FALL 2011-12

31 3 GRA TYPOGRA PHIC
DESIGN &

THEORIES
ÖZLEM ÖZKAL

ozkal@bilkent.edu.tr www.72313.blogspot.com

FB105 · Office Hours: W567 BILKENT UNIVERSITY, FADA DEPT . OF GRAPHIC DESIGN

COURSE DESCRIPTION

TYPOGRAPHIC DESIGN and THEORIES is a course which aims to promote students’ practice and knowledge in the field of typography, thus instill an awareness in the dynamics and the creative potential of this discipline. Serving as a studio course, the class concentrates on typography based projects assisted with visual lectures and class discussions. It encourages students to explore new forms of visual expressions by using the typographical grammar. As well as design practice, this course studies the influential discourses on typography from modernity to the present time to provide an extensive theoretical background. By encouraging experimental projects that will improve students’ existing level in design, this course attempts to increase students awareness for the potential of this field for professional practice.
OBJECTIVES

To develop the skills in: research, problem analysis, concept generation, mock-up, evaluation, and production, using manual as well as computer tools and techniques. To reveal and promote the students’ own creative resources.
ATTENDANCE

You are expected to attend all the class hours and to arrive on time. More than 3 absences will seriously put you in danger of failing unless you have an officially valid excuse. The accumulation of ‘late’ arrivals and absences can lead to the failure of this class.
DUEDATES/MAKE-UPS

To strengthen the understanding of the key concepts: type/lettering, legibility/readability, visual/editorial hierarchy, objective/expressive typography, free layout/grid, and the creative process. To examine past & present-day typographers and their approaches to typographic design. To study the theoretical and the conceptual framework of the typographic language. To investigate the contemporary dynamics and trends in typography. To experiment with new forms and seek for new visual expressions with typography. To develop a critical awareness towards the conventions in type, to encourage experimentation and alternative approaches.

Please, keep in mind that all assignments are to be completed and submitted on time. In order to bring a make-up you must first submit your work on the scheduled time. You will have two weeks time to do a make-up. Late projects will be accepted only if you have a valid excuse, but it will receive a lower grade.
GRADES

By the end of the semester, the final grade will depend on the following percentages: Projects: 45% (average of 3 projects) Homework assignments: 28% (average of 4 works) Term essay: 15% (“What makes a good typeface?”) In-class participation: 12% Please note that, the design projects will be accompanied with selected readings and discussions. You are responsible from reading the article in our schedule. Please come prepared to class as your participation to the discussions will be a determining factor on your final grade.

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INTRODUCTION

WEEK 1 SEP/28

Introduction to the class. CLASSWORK: Complete the letterforms. ASSIGNMENT 01: Designing a Table of Contents. Format: A4. Color: Black & White.

Lecture: The objectives of typography. A brief look at the history of the letter-forms: From ideogram to phonogram. The Origins of the Roman alphabet. The history & classification of the letterforms.

GRID & ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION

WEEK 2 OCT/05

Critique on Assignment 01. PROJECT 01: A weekly newspaper on design.

Lecture: Design criteria for newspapers. Reading and discussion: “Grid Systems in Graphic Design” by Josef Müller-Brockmann. “Contemporary Newspaper Design” by Mario R. Garcia.

LEGIBILITY & READABILITY

WEEK 3 OCT/12

Work in progress. Grid. Typeface selection. What is legibility and readability. Typographic rules for obtaining comfortable reading.

Reading and discussion: “Readability and Legibility in Text” by Betty Binns. “The Crystal Goblet or Printing Should be Invisible” by Beatrice Warde.
WEEK 4 OCT/19

PAGE LAYOUT

Work in progress. Alternative organizations on the same grid system.

PROJECT REVIEW

WEEK 5 OCT/26

Work in progress. Printed drafts in 1:1 size.

Discussion: The future of print media. Recommended reading: “This is Not the End of the Book” by Umberto Eco and Jean-Claude Carriére.

TYPE AND EXPRESSION

WEEK 6 NOV/02

Due date and and critique for Project 01. ASSIGNMENT 02 (classwork): Lettrism: “The Poem of the Future”. ASSIGNMENT 03 (homework): Please make a research on type designers in the given list. Choose one designer and develop a concept for a packaging design related to this designer. Write a one page report explaining the disctinct qualities of your selected type designer and your design concept (for the next class).

Readings (for next the class): “Matthew Carter” (interview by Eric Spiekermann, Eye11/93); “Neville Brody: Type as Expression” (interview by Nancy Aldrich-Ruenzel, Designers Guide to Typography, 1991); “Mrs. and Mr. Eaves” by Zuzana Licko; “Some Marginal Notes on Type Design” by Hermann Zapf; “On the beauty and difficulty of designing numbers” by Eric Spiekermann (interview by Frog Design, online); “Univers: A New Sans Serif Type by Adrian Frutiger” by Emil Ruder.

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WEEK 7 NOV/09

Holiday.
TYPE DESIGNERS & TYPEFACES WEEK 8 NOV/16

Work in progress. CLASS PRESENTATION: Selected type designers: examination of their works and approaches to design. Please use your research and present your type designer PROJECT 02: PACKAGING BY A TYPE DESIGNER. to the class. Try to give brief information about his/her Please choose a type designer from the list. Then, background; show samples of his/her works: how can choose an object and design a package for it by using you summarize his/her design philosophy; what are the your the designer as your inspiration. visual characteristics of his/her works; how do you relate During the process, keep in mind the visual your design concept to his/her design approach. characteristics and the design approach of your C. Garamond, W. Caslon, designer. Try to put yourself in his/her shoes. G. Baskerville, G. Bodoni, Format & Color: will be determined according to the product (The name of the designer will be used as the product name.) Morris F.Benton, Paul Renner, Hermann Zapf, Edward Benguiat, Matthew Carter, Erik Spiekermann, Eric Gill, F. W. Goudy, Adrian Frutiger, Carol Twombly Zuzana Licko, Peter Bilak.
WEEK 9 NOV/23

TYPE DESIGNERS & TYPEFACES

Work in progress. 3D mock-ups.
TYPE DESIGNERS & TYPEFACES WEEK 10 NOV/30

Work in progress. Refined designs in 1:1 size & color.
TYPE DESIGNERS & TYPEFACES WEEK 11 DEC/07

Due date and critique for Project 2. Brief for PROJECT 03: Typeface Design based on Hand-written Letters.
TYPE DESIGN

Classwork: Handwriting exercise; miniscule and majuscule alphabets. Please scan and vectorize your letters, and make them ready to be pasted in FontLab for the next week.
WEEK 12 DEC/14

Work in progress. FontLab Demo.
FONTLAB

Reminder: If you haven’t started by now, please start to work on your ‘term essay.’
WEEK 13 DEC/21

Work in progress. Metrics and kerning settings. Generating the font.
LETTERFORM

ASSIGNMENT 04: Photo research. Images of everyday objects around you with formal details that can be incorporated into a letterform.
WEEK 14 DEC/28

Work in progress. Type as printed text. Further refinements. Classwork (continuation of Assignment 04): A letterform inspired from the formal details of an object.
LETTERFORM

Reading and discussion: From Bauhaus to Font House by David Quay and Freda Sack.

WEEK 15 JAN/04

Review of the classwork. Drafts for the typeface poster. Due date for the Term Essay: ‘What Makes a Good Typeface?’

Project 3 is due to the finals. The finished typeface must be mounted and presented in two A3 size boards. The first one is to present the full alphabet set in different point sizes. The second one will be a poster to promote your typeface.

THE FINAL JURY FOR GRA313 WILL BE ON: JAN 11, 2012 Wednesday between 9:40-12:40
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REQUIRED READING The articles you are required to read will be in Meteksan. Please don’t forget to get your copy! RECOMMENDED BOOKS beginner beginner to intermediate Kane, John. A Type Primer. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd., 2002. Spiekermann, Erik and E.M Ginger. Stop Stealing Sheep & Find Out How Type Works, Second Ed. Adobe Press, 2002. Craig, James et al. Designing with Type: The Essential Guide to Typography. 5th edition. Watson-Guptill, 2006. Carter, Rob, Ben Daye and Philip Meggs. Typographic Design: Form and Communication. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1993. Elam, Kimberly. Typographic Systems. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007. intermediate to advanced Bringhurst, Robert. The Elements of Typographic Style. Washington: Hartley & Marks Publishers, 1996. Pohlen, Joep & Geert Setola. Letter Fountain. Taschen, 2011. West, Suzanne. Working with Style: Traditional and Modern Approaches to Layout & Typography. New York: WatsonGuptill Publications, 1990. Texts on Type; Critical Writings in Typography. Eds. Steven Heller and Philip Meggs. New York: Allworth Press, 2001. ‘Looking Closer’ Series (1-2-3-4-5) Eds. Michael Bierut et al. New York: Allworth Press, 1994(1); 1997 (2); 1999 (3); 2002(5); 2007 (5). Triggs, Teal. Type Design: Radical Innovations and Experimentation. London: Thames nd Hudson, 2003. Cheng, Karen. Designing Type. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. USEFUL WEBSITES: http://www.typophile.com/ http://ilovetypography.com/ http://www.thinkingwithtype.com/ http://new.typographica.org/ http://www.underconsideration.com/speakup/ (Speak Up) http://www.typeculture.com/ http://www.tdc.org/index.html (Type Directors Club) http://www.typebooks.org/ http://www.typeradio.org/loudblog/ (for more links, please take a look at the class blog: http://72313.blogspot.com + We have a blog at: http://72313.blogspot.com/ This blog aims to help us to keep in touch outside the class hours, and to follow what’s new in the world of typography. We can share useful links, visual samples, articles, and other information within the context of our course here. You can also contribute with your comments, questions, by sharing interesting links or by starting a discussion. I will be posting a summary of the presentations made in the class, and also notices about our next class when necessary; so, please don’t forget to check the blog from time to time.

The typeface used in this text is Corporate Sans 9pts. The Corporate ASE typeface family was designed by Kurt Weidemann, between 1985-1990.

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