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Permutations and Combinations Basics
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Posted over 3 years ago by Suresh

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF COUNTING If an operation can be performed in 'm' different ways and another operation in 'n' different ways then these two operations can be performed one after the other in 'mn' waysIf an operation can be performed in 'm' different ways and another operation in 'n' different ways then either ofthese two operations can be performed in 'm+n' ways.(provided only one has to be done)

This principle can be extended to any number of operations FACTORIAL 'n' The continuous product of the first 'n' natural numbers is called factorial n and is deonoted by n! i.e, n!=1Ã—2Ã—3xâ €¦..x(n-1)xn.

PERMUTATION An arrangementthat can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things (or objects) is called a Permutation.Order of the things is very important in case of permutation.A permutation is said to be a Linear Permutation if the objects are arranged in a line. A linear permutation is simply called as a permutation.A permutation is said to be a Circular Permutation if the objects are arranged in the form of a circle.The number of (linear) permutations that can be formed by taking r things at a time from a set of n distinct things is denoted by .%

NUMBER OF PERMUTATIONS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS 1. Number of permutations of n different things, taken r at a time, when a particular thng is to be always included in each arrangement , is . 2. Number of permutations of n different things, taken r at a time, when a particular thing is never taken in each arrangement is . 3. Number of permutations of n different things, taken all at a time, when m specified things always come together is . 4. Number of permutations of n different things, taken all at a time, when m specified never come together is . 5. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when k(< r) particular things always occur is . 6. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when k particular things never occur is .

7. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when repetition of things is allowed any number of times is 8. The number of permutations of n different things, taken not more than r at a time, when each thing may occur any number of times is . .

9. The number of permutations of n different things taken not more than r at a time

*PERMUTATIONS OF SIMILAR THINGS*The number of permutations of n things taken all tat a time when p of them are all alike and the rest are all different is .If p things are alike of one type, q things are alike of other type, r things are alike of another type, then the number of permutations with p+q+r things is .

CIRCULAR PERMUTATIONS }1. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is 2. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is 3. The number of circular permutations of n things taken r at a time in one direction is . . .

each containing n objects and the order of the groups is important is .The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups.1.The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups. 5. 2. . The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things in clock-wise direction = Number of permutations in anticlock-wise direction = COMBINATION A selection that can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things( or objects) is called a Combination The number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is denoted by 1. each one of whom. 4. 4.Number of ways in which (m+n) items can be divided into two unequal groups containing m and n items is . .n.When the order of groups The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons. each one of whom receives at least one item is The number of positive integral solutions of the equation . 2. . . c)s particular things always occurs and p particular things never occur is DISTRIBUTION OF THINGS INTO GROUPS 1. . The number of combinations of n things taken r at a time in which a)s particular things will always occur is b)s particular things will never occur is . each containing n objects and the order of the groups is not important is 3.The number of ways in which (m+n+p) things can be divided into three different groups of m. .4. an p things respectively is 5.2 or more items is }The number of non-negative integral solutions of the equation . 3.The required number of ways of dividing 3n things into three groups of n each = has importance then the required number of ways= DIVISION OF IDENTICAL OBJECTS INTO GROUPS The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons. can receive 0.

such that one object of each kind may be included is the coefficient of is the coefficient of in the expansion . . .The total number of combinations of things taken any number at a time when things are alike of one kind. . things are alike of second kindâ€¦. The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them is 2.% %{font-family:verdana}2. q objects of second kind. is . things are alike of kind.The number of ways of choosing r objects from p objects of one kind.The total number of combinations of things taken one or more at a time when things are alike of one kind. The number of ways in which n different letters can be placed in their n addressed envelopes so that al the letters are in the wrong envelopes is IMPORTANT RESULTS TO REMEBER In a plane if there are n points of which no three are collinear. %{font-family:verdana}+*TOTAL NUMBER OF COMBINATIONS*+% %{font-family:verdana}1. and so on is the coefficient of in the expansion he number of ways of choosing r objects from p objects of one kind. things are alike of kind. things are alike of second kindâ€¦. q objects of second kind. The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is . and so on. is% . then 1. SUM OF THE NUMBERS Sum of the numbers formed by taking all the given n digits (excluding 0) is Sum of the numbers formed by taking all the given n digits (including 0) is Sum of all the r-digit numbers formed by taking the given n digits(excluding 0) is % %{font-family:verdana}Sum of all the r-digit numbers formed by taking the given n digits(including 0) is DE-ARRANGEMENT: The number of ways in which exactly r letters can be placed in wrongly addressed envelopes when n letters are placed in n addressed envelopes is .

farouqtaj. cosmolallie. The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is In a plane if there are n points out of which m points are collinear. The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is . View More Content Type . The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them is 2.3. Then the number of parts into which these lines divide the plane is equal to Image Credits: cristic. The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n x n is In a rectangle of p x q (p < q) number of rectangles of any size is In a rectangle of p x q (p < q) number of squares of any size is .Question Paper & Solutions Online CAT . Time yourself. race against the competition and win it! Online CAT 2008 . . then 1.. churl Like 16 . 3. . Top Related Content Content Type Article Online Study Material for CAT Preparation 2011 CAT Previous Year Tests Previous Year CAT tests for training you for the D-Day.. n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three lines three lines are concurrent.

congruency of triangles.. the ones on similarity of triangles.. One should be clear about them. Kindly refer to a text book for. well. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This . pythagoras. View More Content Type Article Study Abroad Scholarships & Loan Scholarship Information Every student loves scholarships.Article Trignometry Basics .. Are you looking for a scholarship? Ah. View More 45 Comments Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link sanjucuckoo – over 2 years ago concise andgood collection .Circles and Triangles Geometry has some major theorems. one example of each type would make it complete. area and volume formula.. your search Ends Here! European Scholarship Good news for anyone from India headed to Europe .

j/k nice compilation of stuff. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link pradeepdemi – over 2 years ago hi its very good i need probabilty with examples .Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Suresh – over 2 years ago dear sanjucuckoo. where all these concepts will be revised….Keep watching Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Ruchi – over 2 years ago These are basics!! Whats advanced then :( he he he….. am waiting for the solved examples. we will have one more lesson P&C with solved examples.

Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 ..Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link ravi_shashank – over 2 years ago hi your explanation is excellent..!! Probably some examples would make it more useful for all viewers.and can you please explain even probability like this Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link vsagashe – over 2 years ago Excellent.

Rate Up Rate Down Link swayam – over 2 years ago This is tremendously good yar very nice n easy explaination Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Aditi Mishra – over 2 years ago this lesson helped me to clear my doubts but it will be more helpful with examples Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link hamsini – over 2 years ago where do i get exercises to solve on my own?? Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This .

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Suresh – over 2 years ago Dear hamsini. In fact in the very near future we are going to come up with tests exclusively for Campus Placements Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link santosh gupta – over 2 years ago u r gr8 sir Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link . GMAT Prep. please go through our tests that are available in different test prep communities like CAT Prep.

Thank you :) Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote . Thanks !! Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link pujii – over 2 years ago hi it is excellent i want more details about the usage of permutations and combinations in our daily life.Sudharshan Annamalai – over 2 years ago Good work !! It would have been better with an example for each concept. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Prashanth Kumar R – over 2 years ago Very good lesson.

Thanks! Flag as Inappropriate .. Do we have worked examples for each of these formulas listed in the lesson? If so.fruitful return Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Prashanth Kumar R – over 2 years ago Worked examples for each kind of possible problems would have been even more helpful.Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link rajpatti – over 2 years ago excellent explanation on each topic great job thank u Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link abinash – over 2 years ago Explained precisely. please provide me the link.

Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Suresh – over 2 years ago Dear Prashanth. I am sure you will find them very useful Regards Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link Ishan Aggarwal – over 2 years ago Gr8 stuff Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote . Very soon we are going to come up with a series of lessons where all these concepts will be applied.

then there will 17 others and this block of three people to be arranged around a circle. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 2 Rate Up Rate Down Link saka – over 2 years ago CIRCULAR PERMUTATIONS:: There are 2 brothers among a group of 20 persons. the total number of ways 17! * 2 = 2 * 17!. In how many ways can the group be arranged around a circle so that there is exactly one person between the two brothers? Hint: Point no 2 of circular permutations :--> The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is (n-1)! Solution: If we consider the two brothers and the person in between the brothers as a block.***************************** Now the brothers can be arranged on either side of the person who is in between the brothers in 2! ways.1)!. Therefore. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments .********* -> 'n' objects can be arranged around a circle in (n .Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link saka – over 2 years ago Without Example or Test (indicating group like NUMBER OF PERMUTATIONS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS in hint ) This Material is loosing its significance. The number of ways of arranging 18 objects around a circle is in 17! ways.

circular permutations. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This . selection of members for committees etc. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link Dhara A. seating arrangements. Now you have choosen a block but we need to choose it from either of 18 left so 18 ways to make that block.just get to know about permutations. You need not get into too much of these concepts for GRE…. Mehta – over 2 years ago good information sir…Can I know How much portion of this permutation & combinations will be asked in GRE test? Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Rating 0 Rate Up Link Suresh – over 2 years ago Dear dharumehta07. combinations.Rating 1 Rate Up Link Tushar – over 2 years ago in the example given above i think the answer should be 17! * 18 * 2.

I will definitrly try to come up with series of lessons where all these concepts will be applied. but examples for each of them would make it complete and awesome but still great stuff for quick revision just before going to exam Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Rating 1 Rate Up Link Suresh – over 2 years ago Dear coolvenky.Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Rahul – over 2 years ago A very good lesson to quickly revise all the formulae…Thank you Mr. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This . This lesson is created to revise the basic formulae keeping in mind the CAT 2008 test takers.Sureshbala Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link venky – over 2 years ago great stuff thank you very much ..

i think i am weak in this topic..Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link ankit shrivastava – over 2 years ago wonderful sites with great lessonssssss………. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This . so i am worried. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Rating 1 Rate Up Link praveen yadav – about 1 year ago ya …a great work bu the auther…. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link venky – over 2 years ago sir how far is this topic important for the GMAT exam..

Ans -315 Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down .In how many ways can a selection be made as to include at least one of each party. you simply rock man.There r 3 socialist. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating -1 Rate Up Rate Down Link cash2323847 – over 2 years ago pls solve this.4 congressmen and 2 communist.Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link asureshwaran – over 2 years ago this lesson is awesome sureshbala.

but we also have to put the M group together with them.m + 1. when m specified things always come together is m why not m Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Rating 0 Rate Up Link Oren Lahav – over 2 years ago Say you have n items. and you're trying to organize them with m of the n items always coming together. (Clearly m < n). that's m!. we have (n . I hope that makes sense. so in total it comes to n . Now to organize everything else. that's n . To organize the m items that come together.Link gargi_l – over 2 years ago Number of permutations of n different things. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link suman sourabh – over 2 years ago good job Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This . taken all at a time.m + 1)!.m. because we organize the items not in the M group.

has it been created? I think we often get these types of questions in gmat Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link – over 2 years ago thanks Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link anirudh92 – over 2 years ago very good .Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link – over 2 years ago for someone like me who has v basic math knowledge examples of each type would be useful. few months ago you said it was due .

thanks a lot sir Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link Saurabh Roongta – over 2 years ago awsome stuff ……….Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Vedatman – over 2 years ago very good information……... Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 .

Rate Up Rate Down Link praveen yadav – about 1 year ago i think its enough to prepare this ……… Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link greentree – about 1 year ago not discriptive Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link kunal jain – about 1 year ago i like this alot Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This .

.Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link jatin luthra – about 1 year ago thanx a lot but do u have similar notes for vectors n 3D too……………. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link itdoesntmatter – about 1 year ago really nyc stuff Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link .

u must use same example and figures for both then it will be friutfull Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link devspring – about 1 year ago thanks buddy its add on to ma skills Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This .amir saeed – about 1 year ago please guide me how to solve this problem. if you joined all the vertices of heptagon. how many quadrilaterals will you get? Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link haritham khan – about 1 year ago although its a good rather best explanation but still iam not able to differentiate PC. so iam suggesting you to differentiate them through examples and figures.

Is there any general way to solve it. I have a questions.Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link rnm_green – 6 months ago nice representation Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link abhishekfigo – about 1 month ago Sir. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This Your Comment Vote Current Rating 0 . 3 different points might have same circles. How many distinct circles can be made out of 5 points out of which 3 are collinear.