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Chapter 3 Emperor Galerius Constantine Eccumenical Council

Council Nicea Arius Athaniasius 1st Council of Constantinople Apollinaris of Laodicea Emperor Theodosius Council of Ephesus Theotokos Cristotokos Nestorius

Edict of Toleration safety, respect & independence of Christians Edict of Milan - Stopped the persecution of Christians and defeated Maxentius Meeting of all bishops of the inhabited world in order to deliberate on Church affairs, make decisions and lay regulations 4th century focused Christological heresies Attended by 230 bishops; declared that the son is the same substance(ousia) with the father (Homoousios) Pries in Alexandria; disturbed the unit of Christians & developed confusion by his belief on Jesus being subordinate to God Bishop of Alexandria defeated Arius/Arianisn Declared that Son assumed our soul without sin and saved it. Denied the full humanity if Jesus by saying that His soul was replaced by divine Logos Declared Christianity as official religion of Roman Empire and condemned arianism and apollinarism Condemned Nestorius and declared Mary as Theotokos Mother of God Christ-bearer Patriarch of Constantinople; divide Christ as divine and human with its own personal manifestation; said mary was a Christotokos not Theotokos Intelligent theologian; attacked Nestorius; emphasize the unity of divine and human in Christ Monk; Monophysitism - Christ human nature was completely absorbed by divine nature Bishop; had Eutyches condemned and killed Best keepers of church; lived an ascetic way of life total renunciation of the world and temporal ambitions, a life of self-purification through consistent prayer and self-discipline all for for the sake of religious perfection and holiness Eremos = solitary; e.g St. Anthony, the father of Monasticism lived in the desert of Egypt with celibacy and self-mortification Koinobion = convent; live in community under the guidance and leadership of an abbot; vows of poverty and celibacy and pledge of obedience Stulos = pillar; lived with the act of penance at the top of a pillar; e.g St. Simeon Stylites lived at the top of 60 foot pillar for 43 years and spent it in prayer and intercession Father of Western Monasticism; Nursia, Italy; lived a life of a hermit characterized by self-denial, selfmortification, prayer and holiness; Benedictine motto = monk in ora et labora = prayer and work

Cyril Council of Chalcedon Eutyches Flavian Monks

1. Eremetical Monks 2. Cenobitical Monks 3. Stylites Monks

St. Benedict

Notes of Farrah Jane Reyes from the book entitle The Church by Roawie L. Quimba