etc. i. PICK UP SHOTS These are the special shots without actors. primarily because camera vision and human vision are decidedly not the same.action. Sometimes the point-of-view shot is taken over the shoulder of the character (third person). These shots will be useful for compensating editing/continuity problems. and we see the whole story from his/her perspective. There are two types of point-of-view shots: Subjective and objective. POINT-OF-VIEW SHOT A Point-of -view shot represents the perception or viewpoint of a specific character. DEPTH OF FIELD . When the camera assumes the position of one of the characters in the story. BOTTOM ANGLE Views the object from the bottom side. it is a subjective shot. When the camera assumes the position of a third person watching the scene unfold. A POV shot need not be the strict point-of-view of an actual single character in a film..

Dolly. Track. 2. such as into the scene or from one spot to another.it is the field which is in focus. In the following pan. Pan shots are used to show the viewer more of the scenery. Two basic kinds of panning are the following pan and the surveying pan. CONNECTIVE SHOT Shot for connection of background and other ground by using trolley. in case of the close. . object is the starting point of the depth of field. mounting the camera on a tripod. 1. Pan shots should begin with a still shot. Panning A pan is a horizontal camera movement in which the camera moves left and right about a central axis. Arc and Zoom. This is a swiveling movement. Some basic shots are: Panning. it is the distance in focus which is in front of the object and beyond the object. the camera operator pans to follow a character. You should practice panning at various speeds until you find the speed that works best for you.e. Other forms are not spacio-temporal because they do not use space and time at the same time or simultaneously. The surveying pan looks for a character or an object. Tilt. for example. the character is already in a scene. i. then finish with a still shot. and the camera pans to meet him or her. simply moving the camera horizontally from left to right. such as overlooks. Panning is moving the camera laterally. CAMERA MOVEMENT Film is a spacio-temporal art form. then pan. We can create enthusiasm in an otherwise static shot simply by moving the camera. This technique is also often used to show views from high places.

travel shot. at first glance. The track shot differs from a pan. One should note that when we tilt from bottom to top. This video camera technique is used to follow the subject that you are photographing. A track is a lateral. we should begin with a still shot. We can make our own dolly with a wheelchair. It helps us to roll backwards as well as forward. or many other devices that have wheels. a rolling cart. then stop on a still shot. tilt. . whereas you zoom in and out by adjusting the lens. it is known as a tracking shot.or from bottom to top. without lowering or raising the position of the camera. the object looks larger or thicker. The use of a dolly opens up many possibilities. the two are different in terms of how and why you use them. the tripod and camera . with the entire camera and tripod being moved right or left. As with panning. You dolly by moving the camera. a skateboard. dollying may seem similar to zooming. the object looks smaller or thinner. especially when used in conjunction with other techniques.moves past the objects. This is must like panning.Tilting A tilt done with a mounted camera is quite simple. a scooter. This camera movement technique is used to follow your subject. Dolly Dollying refers to moving the camera forward or backward in a scene. or to show the viewer a large object from top of bottom . We just move the camera up or down. sideways. only it is done vertically. the depth of field in a track shot is maintained as the whole unit. Track When the camera is mounted on a cart which travels along tracks for a very smooth movement. in that. Although. When you tilt from top to bottom.

tilting to keep the subject in frame. therefore the size of the image with varying speeds while the camera is stationary. This movement is used in musical and dramatic presentations. Zoom All camcorders are equipped with a zoom lens with a servo button marked T (for tight) and W (for wide). Most likely the single most important aspect of cinematography is lighting. while panning and. The camera moves out from the subject. simultaneously making a circular move. sometimes. Light is . LIGHT Lighting plays a very important role in film making because a visual image is formed due to the play of light. an arc.Arc An Arc is a move that incorporates tracking and panning at the same time. Be careful not to zoom too quickly on your subjects and use sparingly. Zooming in and out changes the focal length and.

This light will create a slight glow on the back of the subject and thus separate it from the background. THE THREE POINT LIGHTING SYSTEM (BASED ON POSITIONING OF THE LIGHT SOURCE) : The three-point lighting system is the most common lighting scheme used in motion pictures. etc). It is meant to simulate other light sources or light that is being reflected off other objects. a light bulb or some other source of light. Using three lights from three different directions creates a sense of depth on people and objects guaranteeing everything will look three dimensional. It is sometimes referred to as the hallo effect. however. It uses a key light. A fill light should be placed on the opposite side of the key light but needs to be about half as bright and not positioned quite as high. This prevents the subject from looking two dimensional on the film. and a back light (or rim light). a fill light. Key Light The key light is the primary light used to illuminate a subject. The control of light quality. a window. Back Light (Rim Light) The back light needs to be placed behind the subject opposite the camera but high above both so that none of the light goes directly into the camera. Lighting contributes considerably to the emotional response an audience has watching a motion picture. This light represents the primary source of light in a scene simulating the sun. Fill Light After the key light is positioned you will notice a harsh shadow on one side of the subject opposite the key light. It is usually positioned 15 – 45 degrees from one side of the camera and angled down 15 – 45 degrees from above the subject. direction and intensity is a major factor in the art and science of cinematography. The art of lighting for cinematography goes far beyond basic exposure. into the essence of visual storytelling. colour. Do not place it at the exact same angle as the key light. . The fill light is meant to reduce the shadow but not eliminate it entirely (shadow gives a sense of depth).necessary to create an image exposure on a frame of film or on a digital target (CCD.

the background light is placed last and is usually placed directly behind the subject and pointed at the background. The art of lighting for cinematography goes far beyond basic exposure. HOW LIGHTING CAN BE USED: Most likely the single most important aspect of cinematography is lighting. In early cinema this was the sole purpose of lighting. feel free to experiment as much as you like. Increasingly. It is important for viewers to be able to discern all the important elements in the frame. These might range from facial expressions and physical gestures to the presence of significant props. Once you have mastered this technique and are able to create and sustain a general mood throughout a movie. The background light will also provide separation between the subject and the background. until you do. a repertoire of standardized lighting techniques came to be used for particular dramatic situations and particular lighting styles came to be strongly associated with film genres.Beyond Three-Point Lighting Of course there are many variations to this scheme and additional lights are often added as needed. The use of "effects lighting. but around 1905 other factors came into play. PURPOSE OF LIGHTING: Film lighting has three main purposes. Lighting's second purpose is a quest for greater realism. Light is necessary to create an image exposure on a frame of film or on a digital target (CCD. Films began to introduce visual schemes that suggested that the lighting came from logical sources within the world depicted. don’t start playing around too much or you could ruin an otherwise good movie with poor lighting. this simple schematic will do. In the standard 4-point lighting setup. However. . etc). Background Lighting: The background light is used to illuminate the background area of a set. The development of lighting technique as a significant element of mise-en-scène became an important tool for manipulating audience responses to characters and narrative events. The first is clarity of image." as it was known at the time. but for 95% of your movie making. however. paved the way for the third purpose: the creation of atmosphere or emotional effect.

The control of light quality. direction and intensity is a major factor in the art and science of cinematography.into the essence of visual storytelling. . This is known as low-key lighting. as used in the 'film noir' (dark films) of the 1940s and 1950s. colour. often distorting effect. bright. It is much 'softer' than low-key lighting. or add a 'twinkle' to their eyes. deep shadows can make a character seem untrustworthy or conceal a host of horrors. This will appear much more normal and realistic to our eyes but can also be manipulated to give a more glamorous appearance to a star’s face. Lighting has come to be an important component of cinema's visual design. These shadows can be decoded by the audience to suggest an air of mystery. Exaggerated use of low-key lighting can be found in horror films. Lighting contributes considerably to the emotional response an audience has watching a motion picture. Low-key lighting is often seen as expressive. where underlighting (placing a light under a face or an object) gives a dramatic. as we find in many modern-day films depicting life in the future. diffused lighting can provide comfort and reassurance or create the impression of an angelic countenance. The director manipulates this basic format to achieve the atmosphere he wishes to signify. On the other. it can create a substantial emotional impact. On the one hand. High-key lighting means that filler lights are used. if he uses only the key and back lights. he will produce a sharp contrast of dark and light areas on the screen as shadows are formed. A primordial response to darkness and light is a deep-seated element of human psychology that filmmakers have harnessed in order to influence the ways viewers respond to narrative development. They can also be decoded to suggest a world where there is depression and decay. For instance. It is widely recognized that in film.

. The audio component has to be carefully woven in accordance with the visual component. If we hear what Bresson is telling us. the visual aspect is more readily comprehensible. Sound is an important element of the composition. the ear is profound and inventive. In films.” This is how Robert Bresson expressed his sympathy for sound. fine tuning them so to speak.SOUND : AUDIO COMPONENT IN FILMS “The eye is superficial. we should realize that adding audio to images does not just allow for a greater manipulation of the images. A meaningful sound track is often as complicated as the image on the screen. It also means that the world opened up by sounds can be radically different from the one our eyes have accustomed us to.

An improved cylinder-based system. but individual. and ballet excerpts to be presented at the Paris Exposition in 1900. No agreement was reached. based primarily on the work of Swiss-born inventor François Dussaud. but within a year Edison commissioned the development of the Kinetoscope. Phono-Cinéma-Théâtre. he proposed a scheme for sound cinema that would combine his image-casting zoopraxiscope with Edison's recorded-sound technology. or sound technologically coupled to image. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900. the system required individual use of earphones. In the early years after the introduction of sound. On February 27. the two inventors privately met. similar to the Kinetophone. The entire sound track is comprised of three essential ingredients: • the human voice/ speech • sound effects . released in October 1927.A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound. was developed by Clément-Maurice Gratioulet and Henri Lioret of France." or "talkies. These appear to be the first publicly exhibited films with projection of both image and recorded sound. opera." The first feature-length movie originally presented as a talkie was The Jazz Singer. cabinet viewing of motion pictures was soon to be outmoded by successes in film projection. but decades would pass before reliable synchronization was made commercially practical. as a visual complement to his cylinder phonograph. as opposed to a silent film. In 1899. Muybridge later claimed that on this occasion. a projected sound-film system known as Cinemacrophonograph or Phonorama. a couple of days after photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge gave a lecture not far from the laboratory of Thomas Edison. essentially a "peep-show" system. The first commercial screening of movies with fully synchronized sound took place in New York City in April 1923. allowing short films of theater. was exhibited in Paris. films incorporating synchronized dialogue were known as "talking pictures. A BRIEF HISTORY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF SOUND IN FILMS: The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as the concept of cinema itself. six years before the first commercial motion picture exhibition. The two devices were brought together as the Kinetophone in 1895.

An excellent example of silence creating an impact would be the scene from the movie Jurassic Park in which they wait anxiously for the first glimpse of the dinosaur. Perhaps this is the case because the very texture of a performer's voice supplies an element of character. These can be used in any combination. The viewer sees not an actor working at his craft. This film presents pure escapism . This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character played by Katharine Hepburn. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. These three elements are discussed below: THE HUMAN SPEECH/VOICE: Dialogue authenticates the speaker as an individual or a real person rather than the imaginary creation of a story teller. For example: In the film 2001 little dialogue was evident. for example: Humphrey Bogart is Sam Spade. It is interesting to note that how dialogue is used and the very amount of dialogue used varies widely among films. a whole and very realistic persona emerges. Silence can also be used as a significant element in certain scenes of a film. They could hear the “thuds” as the dinosaur advanced. Human speech can be combined with sound or music to provide emphasis to the situation as well as the character. and most of what was used was banal. presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at break-neck speed. An artist consciously includes certain elements in a frame to make a meaning. on the other hand. In this way the filmmaker was able to portray the “inadequacy of human responses when compared with the magnificent technology created by man and the visual beauties of the universe. Thus.largely due to its frenetic dialogue. film personality and life personality seem to merge.• music These three elements must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphasis which in turn creates desired effects. but another human being struggling with life. When voice texture fits the performer's physiognomy and gestures. The audience is caught up in a whirlwind of activity in simply managing to follow the plot. dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. but also the absurd duality of the film itself and thus its humor. Each sound was cleverly alternated with complete silence to create the suspense and .” The comedy. Silence can by successfully created by compare and contrast. The audience is bounced from gag to gag and conversation to conversation. As is the case with stage drama. Bringing Up Baby. there is no time for audience reflection.

and they may also add to the realism of the film. However. For example: If the film portrays a character playing the piano. and the audience-may only subconsciously note the expected sound. The sound effect is used to keep the conversation alive from both sides. at the same time the noise of the siren adds to the realism of the film by acknowledging the film's (avowed) city setting. In film. Sound effects are of two types synchronous and asynchronous sounds. Synchronous sounds are those sounds which are synchronized or matched with what is viewed. the foremost raison d’etre for the sound effect track then is to make sure the world remains as we know it. the sounds of the piano are projected. Without sound effects. For example: The “click” of a door being opened may simply serve to convince the audience that the image portrayed is real. The asynchronous ambulance siren underscores the psychic injury incurred in the argument. For example in the Japanese film Kwaidan directed by Masaki Kawayashi. Sound effects can also be used to convey what a character is thinking about at a point of time. Such sounds are included so as to provide an appropriate emotional nuance. if the “click” of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary. the sound mixer may call attention to the “click” with an increase in volume. forces us to question us the soundness of the project. For example. Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. Asynchronous sound effects are not matched with a visible source of the sound on screen. Sound effects exist because we expect them to be there. but without sound effects (as one does when building up a rough cut). He had left his wife back at home and he couldn’t concentrate on the work at hand as he was thinking about her. this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense. there is a scene in which the protagonist takes part in a archery contest. in which the protagonist Samir talks to his heavenly father we hear the sounds of thunder as a response.fear. In one scene . the characters on the screen are not quite real: it is as if their soul had left them. SOUND EFFECTS: To look at a film with dialogue. in the scene from the film Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. For example: A film maker might opt to include the background sound of an ambulance's siren while the foreground sound and image portrays an arguing couple.

we see the hero aiming for a shot but the sound of the galloping horse is overtaken by the sound of the spinning wheel. In the next scene, we see his wife working on the spinning wheel. But the sound of the wheel is overtaken by the sound of the galloping horse which indicates that she is thinking about him. Sound effects can be significantly used to create the mood of a scene. In Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali, there is a scene in which Durga’s father returns after 5 months of absence. He is not aware of his daughter’s death and starts distributing the presents that he got from the city. When he calls for Durga, Sarbojaya, Durga’s mother breaks down because finally she has someone she can share her grief with. The sound of her cries and her speech is drowned by music because the audience already know what she is talking about. Similarly in Ghatak’s Meghe Dhaka Tara, there is a scene in which the elder brother of the family goes to meet the meet the female protagonist in the sanatorium. He brings good news from and is happy to meet her. Everyone in the family is well settled in life and is progressing in his or her career. But the protagonist is not a part of that happy state. She is suffering in the sanatorium and is about to die. She supported the family in their days of trouble and sacrificed her own happiness for them. But now when she needs support and care nobody is there for her. She breaks down in front of her brother and says “Ami bachte chai (I want to live)”. Her speech resounds in the entire valley expressing her grief and suffering. She feels cut off from the society and she is suffering due to their indifference. Sound can also be categorized into diegetic and non-diegetic sound depending upon its source. Diegetic Sound: Diegetic means belonging to the world of films, so diegetic sound incorporates all those sounds that are motivated by the film world. It can be ‘on-screen’ or ‘offscreen’. ‘On-screen sound’ simply proceeds from the images we can see on the screen. ‘Off-screen’ sound is still diegetic but we are left to imagine rather than see the source of the sound, e.g. we may see the interiors of a flat and hear the doorbell ring. We don’t need to see the door or the doorbell but can their presence from the off-screen sound. Off-screen sound particularly effective in creating suspense and fear of something we can hear but can’t see, e.g. The Blair Witch Project(Sanchez and Myrick, USA, 1999), Jurassic Park(Spielberg, USA, 1993). Combined use of on-screen and off-screen sound creates the complete effect. For example, in Pather Panchali, when Sarbojaya reads the letter from her husband we hear his voice, though he is not present in the scene. In the same film, when Sarbojaya sits and tries to decide on her

future course of action, we hear the off-screen sound of a train and she decides to migrate. When she takes out her silver utensils to sell them we hear their sound indicating the importance of their going out of the family. Although all films use on-screen and immediately of-screen sound effects basically the same way, the selection process and their characteristic degree of presence must be carefully thought out. Sound effects are thus positioned throughout a film to “waken up the visual space”. As Michel Chion demonstrated in his analysis of Robert Bresson’s A Man Escaped(1956), the sounds we hear infer successive circles of presence around a French Resistance fighter imprisoned in a Nazi jail. First, there are the immediate noises within the cell itself: those the man makes as he walks back and forth, sits on the mattress, and writes something on the wall. Beyond the tiny cell, we hear what is happening in the rest of the block: the yelling of other prisoners, the guards coming and going, etc. Past that, there are the different sounds of the small town that surrounds the jail: children playing on a street, birds chirping, mostly the traffic. Then, at night, when everything quiets down, one is able to hear the whistling of a train at the outskirts of a city. As the camera stays for the most part with the man in his cell, all these sounds imply an ever-receding landscape of human activity beyond that which is visually available. Therefore, it is not just that synchronized sounds anchor the presence of the man in his cell, it is that other sounds, from people and things we do not see, complete the picture so to speak, testifying to the presence of an entire world out there. Diegetic sound would include: • Dialogue and all other sounds made by the actors, e.g. laughing, screaming(but not voice-over narration). The things people say is not only a way of drawing character but also of stimulating an audience’s response to that character. Dialogue is a very clear and direct way of introducing information which helps to explain actions and motivations. Characters can also easily fill in explanations of events and indeed describe events or parts of events not actually seen. • Sound effects suggested by the setting e.g. phones and doorbells ringing, television and radio in the background, traffic noises, footsteps, dogs barking, etc; • Music, if we can see that it is sourced in the world of the film; for example the characters attend an opera (Pretty Woman, Marshall, USA, 1990), (The Godfather part III) or put on a record or dance, e.g. Strictly Ballroom( Luhrmann, 1992) and Saturday Night Fever (Badham,1977). Non – diegetic sound:

Non-diegetic sound does not belong to the world of the film, so this would include: • The musical score or sound track. • Voice over narration- a technique whereby the voice of one of the characters accompanies the images telling us the story. Best examples are films of Martin Scorsese – Taxi Driver(1976), The Age of Innocence(1993). MUSIC: Background music Background music is used to add emotion and rhythm to a film. Usually not meant to be noticeable, it often provides a tone or an emotional attitude toward the story and/or the characters epicted. In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood. For example, dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster. Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes. For example, a particular musical theme associated with an individual character or situation may be repeated at various points in a film in order to remind the audience of salient motifs or ideas. Film sound is comprised of conventions and innovations. We have come to expect an acceleration of music during car chases and creaky doors in horror films. Yet, it is important to note as well that sound is often brilliantly conceived. The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds. Yet, it behooves us to foster an awareness of film sound as well as film space so as to truly appreciate a twentieth century art form, the modern film. SOUND EDITING: From the very earliest days of cinema, sound has been one of the key devices by which a film-maker can counteract the fragmentary nature of film to tell, propel, or enhance its storytelling properties. Edits may be frequent, constantly presenting us with changing visual images, but sound is likely to be more continuous, carrying over from one shot to the next and so helping to connect the images and provide continuity from one shot to the next. Sound also provides the viewer with sound motifs which contribute to their engagement with the narrative and aid a sense of completeness. Editing is the composition of a segment of action for the viewer’s perception. It is act of combining the visual and audio element in a sequential manner. Sound editing is a creative professional manner of selecting and assembling sound recordings in preparation for the final sound mixing or mastering of a television program, motion picture, video game, or any production involving recorded or synthetic sound. Sound editing developed out of the need to fix the incomplete, undramatic, or technically

inferior sound recordings of early talkies, and over the decades has become a respected filmmaking craft, with sound editors implementing the aesthetic goals of motion picture sound design. The essential piece of equipment used in modern sound editing is the digital audio workstation, or DAW. A DAW allows sounds, stored as computer files on a host computer, to be placed in timed synchronization with a motion picture, mixed, manipulated, and documented. The standard DAW system in use by the American film industry, as of 2005, is Digidesign's Pro Tools, with the majority running on Macs. Another system in use presently is Yamaha owned Steinberg's cross platform DAW Nuendo running on Macs using operating system Mac OS X but also on Windows XP. Other systems historically used for sound editing were: • WaveFrame, manufactured by WaveFrame of Emeryville, CA • Several DAWs have been manufactured by Fairlight • SonicSolutions • AMS-Neve Audiofile A cut is an editing device which joins two shots together. In sound editing we have instantaneous replacement of one sound with the other. Tools used for sound editing is same as the ones used in video editing. They are: • Fade: the first sound reaches zero level (silence) then the second sound comes up. • Dissolve: there is no moment of silence between two sounds. The sounds are more compressed and simultaneous. If first sound is at level 10 then the second would be at level 1. Every editing device or transition carries a particular meaning/significance. The images might frequently change but they can be connected by a musical score that has the effect of knitting the shots together into a scene or sequence. Another way of using sound to the same effect is through bridges. Diegetic sound continues from one shot into the next. In the opening scene of Raging Bull Jake La Motta ends his monologue with ‘That’s entertainment’. This line is repeated and becomes an ironic comment on the next image we see: the younger La Motta being beaten in the ring. In an early scene from Charles’ life in Citizen Kane the line ‘Merry Christmas’ is followed by ‘Happy New Year’, but said ten years later.

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etc. music or sound effects which come from a source within the film world.. Rao receives the telegram informing him of his transfer.. This can be dialogue. it paints the true picture of Irony. syntax and style of language along with the right intonation. he tells his wife“Tumhare liye khush khabri hai Shanta. for example. The music in this instance will be from a source in the film which we acknowledge could actually be producing music.. Nishant.. we shall discuss the role of VERBAL LANGUAGE in audio-visual productions. fire hai itaraata wagarna shehar meiN 'GHalib' kee aabroo kya hai ? Another example of this is Shyam Benegal’s movies set in rustic locations.hum ghar ja rahe hai” The dialogue alone would appear to be a ‘happy’ one but combined with the video track. Nondiegetic sound is sound which we do not recognise as part of the film world such as a voice-over or background music. a CD player or jukebox.. language of films is generally associated with the camera movement. The language helps create the mood of the eighteenth century Mughal dominated India.cheerful sounding words defining an inner .VERBAL LANGUAGE When we watch a film. In film-making terms. Some examples of Mirza Ghalib’s shayarihar ek baat pe kehte ho tum ke 'too kya hai' ? tumheeN kaho ke yeh andaaz-e-guftgoo kya hai ? huaa hai shaah ka musaahib. dialogues in Manthan. lighting. Diegetic sound is sound which is part of the film world we are watching. in other words we can either see the person or object that is making the sound (on screen) or we don’t (off screen). Diegetic sound can occur either on screen or off screen. The dialogues written in lilting Urdu interspersed with Ghalib’s verses sung by Jagjit Singh capture the essence of that era and add another dimension to the series. the sounds that we hear can be diegetic or nondiegetic. Ankur. Benegal’s intelligent filmmaking also captures irony through dialogue. Entering a more specific section of the audio aspect of films. The dialogues are written keeping in mind the mood that the director wants to create.. For instance. The colloquialisms introduced add a distinct flavour to Benegal’s masterpieces. A good example of this would be Gulzar’s TV series Mirza Ghalib. etc. Head Office se orders aaye hai. Dialogues. In the scene from Manthan where Dr. The script plays an equally important role. modulation and diction help create the ambience.

R. Film criticism has been particularly harsh to verbal language in films by choosing to ignore its importance.” There are also references like “my good mother” and “my old beauty”. words on sets and props. if the right is mine to give. etc. The dialogues capture the relationship that the sons share with their parents. It depicts good upbringing despite a poor background.dialogues. Gruffydd. Dialogues help bring out bliss. you may have it. Similarly. The language used in the voice-over helps to set the mood for the documentary. It also captures typical society inWales with its depictions of tough coal miners. Dialogues help reflect a character’s inner state of mind even when their expressions cannot. Generally. stiff necked teachers.” “For if my father was the head of the house. A documentary on the mystery surrounding the assassination of Kennedy would have powerful narration which induces a sense of enigma and mystery. Director Rouben . Ralph Stephenson and J. scenarios. envy. pathos and a variety of other emotions. It leaves the viewer curious and asking for more. intertitles. Historical and Period films put emphasis on verbal language as it brings out the mood of that era. war movies include a lot of jargon which lends an aura of authenticity. dialogue plays a very important role here as well. “interfere with and disturb the image”. to say nothing of the verbal bases(treatments. my dear. documentaries have a narrator doing the voice over to substantiate the visuals. my mother the heart. particularly images.state of turmoil which is visible through Dr. I don’t give a damn” It is reflective of a state of indifference as well as an acute sense of irony. song lyrics and credits. The above can be illustrated with the help of an example from Gone with the Wind.a mixture of love and affection with respect. foreign language subtitles. And it is perhaps one of the most famous dialogues in the history of cinema.” “Mr. Rhett Butler’s famous reply in response to Scarlett O’Hara’s“Where shall I go?What shall I do?” “Frankly. Words. screenplays) of almost all films. John Ford’s ‘How Green is my valley?’ is another example of dialogues creating ambience. For instance. Coming to documentaries. according to them. “For singing is in my people as sight is in my eye. voiceovers. upright preachers. happiness. Rao’s facial expressions. Debrix’s The Cinema as Art devotes only 5 out of 270 pages to verbal language inspite of the fact that most films are full of words. The book also treats ‘words’ as threats to filmic visuals and seeks to diminish their signifying power by subordinating them to nonverbal film elements.

. In 1939. the scenario is such that scriptwriting is considered secondary compared to the other aspects of film making... Image debate has been raging for years. then you put it in words...Mamoulian has a similar view. verbal language is an important constituent of film making and holds a position of its own. . Even if the director is the scriptwriter of a film.. Nevertheless. it is his/her role as the director of the movie rather than as the scriptwriter that defines him/her as the film’s author..” Today. Hollywood producer Irving Thalberg had said that “The writer is the most important person in Hollywood.. Not everybody supports the view that dialogues can be relegated to the background when it comes to film making.... “The less dialogue the better the film.when you cannot express it visually..” But the word vs.

" Aaron Copland has said that a composer can do no more than "make potent through music the film's dramatic and emotional value. it is a necessity in the form of contingency. musicals. science fiction and horror films." It has been said that film music originally appeared largely to cover up the sound of the clanky machines that projected the earliest of the silent films. the role of music in the inappropriately-called "silent cinema". the development of the Hollywood studio sound system and the age of the "classic Hollywood sound films" during the 1930s and 1940s. But the deeper meaning behind associating music with cinema was only found in the late 1800s. As Hegel described an absolute necessity and as Zizek interprets. avant-garde and experimental cinema. David Raksin has written that music's avowed purpose in films is "to help realize the meaning of a film. The origins of the Western musical-dramatic style. and the artistic and business relationships at play in music and film production-all .MUSIC The marriage of film and music can be traced back to ancient cinema. the breakthrough of synchronized sound-film systems from 1926 and 1927.

Music can be used to underline or create psychological refinements--the unspoken thoughts of a character or the unseen implications of a situation: Frequently. musical color may be taken to represent the exotic or sensuous aspects of music. Film music is overwhelmingly coloristic in its intention and effect. Yet film theoreticians appear not even to recognize music's possibilities in this area. Lagaan’s music score is based on aristocratic feel. In The Good. Music can serve as a kind of neutral background filler: At times one of the functions of film music is to do nothing more than be there. however. and perhaps its most valuable contribution. The characteristic of music in cinema is invisible. For Example. In a broad sense. this possibility is passed over and music is not allowed to speak. The ability of music to make a psychological point in film is a subtle one. as distinct from musical structure. more aptly termed composition. The Bad And The Ugly. One is to use musical material indigenous to the locale of a film. Far too often. or line. Simply put. this distinction has a good deal of validity in terms of film music. the function of is cinema is secondary to visuals. This use of film music is perhaps most effective when it is planned well in advance--when the film is in the scripting stage. which might be considered the intellectual side. It is an attempt to establish the supra-reality of a many-faceted portrayal of behaviour.have relied heavily upon music in cinema. enhancing/strengthening it’s impact." Even though it is filling a rather subordinate role to other elements in the picture. adding a third dimension to the images and words. It provides a backing to visuals on the screen. the valor of the character is established by the music primarily while Clint Eastwood is just staring in one direction. "filler" type music is in fact a very conscious . Musical color can be achieved in a variety of ways. Eg. Music can create a more convincing atmosphere of time and place: Atmosphere is a characteristic created by the colour of the music. Film music must thus enter directly into the 'plot' of the film. music can imply a psychological element far better than dialogue can. If we notice. "as though it would exist as sound rather than as 'constructed' music.

become merely chaotic. by its very nature.dramatic device. Friedhofer's from Broken Arrow is music accompanying a wedding ceremony. place. music can help build the drama in a scene to a far greater degree of intensity than any of the other cinematic arts. Without music the montage can. A leitmotif/leitmotiv. rational defense mechanisms. music evokes a gut reaction unobtainable in any other way. continually in danger of falling apart. associated with a particular person. in some instances. many producers and directors seem to feel this is film music's only function in a film--especially if the film is inherently weak. Sometimes music will come to the foreground momentarily to comment on the dialogue and then drop back into the background when the next line is said. The music created by Ravi Shankar for Satyajit Ray’s Pather Panchali is the most recognized example of Leit Motif used in Indian films. It is of little significance whether the scene involves an intimate love relationship or a violent fight. (lit. On the other hand. When used properly. We tend to react to music whether we desire to or not and if we don't wish to be moved by it. we resent its presence for making us begin to lose control of our rational. particularly. A film editor is probably most conscious of this particular attribute of music in films. "leading motif") is a recurring musical theme. Music can also develop this sense of continuity on the level of the film as a whole. "sophisticated" defenses. In a montage. Music can help build a sense of continuity in a film: Music can tie together a visual medium that is. music can serve an almost indispensable function: it can hold the montage together with some sort of unifying musical idea. Music can provide the underpinning for the theatrical buildup of a scene and then round it off with a sense of finality: Music has a way of bypassing the human's normal. Most recognized example is the Star Wars Imperial March associated with Darth Vader in the Star Wars series of films composed by John Williams. For examples. or idea. Another aspect of music in cinema is Leit Motif. Various versions of the same . In fact. There are times when music accompanying dialogue can take on a definite foreground character. this can be one of the least effective uses of film music if not handled properly.

reality or a fact’s probability. George Méliès was utilizing a similar hand-painting process for his films. its artisans only had the capability to film in black and white. There are also some early films with sepia sequences or green negatives or dyed or hand-colored scenes. cinema as well as television began in black and white and only later was colour used. Color was really only used in early films as a novelty. Verisimilitude in its literary context is defined as the fact or quality of being verisimilar. Black and white photography worked on a concept called “verisimilitude”. dozens of color systems were introduced.[2] Between 1900 and 1935. Color movies started nearly as early as film itself in 1895 with Thomas Edison's hand-painted Anabelle's Dance made for his Kinetoscope viewers. Thus cinema began with only these two colors. As black and white pictures lacked the truth of colour it remained true to the shape and form of its subject. which had various parts of the film painted frame-by-frame by twenty-one women in Montreuil[1] in a production-line method. likeness or resemblance of the truth. This was the the most truthful representation of subject. The history of the mechanic reproduction of images seems to be marked by a "resistance" towards colour: lithographic printing. Music is an integral part of cinema. including the visual effects pioneering A Trip to the Moon (1902). Yet colour had to be included as technology developed as many expressions went unnoticed with the lack of colour.[3] . for different situations. However. although only a few were successful. photography. The realism impressed people so much that they forgot to question the trivia called colour. An interesting study of this would be hearing a film without watching the visuals and then trying to understand the it! COLOUR IN CINEMA When the movie industry began. it is evident that its significance is undermined. first broadcasted by the Lumiere brothers.piece of music is used throughout the film. the appearance of being true or real.

called toning. Film tinting was a process in which either the emulsion or the film base is dyed. Because of the limited amount of space to record images on film.[1] Additive color The additive color systems were practical because they could be incorporated with black-and-white film stock. replaces the silver halide particles in the film with metallic salts or mordant dyes. etc. blue for night. with specific colors employed for certain narrative effects (red for scenes with fire or firelight.which.g. produce white light.red. often red and green or red and blue. one of the most accurate and reliable stencil coloring systems. two prints were made on film stock with half the base thickness than normal. which was toned accordingly: . most early motion picture color systems consisted of two colors.[1] By that time. The first successful subtractive color process was Kelley's Prizma Color. when equally mixed together. green and blue . and later because the lack of a camera that could record more than two strips of film at once. Tinting and toning were sometimes applied together. This system used a beam splitter in a specially modified camera to send red and green light waves to separate black-and-white film negatives. blue and white rather than black and white).. it was known that light comprises a spectrum of different wavelengths that are perceived as different colors as they are absorbed and reflected by natural objects.) A complementary process. This creates a color effect in which the dark parts of the image are replaced with a color (e. Additive color adds lights of the primary colors in various proportions to the projected image. an early color process that was first introduced at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City on 8 February 1917 with the short film Our Navy. Pathé Frères invented Pathé Color (renamed Pathéchrome in 1929). Maxwell discovered that all natural colors in this spectrum may be reproduced with additive combinations of three primary colors . A more common technique. The various additive systems entailed the use of color filters on both the movie camera and projector. Subtractive color Subtractive color largely started with the inventions of William Van Doren Kelley. The principles on which color photography are based were first proposed by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855 and presented at the Royal Society in London in 1861. This process was popular during the 1920s. From these negatives. giving the image a uniform monochromatic color.Among the early dye-coloring processes.

they actually become gray (as their blood ceases being pumped through their bodies. repression and the spiritual world. Carefree (1938). this signifies the difference of Dorothy’s perception of these two places. beauty. Black-and-white (and gray) represent ethereality. The pre-eminent era of colour films was 1939-1949. In The Wizard of Oz. It represents feelings. the other green. alternate realities. that someplace far. using color was much more expensive. The segment still calls out for color. mortality of human life." was originally intended to be in color. The juxtaposition of seeing in color and black-and-white also give the sense of . One example that was not to be is RKO's Astaire-Rogers film. so if a studio couldn't afford do the entire film in color. What Dreams May Come. One song-and-dance number of the film.." A more macabre way of putting this is that when people die. Kansas in the same decade of the dust bowl appears in black-and-white and that someplace over the rainbow. One of the black-and-white characters on the silver screen in Woody Allen's The Purple Rose of Cairo says "We're not human. Today. "I used to be color blind. Color and black-and-white can be used to differentiate fantasy or an alternate reality and black-and-white can be used to show a different historical period or for memory or flashbacks. In many films. RKO was a little studio and didn't really use technicolor. beliefs and different concepts. evanescence. but the studio changed its mind to keep costs down. sensuality. intensely saturated color and fantastic matte shots are used to create a heightened unreality. changes in states of reality. In films like Pleasantville and The Wizard of Oz. Colour is seldom used with imagination. they used a little bit. color represents the pain. which was an expensive process.. emotions. SIGNIFICANCE OF COLOUR Colour signifies more than the hue of an object. most films have the same look and texture.one red. far away where there isn't any trouble is the Technicolor world of Oz. conflict. featuring the Irving Berlin song. Originally. subjective reality and idealized plane of existence.[4] Then they were cemented together base-to-base into a single strip of film. Here too black and white is related closely to reality as Kansas is black and white while oz is fantasy and coloured. when the name Nathalie Kalmus as Technicolor consultant guaranteed the genuine three-tone article before Eastman Color greatly reduced the visual quality of films. color differentiates two universes.) In another recent film about heaven. stark differences.

giving the viewer a greater sense of immediacy and some nagging illusory sense that one could change it (if it were the here and now and not merely the now) There is also one final scene of childhood done in color. Nicholas Roeg. sin and is the color of blood and red roses. there are two worlds: the gritty world of New York streets and the fabled world of California. all the more poignant because the rest of past has been in black and white. Rusty. pleasure. It is the color of the red rose after the first sex in Pleasantville and the red rose that the foppish angel sees in Stairway to Heaven and he comments rather self-referentially. Whether in color films or color and black-and-white films. communist china is awash with red and post-communist China is khaki. in which the imperial China is shown in golden light. Color can also convey subjective states of perception or time. after his brother is dead. Some films also use color highly symbolically.overlapping co-existent dimensions. but color. Red Desert. It is the color of the sun the angels can't see when they gather at sunrise and sunset to hear the music of the spheres in Wim Wenders' Wings of Desire and this year's remake. It symbolizes sex. In the final scene. red is used most frequently to grab the viewer's attention. a gripping and macabre film about a couple in Venice mourning the accidental death of their young daughter. City of Angels. like The Last Emperor. in which it arises from the subjective representation of the colorblindness of the protagonist's older brother. Color is also used to convey point of view or identity as in Rumble Fish. The film is not a black-and-white film that uses color sequences. is also a word for a color (a shade of red) and the implication is that his older brother can't see him. sensuality. "One is starved for Technicolor up there. and it is the red sand in the hourglass in and the poison red poppies in The Wizard of Oz. who made a film called Don't Look Now (1973). Interestingly. the protagonist's name. he sees himself in color in a reflection in the window of the police car and he goes into a rage. It is blood that the angels see when they fall. especially red. is used highly symbolically to foreshadow the moments of horror." It's also the first colors that creep into the . This is the case in American History X (1998) in which the present is always in color. It is the color Antonioni's first color film. Another observation about this film is that like the films about angels and heaven.

scarves. the blue or green of someone's eyes. lurid greens and pinks and oranges. a folder.red is usually the color used to designate obsession. The use of color . Another example of colour signifying a core concept is Krzysztof Kieslowski’s “Three colours blue”. or the yellow of a lowlife's skin. and (of course) raincoat yellows. Sin City is full of color flashes .) An aside -. with the notable exception being Greed (1925).not that anyone would mistake this picture. crystals. a van. Red is the only color in Schindler's List an as such it is used to engage attention. binders. However. or how the impossibly tall big-city buildings seem to glow from within.a foil balloon.Sin City is the most visually inventive comic book adaptation to make its way to a movie screen. Here the colour blue stands for liberty. or how the streetlights and fairy-tale moonbeams bounce lovingly . the orange of fire. but that just makes you notice all the more how Tracy's coat matches the yellow trashcan in an alleyway. awnings. in its natural color. more frequently. Another example of effective use of colour is Sin city. blouses. The whole film looks good enough to eat. Beatty and Madonna are at the top of the credits. a pool. but they aren't the stars of Dick Tracy.in the form of pink bubble gum. and a pen. (Characters know what color is. red tail lights and pink tongues.the red of a dress or a woman's lipstick. shirts. "black and white and red all over." Yet another innovative and good usec of colour in cinema is in “Dick Tracy”. the blond of a hooker's hair. The color scheme is. graffiti. Black-and-white is the best format for film noir. the Erich von Stroheim film which featured handcoloring of the gold coins with which McTeague becomes obsessed. skirts.and there's a lot of that. jeans. a tinted window. trash bags. In fact. Blood is either represented as a florescent white or. Much of the action is swathed in velvet shadow. From first shot to last. Each use of the title color underlines the central message. as opposed to Damiel in Wings of Desire. any number of objects are blue . who sees it for the first time when he chooses to fall. and Rodriguez recognizes that . coats. In addition to blue filters and blue lighting. it wouldn't be too much of a stretch to describe Sin City using the old cliché. what the director offers here is b&w with bells and whistles. Then there's the blood .and one color in particular is important.black-and-white world of Pleasantville -. with its kinetic energy and restless camera. a lollypop and its wrapper. the movie is a succulent rainbow of primary reds and blues. for a relic of the '40s or '50s. the walls of a room.

The three main devices constituting a cut are: . editing is the third component. and practice of assembling these shots into a coherent whole. Film editing is the only art that is unique to cinema and which separates filmmaking from all other art forms that preceded it. A film editor works with the layers of images. "re-directing" and often re-writing the film during the editing process. nor is it to just cut off the film slates. technique. and the subsequent connecting of sequences to form an entire movie. the job of an editor isn’t merely to mechanically put pieces of a film together. It's as if a '30s gangland melodrama had been colorized by Andy Warhol. On its most fundamental level. and serves as a tool to change the composition. Editing can manipulate both the aspects of space and time. Beatty and his team of collaborators have heightened the vibrantly tawdry urban night world of Chester Gould's classic comic strip. Only seven colours are used in this film to mark the simplicity of the comic strip. honing the infinite possibilities of the juxtaposition of small snippets of film into a creative. the melodrama in a scene or even a state of being. the rhythm. the pace. shapes the actors' performances. the music. Shots are edited keeping in mind the continuity of action. It is one of the tools which can truly be creatively used to make a film better. However. EDITING Film editing is an art of storytelling practiced by connecting two or more shots together to form a sequence. cohesive whole. Thus. nor is it merely to edit dialogue scenes. It denotes the subtle changes of moods. we see that clour has more use than just signifying an object. the story. coherent. from the above given examples of the use of colour in cinema. film editing is the art. Of the three components which make up film-making.off rain-swept streets.

Editing The work of selecting and joining together shots to create a finished film. Wipe Other types include: 1. The editor overlaps the end of one shot with the beginning of the next one. Jean will look to the left in shot B. Fade (In and Out) 3. Eye line match The matching of eye lines between two or more characters. if Sam looks to the right in shot A. Superimposition Audio components are also edited the same way except for the fact that there is no ‘wipe’ function. 9. such as a failure to match action or the placement of props across shots." that establishes where the action is about to occur. 8. 5. Dissolve 2. This establishes a relationship of proximity and continuity. 4. Establishing shot A shot. 2. For example. Dissolve A gradual scene transition. Fade A visual transition between shots or scenes that appears on screen as a brief interval . Cut A visual transition created in editing in which one shot is instantaneously replaced on screen by another. Establishes a sense of story for the viewer. Definitions of some edit terms: 1. normally taken from a great distance or from a "bird's eye view. Cross Cutting Cutting back and forth quickly between two or more lines of action. Bleach (In and Out) 2. 3. indicating they are happening simultaneously. 6. Continuity Editing Editing that creates action that flows smoothly across shots and scenes without jarring visual inconsistencies. Errors of continuity Disruptions in the flow of a scene.1. 7.

cut long rather than short" • "Rule 3: Whenever possible cut 'in movement'" • "Rule 4: The 'fresh' is preferable to the 'stale' • "Rule 5: All scenes should begin and end with continuing action" . Iris Visible on screen as a circle closing down over or opening up on a shot. approved by the director and the producer. this technique alternates between over-theshoulder shots showing each character speaking. Rarely used in contemporary film. Shot reverse shot cutting Usually used for conversation scenes. but common during the silent era of Hollywood films.with no picture. 10. but common in films from the 1930s and 1940s. 14. 13. Jump cut A cut that creates a lack of continuity by leaving out parts of the action. The editor fades one shot to black and then fades in the next. before tightening and polishing occurs. Montage Scenes whose emotional impact and visual design are achieved through the editing together of many brief shots. 12. 18. Rough cut The editor's first pass at assembling the shots into a film. The shower scene from Psycho is an example of montage editing. "Rule 2: When undecided about the exact frame to cut on. It is composed of only one shot with no editing. Wipe Visible on screen as a bar travelling across the frame pushing one shot off and pulling the next shot into place. Seldom used in contemporary film. 15. 17. 16. Seven “rules of cutting” that a good editor should follow: • Rule 1: Never make a cut without a positive reason. Final cut The finished edit of a film. helping to establish strong continuity of action. Matched cut A cut joining two shots whose compositional elements match. 11. Sequence shot A long take that extends for an entire scene or sequence. This is what the audience sees. Often used to indicate a change in time and place.

They are virtually transported by the movie maker to where the happening actually is – they are only allowed to participate and not decide ‘what’ they want to watch . A similar experience can be related to the auditory ( audio part of AV ) – we are made to listen to effects . The translation of his Essais sur la signification au cinéma . by definition. that of the audience – on whom the film maker’s view is forced . and this composition is recorded and shown as his perception of the occurrence . verbal .• "Rule 6: Cut for proper values rather than proper 'matches'" • "Rule 7: Substance first—then form" PSYCHOLOGY IN AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATION A language. Film uses not only words. This above reasons also make this medium one of the most powerful psychological tools to the mind . The question that oriented Metz’s early work was whether the cinema was Langue (language system) or Language (language) and his well-known conclusion was that the cinema was not a language system but that it was a language Mertz’ argument is that "langue is a system of signs intended for two-way communication. therefore. When the filmmaker uses the camera as his own eye . he freezes the image in time . These form a major chunk of the audience who are simply spectators to what is being put in front of them . but a language system (or linguistic system) enables a response to that thought using the degrees and kinds of signs and signifiers produced by the language. while the audience can react to a film's semantic intent. Christian Metz is the leading film theoretician in France. 1967 has long been awaited by radical critics in this country looking to semiology as a tool for understanding the relationship between ideology and aesthetic expression. angles and speeds. forcing him to believe in and emote to what is being shown . music and even silence . Taking a look at the opposite side of this argument . but also different kinds of shots. The combination of sounds and visual make a powerful impact on the viewer . while the cinema allows only for deferred communication. Psychology in AV communication determines the involvement of a spectator in a film / television series . all at the discretion of the Film maker . sounds . In . is a semiotic process through which thought may be conveyed. that audience cannot address its concerns regarding the film in the same language the film used to convey its argument.

That is. unlike words. . some radical film critics find in semiology a way to think and talk about ideology without “extracting” it from its complex interaction with other codes in the film text. especially if the parts of dialogue and imagery are manipulated to produce a contrived result. linguistics have become one of the most rigorous and fruitful sciences of this century. this assertion will eventually have to be rethought because it does not allow for interactive cinema or Internet conference calling where role play is being done by either party—either of which can technically be considered filmmaking.today’s world. however. it is not just a formalistic description of the physica1 material of the text. Semiotic study attempts an analysis in which there is no separation of the specialized codes of a particular medium and the cultural codes which are inscribed in and mediated by it. He states as evidence that: (1) shots are infinite in number (2) shots are the creations of the film-maker (3) the shot provides an inordinate amount of information (4) the shot is an actualized unit [meaning that it generates an exact representation of its intended meaning] (5) shots. do not gain meaning by paradigmatic contrast with other shots that might have occurred in the same place on the syntagmatic chain FILM LANGUAGE BY CHRISTIAN METZ Semiology is the science of signifying practice. Metz further argues that cinema is not a language system because "it lacks the equivalent of the arbitrary linguistic sign. Metz argues against the idea that the camera/cinematic shot is like the word while the sequence is like the sentence. Thus. the relationship between signifier and signified differs from literature to film. According to Metz . it can still be helpful as a beginning for thinking about films in terms of a culturally and ideologically determined heterogeneity of codes rather than as original and unique expressions of certain “human” themes. Metz’ notion of a cinesemiotics and of what constitutes a cinematic code is not yet fully formulated in his book and is there even very misleading. A sender emits a message which is understood by the receiver because both the organization and reception of the message is governed by a system of socially conventionalized rules (even at the level of the unconscious). As such. the theory of the production of meaning in texts." replacing it instead with a ‘motivated’ sign. It concerns itself with the status of the text as a discourse. So.

a point that makes finding the meaning interesting and problematic a the same time . Semiology shows what constitutes signs . is prevalent in the intrinsic sense . military signals as well as Commercials . although he still believes that cinesemiotics can learn much from linguistics. a combination that cannot be separated. unlike the word. . are in no way directly related to each other . is not a discrete unit that can be reduced into smaller basic units and analyzed. what laws govern them .and not just to language itself . The symbol of justice . according to Saussure (1966) . Eg . the alphabet of deaf mutes . The relationship between the signifier and signified . it would be a part of social psychology and consequently of general psychology. How is meaning generated ? The essential breakthrough of semiotics is that it takes linguistics as a model and applies linguistic concept to other phenomena – texts. with particular reference to what content is being viewed . symbolic rites . and is therefore comparable to a system of writing . A Chariot ) to signify Justice . but there could be no other symbol ( Eg. is a combination of a concept and a soundimage. Signs :A sign . in probably all kinds of a/v communication : Be it films . polite formulae . is arbitrary . SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS THE PROBLEM OF MEANING Meaning . The basic concern is how meaning is generated and conveyed . unmotivated and unnatural .Metz discards a theoretical model for film based on verbal language. TV programs . situation comedies etc/ A science that studies the life of signs within society is conceivable. The . a pair of scales . Language is a system of signs that expresses ideas . food etc . soap operas . There is no logical connection between a word and a concept. His primary reason for rejecting rigid analogies to language is based on his claim that the image. fashion .

extraterrestrials with magical powers . and in texts are not always evident . However Holmes makes the following derivations from it : a) Man in intellectual ( Large size of the hat – large brain ) b) Man has not got a new hat . Truth :Umberto Eco ( 1976) . a distinguished Italian semiotician has suggested that if signs are used to tell the truth . with discoloured lining. This is known because at the beginning of each episode . Hence it can be said that the genre of science fiction adventure is ‘signified’ using a number of signifiers such as spaceships . the Captain’s Voice over describes the mission of the starship – Enterprise – to explore new worlds and seek out new civilizations ‘ to boldly go where no man has gone before’. they have to be elicited . futuristic uniforms . suggesting decline in fortune ( Good quality hat . and provide false images and . Watson find Holmes examining a hat which he describes old. Example 2 : Sherlock Holmes and the story of ‘The Blue Carbuncle’. advanced computer technology .characteristic of the symbol is vaguely related to it . the television program Star Trek in terms of what symbols there signify . Relation:The property of signs to be have a particular association with a thought process is called Relation . they cal also be used to lie . suggestive decline in fortunes ) c) Man’s wife no longer loves him (Had not brushed in weeks ) d) Man seldom goes out ( Dust on hat is brown house dust) e) No gas in the house ( Wax stains from candles on hat ) The meanings in signs . dusty and spotted in places . It of a well known space adventure – science fiction story . ray guns . Example 1 .

weakness Dolly in Camera moves in Observation . Example:. What is interesting is how the kind of shots .mislead viewers . better suited to revealing character than to capture action . A few examples would be : a) Wigs – Bald person or person with different colour hair b) Elevated shoes – Short person made taller c) Dyed hair – Brunettes made blondes . . Each medium . Blondes made redheads etc d) Impersonation e) Theater – pretend to have feelings . Television is more of a ‘close-up’ medium.The list is as follows : Signifier Definition Signified ( meaning ) Close-up Face only Intimacy Medium shot Most of body Personal relationship Long shot Setting and characters Context . because if its nature . imposes certain limitations on whatever art forms or genres they carry . beliefs etc f) Food – imitation crab. camera work and editing techniques in Cinema and television function as signifiers . public distance Full shot Full body of person Social relationship Pan down Camera looks down Power . angles. excitement Wipe Image wiped off screen Imposed conclusion The above material represents a kind of grammar of television as far as shots .Television is not the ideal medium for presenting huge battle scenes . authority Pan up Camera looks up Smallness . focus Fade in Image appears on blank screen Beginning Fade out Image screen goes blank Ending Cut Switch from one image to another Simultaneity . In applying semiotics to television .lobster etc SEMIOTICS OF THE TELEVISION & CINEMA MEDIUM:Various forms of media carry various genres of the popular arts . shrimp . it makes sense for us to concern ourselves with aspects of the medium that functions as signs . scope .

the goal of which is to discover the unconscious i. lies hidden beneath the water . such as . The basic psychological reason for using a lighter is the desire for mastery and power . the part seen above the water is what the person is conscious of . The remaining greater part . Ernest Dichter is one of the founding fathers of the field known as motivation research . A cigarette lighter provides conspicuous evidence of this ability to summon fire . however .e the REAL reason that people do things . PSYCHOANALYTIC CRITICISM Psychoanalysis is a form of inquiry that has been applied to many areas – politics . Psychoanalytic criticism is a form of applied psychoanalysis . he developed it most thoroughly . a sense of power . Fire and the ability to command it are prized because they are associated not only to warmth .sound effects and music . also what shapes people’s behavior better . a science concerned with the interaction of conscious and unconscious processes and with the laws of mental functioning . lighting techniques . The failure of a lighter to work does not just create superficial social embarrassment . For example : Dichter explains why people use lighters. use of colour . but to life itself . The ease and speed with which the lighter works enhances a feeling of power . It is frequently suggested that an individual’s mental life can be represented by an iceberg . Sigmund Freud did not discover the unconscious . There are other matters to be considered . The tip of the iceberg . what manufacturers consider to get their consumers to but their products . The capacity to summon fire inevitably gives every human being – child or grownup . anthropology and literary criticism and many other interesting fields .camera work and editing are concerned. His idea was that we are not aware of everything that is going on in our minds . .

They have played an important role in the fields of entertainment. The production company is created and a production office established. novelty. education and information. Pre-production In pre-production. A production budget will also be drawn up to cost the film. The production is storyboarded and visualized with the help of illustrators and concept artists. management capacity and publicity. the movie is designed and planned. . Production of such a valuable product requires not only money but also the mind. Film production requires certain special skills like creativity.PRODUCTION PROCESS Film medium has been hailed as one of the most influential Audio-Visual medium.

The nature of the film. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of thousands while a low-budget. He or she cooperates with the director. • The director of photography (DP or DOP) or cinematographer creates the photography of the film. • The sound designer creates new sounds and enhances the aural feel of the film with the help of foley artists. More crew will be recruited at this stage. The production sound mixer manages the audio experience during the production stage of a film. which makes production sets. such as the property master. Lead actors are carefully chosen and are ften based on the actor’s reputation or “star power. • The storyboard artist creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team. Some films also credit a fight choreographer.• The producer will hire a crew. • The composer creates new music for the film. DOP. • The choreographer creates and coordinates the movement and dance . script supervisor. He or she also reports on behalf of the production office to the studio executives or financiers of the film. • The art director manages the art department. • The assistant director (AD) manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the production. Production In production the movie is created and shot. and the budget. determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. costumes and provides makeup & hair styling services. Typical crew positions include • The director is primarily responsible for the acting in the movie and managing the creative elements. • The production designer creates the look and feel of the production sets and props. among other tasks. director of audiography (DOA) and AD.” • The location manager finds and manages the film locations. This normally requires an audition by the actor. • The production manager manages the production budget and production schedule. independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine. He or she cooperates with the director. stills . • The casting director finds actors for the parts in the script. and AD. working with the art director to create these elements.typically for musicals. assistant directors. Most pictures are shot in the predictable environment of a studio sound stage but occasionally outdoor sequences will call for filming on location.

The picture and sound crews then rehearse with the actors. date. At the same time. The script supervisor and the sound and camera teams log the take on their respective report sheets. director of photography. The lighting is rigged and the camera and sound recording equipment are set up. or in the completion of the production phase. they return from the laboratory as dailies or rushes (film positives) and are viewed in the evening by the director. the cast. This includes the report sheets from continuity. the production office normally arranges a wrap party to thank all the cast and crew for their efforts.” or dismantle. and is displayed for the camera. shots are downloaded and organized on a computer for display as dailies. Call sheets are distributed to the cast and crew to tell them when and where to turn up the next shooting day. These are just the most common roles in filmmaking. When shooting is finished for the scene. sound. the action is shot in as many takes as the director wishes. and sound editors.” The crew will “strike. The clapperboard also serves the necessary function of providing a marker to sync up the film and the sound take. Once processed. sometimes. Each take of a shot follows a slating procedure and is marked on a clapperboard. The clapperboard records the scene. Every report sheet records important technical notes on each take. The film set is constructed and the props made ready. Finally. picture editor. which helps the editor keep track of the takes in post-production. Sound is recorded on a separate apparatus from the film and they must be synched up in post-production. and name of the film written on the front. The director approves the next day’s shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production office. and camera teams. the actors are wardrobed in their costumes and attend the hair and makeup departments. The director will then decide if the take was acceptable or not. the unprocessed negative of the day’s takes are sent to the film laboratory for processing overnight. When the entire film is in the can. For productions using traditional photographic film.photographer. and. the set for that scene. For productions using digital technologies. A typical day’s shooting begins with an assistant director following the shooting schedule for the day. The actors rehearse their scripts and blocking with the director. the director declares a “wrap. above the line crew. take. . the production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit a particular film. director.

the picture is “locked. walla. In the video workflow. Since the development of non-linear editing systems such as Avid. resulting in a low quality answer print of the movie. the process of shortening scenes by a few minutes. The purpose of the rough cut is to select and order the best shots. The next step is to create a fine cut by getting all the shots to flow smoothly in a seamless story. Next. A timecode is recorded onto video tape to locate the position of picture frames. The sound track and picture are combined together.” meaning no further changes are made. the editor creates a negative cut list (using edge code) or an edit decision list (using timecode) either manually or automatically. the film passes out of the hands of the editor to the sound department to build up the sound track. These edit lists identify the source and the picture frame of each shot in the fine cut. or even frames. the original camera negative is developed and telecined to video for editing with computer editing software. the film workflow is used by very few productions. the cut list that describes the film-based answer print is used to cut the original colour negative (OCN) and create a colour timed copy called the colour master positive or interpositive print. dialogue. and music. After the fine cut has been screened and approved by the director and producer. There are now two possible workflows to create the high quality release print depending on the recording medium: In the film workflow. Production sound is also synced up to the video picture frames during this process. Trimming. seconds. For all subsequent steps this effectively becomes the master copy. Once the picture is locked.Post-production Here the film is assembled by the film editor. The first job of the film editor is to build a rough cut taken from sequences (or scenes) based on individual “takes” (shots). An edge code is recorded onto film to locate the position of picture frames. In the film workflow. is done during this phase. the original camera film (negative) is developed and copied to a one-light workprint (positive) for editing with a mechanical editing machine. Quantel or Final Cut Pro. The modern use of video in the filmmaking process has resulted in two workflow variants: one using entirely film. The voice recordings are synchronised and the final sound mix is created. and the other using a mixture of film and video. Copying from the internegative is much simpler than copying from the . The next step is to create a one-light copy called the colour duplicate negative or internegative. It is from this that many copies of the final theatrical release print are made. background sounds. ADR. The sound mix combines sound effects.

The next step uses a film recorder to read the colour master tape and copy each video frame directly to film to create the final theatrical release print. For all subsequent steps this effectively becomes the master copy. the edit decision list that describes the video-based answer print is used to edit the original colour tape (OCT) and create a high quality colour master tape. The stages are: a. the artists are confirmed and the . then developing the story into more detailed treatment and then dialogues are added to become master scene script. and any feedback may result in further shooting or edits to the film. In the video workflow. it also reduces wear-and-tear on the interpositive print.interpositive directly because it is a one-light process. Shooting schedule: after the script is finalised. Scripting: involves idea stage. Finally the film is previewed. VARIOUS ITEMS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF PRODUCTION Pre-Production Production Post-Production Script Staff and crews Film Editing Title Actors Electronic Editing Producer Film Sound Effects Writer Video Tape Optical Effects Director Actual Shooting Titles Casting Editing Mixing Production Design Developing/Printing Negative Cutting Set construction & Decoration Answer Print Looking selection Publicity Shooting Schedule Censor Preparation Release Budgeting Stages of Film Production Film production involves lot of mechanical. normally by the target audience. The unique nature of the finished film is that it can be viewed any number of times any number of copies can be printed and the negatives can be preserved for many years. developing idea into a simple outline of a story. chemical and digital processes. b.

their make up. The sound recordist records the dialogue on location to be used as a pilot for the post synchronisation. Then mixing is done where all the different tracks of sound are mixed together. It contains all the details for conducting the shooting smoothly. he needs a peculiar combination of business sense and aesthetic discrimination. the camera crew is ready with their equipments. the details of the scenes to be shot. hires the writer and directors and makes the big decisions. During dubbing the dialogues are recorded in acoustically treated theatre. which adds to dramatic and aesthetic effect. Director views the rushes and the cameraman immediately to take the decisions on the quality of the images recorded. which give authenticity to the scene. Sound recording: now the sound effect. e. Rushes: this name is given to the print received from the lab immediately after the exposed negatives are developed after everyday shoot. and the background music. Here the assistant director uses a clapper board to identify each shot. The script is ready with dialogues rehearsed with the artist. All the artists and technicians come together to shoot the scene. The details of the shooting programmed decided which is brought out as shooting schedule. His primary aim is making and this comes ahead of making what he thinks will be good picture. Shooting Stage: this is the most important stage. The artists are ready with their make up and costumes. Editing: it is the stage where the shape of the film takes place. d. special requirements are all given in detail. costumes. are scored and recorded in synchronisation.technicians get ready for their work. which is known as dubbing. The location of shooting. Now the actual shooting takes place. he is one who usually controls the money he buys the story. c. Also the reels are ready for post synchronisation. The set is already been erected. Producer: Is the boss. Rushes shot at different times are assembled and placed in the proper order. the date and time of shooting. Technicians involved in production work: Producing Crew 1. Production Manager: He carries out the detailed tasks of the producer. 2. the details of artists. in a small .

Camera Assistants: he stands by the camera operator and aids in every possible way. 5.ropes. make-up artists. special effect. specifically. Camera Operator: he works on the camera and is responsible for filming the scene in a professional manner. 3. how it is to be placed and also advises the director about what needs to be done to get good sound.plumbers etc CREDITS: Forget the film watch the titles! What are credits? In general. he is master of all trades and has sufficient physical stamina. 7. 9. 2. sets. tools. Hair dressers.draper.carpenters. He is more than an ordinary labourer.laborers. first aid. drivers. He determines what equipment is to be used. knowledge of film production and ingenuity to solve the many incredible that arise. Sound Crew: our basic tasks are necessary in recording sound on stage or on location. and crew of a film. Director of Photography: is responsible for the content and quality of pictures photography and decisions about camera and lighting. wardrobe people.rigging and crones. such as: . Boom Operator: they are in charge of physically locating the microphone and holding it during the take. prop crew. Grip Crew: it is in charge of all physical operations on the actual shooting. cast. 4.production he may actually be the producer he is responsible person for the entire production.scaffolds. Camera Crew 1. Sound Assistant: their job consists of handling and taking care of the equipment. it refers to the list of names and functions of persons and corporations contributing and responsible for the artistic or intellectual content of a film. 6. tricks reflectors . Mixer: he is in charge of the sound. this term refers to the list of technical personnel. This includes materials. keeping the microphone in the proper location. 8. Electrical Crew: on a feature production the electrical crew is often large during shooting in sound stage and in setups where many lights must be used.painters.

come at the end of a movie or show and list all the cast and crew involved in the production.” etc. in ‘Ferris Bueller’s Day off’. For example. sometimes distinguished from the cast (the performers in front of the camera). Ferris appears and says "Are you still here? . a parting scene is edited in after the credits to conclude as a final joke.. Now.” "Screenplay by. Sometimes. in a film or a television program. the closing credits do tend to be quite long. and to list literally every single person who had been in or who had worked on the production. Credits are important to programme-makers. but are usually of limited interest to the audience. which comes from pre digital days when the names were literally on a roll of paper and wound past in front of the camera... Producers are reminded that credits are solely to recognise significant creative contributions to programmes and shouldn't be offered in return for reduced fees as is done in many cases. As in motion pictures. The introduction of the new credit packages and durations makes it even more important that there is consistency in the editorial use of credits across output. or crawl from bottom to top of the screen. most television programs until relatively recently did not list the entire cast and crew. (A noted example is ‘Finding Nemo’ in which several characters interact with the credits like they are physical objects. Go home!" while. and in many cases.. The BBC's credit policy balances desire to reflect significant creative contributions with the reality that lengthy credits make viewers switch over or switch off.. Before this decade."Story by. Practices Some closing credits include out-takes from the show for humour. Credits which crawl either left to right or up and down are also known as rolling credits. the filmmakers will have a character come back and pop in during the credits.” "Photography by. On some occasions.) Sometimes the . The Monty Python series has included credits for ridiculous and non-existent production staff.... particularly silent movies were released with no closing credits at all. The closing credits. As research shows that up to 80% of viewers can leave a programme at the start of the end credits. closing credits usually consisted only of a list of the major cast members. which either flip very quickly from page to page. They are usually shown on the screen in small characters.. History The use of closing credits in films to list complete production crew and cast was not firmly established in American film until the 1970s.

’ Many films employ the use of animation. article. This was spoofed in the closing credits of ‘A Bug’s Life’. This tradition has carried over to other Pixar films.. If there is no source material (novel. These credits would have ordinarily been shown at the start of the movie or within a specially created opening credits sequence. the credits determination process works as follows: When the film is finished shooting. The Writers Guild of America (WGA) has a well-defined process for determining credits on projects produced under its jurisdiction. a producer or director sharing a writing credit). The "story by" credit is used when the basic narrative structure was originally written with intent to be used for a movie (as opposed to a short story) and the actual screenplay had different authors. These productions are generally USA-controlled live-action film and TV projects. The elimination of the full opening credits sequence from many films has resulted in some films showing the major acting and production credits that would previously have been seen at the start of the film as part of the end-credits (sometimes preceded by the main title. the credit is "written by". If any writer disagrees with those credits. If there was previously existing source material but the writer creates a substantially new and different story from the source.g. including ‘Toy Story 2’ and ‘Monsters Inc. Many films show takes gone wrong. or if the proposed credits require mandatory arbitration (e. then the "screen story" (or "television story") credit is used. a WGA arbitration committee reads all drafts of the script and various supporting materials and determines the actual/official credits.closing credits include bloopers. In general. Notable movies that omit opening credits include the ‘Harry Potter’ and ‘Star Wars’ series. There are legal ramifications of not including or carelessly missing out giving due credit to any person involved in the production of a film. . motion graphics and 3-D to make the credit sequence more interesting and involving for the audience.) and the same writers receive credit for both the story and screenplay. which no longer appears at the start of every movie). produced either by studios or major independent producers. with shots of the animated characters fumbling their lines or knocking over the scenery. such as those made famous by the James Bond film series. etc. In such films the main credits are shown at the end in a page-by-page format followed with the bulk of cast and crew credits as a crawl. play. the producer sends a notice to the guild and the writers proposing the writing credits. A shared "story by" credit is the minimum awarded to the author of an original screenplay.

During filming the director oversees the actors and crew. Explained below are the general heads that are mentioned in credit lists of cinematic content: Executive Producer A title often abused in the film industry.Finally. or adapts a book. Writer The term "Written By" in the credits is a designation meaning "Original Story and Screenplay By. actors and technical personnel. ‘Division of Labour!’ There are various heads under which the authority and responsibility of tasks fall. In rare cases. so the Writer's Guild must often determine who gets screen credit as the Writer. Producer The producer finds a script and develops it into a film project. unless he or she is also producing the film. . the "screenplay by" (or "teleplay by") credit is used to denote the screenplay (teleplay) authorship if the story credit had to be separated as above. A script may go through many writers. "adaptation by" can be awarded to a writer who shapes the script without qualifying for one of the above credits. The director usually helps hire actors. or some other person who made the project possible. There are other specialized credits used for television programs such as documentaries and audience participation shows. The producer also oversees script development and tracks the movie's financial condition during filming. He or she oversees the hiring of the director. play or other work for use on the big screen. sets up shots and keeps the movie on schedule and on budget. A producer usually hires the director. Ideally the executive producer arranges for the film's financing and tries to keep the project on budget." The writer creates and shapes an original story. Director The director is responsible for all creative aspects of a movie. decides on locations and plans the shots before filming begins. Increasingly the executive producer credit is given as a perk to a powerful actor's agent or spouse.

helps create the look of a movie. The director has the primary responsibility for editing decisions. He or she is often a liaison between the production team (everyone helping to shoot the film) and the post-production team (those who work on the film after shooting). The editor often starts work while the film is still being shot. helps frame shots.P. editors work on computerized editing consoles without touching the actual film. Increasingly. but the editor often has significant input in the creative decisions involved in putting together a final cut of a movie. He or she works with the cinematographer to achieve the right look for the production. This person needs to be well-versed in a variety of art and design styles. The D. Associate Producer In most cases an associate producer is the producer's top assistant. Sometimes this credit goes to the project's financier. Stunt Coordinator The stunt coordinator lines up professional stunt people to take the risks that make the movies so exciting. or director of photography (D.M. The stunt coordinator makes sure that all safety regulations are followed and that all safety equipment is on the set and ready for action! Production Manager The production manager (P. This includes everything from obtaining the right . though this job varies from production to production. The cinematographer usually does not operate the camera on set (this is the duty of the camera operator). or production designer. including architecture and interior design. by assembling preliminary cuts from the daily footage. designs and supervises the construction of sets for a movie.) makes business deals with the crew and arranges for the production's technical needs.). Editor The editor works with the director in editing the film. selects film stock and ensures that the visual look of the film conforms to the director's vision. directs the lighting for each scene. chooses lenses. Art Director The art director. or the person who brought the project to the producer.P.Cinematographer The cinematographer.

Continuity Person The continuity person tries to prevent embarrassing gaffes in the final film. Assistant Director The assistant director (A. such as an actor wearing a hat that mysteriously disappears in one shot then reappears in another.M. marks the spots .M. Sometimes the U. Assistant Cameraman Often there is a first and second assistant cameraman.P. will scout for locations and help the production manager with overall planning.D. and responding quickly to the action as it unfolds. Line Producer The line producer supervises the movie's budget.D. maintains focus during shots.) reports the daily financial operation of a production to the production manager. During filming the A.technical equipment to renting accommodations for actors and crew. in larger productions) works to make the director more efficient. helps line up shots for the director.D.D. where they were standing and any other intricate details -. or First A. plans a shooting schedule by breaking the script into sections that can be filmed in a single day and in the most efficient order. The continuity person logs how many times a scene was shot.like that disappearing hat! Camera Operator The camera operator is a member of the camera crew and runs the camera as instructed by the director and the cinematographer. The first assistant cameraman is generally responsible for the maintenance of the camera. how long the shot lasted. The camera operator is responsible for keeping the action in frame. The first assistant cameraman also changes lenses.P. Unit Production Manager The unit production manager (U. The production manager reports his or her expenses and needs to the line producer. manages the set. which actors were in the scene.. This includes unique expenses like a star's salary as well as daily costs like equipment rentals. The A. calls for quiet on the set and coordinates the extras.

(Also see film loader. But he or she could also be called upon to supervise separate teams of effects technicians working away from the set. Post-Production Supervisor The post-production supervisor oversees the finishing of a film once shooting ends. Make-up Artist The make-up artist is usually a licensed professional who applies any make-up to an actor. Sometimes the visual effects director helps with effects on the set.) Visual Effects Director The visual effects director's job varies according to the needs of the production. as well as the style and interpretation of the film's characters. maintains quality control.where actors will stand and measures the distance between the camera and the subject matter. . and then plans its technical construction. Set Designer The set designer takes direction from the art director about the look of the set. The second assistant cameraman fills out camera reports and is often responsible for loading and unloading camera magazines. Special effects range from complicated computer animation to helping Superman fly to simple on-set logistics like making a shower work. Costume Designer The costume designer creates all the costumes worn by the cast on a production. A prop is a moveable item that is essential to a scene. FX Coordinator FX is film shorthand for special effects. maintains and places on the set all essential props for a scene. He or she attends editing sessions. and all other technical needs. Property Master The property master finds. which contain the film. The job of the FX coordinator differs from film to film. This person contributes to the overall look of the film. and coordinates audio mixing. computer graphics.

The analyst then writes "coverage" (a synopsis) of the material.Hairdresser The hairdresser is licensed to cut. Unit Publicist The unit publicist makes sure the media are aware of a production by sending out press releases. The analysts read screenplays. shots used for special effects and scenes that are not essential to the plot. Production Assistant Often called a gofer or a runner on the set. . books and other literary efforts looking for potential movies. setting up on-set visits and organizing media kits. video and audio clips and plot summaries.) performs small but essential tasks for the cast and crew. colour and style the hair of actors in a production. the production assistant (P. Story Editor The story editor supervises several story analysts who work for the studios. The story editor reviews the coverage and passes on promising prospects to the studio bosses for possible development into a motion picture. Usually the hairdresser provides all the necessary equipment and rents it to the production on a weekly basis. These can include background shots at remote locations. which include publicity pictures.A. arranging for interviews of cast and crew. He or she also styles and cuts wigs when necessary. Second Unit Director The second unit director heads the second unit – a separate production crew that shoots sequences not involving the main actors.

Or. romance or adventure. Dramas are basic stories about some interesting or exciting events. you can gather them under the headings of dramas.SCRIPTWRITING Stories are often classified by type. comedies or tragedies. Comedies are stories that take . such as mystery.

In live theater. boy gets girl" is more interesting. See who is established in the beginning and what the protagonist’s goal is.a humorous or lighthearted approach. Tragedies have an unhappy ending. boy loses girl. they are a combination of character and plot." Each of these parts has an important function: The beginning serves to introduce the characters and establish the problem the hero must solve. In this article. The audience does not want to cheer for a hero through all her trials only to see her go down in flames at the end. If the story has an unhappy ending. They may be the people around you or people that you invent. Storytellers learned long ago that "boy meets girl. . Most stories have happy endings. "Boy meets girl. is whom the story is about. The hero can be a man. every story has a protagonist and an antagonist. If you think of a story as a journey. the people in the story. As you watch stories. or hero. However you think of them. a woman. The antagonist is the opposing force. but audiences don’t watch videos to see the kind of life they are already living. Tragedies are stories in which the hero valiantly battles forces too powerful to overcome. "Characters" are the someone. we will help you develop your road map. Just when it looks like the antagonist is going to win. all are about someone doing something. these parts are called "acts. Basic Building Blocks Every story has three parts: a beginning. You often hear that a story requires conflict. a middle and an end. usually a villain but it could be a force of nature or even the hero’s internal conflicts. the hero (or at least the audience) should gain something. The middle is the most involved. boy gets girl" may be the way it usually happens in real life. look for the three-act structure. and usually the longest part. The hero must overcome increasing difficulties. the hero pulls through. plot is the road map that keeps you from getting lost along the way. The end in which the hero puts out a supreme effort and reaches his or her goal usually. This does not necessarily mean gunfights or fisticuffs. While there may be other characters. a child or even an animal. The protagonist. like a better understanding of herself or the world. "Conflict" is another name for the difficulties that the hero has to overcome. The transition to the middle can usually be identified by a dramatic change in the hero’s situation. boy courts girl. Examples Lets look at some familiar stories and see how they fit the basic pattern. "Plot" is the something that these people do.

nor the last. On the way she meets the Big Bad Wolf. Below are some elements that you can adapt to make a story: Beginning Here you have an infinity of choices. It is perfectly alright to take an existing story line and put your own spin on it as the . I know. who kills the Wolf with his axe and saves the girl (in the versions of the story where Red gets eaten. In the Middle. When Red comes in. Tension rises and the situation degenerates until the Wolf chases Red around the house. the woodsman saves Red by splitting open the Wolf’s stomach). this one has been used already. tying up loose ends. Some of them are: • "Once upon a time. and slips into bed disguised as the old lady. If you intend to have the hero use some prop to help solve the problem (like Red shooting the Wolf) then that prop must be established early on in the show . • Someone commits a crime. In the end. We have met the characters and learned Red’s goal. you can easily put together one of your own. These difficulties often increase in severity until it seems that there is no way the hero can gain the goal. In the end. Red’s screams bring in a brave woodsman. But Shakespeare wasn�t the first to use it. she begins to get suspicious." still a good way to start the telling of a fable or any story set in an indeterminate time. disposes of her. the Wolf takes a shortcut to Grandma’s. The story quickly winds down after that. Note: Russian Playwright Anton Chekhov said that if a gun is seen in the first act it must be fired in the last act. Case Study : Little Red Riding Hood. observe the obstacles or problems that are placed in the way of the hero.but done casually so as not to draw attention to itself.In the middle. or the beginning of someones day. the protagonist manages to best the opposition and reach the goal. and in older versions of the story. • Boy meets girl. I know. In the beginning we meet Little Red Riding Hood who is tripping through the woods on her way to Grandmas’. The Plot Kit Having observed how stories are constructed. The transition to the end may be another radical change in the situation. eats Red. • A ghost appears and demands revenge for his murder. The reverse of that is especially true. • Dawn.

All successful stories have common characteristics.e. perhaps after failing. then begins with small successes to work himself back up to where he can take on the villain once again. Middle Here are some ways to keep your story exciting and moving forward: Use a "Rule of Three. the killer is someone we never heard of) your audience will boo. Three seems to be a magic number. the hero tries two things that don’t work before figuring out one that will. After solving the problem." As in the story of the Little Pig. The middle shows the hero’s progress against whatever threatens to keep him from the goal. fewer do not build up sufficient tension. The end shows . that we care about. striving against difficulties to achieve a worthwhile goal. perhaps after achieving the goal. The way to organize your story is to give it a proven beginning. If you use this ending. A tragic ending takes real skill to keep it from being depressing. • The hero dies. Some examples of things that keep the plot moving are: • The protagonist goes to an unfamiliar place. The hero continues to fail until he hits bottom. • The hero fails to achieve the goal but gains some valuable understanding.very best have done so. The beginning introduces us to the main characters and what they are after. the hero loses the big battle. End Here are a few choices for endings: • The hero triumphs and lives happily ever after. then retires to lick his wounds and prepare for the final confrontation. and end. middle. If it is totally unrelated (i. • The twist or surprise ending. make sure that the surprise is based on the material that went before. Or.. This is the most common and generally the most satisfying ending. • The hero gives in to some temptation. or bike. They show someone. or skateboard). more failures make the hero look like a real loser. • A natural disaster occurs. • A mysterious stranger appears. the hero rides off into the sunset (on his horse.

or individual. Because assignments are created for hire. multiple writers work on the same script at different stages of development with different tasks. without the commission of a studio. The vast majority of scripts written each year are spec scripts. Often. the writer typically has less creative freedom than on a spec script. Assignment scripts are generally adaptations of an existing idea or property owned by the hiring company but can also be original works based on a concept created by the writer or producer. Common forms of screenwriting: Spec script writing Spec scripts are feature film or television show scripts written on speculation. In television writing. Screenwriting in the entertainment industry The act of screenwriting takes many forms across the entertainment industry. . you will understand the secret formula to good story writing and you will keep your audiences’ interest to the very end. a screenwriter might be hired to write in a wide variety of roles. production company. SCREENWRITING Screenwriting is the art and craft of writing scripts for film. production company. Feature assignment writing Scripts written on assignment are screenplays created under contract with a studio. but only a small percentage make it to the screen. a spec script is a sample teleplay written to demonstrate the writer's knowledge of a show and ability to imitate its style and conventions. television or video games. By organizing your video’s storyline around these elements. or network. but sometimes can also be an adaptation of an existing source.how the hero finally triumphs. Over the course of a successful career. A spec script is usually a wholly original work.

" Depending on the size of the new writer's contributions. They are responsible for creating and managing all aspects of a show's characters.often given other titles. Rewriting and script doctoring Most produced films are rewritten to some extent during the development process. such as story editor. Frequently. When a script's central premise or characters are good but the script is otherwise unusable.work both as a group and individually on episode scripts to maintain the show's tone. Subsequent drafts of the script may be done by the freelancer or by the show's staff. many . fifty-two weeks a year. characters. screen credit may or may not be given. such as bad dialogues or poor humor. style. also known as show runners. style. write the pilot episode and bible of a new television series. and plots. and plots. Writing for soap operas The process of writing for soap operas is different than that used by prime time shows. they are not rewritten by the original writer of the script this is known as re-writing the script. Video game writing With the continued development and increased complexity of video games. After the episode is written. Television writing A freelance television writer uses spec scripts or their previous credits and reputation to get contracted by an existing tv show to write one or more episodes.Subhash Ghai started his prolific career as a script doctor. a creator or a creative director remains responsible for the show's day-to-day creative decisions throughout the series run." When there are only small shortcomings. Television show creators. they are commonly referred to as script doctors. Very frequently. often referred to as a "page one rewrite. When an established and successful writer is called in to rewrite portions of a script late in its development process. Staff writers . or producer . A staff writer for a television show generally works in-house writing and rewriting episodes for the show. the teleplay is submitted to the network and rewriting or polishing may be required. a writer is hired to do a "polishup" or "punch-up. a different writer or team of writers is contracted to do an entirely new draft.and must meet specific criteria dictated by the producer. due in part to the need to produce new episodes five days a week.

Middle and End (or. For this reason." which often results in important self-knowledge . visual aspects of the story. Achieving the goal or "boon. a screenplay focuses on describing the literal. The Three Acts are Beginning. The second act. commonly described as "rising action". which the hero has to accept or decline 2. rather than on the internal thoughts of its characters. which ends the second act. scenarios. A road of trials. an inciting incident complicates the story and moves the screenplay into the second act. most basic theory of screenwriting is the Three Act Structure. the aim is to evoke thoughts and emotions through subtext. The most common kinds of theories are structural. The Climax. There are several main screenwriting theories which help writers approach the screenplay by systematizing the structure. regarding which the hero succeeds or fails 3. goals and techniques of writing a script. A call to adventure. setup [of the location and characters]. which includes 1. Video game writers work closely with the other game designers to create characters. and symbolism. Finally. This fundamental structure contains a number of stages. rather than serving as a "finished product" for the enjoyment of its audience. The first act is generally used to establish the dramatic situation and introduce the main characters. Unlike a novel or short story. is the scene or sequence in which the main tension and dramatic questions of the story are brought to their most intense point. spare prose when describing stage directions. also referred to as the Monomyth. it is intended to be interpreted on the basis of other artists' performance. resolution [of the problem]). typically depicts the protagonist attempting to solve the problems caused by the inciting incident. the third act features the resolution of the story and its subplots. In screenwriting. confrontation [of the problem]. The central concept of the Monomyth is that a universal pattern can be seen in stories and myths across history and cultures. Campbell's insight was that important myths from around the world which have survived for thousands of years. Theories on writing a screenplay Fundamentally. At the end of the first act.opportunities are available to screenwriters in the field of video game design. a screenplay is written using technical jargon and tight. Three act structure The first. action. all share a fundamental structure. the screenplay is a unique literary for. and dialogue. The Hero's Journey The Hero's Journey. is an idea formulated by noted mythologist Joseph Campbell. more specifically.

resulting in Aristotle's Three Acts divided into four pieces. reminding us the Empire is after the stolen plans to the Death Star R2-D2 is carrying and Luke and Ben Kenobi are trying to get to the Rebel Alliance (the main conflict). Act Two was notoriously boring. this is when Luke's family is killed by the Empire. Field noticed that in a 120-page screenplay. Turning Point One is a surprising development that radically changes the Protagonist's life. and posited a new theory. where Boy meets Girl. Midpoint: An important scene in the middle of the script. Pinch 2: Another reminder scene about 5/8 through the script (halfway through Act 2b) that is somehow linked to Pinch 1 in reminding the audience about the central . Pinch 1 is the Stormtroopers attacking the Millennium Falcon in Mos Eisley. He also noticed that an important dramatic event usually occurred at the middle of the picture. writers go back and redo this as the last thing before submitting the script. often a reversal of fortune or revelation that changes the direction of the story. Pinch 1: A reminder scene at about 3/8 the way through the script (halfway through Act 2a) that brings up the central conflict of the drama. in Star Wars. He has no home to go back to. like the verses and choruses in a popular song. which implied to him that the middle act was actually two acts in one. forcing him into comic circumstances. Application of the boon. 3. Inciting Incident: Also called the catalyst. Opening Image: The first image in the screenplay should summarize the entire film. this is the point in the story when the Protagonist encounters the problem that will change their life. So the Three Act Structure is notated 1.4. In Star Wars. Plot Point 1: The last scene in Act One. in which what the hero has gained can be used to improve the world Syd Field's Paradigm Screenwriting guru Syd Field wrote the seminal book Screenplay. A return to the ordinary world. reminding us of the overall conflict. Often. This is when the detective is assigned the case. and was also twice the length of Acts One and Three. 2b. which he called the Paradigm. For example. Driving the story towards the Midpoint keeps the second act from sagging. 2a. Plot Points are important structural functions that happen in approximately the same place in most successful movies. especially its tone. and forces him to confront the Opponent. Field also introduced the idea of Plot Points into screenwriting theory. so he joins the Rebels in opposing Darth Vader. and where the Comic Hero gets fired from his cushy job. again as to which the hero can succeed or fail 5.

The sequence approach The sequence approach to screenwriting. The first two sequences combine to form the film's first act. and he must bounce back to overcome the odds in Act 3. action. and using the Stormtrooper attack motif unifies both Pinches. is a system developed by Frank Daniel. Sometimes. In Star Wars. Plot Point 2: A dramatic reversal that ends Act 2 and begins Act 3. Feature film Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios. it's the low-point for the Hero. most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of approximately one page per minute. Tag: An epilogue. giving the audience closure.. the Protagonist will confront the Main Problem of the story and either overcome it. The next four create the film's second act. Resolution: The issues of the story are resolved. like in Toy Story. In the sequence style the story is broken up into eight 10-15 minute sequences. which is about confrontation and resolution. These rules serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies. or come to a tragic end. transitions. Sometimes Turning Point Two is the moment when the Hero has had enough and is finally going to face the Opponent. are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known widely as studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings. The sequences serve as "mini-movies". dialog. character names. . Showdown: About midway through Act 3. tying up the loose ends of the story. when rendered in studio format. shots and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page. The final two sequences complete the resolution and dénouement of the story. One reason for this is that. films in recent decades have had longer denouements than films made in the 1970s or earlier. each with their own compressed three-act structure.conflict. Pinch 2 is the Stormtroopers attacking them as they rescue the Princess in the Death Star. beginning with proper formatting. This is also known as denouement. sometimes known as "eight-sequence structure". as well as the font size and line spacing. and also a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. Both scenes remind us of the Empire's opposition. Each sequence's resolution creates the situation which sets up the next sequence. In general. Screenwriting formats Screenplays and teleplays have set of standardizations in place.

Increasingly. use a different. like Scrubs. often showing the logo of the Production Company or agency submitting the script. Television For TV shows. but much more condensed and boiled down to specific plot points or actions related to the overall concept and story.There is no single standard for studio format. often a variant of Courier. like CSI. In this format. Many script-editing software programs include templates for documentary formats. are essentially the same as for motion pictures. and scene headings are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats that require the skills of a writer. Documentaries The script format for documentaries and audio-visual presentations which consist largely of voice-over matched to still or moving pictures is different again and uses a two-column format which can be particularly difficult to achieve in standard word processors. Creating reality show formats involves storytelling structure similar to screenwriting. Screenplays are traditionally 90-120 pages long. Screenplays are almost always written using a monospaced font. The middle hole is left empty. the format rules for hour-long dramas. many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format. Screenplays are usually bound with a light card stock cover and back page. dialogue is double-spaced. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs. Comedies and children's films tend to weigh in at the lower end. at least when it comes to editing. reading copies of screenplays (that is. the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to dictate the content and direction of the program. specialized format that derives from radio and the stage play.5 x 11 inch) paper. Some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. Multi-camera sitcoms. and held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. Physical format of Screenplays Screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched letter sized (8. those distributed by producers and agencies in the hope of attracting finance or talent) are distributed printed on . The main difference is that TV scripts have act breaks. and single-camera sitcoms. That is. like I Love Lucy and "Seinfeld". action lines are capitalized.

Imagery can be used to sway the emotions of the audience and to clue them in to what is happening. Dialogue & description Imagery Imagery can be used in many metaphoric ways. which may otherwise vary depending on what fonts and/or paper size the recipient uses to print the script out. This vocabulary is not indisputable. The formatting software programs listed at the bottom of this article produce industry formatted standard screenplays in PDF. because there are no written words to explain the characters or plot. Such packages include BPCScreenplay. Although most production companies can handle scripts in most formats. Movie Magic Screenwriter. Final Draft. while sunny days promote a feeling of happiness and calm. such as WordStar. Celtx. This is because it gives the writer final control over the layout of the script. it is better practice to supply scripts as a PDF file where possible. a macro program that sent strings of commands to existing word processing programs. The first screenwriting software was SmartKey. Montage. Occasionally they are reduced to half-size to make a small book which is convenient to read or put in a pocket. Plot While the story is what will be told (narrative). Sometimes in literature story and plot are used exactly the other way round. it all has to be explained through dialogue and imagery. WordPerfect . Scripped. DreamaScript. Dialogue Dialogue is very important to the film industry. though. it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. this is generally for use by the director or other production crew during shooting. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script. and Zhura. the plot is how the story will be told (narration).both sides of the paper (often professionally bound) to cut down on paper waste out of environmental concerns. Rain is commonly used to express a character feeling depressed. Screenwriting software Various screenwriting software packages are available to help screenwriters adhere to the strict formatting conventions described above.

and Microsoft Word. DIRECTION Filmmaking is the process of making a film from an initial story idea through the scriptwriting to treatment of the script. SmartKey was popular with screen writers from 1982-1987. editing and finally distribution . after which word processing programs had their own macro features. then making a story board (often containing drawings to help visualize the key points) to shooting.

design and special effects departments. During pre-production.e. including the camera. organizational and time-management support.to an audience. aiding in editing process. and define a practical route for achieving it. or they may be hired after an early draft of the script is complete. Director can make a good project better or worst. is the storyteller. controls the film's artistic and dramatic aspects. Directors must then develop a vision for the finished film. Perhaps the most important role within the Direction department is that of Director. A film director visualizes the script. technical and creative teams. Directors make crucial decisions. Director is ultimately responsible for the creative vision and overall style of a feature film. then act as both a storyteller and team leader to bring this vision to reality. Director.he or she must visualize and define the style and structure of the film. lens effect. Occasionally he/ she might be required in aiding designing of sets and even taking part in the hiring of key crew members. who visualizes the script. Responsibilities The role of the director is vital right from the pre-production phase through the production phase up to the post-production. while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of his vision. such as selecting the right cast. The Director acts as the crucial link between the production. i. shot composition. Within this department. the Direction department is a subset of a larger occupational group referred to as Production. to reach the final cut or version of the film. lighting. who ensure that the Director's artistic ambitions are achieved during the filming process. Director coordinates the actors move and may be involved in financing the film. Within the film industry. shot selection. Typically it involves a large number of people and can take anywhere between a few months to several years to complete. Directors may write the film's script or commission it to be written. crew and locations for the film. the person who directs making of a film. Director also manages the technical aspects of filming. lighting. sound. . They then direct rehearsals and the performances of the actors once the film is in production. Directors work closely with Editors through the many technical processes of editing. by providing logistical. During post-production. Directors are responsible for creatively translating the film's written script into actual images and sounds on the screen . in shot. the Director is also supported by a number of Assistant Directors. Film director is responsible for approving every camera angle.

can be a vital first steps on this fiercely competitive and highly challenging career path. but must also be able to delegate work and collaborate with others members of the unit. Many Directors work their way up over many years from entry level positions.At all stages. as is learning how to work with actors to create a performance. Skills Directors must have exceptional artistic vision and creative skills to develop a film. Directors must constantly make decisions. and the ability to remain calm and think clearly under great pressure. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills are vital to get the best from the filmmaking team. Studying the art and craft of directing is important. Unerring commitment and a deep passion for filmmaking are essential. but the role can only really be mastered through in-depth practical experience. Directors also need great self-belief and the determination to succeed. Methods of film directing Directors have different methods of filming. Extensive industry experience is also crucial to this role. They get work experience as a runner on a film set or in a production office is an ideal starting point. are all good starting places. along with the ability to act as a strong and confident leader. Some styles include: • Outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue • Write their own scripts or collaborate on screenplay writing with some writers • Be the cinematographer and/or editor • Control every aspect. Observing successful Directors at work. He/She needs an extensive understanding of the entire filmmaking process. directing one's own short film or an amateur play. and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely Role of Director during the various phases of Film Production: . up-to-date knowledge of filmmaking techniques and equipment is vital. Directors must also appreciate the needs and expectations of the film's financiers. attention to detail. Directors are responsible for motivating the team to produce the best possible results. Writing a screenplay. Director must inspire and motivate the team to produce the film that he/she has envisioned. A capacity for long hours of intensive work. are key skills for this role. from both technical and creative points of view.

on celluloid or digital medium. Finally. among other tasks. The clapperboard records the scene. assistant directors. • The Art Director manages the art department. The Director will then choose his crew for making of the film. production designer. such as the property master. take. which makes production sets. the movie is designed and planned. The actors rehearse their scripts with the director.Pre-production In pre-production. He or she cooperates with the director. • The Casting Director finds actors for the parts in the script. production manager. supervised by the director viz. A production budget is also drawn up to find the cost the film. Production In production the shooting of a movie. track and dolly. production sound mixer. Actors may arrive several hours earlier for make-up and costume. who is responsible for managing all the creative elements of the movie. picture editor. the action is shot. These are just the most common roles in filmmaking. And there are a lot of other artists working in the production crew. The production company is created and a production office established. director of . • The Director of Photography (DP or DOP) or Cinematographer creates the photography of the film. make up and hair designer. microphones. script supervisor. stills photographer. director of audiography (DOA) and AD. The assistant director will follow the shooting schedule for the day. and sound editors. storyboard artist. music composer. costume designer. sound designer. is done. which helps the editor keep track of the takes in post-production. Crew will prepare for that day's filming and get the equipments (cameras. This normally requires an audition by the actor. location manager. A typical day's shooting begins with the crew arriving on the set/location before the call-time. The picture and sound crews then rehearse with the actors. The producer will hire a director. choreographer. Various Directors working under him include: • The Assistant Director (AD): manages the shooting schedule and logistics of the production. The production office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit a particular film. director. It might be required to take as many as shot as the director requires/wishes. More crew could be recruited at this stage. The production is storyboarded and visualized with the help of illustrators and concept artists. Each shot is marked on a clapperboard. props).

The clapperboard also serves the necessary function of providing a marker to sync up the film and the sound take." The crew will dismantle the set for that scene.photography. All roles within the Direction department of the film industry require a high degree of commitment and dedication. shots are downloaded and organized on a computer for display as dailies. are left to . The first job of the film editor is to build a rough cut taken from sequences (or scenes) based on individual "takes" (shots). Other important qualities for these roles include excellent communication. the film passes out of the hands of the editor to the sound department to build up the sound track. to be a team player. The director approves the next day's shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production office. The purpose of the rough cut is to select and order the best shots. the picture is "locked. The voice recordings are synchronized and the final sound mix is created. After each take the director will then decide if it was acceptable or not. and to work effectively under pressure. or even frames. and the ability to multi-task. Trimming. is done during this phase. a close attention to detail. they return from the laboratory film positives and are viewed in the evening by the director. After the fine cut has been screened and approved by the director and producer. and is displayed for the camera. Once processed. the process of shortening scenes by a few minutes. For productions using digital technologies. the unprocessed negative of the day's takes are sent to the film laboratory for processing overnight. date. Sound is recorded on a separate apparatus from the film and they must be synced up in post-production. The sound mix combines sound effects. The next step is to create a fine cut by getting all the shots to flow smoothly in a seamless story. the assistant director declares a "wrap. dialogue and music." meaning no further changes are made. seconds. Most recordists have now progressed onto digital hard-drive recorders but some will still record onto DAT (digital audio tape). interpersonal and organizational skills. When shooting is finished for the scene. and name of the film written on the front. such as finance and marketing. The Director also participates in the sound mix and musical composition of the film. The work usually involves long hours and varied work locations. While the practical aspects of filmmaking. background sounds. Once the picture is locked. Post-production Here the film is assembled by the film editor. so flexibility and motivation are important. For productions using traditional photographic film.

Directors must also always be aware of the constraints of the film's budget and schedule.the Producer. Directors are ultimately responsible for a film's artistic and commercial success or failure. Being a Director requires great creative vision. Directors assume multiple roles such as Director/Producer or Director/Writer. . dedication and commitment. In some cases.

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