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Chapter 15: Conflict and Conquest

The Transformation of the West, 1860-1900 Lecture Notes (January 13th): Economic Activities of Native Americans Subsistence culture- culture in which resources and products are created within a society and stay in the society. Homes and clothes were very simple. Farming was very essential. Communal living- community oriented villages, everyone shared, distant family members lived together. o America no longer lives in communal living situations. Private living is common. Grandparents no longer live with their children and grandchildren. Religion- spirits for Native Americans. Christian for European settlers. Slaughter of Buffalo- Natives used all products from the buffalo; European settlers slaughtered buffalo and wasted them, causing the decrease of the buffalo population. Decline of salmon- European settlers sold salmon commercially which decreased the salmon population. Transformation of Native Culture Violence between European settlers and Native Americans over land. Great Father policy- when the state started to protect its citizens like a father by making laws and regulations. Patriarchy- father was head of the household Matriarchy- mother was head of the household Paternalism- Patriarchy v. Matriarchy Coverture- laws that were set up to protect womens rights. o When a woman married a man she could not: Sue anyone for anything Have debt Accuse anyone in court Have property o If a woman had to stand before the court because of something her husband did, she could plead the 5th Amendment to protect her husband. State becomes paternalistic. (Great Father policy)

o Examples of the state protecting its citizens are seatbelt laws, bankruptcy, smoking bans, education and truancy, and helmet laws. Reservations- where Native Americans were forced to live. Boarding schools- where Native American and European children were sent to learn. o Recruiters would come to homes and villages taking children. Often times talking them into it and making it seem better than it actually is. Recruiters told Native American children that they would be able to eat apples every day. Missionaries- European Christian settlers who tried to convert Native Americans to Christianity. o Some Catholic missionaries would capture Native Americans and force them into believing, and then turned them into laborers. Other missionaries would lie to Native Americans making Christianity fit their traditions and customs. Dawes Severalty Act- a flawed act created to help Native Americans but actually only caused them more problems. It gave them land that in many cases was very poor quality, making farming difficult. This act also created hunting limitations. o Many white settlers conned the Native Americans out of this land so they could buy it as a surplus for themselves. o An estimated 350,000 acres was being offered for sale in 1910. o By the time the Dawes Severalty Act was removed in 1934, 2/3 of the Native American reservation land was lost.

Natural Resources Mining- in 1877, mining was getting old, lumber was more popular. Lumber- lumber towns flourished, when mining towns struggled. Women in the Wild West- started their own businesses such as restaurants. o Women were out-numbered therefore they could be pickier when it came to their husbands. Men used calling cards to get attention from women. The thicker and more expensive the card, the richer the man. Multi-racial society- United States becomes much more multi-racial with Spanish, French, Russian and of course Native American.

Conservation MovementScoundrels- people who robbed, murdered and stole to get money. o Jesse James was an example of a scoundrel; he robbed and stole from people. He was considered an iconic hero but he just tricked people. Several urban legends have been passed on about Jesse James and his clever mischievousness. Cowboys were rarely in saloons with pretty ladies. o They actually were lonely and almost always on horseback watching over livestock. o 1/5 of cowboys were African American. o They had a hard life and would get into Grazing wars with other cowboys.

Congress Promotes Westward Settlement Trans-Mississippi West- area west of the Mississippi River. 1862Congress passed three major bills to promote settlement into this land. 1. Morrill Land Grant College Act of 1862: established colleges specialized in agriculture, mechanics and technology. 2. Homestead Act: gave 160 acres to any settler willing to move and live there for five years. This mainly immigrants, poor farmers, single women and freed slaves took advantage. Land was bought for $1.25/acre. Over 600 million acres were available. Farmers who settled in the area in the Great Plains or further west often when bankrupt due to harsh climate, little water, no transportation and poor soil conditions. Mid-west farmers were very successful. Many homesteaders sold their land to railroad industries and real estate companies. By 1900, 52% of original homestead claimants actually acquired their land. 3. Pacific Railway Act: started the transcontinental railroad. Transcontinental Railroad- a railroad that went from the developed areas in the East all the way to California. The Union Pacific built from Omaha, Nebraska (across the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains) to meet the

Central Pacific who built from California (through the Sierra Nevada Mountains). Congress granted railroad industries every other 10 square miles of land for every mile they completed. o This saved the railroad industry money because it was less land that they had to buy from the people living on that land. o It also granted the railroad industries cheaper loans and cash for each mile of track. The transcontinental railroad was completed in 6 years on May 10, 1869. o Mainly Irish and Chinese men worked on the railroad.

Diversity of the Native American West More than 360,000 Native Americans lived west of the Mississippi River around 1870. o Spanish, French and Russians brought disease and conflict causing the decline of the Native American population. o Some Native Americans lived in villages with hunters and gatherers in California. Others were captured by the Spanish and became a class of laborers. o Thousands of Natives lived independently away from missionaries. o Native Americans who were captured usually were forced to convert to Christianity. o White settlers going to California for gold drove out the Indians, causing starvation and disease. Over 10,000 Native Americans died. Present day Arizona, New Mexico and west Texas fell under Spanish colonial rule in the 17th and 18th centuries. o However, this land was dry and remote so Europeans did not want to be there, leaving the Indians alone in that area. An example of people who lived in these areas were the Pueblo people who were descendants from the Anasazi people lived in farm communities in western New Mexico and eastern Arizona. o They grew corn and corn and herded sheep. o Mexican ranchers traded with these tribes.

Mexican ranchers received decorative pottery and woven cloths in exchange for manufactured goods such as hoes and tools. Another example would be the Jicarilla Apache and Navajo tribes. o They were very similar to the Pueblo people but they received horses from the Spanish which gave them the ability to migrate. o They hunted, farmed and sheep. Navajo people developed a tradition of silversmithing which produced jewelry. Chinook, Salish, Yurok and Shasta tribes settled in the Pacific Northwest which is present-day Washington, Oregon and northern California. o They lived in large houses made from wooden planks. o They grew vegetables, hunted bear, deer, mice and fish. o The men were excellent woodworkers, making canoes and elaborate totem poles. o The women wove baskets and held ceremonies called potlatches where rich tribe members would give away their possessions to show how wealthy they were.

Native American Tribes of the Great Plains Nearly 2/3 of all Native Americans lived in the Great Plains. o The Great Plains stretched from east to west over the present-day Missouri to the Rocky Mountains and north to south from North Dakota to Texas. All of the Great Plains tribes varied culturally but almost all of them had a similar tribal structure. Most had bands of about 500 men and women who were governed by a council who with the community made decisions. o The Comanches divided their population of 7,000 into 13 different bands. Most Plains tribes had fundamental elements of worship of one primary god. o The Sioux called their god Wakan Tanka meaning the Great Spirit. o Plains tribes believed in spirits found in everything such as plants, animals, the moon and the sun. o Burial grounds were always sacred.

o A shaman led religious ceremonies, healed the sick and decided where to hunt. Majority of Plains tribes lived in villages near rivers where they had corn and hunted fish, bear, deer and buffalo. o Indians often would trade with white settlers, explorers and trappers for guns, kettles and tools. Later most tribes got horses which gave them the ability to migrate to follow the migrations of the buffalo.

The Great Westward Migration By mid-1850s, thousands annually traveled the 2,000 mile Oregon Trail from Missouri to Oregon. o They were looking for writings and photographs produced by publicists and boosters to gain wealth and opportunity from the west. Exodusters- exslaves who in 1879 left the violence and poverty in the south to become farmers in Kansas. o Over 20,000 exslaves took part in this movement. o Many exodusters settled on poor land and did not have enough money to start their own farms. Mormons- a religious group of people driven by persecution, it was started in 1830 in New York. But in 1846 they traveled to Utah to reside. Chinese faced brutal violence in California in 1880. o White laborers accused the Chinese of taking their jobs. In 1885, the white laborers killed 28 Chinese miners. Two years later, white laborers killed 34 Chinese miners in Oregon. Railroads brought more than 2 million immigrants to the transMississippi West between 1870 and 1900. The Economic Transformation of the West The Railroad Fuels Western Development The number of farms in the United States went from 2 million to 6 million in forty years. New technologies such as the steel plow and mechanical reaper increase the acreage a typical farmer could farm.

o Other technological advances included fertilization, irrigation, crop rotation, seed selection and proper care of livestock. o The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad and the Northern Pacific Railroad companies built lots of feeder railroads which allowed farmers to transfer their grain to a national market. The expanding railroads also helped nonfarmers by providing firemen, engineers, switchmen, mechanics, dispatchers and clerks all around the country. o Railroads also promoted urban growth in western cities. Hard Times for Farmers All farmers were faced with difficulties. o Weather was unpredictable. Even in the optimal farming areas such as the Plains, there was a drought after 1886. When in previous years there were very high levels of rainfall. o Grasshoppers came in swarms that killed crops. o Annual price fluctuations for crops. A plentiful harvest of wheat or corn meant low prices. One price drop in the 1880s due to less expensive prices in South America and Australia caused several farmers into foreclosure. Small farmers were hit the hardest. Grange- Patrons of Husbandry, a social and educational society that was dedicated to alleviating some of the problems faced by farmers by promoting fellowship, fraternity and education. o Grangers shared ideas about farming in newsletters and lectures all over the United States, starting in the early 1870s. The organization had several hundred thousand members. o The Panic of 1873 started an economic depression that caused crop prices to plummet. This caused The Grange to become a political movement. Creditors wanted payment for loan and railroads charged high prices to transport their crops to market. o Grander parties were created and in 1874 they won control of legislatures of Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota with the contribution from other states as well. o Grander Laws were regulations of banks and corporations, especially the railroads.

Maximum rates for transporting or storing grain and abusive practices such as offering preferred customer special rates. o In 1876 (Mun v. Illinois and Peik v. Chicago and North Western railroad) the Supreme Court ruled that state legislatures did possess the legal authority under the Constitution to regulate commerce, including especially commerce between states. o The depression lifted and farm product prices rose in the late 1870s, making Grander parties less important when compared to Democratic and Republican parties. The Cattle Kingdom Cattle ranching became an important factor in the western economy. When the United States annexed Texas in 1845, millions of longhorn cattle roamed the range and were rains for their skins and tallow. o In the 1860s, beef became popular and started to be a major product for cattle ranchers. o A longhorn that cost $4 in Texas could be sold for $40 on the northern market. Long drives- the long trips that cattle ranchers/cowboys would make to take cattle from down south to up north to be sold for better prices. Sometimes these drives would be more than 1,000 miles long. o In the early 1870s more than 600,000 longhorns arrived per year to be sold and transported by the railroad to Chicago to be slaughtered. o The period of great cattle drives lasted only twenty years. Cowboys wages averaged only about a dollar a day or less. In 1870s barbed wire was invented to protect animals and crops. Fortunes Beneath the Ground: The Mining Booms The second mining boom after California in 1849 began in 1859 when silver deposits were discovered in Nevada. The Comstock Lode was a Nevada site was eventually called, yielded $300 million to $400 million in silver in the next twenty years. Fortunes came in succeeding years as heavily capitalized and incorporated enterprises established mining operations to extract the ore. o Four Irishman became rich off of the ore John Mackya Jim Fair James Food William OBrien

o Consolidated Virginia Mine was an operation that many said was worthless found silver that made more than $100 million. Virginia City boomed with construction dry goods stores, saloons, hotels, laundries and restaurants. Women started to work in the hotels, laundries and restaurants. o Low wages and lack of family network sometimes left women to become prostitutes. o Other states that boomed for copper, lead and zinc were Colorado, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming and both Dakotas. o New corporations had the money and knowledge to invest in technology to dig deeper shafts and extract the ore from rocks, process it on site and ship it by the railroad to the market. Eastern industrialists were Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, they used methods of production to maximize profits. The Environmental Legacy Economic development in the trans-Mississippi West led to countless success stories of enterprising and risk- individuals who established farms, ranches, mines and small businesses or who simply found lucrative employment in the regions many urban centers. Mining came in many forms o Open-pit mining of the Mahoning iron ore mine in Minnesotas Mesabi Range. This change ruined local ecosystems and choked surrounding waterways with muddy runoff water. Ore processing used highly toxic chemicals to separate ore from rocks or other materials that the miners dumped into the rivers and fields. On the Great Plains, hunting and other human activity led to the eradication of elk, bear, wolves and buffalo populations. o Settlers introduced foreign animals and plants that sometimes caused native plants and animals to be extinct. Farming in some arid areas of the West caused topsoil erosion because deep-cutting steel plows that loosened hard-packed dry soil. Herds of livestock ruined grass through grazing. Timber industry caused deforestation and loss of habitat.

Native Americans under Siege Mounting Problems for Native Americans In 1851, government policy of forcing tribes into the West was no longer viable because of increased white migration into the region. o Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Act. Set aside vast tracts of the Oklahoma Territory as reservations for dozens of Native American tribes. In exchange for declaring nearly all of the central and northern Great Plains off limits, the tribes agreed to allow white settlers to pass along the Oregon Trail as they moved west. However, violence between the white settlers and Native Americans only escaladed. Native Americans faced many problems. o One main problem was the white Americans attitudes toward them. Many Americans believed that their culture was vastly superior to the Native Americans and that they were only obstacles to national progress. Almost all Americans at the time believed that Native Americans must be removed because they were backward, pagan, violent savages. o Federal officials negotiated treaties with tribes that promised to permanently fix the boundaries of their hunting grounds and places of habitation, only to find soon thereafter that whites, hungry for land, had begun settling there. Instead of removing the white settlers and enforcing the terms of the treaty, the government inevitably revised the treaty to further shrink designated Native American lands. o Sand Creek Massacre- settlers were attacked by some Native American in Colorado causing the settlers to retaliate. On November 29, 1864, Colonel John M. Chivington, attacked a peaceful encampment of 800 Cheyenne at Sand Creek. Since most of the men were off hunting, more than 200 Indians (mostly women and children) were slaughtered and scalped. The military outfit brought their scalps back to Denver. o Native Americans were also faced with diseases such as smallpox and measles. One smallpox outbreak in 1862 killed over 12,000 Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest.

o Sarah Winnemucca, a member of the Paiute tribe in California, drew attention to the injustices being suffered by Native Americans through a speaking tour of the eastern United States and the publications of a book. Her book was called Life Among the Paiutes: Their Wrongs and Claims it was wrote in 1883. o Helen Hunt Jackson was the first to speak on behalf of Native America. She was inspired by a lecture in 1879 by Susette La Flesche and her uncle, Chief Standing Bear, related to the Ponca tribe. Her book was called A Century of Dishonor it was written in 1881. Her ideas prevailed among reform-minded legislators in Congress, especially Senator Henry L. Dawes. Dawes Severalty Act- a flawed act created to help Native Americans but actually only caused them more problems. It gave them land that in many cases was very poor quality, making farming difficult. This act also created hunting limitations. o Many white settlers conned the Native Americans out of this land so they could buy it as a surplus for themselves. o An estimated 350,000 acres was being offered for sale in 1910. o By the time the Dawes Severalty Act was removed in 1934, 2/3 of the Native American reservation land was lost. Resistance and Romanticism In 1886, the surrender of Geronimo symbolized the end of any significant armed resistance by Native Americans to the Euro-American settlement of the trans-Mississippi West. o The movement was called the Ghost Dance. Was the last major form of resistance to the Euro-American conquest of the West in the late 1880s. Did not become popular until a Northern Paiute shaman named Wovoka began preaching a message of Native American revival based on a vision he had during an eclipse of the sun in 1889. o He related to his followers, he saw a great flood that scoured the land clean of all white settlers, leaving behind Indians who remained true to traditional teachings and a renewed herd of buffalo.

o Wovoka told his followers to perform the Ghost Dance (a ritual ceremony, where participants donned special shirts and danced in a circle until gradually brought to an ecstatic state that they believed drew them to the spirits of ancestors who would protect them from the white mans bullets. White settlers did not like the Ghost Dance. They said it was a sign of rebellion. At Wounded Knee Creek (present day South Dakota) Sioux were living there when an army attempted to disarm them on December 29, 1890. A Native American accidentally fired his gun, and then the soldiers attacked. o 200-300 Sioux were slaughtered and this later became known as the Wounded Knee Massacre. Creating Mythical Heroes and Images The image of the West as a place of high adventure, heroism, rugged individualism, and endless opportunity developed with the very first enthusiastic reports of Western explorers such as Lewis and Clarke. Journalists sent back dispatches from the West describing wide-open lands, roaring rivers, majestic mountains, and heroic struggles of pioneers against weather and hostile Indians. Two early heroes were Deadwood Dick (a cowboy dressed in black) and his girlfriend Calamity Jane. o Another hero was Buffalo Bill. Buffalo Bills Wild West was a circus-like production that purported to show audiences the thrilling and harrowing life on the frontier. Marksmanship, horses, shows, cattle roping and riding. The West in Art and Literature Mark Twain, real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens, emerged in the late 19th century. o He headed west in the early 1860s with his older brother. He wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Historians Reinterpret the American West Frederick Jackson Turner was a historian who also developed the image of the west.

o In 1893, he published an essay The Significance of the Frontier in American History that was the starting point for the recent announcement by the Census Bureau based on data compiled from recent 1890 census that the American Frontier was closed. Frontier Thesis- the Frederick Turners theory that extolled the positive role the frontier had played in shaping the American character and American institutions. Turners thesis proved to be influential for several generations of Western historians who based their writing and research on his ideas about the frontier.

Chapter 16: Wonder and Woe


The Rise of Industrial America, 1865-1920 Lecture Notes (January 18th): Progress o Moving forward o Changing for the good o Innovative/improvement o Good/bad Technology o Bell Invented the telephone In four years, (1876-1880) 85 towns had telephone networks o Edison Invented electricity o Westinghouse Invented A/C current o Ford Invented the assembly line $5/day unskilled laborers o Ford wanted his employees to get to drive them. He made them more affordable for everyone. o Tobacco o New machines Sewing machines Refrigeration

o Frederick Taylor Advocated scientific management (thought of management as a science) Experimenting on laborers Changing Status of Labor 2.6 million to 8.6 million women in the workforce Elizabeth Jane Cochrane Wrote letters in support of womens rights Who was hired for her good writing Worked for Joe Pulitzer (created Pulitzer Prize) Investigative reporting o Pretended to commit a crime Went to jail o Pretended to be insane Went in insane asylum Found out that they were treated like prisoners o Traveled around the world Living wage: only gave to men, women made about half as much as men Child labor o Used in machine shops because they had small hands Children often lost fingers No such thing as employer liability Fellow servant law it might be a co-workers fault for not stopping the victim of the accident. No workmens compensation Claudia Clark Radium Girls Women who painted the numerals on the watch for the military. o Used radium so the numbers were visible at night o They had to lick the paint brushes before dipping into the radium Radium got into their system and later died because of it. Court found the employers not guilty. Wage work o Working to make money v. working because you have to Product v. Right to contract

January 20th Lecture New Products o Luxuries Flushable toilets, inside bathrooms Inside baths o Washing more, buying more things Processed and preserved foods Vegetables and fruits anytime of the year Already made clothes Another item to spend money on o More expenditures o Social emphasis Before the rich people would go to Europe they would buy expensive clothing for the correct season. Thats why we start early in buying clothes for the next season. Department chains More people want to look like others to fit in o Stores dictate what is in style Woolworths o Everything in the store 5 cents, didnt last o Had to double the cost of some items He moved the 5 cents items in the back Sold more o Became very possible Advertising Cost of living- increasing People living longer o Old age pensions o People actually retiring o Nutrition Corporate Consolidation Movement Rise of corporations

Gospel of wealth o Upper class has a responsibility to the lower class because they are higher in the social class and finances o Business owners thought that they were the smartest and should control what their employees spend their money on Social Darwinism o Social pyramid Nativists, white Anglos, white French, Hispanic, Chinese/Asians, lastly Irish and African Americans. Jews and Chinese were almost considered to be black Not anyones fault, its just the way it is was the thought Anti-trust legislation o Sherman Act of 1890 People cannot come together to stop trade Meant to stop monopolies Courts interpreted this as being a property right Laborers had the right to contract, but reality states that they did not have the full right to contract o Women did not have the right to vote o Other races had the right to vote but they couldnt actually vote because of tests. If they failed the test they could not vote. o Unions/strikes Wanted Protective labor laws Maximum hours o Not to work over 10 hour days Unless contracted otherwise Employers to be liable Equal pay for men and women o So men and women united while striking Minimum wages Bargaining collectively Workmens compensation Paid in currency/regular pay

o Some people were paid in store credit o Some people were paid once a month or once every two months Safe work environments

Courts and Labor Reform Holden v. Hardy o Utah law, in 1898, men who worked in the mines could not work for more than 8 hours a day. State did this based on their police power Their right to police its people in order to protect their welfare o Miners did want this but the mine owners did not o Mine owners said they were fighting for the miners saying that they can work more than 8 hours if they wanted to Miners did not have a choice to stand up and say they did not want to work more than 8 hours o Supreme Court said that Mine owners did not have the right to change the contract o Justice Oliver Wendall Holmes was a judge because he believed that the law has to reflect the people. Before that everything was based on procedure, even though it did not work. He said that society is changing so the laws need to change as well. He thought that the court needs to be changing with the times. Laws need to be created or removed depending on what is going on in society. Lochner v. New York o 1905, Bakers could not work more than ten hours a day Court says that this law is not lawful, not constitutional. Because bakers are a different class than miners because a bakers job was considered to be not as dangerous. Bakers are not unequal in intelligence.

o This is still prevalent today that when desk jobs are higher class than jobs when you stand every day. Blue collar vs. white collar. Uniformed people are classed higher than non uniformed people. Brandeis Brief o Florence Kelley, Josephine Goldmark and Louis Brandeis joined together to protect women and their job security. They were good people because they knew that bad things were happening so they tried to get women to be safe first. Goldmark and Brandeis came together to form a brief. Introduced sociological jurisprudence o The law should be considered to pertain to society. o The court was buying experts opinions that were not true like women would go crazy if they worked over 9 hours or that they would not be able to reproduce. Brewer said that women are permanently dependent on the man and the men had to protect women to secure equality. (setting women up as being inferior) Said that there were psychological differences between men and women Muller v. Oregon and class legislation o Oregon passed a law that women could only work 9 hours a day Women thought it was unfair because employers preferred men who could work longer. Union Movement Knights of Labor o Had leadership issues, did not last long o Grand master did not want to strike He went back and forth on what he stood for o Could not get a firm grasp on their purpose and motives Haymarket Riot American Federation of Labor Railroad Strikes of 1877 Pullman Strike

o 1894, 27 states involved o 150,000 workers involved o Pullman made the sleeper cars and required employees to live at his rental places. o 700 railcars destroyed o 4 workers died in strike o American Railway Union Eugene Debs was thrown in jail for disrupting the rail because the railroad sends mail. He was said to be disrupting Federal mail. Women and the movement Immigrants of African Americans in the movement

January 25th Lecture Enlightened Sexism and Enlightened Racism o Susan Douglas She said the way that we sell products tells us how we portray ourselves. Advertising o Luxury o Fear o Sex Coca-Cola- started annual advertising Asa Candler bought rights to Coca-Cola industry o Spent $50,000 in advertising Industrial Growth and Transportation in the Modern Cit Urban Industrial Development o People living by their work Birth of a modern city o Subdivided by their districts Specific grids Streets were laid out Districts were Meat packaging, garment, seafood, financial districts and Central Park (in the middle) Mechanization of mass transportation Beginnings of urban sprawl o People living in their own parts according to their social class Migrants and Immigrants How cities grew

o Immigration, Migration o Natural increase (birth) o Annexation (combining cities) African-American and Hispanic migration o The Great Migration- movement from 1890s to the 1960s from the South to the North. Over million Americans moved North. Even though segregation was everywhere. South had the idea of racism imbedded in law but it was only practiced in the North. th: Lecture January 27 The new immigrants o Catholic British Isles Southern European Eastern European Mexico Americans feared Catholics because of the pope o Americans feared all immigrants o Why were Catholics feared? Would Catholics be more allegiant to the Pope than to the President in a democracy? Catholic immigrants had to prove themselves to the natives in order to be accepted This is why the Irish are not considered whiteits discrimination, but not racism o These immigrant groups stick to their ethnicity, do not get absorbed into American culture Urban Neighborhoods o Immigrant Cultures In those neighborhoods, those nations holidays still celebrated Cinco de Mayo St Patricks Day o Ghettos African-Americans pushed into these places Refers to a place, not a lifestyle (like it is today) Forced, permanent, highly segregated locality Contained EVERYTHINGchurches, barbers, shops, etc Intended so that African-Americans would never be allowed to go anywhere else, but would never need to go anywhere else o Barrios

Same as ghettos, but for Hispanic-Americans o Accomodation of Religion There are churches for each cultural group in their little countries Living Conditions in the Inner City o Housing Apartments 3 or 4 room No indoor toilet, bedpans were used Several families per apartment Many times, boarders would help pay for rent because it was so expensive All family slept in one room Apartment Buildings Typically, 6 apartments per floor (3-4 rooms each) 4 stories tall 2500 square foot loteach apartment has 10X10 rooms Electricity was a luxury Candles and oil used for lighting- smoky, dirty Very few windows If illness befalls one family member, others will get sick--- one sink per floor o Housing Reform Want to improve sanitation and construction Prior to reform, horse manure and bedpan waste dumped into the streets! o Paving the streets in order to help with this o Sewer systems- at least the manure has somewhere to go when it rains Modernized fire-fighting equiptment because these buildings were so close together Water treatment plants Structure o Building structures become more stable o Can build higher o Rooms get a little bigger o Urban Poverty HUGE problem! America started to view it differently Maybe its not the fault of the person, but the fault of the environment Theft, begging rampant o Crime & Violence Gang violence prevalent

Gangs of New York was an over-exaggeration Race riots These groups police the neighborhoods Corruption Police system is a joke No jurisdictions No guidelines- what laws do they enforce? o Can they make arrests? o What types of things do they handle? Law o Executive Enforce law o Legislative Enact laws o Judicial Interpret law Voting o Use of deceased persons name for voting o No such thing as silent ballot o Jane Addams Hull House Schools for children Training for mothers Separate, clean housing for young men and women Family Life o Declining birth rates Due to Financial Hardship o Too many mouths to feed and not enough food o Children are a financial burden in a city Overpopulation o Already no room to move in these cities, more children would just make it worse Health Concerns o Malnutrition o Lack of healthcare Records Issue o Births may or may not have been recorded o Records may have been destroyed Putting off Procreation o Employment o Unable to support a family o Lack of dowry Changing Culture o Young people want to experience youth first

o Young women enjoy working Time for Fun o Board Games Cheap Reusable o Sporting Events Baseball Football Affordable tickets Cycling Rentable bicycles for two Croquet o Circus For adults, not children o Other Entertainment Musical comedies Vaudeville Placed certain ideas about prejudice and racism into culture Movies Birth of a Nation was the first movie in 1915 Still camera The poor can finally have some type of visual history Phonograph Journalism Magazines o Immigrant cultures o Had Newspapers in their language o Lived together Ghettos o Saginaw was divided on Wards Blacks had to live in the third ward Made so African-Americans do not need to leave their ward Barrios o Same as ghettos but made for Mexican-Americans Accommodation of religion o Celebrated holidays Living conditions o Housing Three rooms

Middle Family room Border in front Bedroom in back Several families in one house Including grandparents, aunts and uncles Apartments were about 100 sq ft per room 10X10 feet o One sink o One window Surrounded by other apartments o No fresh air o Candles Probably not electricity o No bathtub o Wash out of a bucket

February 10th: Lecture The Progressive Era Loc.gov o What did he cut out? Why did he cut it out? Muckrackers: reformers, politicians, single caused crusaders, majority are middle class, wealthier, more than half were women, moving to better a society, they dont form a movement, they are disturbed by industrial revelation, they fear how things will play out, dig up the dirt, tell society whats going on, use magazines (very important) o Examples were Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, Upton Sinclair, Hiram Johnson (progressive politician) Progressivism o Restrain corporations o Urban o Conservative o Americanizing o Pro-government o Elite control o Pro-class legislation o Anti-political party New Reform Committees o National Child Labor Committee

Keating Owen Act of 1916 14-16 year olds could not work more than 8 hours a day/48 hours a week. o American Association for Old Age Security Higher living standards February 15th: Lecture Temperance o 18th amendment o Speakeasies o Gangsters o Light penalties Why was prohibition so negative for America? o Weakened the Constitution o Organized crime o Doesnt stop the problem/unsafe o Disrespect for law o Paternalistic control (social rebellion) o Effect on Economy (decrease in jobs and decrease in taxes for government) o Increase in money to fighting it o Corruption in police force o Social tensions/class issues/gender The new women, outgoing, go out with a group of girls, not with her dad/date/husband. The Great Depression ended Prohibition Increase in drinking/debauchery Religious Revival 2nd Great Awakening Coverture meant that it was essence of womens legality in marriage o Before she no longer existed in law, she was her husband Increase in domestic violence because it was the husbands job to discipline their wife if he needed to. Add alcohol makes it worse That is why the started the prohibition Goesaert v. Cleary o 1945-PA133 They could not be bartenders unless they had a husband or father present

They went to the Michigan Court and were denied. Then they went to the United States who also said that it was constitutional. Men bartenders union wanted the law to stay in place because they are managers, bouncers and have say over what happens in the bar. Other Reform Issues o Prostitution Temperance Prostitutes would not give themselves over to prostitution if there wasnt drinking involved and men wouldnt want prostitutes if men werent drunk o However prostitution does not decrease o Educational Reform Needed to be some kind of educational reform Four types of reform o 1.) administrative reform: school board have educators who know about teaching o 2.) militant: active and aggressive in classroom o 3.) child censored reform: think about different learning styles and teach to the different learning styles o 4.) testing based method: all four are still talked about but this is the most important (MEAP, ACT, SAT) lot of standardized testing. Feminism o Margaret Sanger o 1873 government passed Comstock Act which prohibited family planning advise Man losing virginity was looked as a good thing Woman losing virginity was look as a bad thing Margaret thought it should be equal She opened the first Birth control clinic o She was thrown in to jail She was a nurse and she went to a ladys house o The lady was going to die if she got pregnant again.

Margaret listened and said the rich dont have this problem and knew that there was something going to be done.

o Birth control o Suffrage o 19th amendment Alice Paul tries to get an ERA (Equal Rights Amendment) that states that equality should not depend on the sex of the person. Still has not been passed. Theodore Roosevelt Good deal New government William Howard Taft Reduced tariff rates 16th amendment Woodrow Wilson Federal Trade commission Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve Board o Federal Reserve Bank is the central banking system Other banks are included with member banks Federal Farm Loan Act o All of these are added to the branches that will be on the exam February 22: Lecture Selective Service Act 17 (21-30) (18-45) o Linda Kerber: historian in Iowa. Looks at the constitution and thinks about how women feel if their citizenship in how they cant serve. 1905-1914 Like when women could not serve in jury duty st and 2nd Morocan Crises o 1 Germany was far behind, separated, they didnt get ahead. Late 1800s this changed

Kaiser Wilhelm tested to see how far they can go until Europe stops them. o America was stretching to form protectorates. o Germany sent out an attack on Morocco France allied with them o Bosnian Crises Dardanelles Russian prime minister went out to see what access to the Mediterranean would change. Austria takes control over the Balkians o Serbia Austria and Germany allied to gain the straight They were fighting for the Ohoman Empire June 28, 1914, Ferdinand (hare to Hapsburg) was assassinated with his wife (Austrian couple) Germany goes to Russia but Russia helps Serbia and Austria o Germany declares war on Russia August 1st 1914. o Russia declares war on France August 3rd 1914 o England declares war on Germany August 4th 1914 Total war Planes Hand grenades Machine guns Trench warfare Poison Gas Submarines Propaganda Espionage Act (1917) o Forbade false statement designed to impede the draft or promote military insubordination and band from the mail material that was considered treasons. Sedition Act (1918) o Made it unlawful to obstruct the sale of war bonds and to use disloyal profane scurrilous or

abusive language to describe the government the constitution the flag of the military uniform Tides of Battle o Allied Powers Great Britain France Russia o Central Powers Germany Austria o Japan enters-Allies o Turkey enters -Central Powers o Bulgaria enters Central Powers o Romania and Greece Allied Powers o Italy enters Allied Powers o US enters as well as Latin American counters, China and Liberia WWI o Schlieffen Plan Surround France and suffocate them No goods in to France Plan failed o Did not move fast enough People came out through the north west to England o Battle of Marne Resulted when people met 250,000 French soldiers died It prevented Germany from having a swift victory o Battle of Verdun (1916) Bloodiest battle over 1,000,000 French were wounded, 250,000 died. Symbol of French determinism o Similar to Remember the Alamo o Battle of Somme (1916) 1,500,000 Allies died, many were British Symbol for British determinism o War becomes personal o 1917 The Turning Point Lusitania 1915

A ship that was destroyed by Germans o The Revolution in Russia Russians were agitated from so many revolutions They noticed an excess of the crown while the extreme poverty of the people of Russia. o The Romanov were rich when people were freezing in the winters o People wanted Duma However the Duma was not enough because so many soldiers were lost, lost a war with Japan and had several other problems. o People felt like they were not suppose to be fighting this war. V.I. Lenin o Germans back him because they know that he will stir up a revolution that would cause Russia to back out of the war. He started the Bolshevik party and he was rapidly embraced by the Russians. However, he releases a government that destroys Russia. The Romanov family was executed. Some escaped to New York. United States enters the war in 1917 At the time Great Britain owed us 3,696,000,000, France owed us 1,970,000,000 and to Italy 1,031,000,000 Allied Powers owed US 11,656,932,900 Widows and Children suffered Entire Generation lost o Birth rates decreased o Elevation of the status of women Economic Women having man jobs Political o Change of social status o Lost generation (writers, pop culture) disillusioned with government

Change in policing o Federal police Decrease in civil rights/liberties Economic

Peacemaking o Treating of Versailles Wilson, Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Orlando Article 231 Somewhat leads to WWII o There is a statement that says Germany is responsible for everything (in so many words) Hitler will later use this because he was a soldier during WWI. Germany has to pay for everything but Austria gets off easy. Germany could not join the League of Nations. Were also prohibited from certain technology banning the bullets but not the guns o This does not stop Germany Wilsons 14 points are created to help o One of which is to create the League of Nations They tried to find a common ground Rearranging the maps o France regained their land o Germany gave up a little bit of land o Beginnings of Weimar republic Prince Mac of Baden Good guy, if he would have stayed in power the Holocaust would not have happened. War at Home o Peace Advocates Everyone was not always war goers Poor were the only ones who went to war Then the rich became richer o Selective Service Act of 1917 o Venereal Disease 15% of men contracted a venereal disease during WWI

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Cost the Army $50,000,000 7,000,000 days of active duty lost Women Dress not as plainly Shorter skirts Started driving You could not drive with a long skirt Joined Red Cross Worked in the plants Committee of Public Information Espionage Act 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 Civil Liberties Bureau Roger Baldwin Precursor He is the first one to put forward that it is not unAmerican if they say things such as the President is a jerk Schenck v. U.S. (1919) He sent anti-draft letters saying the draft was the wrong thing. Roger Baldwin said that he had a Freedom of Speech. o U.S. said that letters were not considered speech o Outcome? Did anyone dodge the draft? If so that means it was speech o Clear and Present Danger Does the speech/letter give clear and present danger to Americans? Frohwerk v. U.S. He was overseas who wrote German newspapers and said anti-war things o Supreme court said that it was a clear and present danger Red Scare 4,000 people were arrested because they were considered for possibly being communist. Majority of them came from Detroit because of Unions.

The New Era Politics and Government Teapot Dome Coolidge Prosperity State and Local Reform Indian affairs Suffrage o Women were voting Government v. American People v. Corporations 1920s and 1990s: people held politicians accountable for increased costs Warren Harding o Ran with wrong crowd o Listened to friends o Appointed Albert Fall as Secretary of Interior o Leased public oil reserves, got kick backs o Reputation suffered Coolidge lowered income taxes and made highways took office August 1923 with prosperity. Progressives kids in college came out as judges, lawyers and politicians Oliver Wendell Holmes magic mirror judge about law and people Old age pensions, adapted or expanded work mens compensation in 34 states States started welfare Hoover opens Indian Affairs o Hired too many people to manage Bureau of IA o 1924 citizenship to all Natives Material World o Expansion of Consumer Society Having options o Effects of Automobile Pollution Streets cleaner More jobs Not tied to factory area Vacations New entertainment Independence/privacy Sexual mores Fast-paced o Advertising

o Radio Used to be important for amateurs People who were fooling around with it In 1920, Westing house created the first public radio station KDKA In 1924, there were over 500 radio stations across the United States. In 1927, the radio station of America (RCA) created a broadcasting corporation that they called the NBC. Over 12 million families own radio sets in 1929. o Suburbs Formed small communities New Rhythms of Everyday Life o Family Time Women went grocery shopping o Nutrition Senior citizens o Social Values Flappers Sex Smokin and Drinkin o Employment for Women Lines of Defense o Ku Klux Klan Became involved in politics Moved northward into the cities They showed their faces Went after everyone who were against their views Chiristanity

Sex Looks Community Fitting in Lifestyle Social status o Purses o Jewelry Health Reinforces social norms

Capitalist beliefs o Against socialist Downfall was because of their involvement in politics Girl was raped and beaten by a KKK member o She committed suicide. o The man was using local city funds to fund the clan. Many klan members were siphoning money. Schools removed evolution and religion from being talked about. o Scopes Trial John Scopes: taught evolution even when it was against the law. Taught in Tennessee. Clarence Darrow was an amazing lawyer for the ACEU William Jennings Bryan was a three time attempted president. People were marketing this trial selling stuffed monkeys. Bryan stupidly took the witness stand. He said that he was an expert on fundamental values about the Bible. Bryan admits on stage in court and said that some of the Bible cannot be considered literally. Scopes was considered to have broken the law. o Fundamentalism v. Evolution Tension between fundamentalism and those who were growing away from. Separation of church and state o Aint We Got Fun? Movies 1927: The Jazz Singer o No more silent movies Sports Heroes Babe Ruth o Signing autographs for children to look better to the public. Movie Stars Gangsters Prohibition, gangsters become heroes. o Providing drugs, alcohol

o Cultural Currents Literature Lost Generation Harlem Renaissance: rebirth out of slavery Josephine Baker Louis Armstrong Billie Holliday Zora Neal Hurston o End of New Era: The Great Depression and New Deal (1929-1940) Hoovers Administration Elected in 1928, a year before the Great Depression hit Stock Market Crash, Black Tuesday Buying on credit Companies making too much product to little demand Margin o Buying stocks on credit Bank Failures Corporate Debt Too many poor people Farm failures Dust Bowl and bowl beetle Going from plus to minus Stats (1900-1933) o Increase federal expenditures to business o Increased federal involvement in natural resources o Increased federal aid to agriculture Destroyed individual farmer Government taking over food supply o Increasing in grants of aid to states o Increase in regulatory industries o More than 5,000 bank were closed 9 million savings accounts gone Depositors lost 2.5 billion dollars o Unemployment rose from 1 million to 12 million 25% of the workforce was unemployed 10 billion average in stocks to 1 billion The Dow Jones Industrial Average goes from 452 points to 58 points.

It is an index of stocks they take the top consumer goods stocks. Farm income dropped 60% Hoovervilles Everybody looked at someone else to blame. o Russians, catholic, politicians, foreigners No more laissez faire economy Hoover and hard times o Farmers Holiday Association o Bonus Expeditionary Force Veterans were supposed to be paid and Hoover said no. Women and children start protesting. Feds caused children to be tear-gassed. o Hawley-Smoot Tariff Keeping women at home or work Mobilizing the American Home Front o Office of Price Administration Coupons Government was involved in free market Angered some people o War Production Board Industrial to military production Making bombers, jeeps o Government gave incentives to businesses who would contribute to this. o Produced very quickly Producing for U.S. and allies o Government Incentives in Business o University Research Defense programs Medical research programs We were behind the times o Separating blood by race thinking that it would poison to the other race. o Nazis did medical research on Jews to see their heart pumping etc.

o Unions War labor dispute act, gave the president the right to stop strikes o Wartime Changes in Agriculture Large cooperative farms instead of small family farms o Growth in Federal Government o Propaganda Movies with trailers about wars Posters saying to buy war bonds, join the army and save food. Saying that every person owed the United States Immigrants helped because they were trying to fit in and they truly felt like they owed the U.S. Idea that their country is depending on you o Nobody wanted to let their country down o Postwar Ambitions In 1944, the government passes the GI Bill of Rights. Most important document for soldiers of all time GIs can get home loans and education easier. o Saying that they are going to take care of soldiers when they got home better than how solders were treated after World War I. Conscientious Objectors and Japanese American Internees o 1942, collected 92,000 Japanese Americans took to relocation centers Gave a curfew to Italian and German Americans o COs o An Enemy Race o Life in Internment Camps Jobs and Racism on the Home Front o African-Americans in Combat Tuskegee Airmen Very powerful, respected group of African American soldiers Never lost a plane or any cargo but they still had to continually prove themselves Double V campaign Victory over seas and then victory at home Fighting for racial equality

o Constitutionally they had these rights but not in practice/real life o Civil Rights Movement o African-American War Workers Driving street cars and trolleys Shift from industrial workers to other kinds of workers 47 different cities had riots in 1943 o Bracero Program Program where we brought in Mexican workers to work on the farms for short term contracts Incredibly misunderstood o People of California were largely confused and they thought that these Mexican workers had full citizen priveledges. Zoot Suit riots occur when sailors start attacking American citizens who they think have been stealing the jobs of Americans. Mistaking Mexican-Americans for Mexicans on the Bracero Program. Women and Children o Women in War Production WAC- 140,000 women VAC- 100,000 women Women in Marines and Coast Guard- 39,000 Nursing core- 75,000 WASP- (pilots) 1,000 Brain children of Jackie Kochran o Wanted them to be everything a male pilot was o She went to the general in charge of the airforce He agreed to it and put women through every single fitness training as men 1,000 of them became pilots They took the planes from the manufacturer to the base for the men to fly. They flew planes right off of the plant with a target in the back

38 women were killed in service and they were denied a military burial and their families had to pay to have their bodies sent home o Women were finally found in the workplace in all sorts of jobs Rosie the Riveter Women mechanics, making firearms Propaganda for Women Saying their husband would approve etc o Discrimination against Women They were still being paid less even when they were doing the same exact job. Child care centers were in low supply. FDR Electing a Reformer o People person o Hid that he had polo o Elected governor of New York William Randolph Hearst o Liked FDR Joe Kennedy o Also backed up FDR March 1st, 1933 Inaugural Address o Famous o Fear quote Wanted people to be responsible for themselves President = friend o Eleanor Roosevelt, wife, did publick speaking because he was ill/weak. When women were 2nd class citizens people listened to her as if she was a mother figure. Her parents died when she was young, she wasnt pretty, married FDR because it seemed economically right but he was her cousin. She wanted civil rights for African Americans and more rights for women Held 350 press conferences when only women were invited to interview her.

Elected 1st women cabinet member UN delegate

New Deal Programs: legal shift with laws for the first 100 days, was mostly unconstitutional. Emergency Bank Act: gave more currency but later failed because it was not useful, 500 and 1000 dollar bills. Civilian Conservation Corps: camps giving young white men jobs planting trees and picking up neighborhoods Federal Emergency Relief Act: gave 500 million dollars to state and local government Civil Works Administration: gave 4 million jobs in civic arena such as on roads, airports and jobs. Agricultural Adjustment Act: paid farmers to produce less food to increase food cost Homeowners Loan: helped people pay mortgages but failed because it didnt solve the problem, it was a band aide for a bullet wound. Tennessee Valley Authority Act: gave jobs in Tennessee building dams, roads and other structures because TN was very poor. Truth and Securities Act: full disclosure o Created branch to oversee stock brokers and policing powers o Register securities with it o Branch off of Executive Branch Stopped guarantees and lies from brokers o Separated banks and brokers Good fix! National Industrial Recovery Act o Jobs and controls prices o Broke 14th Amendment even though it was suppose to make the most money. Works Project Administration o Helped artists by hiring them to make plays for kids and paint to brighten up towns. Helped to cheer people up! Social Security Act o Death benefit o People who wore and pay taxes

Fair Labor Standards Act: Put value on the worker, gave them a minimum wage in 1938 of .25/hour and set a maximum work week of 44 hours. Understanding New Deal Fireside Chats Implementing court packing tactics o Unemployment dropped from 12 million to 9 million by 1939 and the average dollars received per week went from $17 to 22 African Americans Federal and State aide but still smaller than whites Shifted from republican to democratic Administration became more responsible to African Americans demands FDR approved the first African American as a federal judge and black cabinet. Immigrants Immigrants were given option to go back to Mexico or stay with no jobs Given native born people more work opportunities 415,000 mexicans sent back to Mexico In 1929 government ended legal immigration AFL: provided jobs for skilled workers based on skills not race CIO: New view of racial unity Wagner Act: made it easier to unionize The CCC did not include women CWA only white men FLSA set a minimum wage which was progress Finally workers unions for women Eleanor Roosevelt o Social Security- Ida May Fuller

The New Deal Continued 1. New wave of reform a. Never seen one like this before b. Government involvement i. Top down activism 1. Before was bottom up 2. Head of government making changes 2. New political party regime

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a. Democrats for working class/poor/minority i. African Americans became Democrats Policy changes a. Allow for more judicial activism i. 1950s and 1960s, Supreme Court makes laws but it wasnt making a difference in the actions of the people ii. Reconstruction of working class 1. Minimum wage value of workers iii. President could make major decisions 1. FDR stopped striking and changed prices a. Was the peoples choice 2. Almost allowed Legislative branch to take control over the executive Cult of Personality a. Presidents being closer to American people (relating to the people) Psychological Life Raft a. Band aide for Americans i. Gave them something to cling to and to know that everything is going to be OK. Dramatic Federal response to a catastrophe a. Put things in line that let more federal response over WWII, which later helped with segregation to be changed. Economic a. Restructured economy i. Much better FDR didnt like Supreme Court restructuring his laws He made a rule that 70 years or older was the limit for the age of the judges on the Supreme Court. o It was debated in press and in a bill but it was not allowed. Later he got what he wanted however. Huey Long wanted to Share the Wealth o People who made over a million the rest of their money would be given to others in cars and homes. o Huey was later assassinated. Charles Coughlin o Racist o Created National Union for Social Justice Holocaust causes him to lose popularity Charles pretty boy Floyd

Ma Barker John Dillinger G-men J. Edgar Hoover mini dictator, extorted president white supremacies, bribes. Organized Labor o AFL: American Federation of Labor: Skilled Laborers o CIO: Congress of Industrial Organization: for unskilled people o UAW: strike in flint sit downs, for 44 days o Labor won more than 75% of strikes Memorial Day Massacre- police shot into a crowd of people Hoover was racist and little progress was made Scottsboro Trial o AA was not able to participate o A young black man rode bus and was arrested for roughing up transient lifestyles (people who did not want a family, they rode on the railcars and moved from place to place) Two white women also said that they were raped but they were not really, both were tested negative They later confessed to lying o Sentenced life in death 1935- Supreme Court overturned because no AAs on jury Brotherhood of sleep less car porters o Watched what happened o War dollars were being used in industries that banned blacks Executive order 8802 Employing people unfairly New Deal helped Native Americans o Allowed Indians to have self government Constitutional Problems Schechter Poultry Corp v. U.S. o Ruled National Recovery Act which violated Separation of Powers U.S. v. Butler o Overturned 1933 AAA Carter v. Carter Coal Company o Agency made codes of law for coal industries, Supreme Court said that you cant make laws. Triumph liberalism Stromberg v. California 1931

o Flying flags Near v. Minnesota o Newspapers could not print scandalous or malicious material o Supreme Court said was unconstitutional Comstock Act Defined o 1936- Not intended to stop birth control, nurse doctors could o Going to watch minorities Polk v. Connecticut o Protests 10th amendment Doesnt say everything is protected Not allowed to be unchecked Fighting word Revolution of 1937 Supreme court starts expanding protection Picketing reassembly, pamphleteering, Captive Audience causes o People deserve to have quiet Revival of Clear and present danger

World War II Italian Fascism o Italy was the home of the Roman empire, greatest civilizations to have ever occurred People who were proud of their heritage were caught in a bad place. They were looking for a strong leader. o Benito Mussolini Originally socialist, disillusioned with socialist party because it resisted Italian support in the war He believed a strong military was needed to be a strong nation (similar to Machiavelli) He serves in war as a volunteer and looks for a platform to be political He starts the Fasci di Combattimento in 1919

o Fasci di Combattimento: members protected strike, marched on Rome, Italians loved him, U.S. did not. Fascism: Type of society that shows primacy of the state, everybody in the society works to the betterment of the state (government), the state stands at the center of the nations history and every individual is subordinate to that state. o Have a dictator o Extremely hostile to class ideas of the future Dont like classes because you are then putting yourself at the center and not the government. With upper, middle and lowerthe upper is supremacy not the government. o These societies have strong militia. In Germany they had a difficult time, they were a loose combination of nations, then they united and became strong again. o Germany stepped out a little bit to make a name of themselveseven though it was a bad one after WWI. Germany is taking a back role to the rest. Germany has horrible inflation They cant print currency fast enough Caused a horrible depression o Adolf Hitler wanted to be an artist, was a spoiled mommas boy, felt unappreciated, his father was a customs guard. His family was favored, his father was cold. Typical step-family Possible child of incest. He left home because he didnt want to become an official like his father. Lots of his artwork was clichd, nothing special. o He was denied admission to art school. o Started his the world is out to get him attitude.

o He served in WWI. He wins a medal and was invited to parties. o Reason not to bully he made a mission to change and be seen as a powerful figure. He forms a group beer hall butsch Was put in jail and wrote Mein Kampf which says my struggle. o He proposes some interesting scary things such as people are stupid and the government can easily manipulate them if they have a strong enough leader. He rises up o He promised an end to economic depression o Offered survival at the cost of a few people Saying he is going to make jews work for their money His best friend was a jew o He seized German National Socialism o Declared a state of an emergency to gain powers o He silenced all oppositions to socialism, he got rid of every opposition, made National Socialism the only party, cleaned out the police force and everything to leave only socialists. Making him a dictator legally. The average German didnt know what was going on.

Adolf created an Aryan nation which glorifies motherhood making a cult of motherhood. o Launches racial viable women Measured noses Eye color (blue was best) Brown and blonde hair Medical history Born with disabilities? Body type of the women Wide hips? Ratio proportionate o Women were taken into the camps They wanted to! They wanted to serve their nation. Given marriage loan, tax credits to have more racially viable children. Could not have abortions or birth control. Never about force o Nuremburg Laws Germany passed these laws which deprived Jews of their rights, they had to wear the star of David and not have sex or get married to non-jews. Kristallnaeht, Night, by Eli Weisel, book about a fifteen year old jew who went to the concentration camps. His father, said big deal I have to wear the Star of David, remained optimistic saying everything was fine. o But later he thought it is the 1920s what can he do Japan tries to gain power. o They want China o They fake an incident o They have built a railway north of Mukden in Manchuria. o They blew up a portion of it and blamed China. Japan then protected their land by going to China. League of Nations told them to leave China So Japan left the League of Nations o Germany took back land from France

o Germany annexed Austria (Hitlers birth state) Then he took chuckeslavackia On September 1, 1938 he attacked Poland, September 3, 1939, Britian declared war on Germany.

America o Trying to avoid war again o Presidential Power Commander in Chief even when we were not in war o Nye Committee Hearings Corporations were bribing to get fire arm sails Many American companies were dealing with Nazis. o We pass a series of Neutrality Acts Stopping sales Forbidding loans for other nations Declares us neutral in wars o We can sell in the war in nations but they have to have cash and they have to carry it. o FDR did not like being behind o Collision Course with Japan and Germany o Fall of France o Lend-Lease Act- we will help Britain win but we will not be in the war. Lend them weapons so we can lease their land. We are in the middle of the Atlanticgerman submarine tried to hit the submarine..but didnt hit. Whenever we saw german subs were were to shoot them at the site of them. Also help the British. o This gives the president more powers because he declares the state of emergency in 1939, and in 1941 we have an unlimited state of emergency Office of War, censorship, and all other boards are falling under the office of emergency management come in effect because it is a national emergency. 1940 brings back Selective Service Act- we were preparing for war, mobilizing and training a force of soldiers. o War Powers Act- gives president powers that are not usually given when nation is in peace. They can seize factories to war-time production, ford, gm, Chrysler, making jeeps, airplanes etc. He could regulate communities for everything, milk, rents etc o We do not enter the war until after the attack at Pearl Harbor.

US Demand on Japan. We started Open Door Policy with demand earlier, but Japan refused, they said no thank you we dont need you. We are going to be a superpower. December 7th, 1941, Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, where we had a naval station. 2,304 people died, 1,178 were wounded. o Greer Incident o Teheran Conference o The Russians come from the East, British from the South, US from the North caused D-Day o D-Day- June 6, 1944, all allied troops go into Germany Red Army through Poland Go to Burlin Ruhr Valley area of Germany FDR died, Truman became president, Hitler killed himself. May 8th, Germany surrendered. o Americans were mad at Japanese for prisoners of war o Bataan Death March in April 9, 1942. Japanese forced the prisoners 70,000 people were forced to march, killing them randomly, denied food and water, if they stumble they were shot, 7-10,000 died o The War in the Pacific Kamikazes Both sides took heavy losses Meanwhile, Americans, Soviet Union, British sit down and Joseph Stalin decides to help with the war in the Pacific. Stalin wanted men to go home for the summer and help in the fall. Between agreeing with Stalin to wait until fall, we had two wins, August 6, 1945 we drop a bomb on Hiroshima. August 9 we drop a bomb in Nagasaki. o Caused innocent lives lost Cold War Abusive relationships (similar to)

Communism: social system that does not necessarily need a dictator but it usually happens, absence of competition, goes against constitution, leaving everything up to the government America would fail People were executed if they were considered to like communist ideology and also they were put onto blacklists and the McCarran Act was to enlist communists. CIA put foreign leaders on pay roll (snitches) o Paid foreign labor unions to gather intelligence o Read foreign newspapers and also falsified information in them and put pro capitalistic ads o Trained foreign military officers and armed them That way we knew what they had o Hired American professors and journalist o Funded National Student Association o Gave people LSD: failed o Helped overthrow government o Make sure president can deny knowledge 1952 Hydrogen Bomb, soviets made one short after Racial Segregation o Spoiled U.S. ability to make friends Cuba signs trade for Soviets to have Eisenhower Doctrine o U.S. will become involved if Communists take over o To spread freedom of opportunity Geneva Accords o Vietnam controlled by France North was communist South was capitalist McCarthyism: paranoia of communism o Truman orders to investigate 1947 In government 3 million were fired Anything not normal was a sign o 4 groups were targeted Unions, school teachers, homosexuals and Hollywood people

For people in Michigan it was life in prison in the late 40s 600 teachers, 1500 tv/radio employees, 350 actors, 600 homosexuals, 2700 people were fired and 12000 people resigned in hopes to find new jobs o Rosenbergs were executed for espionage o Joe McCarthy had a list of 205 people in the state department who were said to be communistic. That meant that they could not travel or have government jobs. 1953: Eisenhower expanded list for Security risk o Fire anyone who was different Causes o Social and political upheaval Women and African Americans working Democrats for 22 years and then a republican New weapons discovered Reasons why it faded Families watched tv and saw Joe get drunk, attack a WWII vet during a court session Korean War August 1945, UN entered Korea at 38th parallel o North was communist and south was capitalist o Chinese entered war o No lasting peace treaty o Disputes over POW No bodies unless they want something o 54,246 Americans died o 103,284 Americans wounded o 5 million Asians died 3 of that 5 were civilians Earl Warren was the most liberal chief of justice o Worked towards solving segregation o Smith v. Allwright Stopped whites only primaries in 1944 o Morgan v. Virginia Stopped segregated buses in 1946 o Shelley v. Kraemer

Stopped forbidding blacks from living in areas etc Racial restrictive covenants in 1948 o Brown v. Board of Education Stopped separate but equal and allowed African Americans to attend white schools in 1948 o Montgomery Bus Boycott African Americans didnt ride busses for a year and later the company failed in Alabama in 1955 o MLK Jr. Bottom-up Non-violent protest Started violently He wanted to be non-violent Violent protest (militant protest) Started non-violently Not exactly shooting people o They believe in having the tools of protection available. SCLC o Civil Rights Acts of 1957: Federal government creates to find out if systematic discrimination is happening Is there really a problem? o Sit-ins Greensboro, North Caroline Lunch corners Were all white only o South said Whites only o North was just segregated If you were black and went you would feel not welcomed. Blacks just went and sat in the restaurants o Dick Gregory shows up (comedian) Made a joke about it Captured on tv o Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee Pronounced as snick Southern based organization Womens Rights o Dr. Spock

Child rearing books Think of your children books Friedan and The Problem That Has No Name Feminine Mystique of 1963 About how women are considered to have the house perfect. Never perfect o 50s Feminine Culture 50s Culture o Pressures in education Clothing, skirts for women Weapons of mass destruction Men should be trained to go into engineering o Sputnik Trying to get into space earlier Competing with Russia o Growth of religion Increased number going to church Conformity Identified with a church o Television generation Media shows families how they should be I Love Lucy Leave it to Beaver I Dream of Jeanie Over 50 million Americans have televisions in 1960 Created contradiction between what is seen and what is said or wrote o Sex, drugs and rock and roll 50s was not as perfect as we think 50% marriages were of teenagers o 50% of that were already pregnant Rise in masturbation Women lust Rapes were a problem But not reported o Family vacations Station-wagon Highways o Betty

o Beat o Poor

Motels Disney World generation Did not conform Anti-conformists Beards Hip lingo Said things were cool Smoked pot Read poetry Visiting Cuba America Disturbs that America is turning to poverty

The Sixties Counter Culture o Drugs Pot and LSD Professor gave students acid Tune in, turn on, drop out o Out of your mind and into your senses o Sexual Revolution Birth control pill Allowed women to have multiple partners without worrying if they are going to get pregnant, no who is the father More interracial sex o Woodstock o Change of Rock o Astrology o Communes o Eastern Religions o Abbie Hoffman and the Yippies o Green Movements Civil Rights o We Shall Overcome HUAC House Un American Activities Communism

Protestors attacked Police attacked with fire hoses o Clubbed them, beat them, pushed down steps Freedom Rides Groups of people trying to test segregation laws Gathered together on buses to go down to the south and test segregation Cities knew they were coming Attacked when they reached the city Curb stomped Bull Connor o White supremacist o Alabama had two city governments o He wanted police to let people attack them o FBI just watched o KKK beat people MLK Jr. Non violent in the beginning Slowly becomes more like Malcolm X 200,000 people speech I have a dream 1963 March on Washington Malcolm X Militant, more violent Variant of islam Ole Miss Federal troops to get African Americans enrolled Governor Wallace at University of Alabama did not want to integrate. Was using his body to stop it by standing in-front of African Americans Civil Rights Bill 930 civil rights demonstrations in 115 cities in 11 states 20,000 people were arrested All on television Little kids hit by fire hoses Police dogs attacking people Jack and Bobby try to get a legislation set up Johnson takes over after Jack was assassinated LBJ had the weight of the world on his shoulder Johnson should have been president

Put civil rights bill in Voters rights act o Freedom Summer (Mississippi) Students go down to help with voter registration 99% black but no voters Hardships to voting for them o Might lose job o Burning cross in yard o Literacy questions that are ridiculous o Good character tests o Whites only primaries was still practiced Students made sure they could vote Checked ballets Escorted people to vote o Malcolm Murdered 1965 by black muslims called him traitor o Selma March People attacked MLK knew that they were going to be arrested Young kids were arrested o Black Power Group for African Americans for young people Anger breaks out in race riots 1st one broke out in ghetto area of LA 6 days of rioting 34 people died 850 injured More than three hundred million dollars in damage o Race Riots 43 people killed in Detroit Saginaw had civil disturbance People who are willing to burn down city and own homes to show oppressions. Go big or go home Womens Rights o National Organization of Women o Women boycott the Miss America Pageant o Equal Pay for Equal Work

Women make 70% of a mans dollar today o Equal Rights Amendment Has not passed Brought up again every decade Equality of rights should not be abridged by sex o Roe v. Wade Passed supreme court for giving privacy for people for abortion Mueller v. Oregon: state has the right to protect womens maturity, unconstitutional Gay Rights o Stonewall Riots Stonewall was a gay bar People attacked people in bar o Gay Liberation Front Movement Campus Changes o Columbia o In loco parentis o Kent State 1968: A Year of Revolution o Democratic National Convention Richard Daley Major of Chicago Beatings televised Nixon is elected because he said that he would call an end to beating protestors The Whole World is Watching

Vietnam War Americas Lost War (1945-1975) The First Indochina War: 1945-1954 o Ho Chi Minh Leads the Viet Minh to overthrow French oppressors China backs him up We back South Vietnam Supplying military goods 1954 10,000 French soldiers become prisoners

Divide Vietnam at the 17th parallel North communist South capitalist South Vietnamese were not happy America came in o Dien Bien Phu o Ngo Dinh Diem Has conflict with United States The New Frontier in Vietnam: 1961-1963 o JFK and the World He failed to realize that the North Vietnamese had nothing to lose because they were fighting for independence Not used to fighting guerilla wars Failed to recognize that if Americans dont feel threatened they will not support the war o Seeming Progress in South Vietnam More advisors and more equipment 2,000 advisors in Vietnam End of 62 we have 11,000 Flew in our helicopters Used bombs created by Dow Chemical American program Operation Ranch Hand Destroy fields and deny them cover for ambush attacks o Battle of Ap Bac Didnt have it under control Wasnt enough to just set over supplies and advisors Realized we needed more strength to fight Forced challenge to Diem Overthrow leader of South Vietnam in order to put one in that America approved of General Con o Challenge to Diem Transformation of War: 1963-1965 o LBJ settles in Big shoes to fill because JFK was so loved 1963: JFK assassinated and LBJ took over war 16,300 military advisors Slight increase 23,000 at end of 64 End of 65 there are 125,000 troops in South Vietnam

Dropping 1,000 tons of bombs on Viet Nom

o Stats By 1966, 400,000 troops in South Vietnam 100 billion dollars more to war Johnson has a lot more to worry about Election to run 63% of Americans said that they had little to know knowledge about what was going on in Vietnam at the time 25% said that they knew nothing 88% of American public basically knew nothing No surprise why LBJ was re-elected o New government of General Khanh o Gulf of Tonklin Incident North Vietnamese were shown in Gulf of Tonklin Up until this point they were only fighting war in North Vietnam but now they were in South Vietnam o We were under attack o LBJ requested power to stop them from advancing into their waters o Congress agrees to give LBJ power to take any action that was needed if SEATO (south east Asia treaty organization) feels threatened Gives them the ability to jump in Legislative was not suppose to give their control to the president. o Anti-war protest Really increases Johnson wasnt worried about it First organized protest for a war Level of objection Personalized Less propaganda for pro-war No big effort to buy war bonds Saturday Night Live Rips on president Stalemated War: 1965-1967 o Americas enemy o A war without a front Tet and beyond: 1968

o Tet offensive Khe Sanh throw out suspicion Watched as tet goes down 1968 after tet much more opposition LBJ could not escape from the fact that they could not get out. 500,000 troops, 1,000 soldiers dead per month o Reassessment in Washington o Election Nixon won by less than 1% He lied and said that they would win without compromising their honor Nixons War: 1969-1970 o Nixons inaugural First time protestors at inauguration To end the war he invades Cambodia and Laos o Invasion of Cambodia Only two offense missions No longer powerful Anti-war movement Soldiers deserting Using drugs Escaping Racial tension o Invasion of Laos o A changing war