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CHAPTER 8 ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS

About the authors Competency grid Preface

xiii xiv xvi

Acknowledgments Supplemements for Instructors

xvi

Part 1 Introduction to motor vehicles


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Motor vehicle components Workshop safety Workshop practices Tools and their use Measuring and checking Friction and bearings Seals, gaskets and sealants The environment and the automotive service industry

1
3 17 29 45 69 87 103 117

Part 4 Running gear


24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Tyres, wheels and balance Brakes Brake service Suspension systems Suspension service Steering systems Steering-system service Wheel alignment

433
435 455 485 507 527 549 573 593

Part 2 Engines and engine systems


9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Engine fundamentals Engine construction and components Cooling system and service Engine-lubricating systems EFI fuel systems Carburettor fuel systems Gas fuel systems Intake and exhaust systems

131
133 149 169 191 207 223 257 279

Part 5 Maintenance
32 33 34 Fuels, uids and lubricants Service and maintenance Basic mechanics and diagnosis

615
617 631 645

Part 6 Basics of the electrical system


35 36 37 38 Basic electrics Effects and applications of electric currents Basic electronics The battery

659
661 677 695 711

Part 3 Manual transmissions and drives 295


17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Clutches Clutch service Manual transmission and transaxles Manual transmission and transaxle service Drive lines and shafts Rear axles and nal drives Rear-axles and nal-drive service 297 311 325 351 375 393 411

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Appendix: The SI system of measurement Common abbreviations Glossary Index

727 734 735 751

About the authors Competency grid

xiii xiv

Preface and Acknowledgments Supplements for instructors

xvi xviii

PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO MOTOR VEHICLES


Motor vehicle components
Mechanical arrangements Sections of a motor vehicle Hybrid-drive vehicles The engine assembly Vehicle construction The drive train Transmissions Running gear Electrical system Body and associated parts Names of components and parts Technical terms Review questions

3
4 4 5 5 5 6 9 10 13 13 15 15 15

Workshop practices
Automotive service procedures Workshop operations Production processes Fasteners Locking devices Screw threads V-threads Sources of information Vehicle identication Technical terms Review questions

17
18 20 21 23 25 26 27 28 30 30 30

Tools and their use

33

Workshop safety
Personal safety Other personal safety issues Machine and equipment safety Motor vehicle safety Safety with vehicle components Engine safety Battery safety Hazardous materials Emergency procedures Fire safety Fires Fire extinguishers First aid Technical terms Review questions

97
98 99 99 101 101 102

Tools for turning 34 Tools for holding and gripping 38 Tools for hammering and driving 39 Tools for cutting and forming 41 Tools for drilling and reaming 44 Tools for threading 46 Tools and materials for grinding and abrading 48 Tools for pulling and pushing 51 Portable power tools Special service tools 52 Technical terms 52 Review questions 52

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103 103 104 105 105 105

Measuring instruments Micrometers Reading micrometers Accuracy and care of micrometers

54 55 57 59

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Measuring and checking

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VII

Vernier calipers Dial gauge and its use Hole gauges Depth gauges Marking and checking Tools for marking and checking Other gauges and instruments Electrical test instruments Technical terms Review questions

59 60 61 61 62 65 66 67 67

Seals, gaskets and sealants


Purpose of oil seals Types of oil seals Servicing oil seals Gaskets Gasket materials Handling and storing gaskets Sealants and sealing compounds Installing gaskets How to make a gasket Pipes, hoses and connections Technical terms Review questions

85
86 86 88 91 92 93 93 93 95 95 96 96

Friction and bearings


Friction Types of friction Making use of friction Bearings Plain bearings Antifriction bearings Special types of bearings Removing and installing bearings Cleaning and checking bearings Bearing adjustments Bearing failures Antifriction bearing defects Technical terms Review questions

69
70 70 71 71 73 74 76 77 78 79 80 81 83 83

The environment and the automotive industry 00


Introduction Legal responsibilities Water quality Liquid waste and chemical storage Solid waste Air quality Noise An environmental checklist Technical terms Review questions 00

00

96 96

PART 2 ENGINES AND ENGINE SYSTEMS


Engine fundamentals
Actions within a cylinder Reciprocating to rotary motion Cycles of engine operation Four-stroke cycle (petrol engine) Two-stroke cycle (petrol engine) Diesel engine operation Rotary engine Multicylinder engines Engine terms and denitions Engine systems Engine classications Technical terms Review questions

109
110 110 112 112 116 118 119 119 121 122 121 122 123

Engine construction and components 125


Engine construction Components of an engine assembly Engine features Working on engines general Working on the underside of the engine Working on the front of the engine Working on the top of the engine Working on engine ancillaries Working on engine electrical systems Technical terms Review questions 126 129 130 132 135 136 136 138 139 141 141

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VIII

Cooling system and service


Basic cooling system Heat and temperature Heat transfer Liquid-cooling systems Cooling-system components Radiator assembly Radiator pressure cap and reservoir Coolant Cooling-system service Cooling-system repairs Water pump overhaul Cooling-system problems Trouble diagnosis guide Technical terms Review questions

143
144 145 146 146 148 152 153 154 155 158 160 161 162 162 162

Carburettor fuel systems


Carburettor fuel system Carburettors Air and fuel ow in a carburettor Carburettor operation Carburettor systems Carburettor construction General carburettor design Carburettor external construction Single-barrel and multibarrel carburettors Throttle-valve operation Mixture correction Automatic chokes Manual chokes Other carburettor components Carburettor service and checks Basic carburettor problems Servicing fuel pumps Testing mechanical fuel pumps Checking electric pumps Fuel system problems Technical terms Review questions

195
196 198 199 199 201 201 203 204

Engine-lubricating systems
Engine lubrication Oil circulation Oil pumps Oil pump service Oil lters Oil coolers Lubrication of engine bearings Crankcase ventilation Lubricating-system maintenance Lubricating-system problems Technical terms Review questions

163
164 165 167 169 170 171 173 174 175 177 178 178

205 207 207 208 210 210 211 211

Gas fuel systems


Gas-fuelled vehicles LPG and NGV Location of LPG components LPG fuel container assembly Fuel container sub-compartment Fuel ller assembly Components of the supply subsystem Converter assembly Airgas mixer LPG fuel system controls LPG fuel system components Converter with stepper motor LPG liquid and vapour injection NGV fuel systems Servicing LPG fuel systems Safety precautions with gas Technical terms Review questions

213
214 214 215 216 217 219 220 220 223 224 224 225 227 228 229 230 230

EFI fuel systems


Petrol as a fuel Airfuel ratio Types of EFI systems Basic multipoint EFI system Multipoint fuel systems Fuel-supply system components Air intake system components Electronic control components Checks and precautions Service requirements Technical terms Review questions

179
180 180 181 181 181 184 189 190 191 193 193 193

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Intake and exhaust systems


Air cleaners Carburettor air cleaners EFI air cleaners Diesel air cleaners Air-cleaner service Engine manifolds

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232 232 234 236 236 238

Intake-system problems Exhaust systems Exhaust-system service Exhaust-system problems Technical terms Review questions

240 240 243 244 246 246

PART 3 MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS AND DRIVES


Clutches
Purpose of the clutch Types of clutches The clutch assembly Diaphragm clutch operation Diaphragm clutch components Clutch controls Other clutch features Pull-type clutches Clutch with central release Dual-mass ywheel Technical terms Review questions

249
250 250 250 251 252 255 258 259 260 260 261 262

Sliding and synchromesh gears Basic synchromesh transmission Five-speed synchromesh transmission Power ow through a ve-speed transmission Six-speed transmission Transaxles Transaxle construction Transaxle operation Synchromesh operation Types of synchromesh Gearshift mechanisms Technical terms Review questions

281 283 285 286 286 286 290 293 295 295 300 300

Clutch service
General checks and adjustments Adjusting mechanical controls Servicing mechanical controls Adjusting hydraulic controls Servicing hydraulic controls Bleeding the clutch system Major clutch service Repairs to pressure-plate assemblies Clutch housing alignment Analysing clutch problems Diagnosing clutch noise General clutch problems Technical terms Review questions

263
264 264 265 265 266 269 269 273 273 273 274 275 276 276

Manual transmission and transaxle service


Service operations Rear-wheel-drive transmissions Dismantling transmissions Dismantling and checking components Identifying internal components of a transmission Transaxles Identifying internal components of a transaxle Dismantling transaxles Reassembling transaxles Inspection of parts (all transmissions) Points relating to reassembly Removing transmissions and transaxles Transmission and transaxle fault diagnosis Road testing and diagnosis Transmission service summary Technical terms Review questions

301
302 303 307 307 311 312 313 316 317 317 319 321 321 321 322 324 324

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Purpose of a transmission Types of gears Gear ratio Basic transmission Basic transmission power ow

278 278 279 280 281

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Manual transmissions and transaxles

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Drive lines and shafts


Rear-wheel drive Universal joints Constant-velocity joints Alignment of universal joints (RWD) Removing and replacing propeller shafts Servicing cross-and-yoke joints Servicing a Lbro joint Front-wheel drive Constant-velocity joints (FWD) Servicing constant-velocity joints (FWD) Technical terms Review questions

325
326 326 328 329 331 331 334 335 337 338 340 340

Rear axles for independent rear suspension Transaxle nal drive Four-wheel drive Technical terms Review questions

355 357 359 359 359

Rear-axle and nal-drive service 361


General rear-axle service points Removing axle shafts and bearings Servicing differential assemblies Servicing a banjo-axle differential Servicing unitised rear-axle differentials Servicing IRS nal drives Crown wheel and pinion adjustments Checking gear tooth contact Bearing preload pinion and side bearings Limited-slip differential service Transaxle nal-drive service Transaxle with crown wheel and pinion Summary of differential adjustments Diagnosis of rear-axle noises Technical terms Review questions 362 362 367 367 371 372 374 376 377 379 380 380 381 381 382 382

Rear axles and nal drives


Basic rear-axle assembly (RWD) Rigid rear axles Final drive and differential Axle shafts for rigid rear axles Rear-axle bearings Differential Limited-slip differentials Dynamic performance control

343
344 344 346 349 349 350 352

PART 4 RUNNING GEAR


Tyres, wheels and balance
Tyre construction Types of tyre construction Characteristics of tyres Tyre proles Tyre sizes and identication Tyre tread patterns Australian Design Rules Tyre wear Tyre rotation Wheels Removing and tting tyres Light-truck wheels and tyres Wheel balance Balancing wheels Technical terms Review questions

387
388 389 390 390 391 392 393 394 396 397 398 399 400 402 404 404

Master cylinders Compensating-type master cylinder Centre-valve master cylinder Valves in the hydraulic system Wheel cylinders Hydraulic brake uid Brake booster Drum-brake assemblies Brake-shoe assemblies Disc-brake assemblies Parking brakes Technical terms Review questions

410 413 414 416 418 420 420 423 424 426 430 432 432

Brake service
Maintenance and inspection Brake booster Hydraulic system service points Bleeding brakes Master-cylinder service Drum-brake service Drum-brake adjustments Self-adjusting drum brakes

435
436 438 439 441 442 443 446 447

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Basic brake system Hydraulic principles Brake hydraulic systems

408 408 410

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Brakes

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Disc-brake service Parking brakes Brake tools Fault diagnosis Technical terms Review questions

448 451 453 454 455 455

Suspension systems
General suspension designs Leaf springs Rear suspension with leaf springs Front suspension with leaf springs Types of coil springs Front suspension with coil springs Strut or McPherson suspension Rear suspension with coil springs Independent rear suspensions with struts Rear suspension with swing axles Torsion rear axle Torsion bar suspension Shock absorbers Height-control suspension Technical terms Review questions

469
470 471 471 473 474 474 476 477 479 480 480 483 483 486 486 487

Steering boxes Rack-and-pinion steering boxes Rack-and-pinion power steering Rack-and-pinion power steering components Speed-sensitive rack-and-pinion power steering Electro-hydraulic power steering Electric power steering Steering boxes with worm gearing Power steering for worm-type boxes Four-wheel steering Four-wheel-steering systems Four-wheel steering with rear power cylinder Other steering features Technical terms Review questions

516 517 518 519 521 522 523 524 525 528 529 530 533 534 534

Steering-system service
Servicing steering linkage Steering-column service Power-steering maintenance Rack-and-pinion steering service Rack-and-pinion power-steering service Analysing power-steering problems Servicing a recirculating-ball steering box Worm-type steering box adjustments Recirculating-ball box with power steering Steering faults Technical terms Review questions

535
536 538 540 542 545 547 547 550 551 551 552 552

Suspension service

489

Maintenance 490 Dismantling and reassembling procedures 490 Ball joint front suspension 491 Strut (McPherson) suspensions 492 Rigid rear axle with coil springs 494 Independent rear suspension (RWD vehicles) 495 Rigid rear axle with leaf springs 496 Dismantling and reassembling struts 498 Servicing components 499 Servicing hubs and bearings 502 Hubs with tapered roller bearings 502 Hubs with unitised bearings 504 Other bearing arrangements 506 Checking suspension parts 507 Servicing shock absorbers 509 Technical terms 510 Review questions 510

Wheel alignment
Steering and suspension angles Front-suspension and steering adjustments Caster and camber adjustments Toe adjustments Adjustments for toe-out-on-turns Rear-suspension adjustments Wheel-alignment equipment Types of wheel aligners Using wheel aligners Front-wheel alignment Rear-wheel alignment Function and effects of the various angles More about suspension angles Technical terms Review questions

553
554 556 556 558 560 560 561 562 565 568 569 569 571 573 573

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Steering systems Rack-and-pinion steering systems Steering systems with worm gearing Steering and suspension angles

512 512 513 514

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Steering systems

511

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PART 5 MAINTENANCE
Fuels, uids and lubricants
Crude oil and its products Petrol Ethanol Gas fuels Automotive diesel fuels Alternative fuels Lubricating oil Grease Transmission oils Hydraulic brake uids Technical terms Review questions

577
578 578 580 581 582 585 586 587 588 588

Special services General service and repairs Lifting and jacking Towing and recovering Technical terms Review questions

598 598 598 600 601 601

Basic mechanics and diagnosis


Diagnosis Forces that produce stress Failure analysis Analysing shaft failures Analysing fastener failures Analysing excessive wear Noise vibration and harshness (NVH) Analysing gear problems Bearing problems Materials and their use Other means of diagnosis Technical terms Review questions

603
604 604 607 607 608 609 610 611 613 613 614 614 614

Service and maintenance


Servicing new vehicles New vehicle services Scheduled maintenance services Maintenance items Service intervals

589
590 590 590 592 597

PART 6 BASICS OF THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Basic electrics
Automotive electrical components Nature of electricity Electron ow Current ow Types of electrical materials Summary of basic electrics Practical conductors, resistors and insulators Factors affecting current ow The language of electricity Electrical circuits Parallel and series connections Voltage drop in a circuit Technical terms Review questions

619
620 621 622 623 623 624 625 627 627 630 630 632 633 633

Theory of magnetism Electromagnetism Solenoids and electromagnets Electromagnetic switches (relays) Electrical measuring instruments Electromagnetic induction Electric motors Direct and alternating current Technical terms Review questions

638 640 641 643 644 645 648 649 649 649

Basic electronics
Electronics Electronic semiconductors Electronic components diodes and transistors Other electronic components Use of electronic components Electronic systems Micro-computer Body electronic module Technical terms Review questions

651
652 653 654 656 658 660 662 663 665 665

Effects and applications of electric currents 000


Effects of an electric current Heating effect of a current Chemical effect of a current Magnetic effect of a current 636 636 637 638

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Aur AURC270103A AURC270789A AURE218664A AURE218676A AURE219331A

Description Apply safe working practice Communicate effectively in the workplace Remove and replace electrical/electronic units/assemblies Test, service and repair batteries Install, test and repair low-voltage wiring/lighting systems

Volume 1 1 2 1 1 2

Chapter 2 2,3

24, 25, 26, 27 38 3538 2627 2636 27 28 29, 30 27, 28 37 27 26, 27, 29 26 30 30 30 11 38 35 26, 27 11 24 25 27

AURE219531A AURE224008A AURE318966A AURE320871A AURE320971A AURE321066A AURE321271A AURE321371A AURE321471A

Install ancillary electrical components Carry out soldering of electrical wiring/circuits Repair instruments and warning systems Service and repair electronically controlled steering systems Service and repair electronically controlled suspension systems Repair electronic systems Service and repair electronic drive management systems Service and repair electronic body management systems Service and repair electronically controlled antilock braking systems

2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2

AURE321571A AURE321671A AURE321171A AURE218676A AURE218708A

Service and repair electronically operated traction control system Service and repair electronically operated stability control Service and repair electronic spare ignition engine management systems. Test, service and charge batteries Carry out repairs to single electrical circuits

2 2 2 1 1 2

AURE320666A AURE319266A AURE319166A AURE318866A AURT200108A AURT205166A AURT201170A AURT202170A AURT203170A AURT206670A AURT207170A AURT210170A

Repair ignition systems Repair starting systems Repair charging systems Repair electrical systems Carry out servicing operations Repair exhaust system components Inspect and service engines Inspect and service cooling systems Service petrol fuel systems Inspect and service transmissions (manual) Inspect and service transmissions (automatic) Inspect and service braking systems

2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1

15 9, 10 11 14 19, 20

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Aur AURT212670A AURT213170A AURT215170A AURT216170A AURT217606A AURT270278A AURT200368A AURT201164A AURT202166A AURT203670A AURT204670A AURT205166A AURT213165A AURT217108A AURT217665A AURT217668A AURT217766A AURT217865A AURT225667A AURT216170A AURT209170A AURT301383A AURT301483A AURT303666A AURT304270A AURT305671A AURT307166A AURT318054A AURT401145A AURT403145A AURT406145A AURT406645A AURT407145A AURT410145A

Description Service nal drive assemblies Service nal drive (drive line) Inspect and service steering systems Inspect an service suspension systems Balance wheels and tyres Use and maintain workplace tools and equipment Select and use bearings, seals, gaskets, sealants and adhesives Remove and install engine assemblies Repair cooling systems Service diesel fuel injection systems Inspect and service emission control systems Repair exhaust system components Remove and ret drive-line components Carry out wheel alignment operations Remove, t and inspect wheel assemblies Select tyres and rims for specic applications (light) Remove, inspect, repair and t tyres and tubes (light) Remove and ret wheel hubs and associated brake components Use and maintain measuring equipment Inspect and service suspension systems Service hydraulic systems Dismantle, assemble and repair engine block and sub-assemblies Recondition cylinder heads Repair diesel fuel systems Service LPG Fuel systems Inspect and repair engine forced induction systems Repair transmissions (automatic) Provide advice on the effects of wheel and tyre combinations Overhaul engines and associated engine components Overhaul petrol fuel system components Overhaul clutch assemblies Overhaul transmissions (manual) Overhaul transmissions (automatic) Overhaul braking system components (light)

Volume 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1

Chapter 22, 23 21 29, 30 27, 28 24 25 6, 7 1 11 15, 16, 17 12 16 21, 22, 23 31 24 24 24 25 5, 8 27, 28 21 4, 5, 6, 7 2, 3 15, 16, 17 15, 32 13

24 18

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XVI

PART 3 INTRODUCTION TO THE ENGINE

Aur AURT412645A AURT415145A AURT466208A AURT202166A AURT271781A AURT301166A AURT303166A AURT304666A AURT306170A AURT306666A AURT310166A AURT312666A AURT313166A AURT315166A AURT316166A AURT366108A AURV327164A

Description Overhaul nal-drive assemblies Overhaul steering system components Carry out diagnosis of complex system faults Repair cooling systems Implement and monitor environmental regulations in the automotive mechanical industry Repair engines and associated engine components Repair petrol fuel systems Repair and replace emission control systems Inspect, service and/or repair clutch assemblies and associated operating system components Repair transmissions (manual) Repair hydraulic braking systems Repair nal-drive assemblies Repair nal drive (drive line) Repair steering systems Repair suspension systems Carry out diagnostic procedures Remove and replace supplementary restraint systems (SRS)

Volume 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

Chapter 21, 22, 23 2930 34 11 8 18 10, 14 12 1718 1920 25, 26 22, 23 21 2930 2728 34 33

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CHAPTER 1 MOTOR VEHICLE COMPONENTS

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ngements Mechanical arra ehicle Sections of a motor v icles Hybrid-drive veh mbly The engine asse tion Vehicle construc The drive train Transmissions Running gear Electrical system ted parts Body and associa and parts Names of components Technical terms s Review question

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PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO MOTOR VEHICLES

A motor vehicle is made up of a large number of parts which are assembled together during manufacture. Some parts are large and others are quite small. Many parts are tted together to form larger components. Some parts are bolted together while others, such as the body panels and subframes, are welded together. Motor vehicles vary greatly in design and body style, and the term motor vehicle can be used to include passenger cars, station wagons, vans, utilities, trucks, buses and coaches. In fact, any wheeled vehicle that operates on roads can be included. In this book, most of the information will relate to passenger vehicles and light commercial vehicles. However, the basic principles involved apply to all motor vehicles and, in many instances, to vehicles that do not usually operate on roads, such as agricultural tractors and industrial and construction equipment.

number of other components, such as the mounting of the engine, the transmission, the drive line and the suspension. In addition to these two basic arrangements, there are also four-wheel-drive vehicles. These have additional transmission and drive-line components that carry the drive to all four wheels of the vehicle. In many four-wheel-drive vehicles, front-wheel drive is selected by the driver only when it is needed, but other vehicles, referred to as all-wheel drives, operate in four-wheel drive at all times.

Sections of a motor vehicle


A motor vehicle consists of a number of sections which, for convenience, can be considered as follows: 1 The engine assembly, which is the source of power. 2 The frame or chassis, which forms the basic structure to support the engine and the various mechanical components. 3 The drive train, which has gears and shafts to connect the engine to the driving wheels. 4 The running gear, consisting of the wheels, tyres, suspension, steering and brakes, which enables the vehicle to operate on the road.

Mechanical arrangements
There are two basic arrangements of the major mechanical components of passenger and light commercial vehicles: front-wheel drive and rearwheel drive. These are shown in simplied form in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 with their parts identied. While the main difference is whether the front wheels or the rear wheels drive the vehicle, this can affect a

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Figure 1.1 Skeletal arrangement of a rear-wheel-drive vehicle 1 engine assembly, 2 radiator, 3 alternator, 4 front suspension, 5 front disc brake, 6 steering assembly, 7 torque converter, 8 automatic transmission, 9 handbrake, 10 propeller shaft, 11 rear suspension, 12 rear brake, 13 shock absorber, 14 rear-axle assembly, 15 fuel tank, 16 nal drive, 17 exhaust system, 18 catalytic converter, 19 wheel hub, 20 battery

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CHAPTER 1 MOTOR VEHICLE COMPONENTS

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Figure 1.2 Skeletal arrangement of a front-wheel-drive vehicle 1 manual transaxle, 2 nal drive, 3 clutch, 4 radiator, 5 alternator, 6 engine assembly, 7 front disc brake, 8 hub, 9 wheel, 10 steering assembly, 11 exhaust system, 12 rear suspension, 13 rear brake, 14 fuel tank, 15 rear-wheel hub, 16 handbrake, 17 drive shafts, 18 suspension, 19 battery

The electrical system, which includes the battery, wiring, lights, starter, alternator and other electrical components. The body of the vehicle, which provides seating for the driver and passengers and, in commercial vehicles, carries loads.

To service these various parts of a motor vehicle, it is necessary to know the names of the various components, their location on the vehicle, and their purpose or function. It is also necessary to understand how components operate and to be familiar with their construction and design. A knowledge of adjustments and servicing requirements is also important, together with accepted methods of carrying out repairs.

The basic hybrid arrangement is shown in Figure 1.3 on the following page with its main parts identied. Depending on driving conditions, power to drive the vehicle is delivered by the engine, by the electric motor, or by a combination of the engine and the electric motor. It has a fuel tank to supply petrol to the engine and high-voltage batteries to provide power to the electric motor. The battery is recharged by a generator when the electric motor is not in use. More information on hybrid vehicles can be found in Volume 2.

The engine assembly


The engine is the source of power that provides the torque or turning force which is used to drive the vehicle. Engines in motor vehicles can be internal combustion, electric or a combination of the two (known as hybrid). Internal combustion engines burn the fuel inside the engine using petrol, distillate or gas. Electric motors use electricity supplied from storage batteries tted to the vehicle. The batteries can be charged using an internal combustion engine, fuel cell, solar cell, power regeneration and external charging. Figure 1.4 on the following page is a drawing of a basic engine with its main parts identied. This is a

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Hybrid vehicles have an internal combustion engine combined with an electric motor to provide the power to drive the vehicle. The reason for this is to improve fuel economy and to reduce exhaust emissions. The engine can be designed so that it is smaller than normal and as a result is more fuel efcient. The electric motor produces no emissions.

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Hybrid-drive vehicles

PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO MOTOR VEHICLES

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Figure 1.3 Skeletal arrangement of a hybrid-powered vehicle 1 hybrid transaxle, 2 electric-motor assembly, 3 radiator, 4 engine, 5 front brake, 6 front hub, 7 wheel, 8 steering assembly, 9 fuel line, 10 high-voltage battery, 11 fuel tank, 12 power cable

camshaft timing belt

camshaft pulley cylinder head piston rings piston

exhaust valve

intake valve

flywheel

cylinder connecting rod

timing pulley

oil pan

crankshaft main bearing

Figure 1.4 Basic construction of a four-cylinder engine

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connecting-rod bearing

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crankshaft pulley

CHAPTER 1 MOTOR VEHICLE COMPONENTS

four-cylinder petrol engine of the type tted to passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. More details of an engine of this type can be seen in Figure 1.5. In operation, burning fuel inside the cylinders of the engine produces a high pressure which forces the pistons to move down their cylinders. Piston movement is transferred to the crankshaft by the connecting rods, causing the crankshaft to rotate. This rotary motion is then carried by the drive train to the driving wheels and used to propel the vehicle along the road. The engine assembly includes the engine itself as well as all the components and systems needed to make it start and run. These include the starting, charging, cooling, ignition, lubrication, fuel and the exhaust systems.

Vehicle construction
Passenger cars have a body of unitised construction. Reinforced panels and subframes are built into the body to provide the necessary strength and stiffness. A body of this type is shown in Figure 1.6 on the next page. Subframes for supporting the engine and transmission, the front and rear suspensions and other mechanical parts are built into the reinforced underbody panels. Strengthened sections of panels are used for mounting other components. The subframes provide mountings for the engine, the transmission, the suspension and the steering. The engine has rubber mountings to prevent noise and

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Figure 1.5 Four-cylinder engine, sectional view 1 timing belt, 2 camshaft drive pulley, 3 camshaft, 4 intake valve, 5 exhaust valve, 6 oil ller cap, 7 valve rocker gear, 8 cylinder head, 9 piston in section, 10 cylinder block, 11 cylinder, 12 connecting rod, 13 ywheel, 14 connecting-rod big end and crankshaft, 15 oil pan or sump, 16 oil pump intake, 17 fan belt, 18 pulley on crankshaft, 19 oil pump, 20 water pump, 21 fan MITSUBISHI

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PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO MOTOR VEHICLES

Body structure steel usage


Materials Low carbon Medium strength High strength Advanced high strength Ultra strength Aluminium

Figure 1.6 Body structure with different metals used. These provide light weight and strength

COPYRIGHT

HOLDEN 2008. USED WITH PERMISSION.

vibration being transmitted to the vehicle body. Rubber bushes between the various parts of the suspension and the subframe also insulate against the noise and vibration that originates at the road and tyres. Some light commercial vehicles are designed with a cab and chassis. They have a drivers cab of unitised construction and a frame, or rear chassis, on which a tray-type body, or a commercial body of some other design can be built. Larger commercial vehicles have a full frame or chassis to which the body, engine, suspension, steering and other mechanical components are tted. The chassis is made of steel channel or box section for strength, with the parts being welded or riveted together. Cross-bracing is provided to make the frame rigid enough to withstand the shocks, twists and vibrations that it will be subjected to during operation.

Automatic transmissions for front-wheel drive are known as automatic transaxles.

Handy hint: The term drive is one that is commonly used, although what is actually being transmitted is torque, or twisting force.

Clutch
The clutch is a friction-type coupling that enables the engine to be connected or disconnected from the transmission. It consists basically of a large disc held against the engines ywheel by spring force. The disc is released by the driver pressing down the clutch pedal. This allows the gears to be engaged and gearshifts to be made. The clutch also enables the load to be applied gradually when starting the vehicle from rest. A simplied clutch arrangement is shown in Figure 1.7. The clutch disc is normally held against the face of the ywheel by the diaphragm spring, but is released by the movement of the pedal being transferred through the cable to the release fork. A mechanically operated clutch is shown. Its operation depends on the action of levers. Other clutches are operated hydraulically.

The drive train


The drive train, also called the power train, includes all the components that carry drive from the engine to the driving wheels of the vehicle. Different arrangements are used for rear-wheel drive and frontwheel drive (refer to Figures 1.1 and 1.2). With rear-wheel drive, the drive reaches the rear wheels through the clutch, transmission, propeller shaft, nal drive, differential and rear axle. With front-wheel drive, the drive is carried by the clutch, transaxle and drive shafts to the front wheels of the vehicle. There are similar components, but they are arranged differently and are more compact. Vehicles with automatic transmissions have similar drive trains to those with manual transmissions, but they have a torque converter instead of a clutch.

Rear-wheel drive
In rear-wheel-drive vehicles, a drive shaft, called the propeller shaft, carries the drive from the transmission to the rear-axle assembly. It has universal joints and a sliding spline which allows the shaft to change its length and angle so that it can adjust to rear-axle and suspension movement.

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PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO MOTOR VEHICLES

Names of components and parts


For identication purposes, all the parts of motor vehicles have names, and replacement parts also have part numbers. The names are given for various reasons. Some names relate to the location of the part, and the word upper or lower is often used in conjunction with the part name. Other part names include the words left or right, or front or rear. Examples of this are upper radiator hose and right front wheel. Some parts are obviously named according to their function, such as lter, spring or shock absorber. The connection of some other parts with their names is a little harder to nd, as they can relate to the name of a person. For example, the diesel engine takes its name from Dr Diesel, who developed the engine. Names of components and parts can vary from country to country, as can the spelling. For example, clutch disc can be spelt disc or disk. However, with a little thought, the reason for the names which have been given to various parts can be understood. This will also assist in remembering their names.

Technical terms
Motor vehicle, front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive, fourwheel drive, all-wheel drive, internal combustion, diesel, unitised, subframe, chassis, cross bracing, suspension, drive, drive train, power train, clutch, hydraulic, transmission, gear, gear ratio, manual transmission, housing, automatic transmission, torque converter, disc brake, drum brake, rack, pinion, worm, starter, alternator, electronic, electronic control unit, component, safety glass, body panels, body hardware, laminated, trim, mouldings, anticorrosive.

Review questions
1. Name the main sections of a motor vehicle. 2. Why is the engine referred to as an internal-combustion engine? 3. What types of fuel are used in automotive engines? 4. What is the purpose of the shock absorbers? 5. Why are tyres necessary? 6. What are the parts of the power train? 7. Why is a clutch necessary? 8. Why is a transmission tted to a vehicle? 9. What is a transaxle? 10. What is the function of the universal joints? 11. What does the differential do? 12. What are the two designs of brakes? 13. What is the purpose of the suspension? 14. Name some of the parts in a rear-axle assembly. 15. Name some of the electrical parts of a vehicle. 16. How is the alternator driven? 17. What are the main differences between a frontwheel-drive and a rear-wheel-drive vehicle? 18. Name the main body parts of a passenger car. Refer to the appropriate illustration.

Larger components
Larger components consist of a number of small parts: for example, the gearbox can be considered as a component and the gears which are tted inside the gearbox as parts. Many components that contain other parts are referred to as housings or boxes, such as the clutch housing and gearbox. In other cases, parts can be considered to form a system, which consists of a number of components or parts; for example, the fuel system includes the fuel tank, fuel pump, fuel lines and fuel injection components. The diagrams in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 show the components in simple form and enable various components which make up the mechanical section of a motor vehicle to be identied.

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Handy hint: The terms components, parts, units and items are all used in relation to motor vehicle parts.

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