133148
302, India
1. INTRODUCTION Fibre reinforced plastics are being increasingly used in aerospace applications. They may be subjected to moisture and temperature environments during service life. Moisture and temperature have a sign&ant effect on the free vibration of fibre reinforced plastic laminated plates. The effect of environment on the free vibration of laminated plates has been considered earlier by Whitney and Ashton [I]. They used the Ritz method to analyze symmetric laminates and equilibrium equations of motion in the case of antisymmetric angleply laminates, based upon the classical laminated plate theory. A few results were presented for only symmetric angleply laminates. Very recently, Dhanaraj and Palaninathan [2] used the semiloof shell element to study the free vibrational characteristics of composite laminates under initial stress, which may also arise due to temperature. Results were presented showing how temperature affects the fundamental frequencies of antisymmetric laminates. Except for the abovementioned publications, no literature has been found on hygrothermal effects on free vibration of laminated composite plates. Yang and Shieh [3] considered vibrations of initially stressed antisymmetric crossply laminates. Initial stresses included both force and moment resultants. Rotary inertia and transverse shear effects were taken into account. On the other hand, vibrations of isotropic plates under arbitrary initial stress have received much attention [471. In the authors previous paper [8], the quadratic isoparametric element was applied to study hygrothermal effects on the bending characteristics of laminated composite plates. In the present work, attention is focused primarily on investigating the effects of moisture and temperature on the free vibration of laminated composite plates. The conventional finite element formulation is modified to include the strain energy of all types of initial stresses, viz. compressive, bending and shear stresses, developed due to moisture and temperature. Transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are accounted for according to the YangNorrisStavsky theory [ll], which extends the Mindlin theory [12] to 133
002240X/92/190133 16 $08.00/O + 0 1992 AcademicPressLimited
134
laminated composite plates. Furthermore, lamina material properties at elevated moisture concentration and temperature are used in the present analysis. The reduction in natural frequency with the increase in uniform moisture concentration and temperature is studied in the cases of symmetric and antisymmetric laminates with simply supported and clamped boundary conditions.
2. GOVERNING
EQUATIONS
Consider a laminated plate of uniform thickness t consisting of a number of thin laminae, each of which may be arbitrarily oriented at an angle 8 with reference to the xaxis of the coordinate system (see Figures 1 and 2). The constitutive equations [ 11, 13, 141 the for plate, when it is subjected to moisture and temperature, are given by (a list of notation is given in the Appendix)
where
Figure 1. Arbitrarily oriented lamina in a laminated plate. Axis 3 coincides with z axis.
HYGROTHERMAL
All Al2 Al6 Bll AIZ A22 A26 Bl2 B22 B26
EFFECTS
416 A26 466 &6 B26 B66 &I &2 B16 Dll 012 016
ON FREE VIBRATION
&2 I322 826 012 022 026 &6 &6 866 016 026 066 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
135
PI
B12 Bl6
0 .o Nonmechanical
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
Az,z, A45
A45 A55
i, j= 1, 2, 6,.
(2)
Q s ZkkI
[&ML
z, ~ dz, 1
i, j= 1, 2, 6,.
&)=a
r[&]k dz,
i, j=4, 5.
(3)
for i, j=l,
2, 6, (4)
for i, j=4, 5
where
cos2e
[T,] =
~$te~z$]. 8
tQijlk=
LT21=[;;;
;:;I,
[Q~lk=
1

i, j= 1, 2, 4
[
y
;
55
1 ,
i, j=4, 5,
in which
QII =&A1
Q22=EzlU
v12v21),
Q12 = v12452/(1Q4=G3,
 VI~VZI),
136
Ey= fi,y
Kx = e,,
Ky= &,y,
~~~ e,,=
e,,,
b=
ey+w,x, #y=ex+w,y.
(5)
Upon assuming that w does not vary with z, the nonlinear strains of the plate [3, lo] can be expressed as
Eynr=
yxynl=
z(~,y e,,,
yxrnl=
yyznl=
(7)
3. FINITE ELEMENT
FORMULATION
The eightnoded isoparametric element (see Figure 3) which is used for static analysis [8lo] is applied to the present free vibration problem. Five degrees of freedom are considered at each node. The stiffness matrix, the initial stress stiffness matrix, the mass matrix and the nodal load vectors of the element are derived by using the principle of minimum potential energy. The element displacements are expressed in terms of their nodal values
4*
,,? .7
?? 3
a 2
HYGROTHERMAL
EFFECTS
ON FREE
VIBRATION
137
by using the element shape functions and are given by ii= f Niiii,
i= I
IY= f
i=l
NiCi,
IV= f
i=l
NiWi,
3.1.
ELEMENT
STIFFNESS
MATRIX
The linear strain matrix {E} is obtained by substituting equations (8) into (5), and is expressed as
TABLE
Eiastic moduii of graphite/epoxy lamina at different moisture concentrations; G13= G12, Gzj=O.SG,z, VIZ= 0.3, /?, =0 and p2=044
Moisture concentration, Elastic moduli @Pa) EI EZ Cl2 0.00 130 9.5 6.0 0.25 130 9.25 6.0 0.50 130 9.0 6.0 0.75 130 8.75 6.0 C (%) I.00 130 8.5 6.0 1.25 130 8.5 6O I.50 130 8.5 6.0
TABLE
lamina at d@erent temperatures; Gls = G12, G23= 0. 5G,2, al =O3 X 106/K and az=28.1 x 106/K
Temperature
T (K)
375 130 7.5 5.0 400 130 7.0 4*75 425 130 6.75 4.5
138
K. S. SAI RAM
AND P. K. SINHA
TABLE 3 VeriJication of nondimensional frequency /I by comparison with Ritz method results; a/b = 1, a/t = 100, (O/90/90/0), simply supported c= 0.1% Mode number,
m
T=
1 2 3 4
where{~,}={~~,~~,w~,~,~,~,~,...,~~,~~,w~,~,~,~~~~~,
Ni,, 0 0 Ni,y 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ni,y Ni,.x 0
[l&,
0
;
0 0
;
0
0
0
O yf .
Ni.y Ni
0
s
[%I =
ss
PITPWl dx dy.
(10)
3.2. ELEMENT INITIAL STRESS STIFFNESS MATRIX The nonlinear strains, equations (7), are represented in matrix form as {sn,)= {&xn[,+z/, ~xyn/, ~xznr, ~y/yzn~~~=[Rl{d~/2, where {d} = {&, ii,, fi,X,Us, w,~, w,~, e,, , by, ey,x, ey,y, from equations (7) and (11). By using equations (8), {d} may be expressed as {d) = where
8, , 8,
(11)
[RI is obkus
IT, ad
KW~eL
0
(12)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ri,,
?i,y
0 0 Ni,, Ni,y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 N,, Ni,y
0 0 0 0
wf,
0 0 0 0 0
0
0 0 0
Ni,x Ni,y
0
0 0
Ni; r
0
1 0
Ni,Y
0 1
HYGROTHERMAL
139
  ___
._.
=G
4
01 0
A
0.25
0.5
Moisture
0.75
concentration.
1.0
C (%)
1.25
1.5
Figure 5. Effect of moisture on nondimensional fundamental frequency of (O/90/90/0) laminate. , supported ;   , clamped.
Simply
[J&,1 =
where
[ YTISl[Gldxdy,
(13)
Sll
S21
0 0 0 0 0 0
s91 s22
PI=
0 0 0 0 0 0 S 92
SlO2
S33
S43 0 0
&3 s83
S44
0 0 S74
S34
s::
S
s66
0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
s71
s87 0 0 0 0 s08 0 0 0 0 s99 SO9 0 0
S 101 0 S 121
0
s122
0 0 S 113 0
0 0
s114
S 1010
00 0 Of
140
601
___
___
_ l ___
,,/b=2,o/t=40

,o/b=2,o/,=lO
__o_/_b_0~5,0/t=40
_____
____
_______________
o/b=l,o/t=lO
01
0.25
0.5 Moisture
0.75 concentration,
I.0 C (%I
I.25
(45/45/45/45)
laminate.
S,o,o=N;t*/12,
s14
S87=S,09=N~yt2/12,
&,3=&2,=
=s83=&2=&,,=d'f;y,
Q:,
s114=
&22=
Q;,
3.3.
ELEMENT
MASS MATRIX
The
(14)
HYGROTHERMAL
141
_________
60 
__
50
o/b 2,o/t
= 10
 ____
20.
__
r
o/b=l,o/l=40
__ _ __
____ _ /~lb_=_l,a/f=_io___________ _ ___ __ Co/b=0.5,0/1=40 _ _~~~=_O_~~:< rlO_Z ___ _1:~7~___::~:
/o/b=l,o/t=lO o/b=
o/i =40
01
0
0.25
0.5
Moisture
0.75
concentration,
1.0
c (%I
1.25
I 5
where
0 0 Ni 0 0 0 0 Ni
0 [PI=
0
I I
P
0 0
0 0
0 0 p 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 z
in which and
z2p d.2.
3.4. ELEMENT LOAD VECTORS The element load vector due to external transverse static load q per unit area is given by 4 (19 Ni 0 dx dy. [ 0]
142
60 
___
____
/___
o/b=2,o/t=40 __ _ _
50 
30 Ka/b=2,a/t 10
^_____ 20
__
a/b=l,a/t=40 L_____
0.25
0.5 Moisture
0.75 concentration,
1.0 C (%I
1.25
1.5
I
laminate.
[~I ? d.xdy. @
(16)
35. SOLUTION PROCESS The stiffness matrix, the initial stress stiffness matrix, the mass matrix and the load vectors of the element, given by equations (10) and (13)(16), are evaluated by first expressing the integrals in local natural coordinates, 5 and q of the element and then performing numerical integration by using Gaussian quadrature. Then the element matrices are assembled to obtain the respective global matrices [K], [K,], [Ml, {P} and (P}. The first part of the solution is to obtain the initial stress resultants induced by the external transverse static load and by moisture and temperature in static conditions. The initial displacements {S are found from the equilibrium condition }, [K](8) Then the initial stress resultants Ni, N; NiY, M$, A4;, ML,,, QL and Qi are obtained from equations (1) and (9).
= (P} + {PI.
(17)
HYGROTHERMAL
143
_
 _ _
_
_
o/b=2,o/f=40 ___
__


o/b=2,0/t=10
lf

_____
_ ___
____ /b=2,0/1=4,/b=2,o/t=K?
______/  1 _ _ __  = _ _ _
_________f_O_/bP0.5,0/t=40  o/b=l, 10
______J_
_Kolbi_0.5,0/t= ro/b=l.o/t=40 _

o/t=lO _______
 _____
 
325
350 Moisture
400
1 15
Figure
9.
Iwl+K7l&w
=a
W9
This is a generalized eigenvalue problem and is solved by using the subspace iteration method [15].
4. RESULTS
AND DISCUSSION
The analysis described in the previous sections is applicable to the free vibration of laminated plates subjected to an external transverse static load and nonuniform distribution of moisture and temperature through the volume of the plate. In the present investigation, results are presented for symmetric and antisymmetric laminates subjected to uniform distribution of moisture and temperature in the absence of external static load. Fourlayered, graphite/epoxy laminates with simply supported and clamped boundary conditions have been analyzed. In the cases of all the laminates, both the inplane displacements of the midplane at an edge are restrained for both simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. Lamina material properties at the elevated moisture concentrations and temperatures [ 141 used in the present analysis are presented in Tables 1 and 2. Since the evaluation of shear correction factor from the exact theory of elasticity is diikult in the present case, a commonly used value of 5/6 is assumed [ 16, 171.
144
60
____
__

__ /
o/b=Z,a/t=40 __
____
50
r< 6 40. s ii 2 z

_
o/b=l,o/t=lO
__
d _____
o/b=2,o/l=lO _
B :, z.6 e ; ._
_____
 __
_____co/b=?,;it:@j
300
325
350 Moisture
400
4 !5
laminate.
The entire plate is modelled with 16 elements, as shown in Figure 4. The accuracy of the present finite element analysis is verified by comparisons with Ritz method results [I] for a symmetric crossply laminate, and the results for the first four nondimensional natural frequencies A= ~,a*( p/E2t2)* are given in Table 3. Material properties are assumed to be constant for this purpose: i.e., they do not vary with the moisture and temperature. In Figures 512 are shown the effects of uniform moisture and temperature on the nondimensional fundamental frequencies A= cc,,& p/E2t *)* of symmetric and antisymmetric laminates with simply supported and clamped boundary conditions for different aspect ratios and sidetothickness ratios. Values of p and E2 at C=O% or T= 300 K are chosen to make an dimensionless. The aspect ratios considered are 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and the sidetothickness ratios are 10 and 40. The moisture concentration is varied from 0% to 1.5% and the temperature from 300 K to 425 K. In case of simply supported (45/45/45/45) and (45/45/45/45) laminates with aspect ratio O5 and sidetothickness ratio 40, the nondimensional fundamental frequency approaches zero when the laminates are subjected to a uniform moisture concentration
HYGROTHERMAL
EFFECTS
ON FREE VIBRATION
145
s z
.: :
z
a/b=2,a/t=lo

o/b=0,5,a/t=
fa/b~l,a/i=40 /
300
325
350 Moisture
400
425
laminate.
from 1.25% to 1.5% (see Figures 6 and 8). SimiIarly, the equilibrium of a simply supported (O/90/0/90) laminate with aspect ratio 0.5 and sidetothickness ratio 40 becomes unstable at a uniform moisture concentration lying in between 1*Oo/to 1.25% (see Figure 7). Such an instability problem has been investigated separately by the authors [ 181. In Figures 512 it is shown that the reduction in the fundamental natural frequency with the increase in uniform moisture concentration and temperature may be linear or nonlinear depending upon moisture concentration, temperature and the reduction in lamina material properties with the increase in moisture concentration and temperature. The reduction in the fundamental natural frequency with the increase in moisture wncentration and temperature is greater in the cases of laminates with higher sidetothickness ratios (Figures 512).
5. CONCLUSION
The conventional finite element formulation has been modified to study the hygrotherma1 effects on the free vibration of laminated composite plates. The formulation and the program developed are general in nature and can handle nonuniform distributions of moisture and temperature in addition to the external static load, which also produces
146
=O?
so 
_____

  __/
o/b=2,
O/t
=40
_
 _____,
40 c
3oL
I
20 ____L ,,o/b=l,o/f=40
______________ ia___
o/b=
10 
f;,;L&;,;/fO;;
~o/b=O~5,o/t 40
01
1
325 350 375 400 425 Moisture concentrotion,C 1%)
300
laminate.
initial stresses. The broad conclusion that can be made from the study is that with the increase in uniform moisture content and temperature, the reduction in the fundamental natural frequency need not be linear and the problem may become one of instability, depending upon the value of the moisture concentration, temperature, sidetothickness ratio and aspect ratio.
REFERENCES J. M. WHITNEY and J. E. ASHTON1971 American Institute of Aeronautics of Astronautics Journal 9, 17081713. Effect of environment on the elastic response of layered composite plates. R. D. DHANARAJ and PALANINATHAN 1989 Proceedings of the Seminar on Science and Technology of Composites, Adhesives and Sealants, Bangalore, India, 24525 1. Free vibrational characteristics of composite laminates under initial stress. I. H. YANG and J. A. SHIIZH 1987 Journal of Sound and Vibration 119, 545558. Vibrations of initially stressed thick rectangular orthotropicplates. S. ILANKO and S. M. DICKINSON1987 Journal of Sound and Vibration 118, 313336. The vibration and postbuckling of geometricallyimperfect simply supported rectangular plates under uniaxial loading, part I: theoreticalapproach.
147
5. E. J. BRUNELLE and S. R. ROBERTSON 1976 Journal of Sound and Vibration 45, 405416. Vibrations of an initially stressed thick plate. 6. E. J. BRUNELLEand S. R. ROBERTSON1974 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal 12, 10361045. Initially stressed Mindlin plates. 7. G. HERRMANN and A. E. ARMENAKAS 1960 Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers 86, 458487. Vibrations and stability of plates under initial stress. 8. K. S. SAI RAM and P. K. SINHA 1991 International Journal of Computers and Structures 40, 10091015. Hygrothermal effects on the bending characteristics of laminated composite plates. and D. R. J. OWEN 1977 Finite Element Programming. London: Academic Press. 9. E. HJNTON 10. R. D. Coon 1981 Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis. New York: John Wiley. 11. P. C. YANG, C. H. NORRIS and Y. STAVSKY1966 International Journal of Solids and Structures 2, 665684. Elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous plates. 12. R. D. MINDLJN 1951 Journal of Applied Mechanics 18, 3138. Influence of rotary inertia and shear on flexural motions of isotropic elastic plates. 13. R. M. JONES 1975 Mechanics of Composite Materials. Washington, D.C.: McGrawHill, Scripta. 14. S. W. TSAI and H. T. HAHN 1980 Introduction to Composite Materials. Westport, Connecticut: Technomic. 15. K. J. BATHE 1982 Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey : PrenticeHall. 16. J. M. WHITNEY and N. J. PAGANO 1970 Journal of Applied Mechanics 37, 10311036. Shear deformation in hetrogeneous anisotropic plates. 17. J. N. REDDY 1979 Journal of Sound and Vibration 66, 565576. Free vibration of anisotropic, angleply laminated plates including transverse shear deformation by the finite element method. 18. K. S. SAI RAM and P. K. SINHA 1992 Composite Structures 21. Hygrothermal effects on the buckling of laminated composite plates.
APPENDIX : NOTATION plate dimensions along x and y axes, respectively elevated and reference moisture concentrations nonmechanical strains due to moisture and temperature Young moduli of a lamina along and across the fibres, respectively s finite element method shear moduli of a lamina with respect to 1, 2 and 3 axes curvatures of the plate mode number internal moment resultants per unit length initial internal moment resultants per unit length nonmechanical moment resultants per unit length due to moisture and temperature shape function at a node i derivatives of shape function with respect to x and y, respectively inplane internal force resultants per unit length inplane initial internal force resultants per unit length inplane nonmechanical force resultants per unit length to moisture and temperature external transverse static load transverse shear resultants initial transverse shear forces thickness of plate elevated and reference temperatures displacements of the midplane along x and y axes, respectively displacements of node i along x, y and .z axes, respectively derivatives of the variable with respect to the subscript displacement along zaxis system of coordinate axes bottom and top distances of lamina from midplane shear correction factor
ii,
Q,
Y, z
zk
Zklr a
148
aI,
a2
K. S. SAI RAM
AND
P. K. SINHA
thermal coefficients along 1 and 2 axes of a lamina, respectively moisture coefficients along 1 and 2 axes of a lamina, respectively inplane strains of the midplane fibre orientation in a lamina rotations of the plate about x and y axes = o,a2( p/E2t2)2 Poisson ratios local natural coordinates of an element shear rotations in xz and yz planes, respectively natural frequency