# Logarithms

Deﬁnitions : If n ∈ N and a ∈ , then an = a · a · a . . . (n times) ,

If n is a negative, non-zero integer, such that −n ∈ N and a ∈ then a−n = 1.0/an If a ∈ , then a0 = 1.0

Theorem : If m ∈ N and a > 0, ∈ then the equation xm = a has one and only one real, positive root x ∈ . Proof : Let us divide all real numbers into two classes L and R such that in L we put all negative real numbers, zero, and all positive real numbers y such that y m ≤ a. All others are put in R . This is a section. Let R have a least member x. Since x ∈ R x > 0. ∀n ∈N , x − 1/n ∈ L and x + 1/n ∈ R . Thus (x − 1/n)m ≤ a ≤ (x + 1/n)m . If now n → ∞ then xm ≤ a ≤ xm ⇒ xm = a. If x = x be another root, x = x ⇒ x m = xm ⇒ a = a which is impossible. Thus x is the unique, positive, real root.
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Logarithms
Deﬁnition : This positive, real root x of xm = a is deﬁned to be a1/m If n, m ∈ N , a ∈ , then ∀ q = n/m ∈ Q , we deﬁne aq = an · a1/m

Let x be any real number and a any positive real number. Choose a monotonically increasing sequence (qn )∞ where q ∈ Q such that n=1 lim(qn ) = x. This can be done as follows : choose qn such that x − 1/n < qn < x − 1/(n + 1). We shall show that the sequence (aqn ) is convergent. Moreover if any other monotonic sequence of rational numbers (qn ) exists which has the same limit, then (aqn ) also converges and to the same limit.

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Logarithms

If a > 1, (aqn ) is monotonically increasing. Also if k is a rational number > x then aqn < ak . Thus the sequence is bounded above and hence convergent. If a < 1, (aqn ) is monotonically decreasing. Also aqn > 0 so it the sequence bounded below and hence convergent. Let (qn )∞ be another sequence with lim(qn ) = x. Then n=1 lim (qn − qn ) = 0. Thus : aqn = aqn · aqn −qn and lim(aqn ) = lim(aqn ) · lim(aqn −qn ) = lim(aqn ) · a0 = lim(aqn ) This limit, which is a real number lim(aqn ) = y is deﬁned to be y = ax We also deﬁne the real number x to be the logarithm of the real number y to the base a and write x = loga y
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Series
Consider the sequence (sn ) where sn ∈ and P2n (−1)i+1 /(2i − 1). sn = i=1 « „ « „ « – »„ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + ... + < 1 − − − sn = 1 − 3 5 7 9 4n − 5 4n − 3 4n − 1 The sequence is bounded above. Again, 1 1 1 1 + −...+ − 3 5 4n − 3 4n − 1 1 1 1 1 − 1− + −...+ 3 5 4n + 1 4n + 3 1 1 − > 0 4n + 1 4n + 3 1−

sn sn+1 sn+1 − sn

= = =

So it is a monotonically increasing. Thus the sequence converges.
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Series
P This limit is called the series ∞ (−1)i+1 /(2i − 1) The sequence (sn ) is i=1 called the sequence of partial sums. The series is called the Madhava-Gregory series and converges to π/4. Deﬁnition : An expression like i=1 ai is called an inﬁnite series and it has a meaning as the limit of the sequence of partial sums P∞
n X i=1

n→∞

lim (sn ) = lim

n→∞

ai

!

=

∞ X i=1

ai

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Convergence Theorems
A necessary and sufﬁcient condition for the series converge is : Given > 0, ∃ n0 : ∀ n, m > 0 ˛ ˛ m ˛ X ˛ ˛ ˛ ai ˛ < ∀ m > n > n0 ˛ ˛ ˛
i=n+1

P∞

i=1

ai to

If we change a ﬁnite number of terms in a convergent series, its convergence and limit remain unchanged If ai ≥ 0 bi ≥ 0, ∀i and ai ≤ bi for almost all i, then if P converges, so does ∞ bi . i=1 P∞
i=1 bi

If ai > 0 bi > 0, ∀n and ai+1 /ai ≤ bi+1 /bi for almost all i, then if P∞ P∞ i=1 bi converges, so does i=1 ai .

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Convergence Theorems
If ai > 0 and limn→∞ ai+1 /ai = , then for < 1 the series converges. For > 0 it diverges. The test fails for = 1. D’Alembert’s Ratio Test If ai > 0 and limn→∞ (ai ) = , then for < 1 the series converges. For > 0 it diverges. The test fails for = 1. Cauchy’s Root Test
1/i

P∞

i=1

ai

P∞

i=1

ai

P P If ∞ |ai | converges, so does ∞ ai . The converse is not true : all i=1 i=1 convergent series are not absolutely convergent. Absolute Convergence If (ai ) is a non-increasing sequence and limi→∞ ai = 0, then P∞ i i=1 (−1) ai converges. Alternating Series

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