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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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36m2 Volume: 60 x 60 x 20 = 72000mm3 = 72cm3 Shearing: Stress factor CR =1.385 N/ div Rate of displacement : 0.25mm/min Load = 4.5kg Normal Stress = 12.26KN/m2 Time (min) Horizontal Load dial displacements reading (mm) divisions 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 0.00 10.00 12.50 15.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 21.50 22.00 23.00 24.50 27.00 29.00 31.50 33.00 31.00 30.00 Horizontal load (N) Shear Stress (KN/m2) 0.00 3.85 4.81 5.77 6.16 6.93 7.69 8.27 8.46 8.85 9.43 10.39 11.16 12.12 12.70 11.93 11.54 Vertical movement Dial ExpansionReading(div) Settlement+ 0.002mm/div mm 0 + 122 + 130 + 144 + 166 + 189 + 225 + 253 + 325 + 385 + 408 + 458 + 509 + 598 + 678 + 740 + 780 +

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

0.00 13.85 17.31 20.78 22.16 24.93 27.70 29.78 30.47 31.86 33.93 37.40 40.17 43.63 45.71 42.94 41.55

Time (min)

Horizontal Load dial displacements reading (mm) divisions 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 0.00 22.00 29.50 34.00 38.00 41.00 42.00 44.00 46.00 48.00 50.00 51.50 53.00 54.00 55.00 56.50 57.00 57.50 58.00 59.00 59.50 60.00 59.50 58.50 58.00

Shear Stress (KN/m2) 0.00 8.46 11.35 13.08 14.62 15.77 16.16 16.93 17.70 18.47 19.24 19.81 20.39 20.78 21.16 21.74 21.93 22.12 22.31 22.70 22.89 23.08 22.89 22.51 22.31

Vertical movement Dial ExpansionReading(div) Settlement+ 0.002mm/div mm 0 + 161 + 178 + 188 + 205 + 220 + 235 + 255 + 272 + 285 + 295 + 309 + 335 + 344 + 357 + 361 + 369 + 389 + 401 + 411 + 414 + 418 + 418 + 419 + 421 +

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

0.00 30.74 40.86 47.09 52.63 56.79 58.17 60.94 63.71 66.48 69.25 71.33 73.41 74.79 76.18 78.25 78.95 79.64 80.33 81.72 82.41 83.10 82.41 81.02 80.33

25

20

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Horizantal Displacement ( mm )

30

25

20

15

10

0 12.26

14.26

16.26

18.26

20.26

22.26

24.26

According to this table internal friction and the cohesion is obtain from plotting the Shear stress versus Normal stress.

6.0

DISCUSSION

From the graph The cohesion, c = 12.7kN/m2 Angle of internal friction, = 20 The shear box has to make sure it clean to avoid any error to the reading and to specimen. Grease has to be applied to help the specimen easy to remove from the box without left any single specimen on the box wall. According to the result which obtained, it is conservative while plotted in Shear stress VS Normal stress graph. It also can derive in the Stress formula : n tan c In the situation where = shear stress

n = normal stress

From the table provided, we get the maximum shear stress result for specimen 1 is 12.70 KN/m and specimen 2 is 23.08KN/m. The normal stress for specimen 1 is 12.26 KN/m and specimen 2 is 24.53 KN/m.

In dense sands the grains are to some degree interlocked, so that an initial expansion or dilation is necessary in order that shearing can occur. Thus the shear stress will first rise sharply, with corresponding increase in volume, until it reaches a peak value at a relatively low value of strain. As the interlocking is reduced the displacement continues more quickly and the shear stress falls back and finally levels off at an ultimate value. All this we can see in the graph provided in the results.

This action of dense sand contrasts with that of a loosely packed sand, since in the latter a steady increase in shear stress takes place as the displacement increases. The volume decreases and the soil contracts into a more dense state as the shear stress increases towards the same ultimate value. The constant volume (void ratio) achieved at the ultimate stress corresponds to the critical state volume. The difference between peak and ultimate values clearly depends on the original density (void ratio) of the soil; a soil more dense than critical will dilate, whereas a soil looser than critical will contract. The peak stress is therefore a function of the initial volume/density state.

7.0

CONCLUSION

As the result we already stated in the discussion above. From this test we can discover advantages and disadvantages of shear box test. Advantages: Both shear stress and normal stress on the plane failure are measured directly; the shear strength parameters are defined in terms of these direct stresses. A constant normal stress can be maintained throughout the test It is easier to test cohesion less soils, e.g. sand and gravels, and drained tests can be carried out in a reasonably short time. Volume changes can be measured simply Using a reversible shear box, tests involving large displacements can be done, e.g. to measure residual strengths of clays. Disadvantages: The distribution of shear stress over the plane of failure is assumed to be uniform, but in fact it is not. It is not possible to control drainage from the sample or to measure the pore pressure within the sample. Therefore, only total stress measurements can be made, except when the rate of shearing is kept slow enough to ensure no rise in pore pressure. The normal stress cannot easily be varied during tests.

From the shear stress vs normal stress, we can conclude that: Different types or characteristics of soils give different values of cohesion. The larger the settlement is not depends on load respectively.

If the value of angle of internal friction is more than the result obtained, landslide may happen in a real situation. In other words, the lesser the value, the safer the land slope. From graph Shear Stress versus Normal Stress found out = 20 and c = 12.7KN/m2. To put these in the formula n tan c will get the shear stress for this sample of soil is n tan 20 12 .7 .

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