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.. . . .te.. ••. .tel"ia] Points ."" . SUmH'Jiary of :M:a:teria1Derlv. . Pointe . Goomet. . 115 41. .k Me:thod . . . Single Ma... . . .. .1.~ ~ ~ ii . " . lli...!J~1. . ..he Pl'Obh3111 of Modemng Forces." ..'11 Vohm:u:~Integral " .. Desert pti. . . ••.t$~ of F:t~me.• .rica. ...aus in Relation 0 " •• . .•. . 2.3.'va'Uves in the Ell]e:ria:n Description . 2.. . . Po. .. "" . .2 ~4:ate:rial Der:i.. .fe of a Fibl::!'.a.' . ...m Form.2 Exa. . .... . . SysteJus of HiDg~dRods . . . ... ...od. ~.g . " ". . .. '. .•. ~ ~.. ••••• . .0. ".iva:tiwE." . •• 116. 2. .m04 4. ..w.. . " .. The Virtual Work Appiroacb to the Modemng of Farces . .' . . .teds. "... ' ... ...10 a a . . ... . .". .. . . lP'resentwtion ofthe Virt.L.~ . . . 160 ..V'e of a Mass Integral in the Euledan.. . .]S. . a. . . " ••• ... 3... .... ... .. ..da. . •• 0 s . .ystJem COiEnpr:i.iII""U "1 . . Uf~ 147 149 149 15:0 15n 3 to the Mo demng of 1Fblloes. .and Vi[tualWor k . . . Formula.. COl1lsenatiou of Mass .. ... . . .3.. . " 150 3. . .r..".m 00 Inhrru1!Jes:iJ][:a'l TrullJ5formaetiQ[t5. " .v on Vi.1J1!ate:dal Derivatives in the Lagranglan DescripiticH1!! . .me' Incliff'e:f1ence .".C'" "'1~i~]··r>I·~']·t' L. •••• . . . .'" . s s . . and Vtrtual "'~o['k fora System ofM. . . .4 5 Summary of the' Vlr~ua].. .... . . a .a..". . ...156 4...riaJ Points ..4. .. 'ill 02' 4. .~n!ts".e V]l'tnaJWol'k IVfethodJ .. .....mOl 3. . .oti. 2.es . . .~ ~ iii ii' ~.Il. .i Int~ga.. " .3. ill 56 4.. .. .lli Gene'fa! PreseJlI tal.3 Matedal De[iva·t~. .. ~.~ve 'lOfcSl eircuhdi~m" . Vh.l Point .41 4 Remarks onthis Application of the Vidu~l Wm:l M~ethod.ve of 8l Point Ftmc:t~o]]J. . . . •. .~ . + 'r 'r .5 Vh·tuaJ.3 4. m02 4. ... " .41.lDe:r. ." . s a • • • • l .] Compa. . .tI's .6 M:ate:l. .:mp]eof a:n. .' . . .. .~llt... . . . .. . . .•• ". .uai "fork M. . lli05 4.. S. . .' .2 4:. ..•.' ".ethod. . . 'iI:!i'(1II"'1 <>''r]' . '" . . ••••••• .. . AppHcatblfi. 1'22 E:x. M. ..3 3.. .. .• 15. .....System of rVlate'. Farmulas .ill niS:l.. " .. .. . ..."J '. ••• ..:...". . .ad.. .9 3. . . "...tibm.. ..1 1 FIameln(Uf[~~ence .2 iJP LiI.4· 5 'Weaik. •••• ..r.. 'i 1-}-. s ••••••• " •••••••• . .. . 120 .'l De:riv. ]60 s .. .3 Virtual Ve]..3:9 ...ajt~'\.1ModeHing 2: Forcesin L2 Th..5~~lLl1. . s •••••• ". U4 144 144.r.. ]58 Reu:u1(!r]r.2 . ..~biUty ._.'tllllalWorlli: Me~h. a 0. . . . .:rlbllloo..: •• . .~ . 118 3 . . ...ellia. 154 • • •• [54 1'he V~l'tua~W(ll. 139 IV. . . .' . MaJn..io~l of GeO!metrk~l Cornp<ll"t..~. . lor ·a.ercioos . ~.s~gt@nl Comprising Several Material. .. . .ion of the Method.•• .. 1. . 12iffi .tatemerrut of the Pdndple of VirtuaJWork . •• s s . . ... ..1 il\.on ...... .". .I 5. .:!!'~. m06 4"... . 2. mOol ·Mat. . . DuaUsaUon.. ..5. .:ial Deriv.. 1. Work Method . ". M:ate:dal Deriva(t. Fr. . . . D]:stri~uliiorn thllld\¥re:uch. . .of<.. . . . . . .. . s..9 Chafi.. ..l...r.. """".•. 1519 Rlgid Body Motbl. '" a System of MaberiaJ. 120 5." .sing 8." . ..'ty of 6ij . .. . . . . • ." 1 T.. .I. •.ocitYl' Vir"ua~rvlot]QirJi....' U'=~IJ.

. 3. . Different~8Jtion... . . ..5 t']eMs. .. " .' •• " ...f 2. . .. '.\Vod(.. . ... . .t." .... Vecta'r .al .. ... ...n:nnary of MaJIliFonnula.' . ~~ + .. . . ... . . . . . ...21C12 3" ill Virtual Motiofl1l" Vh:tua~ Ra:too ot WQ:rk by Quantities of AcceleratJon and Exter:.~ . .3 2.oe Sysctem.. .2: '2. Actions and Fundamental Law of Dynamics . .odeUingPorces In Continuum Mechanics . .na] Forees .rtll.Vi'iei~chofa Fbr.• Virtual Hate of'\lVork hy h:roo!fI~al Forces .. .. . • • • • • 6. . .2: VirtualRalie afWor..". .. .3 EQjuooUons f Motion o ".elid .Rate of\Vol..Qck'\~ave5 113 + +.... . .. Pressure 2. ~ 'E ~. ~. • • •• 206 208 " 2H 2lli4 " 215 Usingthe Stress.. . . •• .l68 7. ••. . .. • .1 De:fiuitioll1 of the SYstem. m66 ill 67' 8: LookJntg Ahead .. . l65 s s • . 170 1'. Su.. ..Body V~dtla1 MotiollS ill 62 fl 5. .~ . .'" . . . . . • .dual Velocity FieM " .2 6.. . •.uous V].. . . . . . . ' ... Vi.k by Intemel Foeees..'ty t~~Gi~d ...ities. . . . .. .•. . ..][ [)l3f.4 &t~. " 2. U~9 Mo delling Intemal Forces by a Tensor Fi.... . . .. . .. .. .4 Virtual 'Wo:r'k . .. . • + •• ." .. of Motion . . . Cau:cby :Stress Tensor.~ 'Ii ... . ••••••••••••• . ~.. .ks . ..al Farces . . .• .• .• .. V .. ' . . ... . . ~ " 'I' .3 Wl'enches....'k by Exl.uaJ.!. • "..."' Scalar Field Mode] of Intemel Forees ... Hi3 General Results . .4 '.2 '~fllendl of the 'QuanUHes of Acce~€raUon... . ~03 3. Resb:idi:ort of a LiJle~cfF(). + . . .. '" ••••• V.. .. Sh. .. • .j' .. .. .. . + . Stresses ... . .... Thool:'€l'n:LK:in@t:iJc El1JJ. . . .ill Sta'I1J~m@ITt o. .. Relevance o:f the M![HiiL Pressure Field . .'3"... 'I " " .. . . . • • • • .s .. .. ..e:rgy Theorem .~ . . . ..... .Velod.... 162 5.. . .. ~.pace Qif V~r~lla1 Mo1.~y Field..6 Diseoutamens Rea. .. '" . . EX:€l:r. • .7 3. .cJ:ses '" '" . . ..ut..3 Oonservasicnof Momentum.. .. " 112 1...•• .5 Virtual Motions. . . . •.. • '" '" '". 202 3..JerIlIi... . l68 1'.. 17. Re'rnarks.lliGG + + ••• .s'. . . . . 0+. + ••• . ••••• . .ler~'s hoor.. .~.. MOl1fi€lnt~Hu vVre:nd1L . L~w of M.. m ... .. 7 Mmnentum . . .4 '2. •• .. .. a .. Equado. s s s ••••• . .in~n:glt. 1 ill 1...•. .. end Us Motions •...... " . '" .. •• .6 ... . .c: Energy Theorem .b1um + . St!l:@SS setor . . . . . .7 DiSC(lntiI~i!lQU~'V~rtluiJV~ru~d.• lila demng l!l1oomaL ~'bI\CeS '\iV"i thin the ColIt~n. . . 204 3.. .. . . . ..!. . • . .. ..3 6. Explicit Farms of the 'E<ll1aith::ms of ~4ot.8 . . •• .. ..r:m D!Gfined on al . 189 . . .:n:s. ..of Dtstribusors RndWr€'!lChes. .€ SyStienl and its M:otions s s • ..~ ~~~~~.. • . ..... . M. . . . m6S '1.5 3.h.. . ' . l6S + 6. ~ ~.. .. ~ . . . . . .. .. . • • • •• ••• . . . 1'!~O 190 19l1i 194 195 U~8 2: the Pro blem ". ••• .8 •• 17'9 18][ . 1'['9 '2.... 183 . . .e:[naJ.5 Khll. . . .of Aeceleration ...." .~ ~ ~ ~ ~.ionsrtothe rsi lllig~d ... . .• . . '!O '. . . ViFtua~ 'Rate of. " .. . •. .ion :l:HsomlMn.. 6 3 The Fundamental Law of Dynamics .4 R. " '"'". by Quam..' .. ..em . .eM. '". ..5~ 2: 5. . ..

.. •• 1)3'. . . "I II]I. • • ~ .a:sm 2Jj..... Some Practieel De..Jrr~cig'tandPb. " . . .. :Pr~liJJei])aJ Axes..t:ies the S~ress. . 240 .. 4..ii:i.. . •• ' • . .'. . . FiieJd ][1 . .. .' . . . . • • . ."... . • 2'11 '214.t. . .te) . • • ••••. . .. . . 2. ••• .oo Description or Principal Circles. .. .. . .2mt... . H 3.. . . 'il .a....on.•••. .. •.2 Norma] Stl"@SS and :S.. a . Van M]oo~. . ... .at]o:ns ofMotio'l~. .. .• ". ••••••••• ... .j. ..€lview and Prnspeets .. . 2711 Tl'esca... . .3. .e ...'Va. .. .. . '232 5. ..12 D]~co]]!U:nu].. . •.u !1e l 1:"'I.5. .. .11 . A VVeaJk Formulation .. '22.-. . .oo. D. I :2 . • + +. L5 Frame Imli[erence of the G~IlH:.!]d COl1ldi1tio!lls for J[sotmpi!c :Ivb. . . .. .. .. .. a • .-e[VJ1... . 5.... . . .is olf :8tressl€s Ilnp~e:meITt~u:gthe Notion of Strc&. . .... . . " 2:26 4. .l-."..3 P'.... ••••••••• Yi'l'. • . . .oor...K. . . . . . 274 General Principles.. . " . .3 Slgn CmTvelllt. . . "''".. . ..va. . . .d.iesenta:tiou.. .I... .r.". . '21619 ...... .Eqlla:t:ions of Motion . ••••••••• 218 2·2'2. . . . 249 . ~eld C!!:ifuerio'!1!. . ..L.. .. .nge o:f B. T .. ~. . .v. 280 .. . .L3 Goomet.1 ~J. . . .. . .. .. .. . a .3. ..by Stress Te:Jloor... .. .) 1fI.. ....ys~eiS't ..3. . . .fRep:J... . 3 3...... . .. .. . •.... .ola-L~gra]1g'e Stress 'Iensor. . e: l~y' ~:'.11 ~ .' P'rackicaJ Consequences . . "' . . .lE:qu. ..j. .. [..1 5. ••.' . • .em . .. .n.EIIIergy T11. "''"'"... ..233 1\ ilil·~· .7 . . .Rtive ('nu~de]l Ra. ..•• . . .5 'Cha. ....es " " ". . .11'1'--1.. J~UjtJ:!"":lJUI.... . . .2 PD. .. ...2:30 R.•••• . . .5 3.hi) c:: ~. . .6n:i. .••. ... . . . .. .211 .. .. '2216 4 ta. ... 3... .. "'. . 2 . . ...'"..... hILecil1f.. . .. .... .Maltr&riru De:r~. .... 2.. . ..f€S{lntaJUan.••••. ... . a . ...p[es of St.22'5 :3. CO[iOtat~oiJJJJ:aJDe:iI:']v..1M' . . . . IV[oh.••••• . ..4 5...4 Cauchy ReciprocaJ Th@QI'e:m. . ... [P'](]I18:-K~rcliliorf[ Stress Tensor.ti ve of the Stress Tensor.'1 •. .. •••• Y 271 218 Ma.4\¥eakFo:rmuilla. .. .. ••• iJ......teria~<s.. •. • •.."'"... :2:2~6 :5 .t'(. . . .. .e . . Lil • 3.. Exam..d~erlon . . . ... . .]. .•• . ... . . 2..'· . . . '" . 276 .. . wl8J. ... . 1 lvuc:fO..doa~ Co:mpatibUity R~visi~ed.te:rial De:r1.S... . ... .. .• Kinetic . .. 4 3J5. Theorem ..... ... .. ...h€laer. 2Jf!:6 .1 Dimensions iil1l1i..L~ L~ '" iI ~ n ~ . " . .!Il. ~.8 Deviatccic Stress Te:noor .... .1 Summary of Maiu Formulas Exercises VI.. .. ... . . . . . ..'9 :3 .. .Fbr. . . . ...vativ... . ..'".2 ..rhilS~C ..r€(m.. 26. 23 . :22'3 • • • • . . •. ".' . . a • • •.. 232 Summary Oif Results . 2-'6.j']snts ·ofUl!e Str·e5S Tensor. . 2. . . . .10 3.tio1l of th. t. . . . . . 21'.. .. • •.• 255 255 256 258 258 259 1 2(i2 Rep. 2.. . .••••• . 3 5.. Mohr C]n::l.. he u~:'W" '.2111i'6 3.. •••• ..~IOCIl R ..... . . . .wulation of Stresses 4.g.. •• .w:essStaAi... " •...1 MOJlil" epresenta. Y~eld C. U1. .. De'tiv..g]at1.E1Jl~e:r~s Tboo... . .. . . . .•. . . 2115.•..[\~lI1t~t. . .. UnDt. .. a.ti!O:ns . ... ...2 4. . .iol1L. . . .at {Jaumann Rate) " i\Ie' .. . " . 255 Local AnaJIy:s. P'd~:u::~r)<ll Stresses: 2..2 3. . St~ess ".P0.."'' '. • . ......~~ ... ill 5. 2'19' ... . P'hysical Interpretation ...

• . . •.. •••••••••••••• "... ... . .3. 'T. .. .• .." . .. .:I]. . .283 . eon..5 :U5 316 321 32A..3105 .. .3 3: . ... . 5. . 304 2.332 and Goomelt:r.•• • • • • • 4. .372 1....alCous:trahlts frQ~u ·theEule'ria(l!iJ.. . . . ..:inFiormulas :EXf1fiC]sel!i • •••• " • • •.2 Physical Lin:eadsa..313 T... • • • .. .metl'. •. .m Elast. ..29·5 1 From.3 L8!g:r..~aLs.... ..ve. .I1ImaiFy o. .. . .. . ..••. . " . a • • • " . .314 2. .•. . . ... ".4\ Enflni&esima. . .....1 Lineati:s~t~o... . ..•.tl " .... Simple TeW3lnn Test Flntl:II~!r ~pe:rhne:fJ:tal Results ..~ ...her'moelasUc P:roc{!sst'ls and EquUibri urn .. . . Th:eI'mQdynam~cs(ilf ContinuoUls Media ••.~liJi!ts.1 Entr·oduction 5.3~8 . . T. . . . ... 31...... • ...•.. ... .6 M:ater~3il.. . .~BS. ...3 j.~.tituthre Law . .. .a. .]. ....ill 1 QUMi.Experie]]. ... .r..... . . . . . .~city Hypothesis:.lnternaJ. " .. ... .eL~w . .•. .. Linea.340 Typ.. .me:lTJiltal Ineq l1ulJ]rty •. Stal1clpo:~nt . . .. .••• . .. .h~l'nl!oe~~Hc Con:s·t~tut~.. ... . . . . .a. .... . ... .131l]lUJrks.glibe Qnasi. . . .. Hisb:lr]ca~ P@l'spectiv.". ..st1d.\timg the qu~-St6)ti{. for a GO:I:Istit]I i'V..2: Second Law: F'niI:nda.. . . .• . .... .. . . . .•.349 l ·&erC]OO5. • ••• . ...fMa.bUity Qf l'hermoe~ast]c Materi. ..... ....317 . . 4..he'l'mQe~asti!c:i:ty· •. . . .4\ 80L:n€l E~amrp:.. . . ... .." .. . ..• .. •. •.c MMer.... .. 306 :3. ... . . . .2 FOirmu~®..moela.303 .. . .. • . The:rlllOE:last:icity .•.. ..... ...dtywith. .. ... " .... . ..uasi-Stadc 'Therm.. . . """ " . ..3 T. . . ..31] 3.. . .. . . yrn..... . .i ples of Lineaeisation .. .. . • .. ..••.••• . 5.. .[ 'ValTh€8~Or Materlals in Common Use • . .. 4. .343 EKamples o~ A[~owopic Thertn(leiast. . . . . .J6g ill... 'fhermQe~~U(. 5. .. . . Isobiopic rrhi5r. • •••• . 'Prob~e:m.. . .. .€ .367 t m. Hyp(lth. . • 3(J2 2.3 Jsotropic Linear Theemoelaatic Material ... ..376 .... ...Equat~on ' .1 GeneraU:tles " s . ..... .... .'£3 ij. .. ..-St81t~G The[IDOelootic Peoeesses . . .4 4...... • • • • . . ..rlshl.' .]ca~ U:I:lJJ.ty . .. R.••. S " .••.. lOll 3..... ...~es Boundary Courlitio.334 .Static Thermoelast~c Process 2.'1 ...325 Inten1JJ.. . ..l'lS ..• . . .' '. ... Unconstrained Lineal: The:r. .h@ P'dnc.. . .. . E 4.str.328 328 ... . 5. .. .302 2.. 321 5.. .ea:r. 282 • • •.6'ugian ENpre55~OnS ... .1 Tbe N~d... . • • • • . 1 First Law: Energy .h@rll1lOe~ast~.376 2.. .. ... . . 36... .5 5...0n . . 8ta.. .•3 Solving the Q.. . . • . . ...t~Oin . .. . ..o€las~ThcPmbl~nl . ... ...l1oe~asticMate:r]al in the Rl£lfere:noo Gomngu:rat1.. .5.. VIlIl.........c. • .~&aUon .. .. . ..l nans£ormat~(HIJJ...•... .... .361 ill. 351 VIII.. ... . .Suw.a:ry of Mal11 Forlnulas .Lai\!'!S ....ce~Otl C{lITIl.6 5. .. . Su:mlTI.pm~mental Observations. " . ..a]:s . • ..2 Unconstrained....4..• " .. 4. . ..... . . .. 4.2: T.2 2.• 301 2~ Ex.. .. . . (If .

.h. ~so:t.. .• . .. " "" " '""" '""" ·4. . .". 382 3.'t36 2:. 402 '7. 389 4\.. . . ....6.U 2 '1. . ..... N avier Equ.35 2 1'enrsiml-Co:mpressjon of a CyUTIldrtcil\l Rod "".... . . .d.Qd Usual Equa't:ioms :fClr !L. .Homogeneous. . .a(t~O'lID.t of the Problem .€il1.. •• 380 . ".i.' 4. . Circula)E Cross S-ectiOfl " . . . E3e~.. .. . " ". 3 .0geuoo1ltS.. .2' Tbennoe~asMc: EqUl:ilibrlum ..e:IIHIl!tk~aJlyAdr[}:i:ss~bl{i Displaeement F~e:kLs . "." 4\l~ 8 Smnt ¥enant lPl'incip~e""".. 395 6 S'tr'~'SSMe!thod ." '".€Rr. ... ... . .n Metbods .•• .-Uim.•..e Hefl:t Problem .2 bo~berma~EquiHbdlJ..1 St. . . . . .I:e' . ..' .' + .tin. ". " . 392 5..29 l b]!JtIQduction. ..1 State]l1. "" " . ." 383 3.t:iQll .. Llnearised 'Quas...3 Renlarks . .. ' " •. a • . Cbss:i. '.ibra..nllul. ' .o. d..." • • • • •.c Topics in Tibree.as . .. .trarni. . . . . St&OO and. . 381 3. ... . • • • • • • • • s s s •.. 436 2.. . " . Prelcaded bdtiaJ..3 Thermoelastic EqlJlmbriuDl ~nd Asoocia1ted Isothermal Elastic EqllUibir. • ..ill9 5. .." ".oelastIc EqumbrhruIID.fMain Fu." . ." . . " ". hermoelastie Processes T .' 2...g Stress State .... .2J3.. '"... 382 3.. • ... 403 1. . . Isat:rop1. . .. . .€:Problem "' ...ic~ty. . .. . 383.in>e~t1i:s(:)d 'I'hermcelasnc Processes •• " . . •.... . .tionto the Therm.. 5. .. .. . ... ...~als.. " " 4109 '1.. . . .". .5 NO:ll2l~[Q Il1itia~ Se~f-Equi~.. . o:f the SornU..." . • • • • . 393 .. ... ' ". :So~u. ...1 Decoup1:hl!g:t...C Ma:te:I:']a\Ls.." 386 4. .. . .4 So:lutl.4 N&turru. . .ensional E~ast. .6 SoluMal1l. ..~opl. .2 Sta. .. . . Prindple of . .. • .~ac~rrWlf~lt M@'th. . 3 St:rol). 396 6. 1 3..•.) Solut]on: Dis.•. . 396 6.Eq]ui[ibdllltn and Hon'ru.m andi.nntioD!s .. .2 Form..402 '7.3 Strong~y Heterogeneeus .' . .. '' " .•. . .."" 4. . " .. .1. K:~llI....398 (). 5.408 '1. . ." ".illlall Shocks .•..2 hothenna~. .. .• " .. ~Oill "l Torsinn of a" Cylh]ddc~l Rod . . . . .:1 381 3.k. .5 Rod. . ...... .". .supel'poS..g]yHeterogeneensMaeerials and Th. 416 Summary o. . . ." . 391 D)sp. InitiaJ. .437 .'"'"'""" . " •.I\lla:teria]s and Thermal Shocks. ".. ...... . .by the Stress: Metbod . .. ... .. ' •• . .e Problem .... . .7 Yi. ' ... .. ' . . •• . . . . . Sta. ".. . . . ..ate'lllent (If th. •••••••• .. """ .423 mx.. Torsion P . . 392 . ...... .. . with.....e~. . ..~Sta.pincelueut Method .iUtUl" .•• •. Problem . '. :~~ie Princip'.\t... .. ni:nt of the Rod in......07 ''1.. a ••• . 385 4. .'.. " ".1 Basic Prtnciple . ' ...t]callilyAdmissibWe Str~s Fields.lli St3~me:nt of th.. • • E~ercises ..hlIill . ." 385 4..3 Uniqueness Theorem . . ... .~Thl/UcheU Eq.. .. " "'.4 Invarlances . ....c MM€l'.. .. ' . .te . ." .• . .

. . .. ... ... . 4541 5. "" 4199 . . .tC (Se.ks.1. . . 462 < < ••••••• .. . .. . Umql]J.~ '!. .•. ... . 2lVUmmum.ateln€m. . ~J42 3.••••• . "" 45..•.. .5... . . . .. '!- . .2.••••... . .. co.1).ou .4 Remarks . . . 4. " 4!.541 5. .. . 4!l{iO Elastic Equilibrium of Q. I {no . . .442 3. 489 L:2 Dlreet Metbods of Sol utiom. . .ess]ng ~he Lmesrised 'I'hermoelastic < .s>Q~1J:M. . e...~ ~ ~ " a ~ a. .4 Yield Point of Ute Rod. . . ••• Glnst:ituti ve .e:l:JI.2 FOnD. !of a CyfutddcaJ! Rod with Axial Load~.. ...ty .2 2.... ..s 4. ..• . in Normal Bending 4. :2.•.. ..2 ~ma:ry L I it. ..•' •. . . • • ..1 lntr·odllctio~l).. . ••.2 Form of the Soliu.adk:s " ... co. co.' . . 438 .t of the Problem .. .!- 465 .ethocls and Va..~ 'I: . 3 Rllll~:ta[. . .1 Yie]d Pbmt of' .3 Pre:seIllta.1 Dronition . 4EH " . .of " ".457 6".. ••... ..a:r1iat... 503 I 1 .on... 4. . .ess the Solut]o. St. ~j..•••••• " ••• " " " . .um." " .. 4!4J·5 3....!! tXEal:cmes + . .•. . . . .of the' Solution ..6 Ej(pr.e.• • • ... of the Potenrial Energy" .. . . . ••. .•.od:s 1nlt~n.. ... .1 Bending Normal tethe Oy Ax1. " . 45·~ 5. . ~s.. ..ks ... . .1 8ta:te:m. • •..m Sta:oom. .. Cyi]ndrical Tube' Under Pressure .. 2 Solut~Gn and Remar'ks ...1 OB-AJ[js Bendh"l. •••••••• " " " •• " 502 502 2..3Rem~rts 2. " .! ~ . •• 499 ". .. .5 Notions . ...h~~r.. . . . . < < < ••. 3 II ... .• .. . "...hInternal Conssraints ...' .4 Yield Point nfthe Rod. .••.•.icmam .R. .•.' .•. . Ten_s~on-'Iorsion a~a CyUnd:ficn_[ . ''{'..• 440 Normal Bending of a Cylli.. . .. .!- .[I . . .rrnilltio:mU Mefhods. ..nrnrica] :Rod. ..... 'Te'l1tSi...• '" •••••. . """".3 Saint Venant Problem ... .•. . .2 ..4[56 e...... ..... " . •• ' •• . ~ _. . • • . .a. """ .•.~ .n~ll :Me:tood~ 492 Loll Tbe Virtua~ '~~olfk l'beorem ..!. .. ... . 491 1. " " .3 or: GOIlll[DlIeSS]On • • • • •••• • .. . . .467 X.eru"ised TheF'.. i]99 < < < •• 2.. . . ...5 Theh'IDoe[Mt~cMatG['i81"!l)jf~t..rng". "". .....a .. . . ill Convexity of . • • 489 1. .. .. ..m of the SO]UQOJ:ll .):r. . . . 'I' "I' -!' -t' ++ .1 St~tef..€ Problem "" . . .4193 1. ".essio[ls •••. ..... . ••••••••. . . i .' " .!- '!- .. ....tioll of V:adat]o.etb. .. ..un of a HQUoW Sphere U nder Pressure " 45:6 6.. ••••••••• " .Fb:rm otfthe .dsBeudiDg of a Cyl...•. . .•• . . 45..(li!!il!1asUd.tio[1J ••••••." . 45fi.Q6 .. 456 ~i2 Fotf... .. .: .m..l1iit o:r the . " " .•••. .Oe:nt of&h... . ... ..P[obl~m.4 Ivnni.• . ...[.. 4 . ••• " • • • 464: of Main Formulas ~.Equillbdl. ... . • • • .. .. " " " .50 ~nSimple Off~.. .•. .g. . .of Call'Vw~y •. .61 '7.i... .. ..440 2.. "... e. . " ..m. ..Rod . Elastic .• 4:43 3·.Ju.2 Bend]ng.La:\"1/' .M. co.494 1.• . 4tH 1... .Gut of the Problem ••. . .C&l Rod 4. ~ '!-!-!-!-!.• . . . .. " '" " .t ·t 'f . .!' 'E . ~... .••• .8 HoHow Sphere Under Pressure... . -I' .2. .·3 R~oo...em. ... '".. . . . P'rincipl'e for Displacements Ex:plidtEx]. 483 Direct M. " " .3 2. • • .. .

. ..•••.5. . .." •• ..' 5HJI . ... . . . .. .s ' '". . .. .. ..' . . .oIthe Stud.. 522. ... .. . • • • 3... 17 ) ••••••• "' ••••••••• ....'e88Je.l'lI. 3.2Mi. . . 541 3"1 Casl:.. ..... ... . . . .. ....2 Stati." '" " . . .io.. . . . ..3. ...6 Thermnelastic Ma.. 5:.. . . 5. . " " " 5.. 5..••.. . . . .i~ibdum. . . . . 5.3 Self-Equilibrating Stt€&S ... ".3.' ••. .541 S. . 2.••••.••.. 519 1 6 Clapeyron Equa. .. .XI. . ." .. ' . . 5. . .. . ..7 Prestressed and Pretoaded mll]tlru Reference St<lOO . .• . .t. . . . " . s:n 7. .. .. .a)l ithIntemal Co.•..... .'3 4 Mlnimam of the Cornp.ple: Appa[\(lnt Mo(liLdY!5 of a. .y . .2 16. 4. . . .cl8.••. . 5. • • • • •••• • • a .......5..•.' .m. ' ' • •.... . .. " . .5. . . .ria:th:HUil.. . .. '" . .. .J Converses.. .. .:t 1 Conve~]~y of S (F ~ST" . to the Minimom Prineiples ....trmnts w 3. . 1 T. ••••• . '"" ..nd lliGi1G'tna. 54.]glj no's Theorem a ".lru3 .' .. .[1 Pm:rumet. .3 Explicit Expressiens .e:ntary Energy ..na!Mod:e1H:ng.5. 5:2 6 Minsmum Complementary Bnergy and.... . . .. ... . . . .. . . • . .mb'r~um•. +'" •• .terJ. 520 . ..2:9 '6.-Uimen8ioD~lMedia . ... . .... .'.55 SUIIlnll3!l'Y of Main Fhrm1J1]M . . .~6 Energy Theorems for Parametric Thermoelastic Eqtl. .. . . 3 IsothermalEquilibriurn fmmth~ NatwraJ mn]t[~ 8tate s .... ".miissible Fiekis for the ParruTIetr:l. .~i] Expressions for the .. 3. .. .. . .. "'" "'"'" '"'"". . . 525 S~~f-Eq'UiHb[a.' . .. .. ' Natural Initial State..r Space of Virtual IVloUo. ..icsof Wir-es """.35 7A Examples of Paramettic Problems " ".. .h€! Problem of Or~e-Dimens~o.'5ticity ...r]caJ NfudeL Rea] M.' .. .. . Ex. . .. .U]lg Stress Fi~].... .nhnum Potential Theorem ...'" . ... .:3. . . ' . . . .. . • in Linear Ela.c Problem ... ..1 Goo:met.caHy AdmL"S~b:~ea. .ti]1_g Stress Fields for UU2' Problem " .. . . . . ."" . ~vnnlmmn Potential Theorem ' . • • . .. .. . . .. ..arla:tiona:tMe'tbods .1illn1l 2 Principle for St1. .551 . . ...1 '6. . .Elastk EJle~rgy. IVmedlods 50'4 5(]~ 505. ..stati.dcProbAelll.Pi. . 5<6:9 517 .. ". "" . .1 7. 501 508 509' 510 511 512 51'2- 5 ' . .. . '"'"" . ..' ....'2 Veeto. .Hj. . 514 ..Qtiom'5 . "...Ex~lm...ticaHy Ad. 1 . .. 2 1 8 Self~Equmbra. .:s " " " . 4. 4 The Maxwell-Betti Reciprod:ty Theorem . .ylmder . .. ..... ...." " "" .. .•.5 8..5 ':9 9 Conclusion .. . .. . 3. .. 1 5. .. . 2.... ...••.. .3 . .... 304 Uniq lle!fl(lSS of the rSolUJ. . .. . Isothermal Eq!1[I..cdds for the Parametric Problem. .. . 5.1 Aim. .. I\Hnh1. .' . . • • • ••• s • • • • • •• •• .cs of 0f1!€l. .. 2 8ta:t. '..ler.. .. . .79 57'9 58[1 ....••.2 Va..r~.tioll .2: 7. V.(~reiSM .. . Heterogeneeus C.' .3 Remarks . 5 Combiulng Minimum Principles for Displacements and Stresses . . . .. Mtnimum Potentia] Theorem .50 ...

. 5 3. Meas "" .. ....580 Eqtlmbr. Pbysic:al [)]jlt@'I. •••• ' .atiL"lgtb. .. ....Rate ofWo!r. .. 3. 1 Introd nction " ... . .eEquilibri[J.2 Endpo~]]t and Support Boundary (..S " .. ...7 Plane Stmctures LonGed.. • I~01 3...•. . . . . 59r4 Vi[tua~ Rate o:f\i\fork byhr&ernal FO:I\Oes •..In-PKa:ne " """ (~25 Su. .. .. ..E!iga .ci.. . .M.. ...' • •• • . . 5:92 .gm Equmbr~um Equa1tl..3: BGUrnld.·tyFje~d. . ..•. ..3 2..F"Ol·UIUlas • • . Rfdevanoe of the ]vIodl"al " '" " " '604 3. ."" ". . " .. iPhysical fu'te(['pl·(~tat~Oit]. .. .3 Geornetr:ic:£l\l Mode~.ke:rtnQ~~~UC Str1!1ctu)'." .'" . • 1~C13 s • . .9 :2.a:timg the EcrllilU)FiumEqu~t~oM: .1 ill Vh:tuajR..s:&ency ths Mode~. . 588 Relevance of the Model .tes ]uthe Internal FlU"Ce Field ••. .• f!llli3 4.~r~I1!l~. .589 " . .' . " .. .4 "' •••••••• ... ·63l .Y'8i:'s of Btructures . .5 2.6 3. Straight.8 2.' • . .esh.a. " . Strain D~8tlill1ll~o'f-S 2.yie:r-Be:t:uoulH Co~d~tion .587 Di~~lth~Ju~tf.1 Ini. 'I}S2 2. .~. .abe of\iVork by ExteI'J]&l FQ~c~ . . ".ID2 Comp. . Gu~ditlg s .5:~S Oonsisteney of the Mode].ions". ..k~lll.... 2: 'Fher:1110e~Mtic Beha:viour of the 011117 Dimel'l!~dol]jalMedium "" (~52 2. . •••• .. .. . ."" " . . •.. .4 2...ium Equation5 . . G18 4. . . ... ..nl:oosJn:Jia.."..7 3.628 a ...'. and Three-Diraenskmal Mod. . Motlons.. .. ... 584 of DisoontimJ]:!iti.•. .3.. .es ]:l1t:be V]:rtnal Motion .. . • Exereises . 3.t.. .6 Virtual . ".. ••• . .. . . ". " .•.592 .l narls:form.lry Cond~.. .aJ Anaty!s:iis . . .t. T" • • • • . .t'M...2... " 5.' ••••• ..6 Kkne:ma:tic AUa:~.. . ... .hl .. . :2... VeciiQlr . ...... Bealm Element from the N ~tu[alEn~t:ial Stal~ . • • • •••• • a • • .m 0 3: 3.4 3. . 1!i55 " • 2. .. .583 2. . . .i.... O[Hlnectiolls and Supports a .ilI.. 621 4.••....ooditio:m.. .. .. . ...• . T.. 1621 4. .t. .645 . •• .e:~s •.13 The :Na.. ..o:naJl!..eH'l!ibe:rs .Space of Virtual .' .{no Strucnnes Composed o~ One-Dimen:si. • . " .... •••••• . . Sta:Ucs o:~:Bea!ms: "' . . f~55 ". .on .1 For. .. ..roduotio!n't . .. 11)14 4..' . .lI4j.·pmta:t~.. GO'll ~lltegr.mEql~at....•• . . .. .•." .586 lntlegr.2: Inf1. 600 Dlsoonth]j~:dt.. .1153 Vb:tual Viork Theorem . •••• ".. Displacement and. ..8 3.a..ior].oill:B .. .'!. . .' . . .TIIga." .. . .. '613 4. .. .. '{)23 4. .'3.[)S at Ass@rnbly Jiohil!ts " .. ".. ill Com:.. .••. " .'Uoi.. Real ~]ot. . . . .. . .4.. '65l xu. ..~tutruve Law " .. .. . " ..adng One-Dimensicnal . . .es: knthe Virtl1aJ V~lo. f>56 ... .5 Stait]C Analysis of Structures .2: 3.. Virt:l1ai Illite ofWo~k by bl'tem~l Forees . . . . . a •••• . .... . . I~02 [)lsoontl:mn~t:I.k by Extem&l Forces.! the Internal FOTOOFie~d .ma 3. .5 Isothermal Elutic Behaviour of a. . . . .... " 582 ...nllnl~1U'Y of !VI.. C01l8. Guiding Ideas . '" ...7 2.••. ..9 a..

Oae-Dimensional MedIum in Structural Ana~. .3 Contracted M:tl~t~i pUcatLQiIlli .' . .8 :Ex~e:lllis.. .. " " .n. .... .'." . ." " .. ".eadood Ther:n:we. .. ..665 . " .5 Cam ponents OIfa. . .ction of & ThnBo~r .UI1I. 3. ... ..•• .•.... . 2:. Teaser Prod net ..".2 First :Rank 'r:€:1150[.. 3...6..C()<llte~. ..4. . 663 Thermoelastlc Behaviour of tll.. . .•.6 '2.. .ria." .'7' Thermeelastic Behaviour of a Stru]gbt Beam." 3..last](. Mixed Second... .. . 700 " """ 70] s • • • • ••• ..ill DeflID. " . .. • •• 700 Tensors on..of the OCI'Il!tra." .. 668 Sta:tj:cally lndeternl!inate Problems .. . D:efinit·~GJ::!. . ..•. •.. . . .. 3 .1567 .. ... • '''"'' .... " l!!I\ra... .. " " " "' Product Tensors ..••. . a • •• • • • • " . 66... 1. 70\'3· " " . ." .14 Example A ppHcat]f)f]s 4. ." " . ..2 4. . .... ..5. .. ....5 4 J) ThtaJ Ccntraetion of . . .. .. Eq hl. 4.. .. .. ". .. :... • ' •• . .aJly Deter:rnrunalc. 678 s • • Snmma~y of Ma:in Formulas :Exe:r(~lses: " A:ppe:ndioos ill " '"'"" " . .. .. 610 " ""....e Structures Leaded In-Plane . '". .." .trmght Beams Loaded b~~:Pbu:le. . . ..... . • .1 D@:finiUo:n .. .yrs. 1.1 :EirnaJI Perturbation Hyp'o:t11ies[s . .... '713 713 . ....ioIilS.. ....3 .t2 '2. "" .' . 3. ...... " .. 6G7 3. . .. . Twice Contrn:varirul1t Dr Tw~ce GovM.9' . ..ts xvn 2:.. ..f)99 '1::199 • . 3....El.. 711 a • 4. .. .. . 2 . .. . . . .eProblems ..". " " .anyIndeterminate Problems .. . . . 0.... .. ". .• ....~tion. . .. . . " ... .at:i('. . ... " . .m bri ur .. .. . '7'(J1 708 108 1GB 4.. 714 • ...•• . . .S...... .. Second Rank Tensors .4 705.. ...ntraction .. " ... " " " ".. 4 .3. of One-Dimensional Stru... .~... " .Main Formulas . i. • ..nt6 . ..... ... 3. " " ....3 3. .. ... 61'2 " .... V!:ilct. . . .2 3. . .. ... ... . .. . . . . ..te .emen_js of Tensor Calculus .'" " .. •.. . .2: S~aticany Determinate Problems g. "" ". . .4 4. . . .. ... . .. . . .. "... " " . . .. .. . 693 . . .. " " .O[Spaee . .i.i.. ." . Element in ill Prestressed Initial Sta. . . . .of <l Mb:::ed Second Rank Tenscr.•.. 667 _"... ..• .... 6. a.... . 109 DQubly Coatraeted Preduet of Tw. . '704 Change (If Basis" " '"'' " " " _.00'l's. . .•.. .. .. 4 Sta:tk.. .. .". .. . ..1. " . . .... ... .' ...e. . " . " . . " 'ileo 682 I. ".an:t. 2 Tensor Product 'of Tensors.. 6... P~<\U1JJ.. .3.. .... . . Second Rank Tensors .. . .t Defmition . " . ...1 4. .g '2. .. .. .. ... ...~.. Tensor Prod neE Defining 'Iensers by Duality . .. Co..74: . . ". 701 " 701 702 3· Tensor Compcnents ·3." " 668 ..c:tuE~ ".. .. Rank 'Iensots . • ... " " " " '" " "..76 ·5 ConcliU5ron.. a ••• . .1..3 Exan1p'~e5 " " . 7{]!3.. . ... .o 'ID~j]... " """ . .. " . . .. . . .

• •.1 0'. ' . . . . . .'.... . """ 115 5.7 Second Rank Eu..·OOf\.l . . .r. .. .. "".2 De:dva. .JIi. . 71'7 718 719 72Jl.7 .. . . .•••••••• ..• "' ... Thi1!SOI Field •.. ... . .... .:.2 Application: Deformaticntn a Linear M. ..ates .. . . " '145 1.. . .•.. .. . .. . . . ..r f']eki. .. 'ib ~'-. • •. . .... • • • •••• • • •• i 45 2:.. . . Second. ... . . . . .•. 5.6 ' •.' 'i' " !I .tiv(l and Gracl..c 'Formulas 1 Or1thOn()fm~l Cat'i.. 6....e.. .... . • • • • • • • 714 5. .. . .. Sy:mmetrlc Second..... . .esian Ooardiitla. . . "..tlmetr~8a. 746 . .. " '144 Seeond Bank Tensor Fi.... .l II ] Tensors an. . .... . . . +. . •. ...' . . .fVeCEo:l. .. ..3 Vector Fj.' .":r 729 '12'9' '129' Ill[. •••• •• ••. . ..k'n -E'~ uel ']' U'" 1f' 'lIf'Q""".2 .jt F:oll'm cn. .. . . ..".. . ..... .3 Pa:rame:t:r.. '. . .. '146 . a Buelidean Vec1tor Space . . • • • j 4·.pplng . .aReal Symme:trk Second Hank Eu. . ~lnnIl:I!D1al'Yof MalhI Fo:rmulru. .eh:l.(·49 .. .. .]o:n •.. ~.. . . .' _11.'.. . fl Tenso... .. . .1:.. .. ..es of . . . .....•. 5. .. Ran. .. 714 Ed Defilli... . . . . . . •••• . .. ..2 4. 6. .r Fields . . .... . .. .. . .9 5.3 Scaloo: F'unct]OD. ••••••• . ... .'S in E .. . .. . ... '144 2. . .. . . ..4.iQin . .1 Coordinates ... . .. . ... • ..2 Ve..... + +.. . . .. . 6. E:lp!'. . .4 Curvilinear Cool~d~Dates.3 5.. . .t::o "I ::Jien.Y. • ..' .. .Cru uOOlrul1a t.:.. .tes: .. . '143 " '741 '143 Vedor Field .. . Scalar Fun.. ." . . .d net . .•••." . "-~ First RankEuclideen Thlllsors and..B !!'rt". .." ...ction .' . . . . !I' !I' !I' 'I' '''' . .- ..eUde:a:n ThDSO:l'S .4 .e]d .. ... . . . . . . .etor Field ." .kEueHdean Tensoes o:f .. ... .~_. .. .• .. .n E a>:rud.••••• .EMmpie Product Forrnand their Contracted Producte .• . .tl"a:ded. ... 144 General Oart... .•• ..' .. • • • . . .. .. . J{!!_. '•••• ... .!!!u!... . '" 'P '. . . ..• . .. ~. . . . .. " " . . .Euclideau. . . .' ' I~.. . ... .Ili. ..' 3. .. ..' ' . • ••. . • • • • • ••• '74.e. .. . ~ 5. . 74. .. . . . .. . . . ..etii\1ee..Jl . . .. .'2 '13. . .3 Dive:rgenoe of a Tensor f']eld .. . .. . . 7'4. . . . ..l!ent of a Tenso:rFieJd. . .....lIcf: ••••• .. Tensor Field " " . .holee of Orthenoemal B<lil8]S ]:[1 E . . .3. • . .••. .1 3... "'. . '127 7~n '73..... .... " .4: 5.. .t""'1 Symmetric Second Rank lP·a:r.. ....4 Seeond Rank Thnso.m..3 1. . ..'l. .. . . Rank.... . . 'Cy]indrical Coordinetes . " 749 4.. lJtiffe:fe:nt\bdOperators:: Basi. .. ...l"!!!:A U ~.. . . . .t:ion of <liI ...... . ...2 .s . F)* '" •••••••.144 '2:.' . .. ... . .. ... Vector Field. •••••••. ' .. .. . +. . . . Cocedinetes .. .. ...t. ..•. .. . Pro. '. .4 ."JIL _b ~!I. .... .. . . . • • • . .••.. .. . . _.:11' ." ... . . .]satiou. '715 Cova:dan. 743 SGaJia:rFuncdon .. . . T45 2. ... .... ..4.. ~i It. .. . . u '11. ." . . ~s: SC$hu: Ftmct.. .7 '7'4-7 . .1 'DefiWt:i:Oll . • • • ••. . . . . 6...w_~v£ (l. 74'1 3. . . . .. . . .. • • • •• 12H3..5 Iscmerphlsm )3. the Con.didetm Tensor .. .JI:" ' op' " +.)i!)]J. .]0 PriDici:pa] Axes oodPrincip6[ Val1J]. ..

_. . • • • . .. . .. 173 2.. 751 . .. ..4 rSohJUon b.. .{6 t 2. . . . . . . . Arry ·F\tncti. . a ••.3 Plane Stress Thermoelastfc Equm brlum lua Homogeneous and Iso!&. s • • • •. 158 . • 3.•. . ... • • ..o:n... _ . ..1 Two-Dimensions] Beltrami-Michell Equatien 116. .. . ..... .3 P. 77m 3. . ...2 Plane Stress F:ieM ... . .. • ... . . .1 P]a.e Stress Method ' . • . . . . . . .~Me Strain 'I'hermoelassic EqJlIlmhdum In a... 780 783 789 Biibliograp:hy· Subject :En. . . 77ID 3. •. 77ill 3. . .. ' . . . Patential.. . .mIl..~~I ..>Qnthe Plane Strain Two-Dimensional Problem _. . . .. P]ane Strarum 'I'hermoelastic EC. . ...B BodyForce. . . .. . .. .3. .. . .eProblems. •• • . .. . . ..ne Stf'!e. . 2. . . . . . . 7'68 2..... . .'J5 Tensor" " . .. .0 Plane Stress Thermaelasclc Eq1!1mb:rh:nn in 3.~acem€l:nt Fi~]d ....j"uii]bdw:rfl . . ...e·x ". . . . . .. . 1'5'...r .... . ".. . .. '.9 ' Cylindrical Thhe Under Pressure . ".. 1·642.•..oc:opiel4~i~e[ia[ . . •••.".... . . .. .. .. 158 2.'YtlH3: Di:splacenl(lnt Method . .. • • •• .. . 778 Ma. . . . .2 P~ane Strain D~8p.. . • s 2.d... . .s Deriving from a. . ..6 H.. .. ... . . .. 4 Soll1t~... . . . . . 7S7 . Elements 1 2' . ... . ... . . . . . ...~)n. .. .. 7(!Q ~L5 Soln tion by th. . .. . 77.5 SUmlifi3.. . .. . P']!&n.. . .. . . .:in Formulas . . . . . Homogeneoes and Isotropic :~v[aiter... . . 751 . ..(!I·f P'la_ne Elastic:ity .••.. .1 Plane L]llea[']sed Strain Tensor .. • . ••• • .iI:'Y of CylindrIcal. . ' . ." ".... . . ..•.ema:rki. . .7 2.. .. 'IDJhe Under Pressure .. . . . • . .

tj(tn..Modelling the: Continuum Key Words S C~ 1!lP .:If n~FJE!remPt.n. . Cuul:inuil. Pat hline. CO[lrdl."rm.lta! . Streamline.d!(~ Velochy. Confib"'llr<J.'n!J~' Eu~(jf".+ :ry'!iiit~ln. L(1!}ro.. M~teri~l e]ement.!\ lodel.. ll.y. S treakline. • V~lid:&tl()j'J.

posUion in.tiabm. onthe A 'p:~es.e'l1 It then describes. In order to £orulul~te'th~s mo dell' the LtJ. by givin. ate-. is entirely eharacterised by~hei[ posU:ion. The idea £If continuity in t.aJ] state of these particles.'[[i~es OCCI~r[m~ in this case have ~ purely georaetrjcal . T'h. Cont~nUOllS diffe:r-@nti~bUitycOiJlditions are also imposed .meaning. In the standard mashemaeical fOl'.5icalquantities tu-e defined ]:n this way HIt eaeh moment. ]sta~.o. their :moti£ln by defining tIle pos:l'M. are luitiaJly .'t]. .{Jtli. fynctknl or particle OOOl'd:ina.ti'nu'ity '[IY[(\es€U& .de:x." The intuitive bH~S for our [pe:roep.!a.ocit.tial and I!ernpoml of die mappIng fTOJll.Y fi.'ion: of ~he model shows thatrn:egularity hypDtheses should sometimes he weakeaed !by requiring them onlyma piecewise manner (Sect . the initial position of esehpartiele to ]t. temporal cont]nuiLy and continlmOU!s d]neren. 3).e WaiY t:~l.cQnfigltmt~(jn of the sy~tem thalt as a 'reJ:erence.€lsystem.t each Ins:cant.a..pa'j"t~C'l€8 in sonne dlift"'€:f\€!uMabl€l' is sense..ance f suehanidea o depends on the ly".f!:es" The La.s posi tion.n oiE 13001'1 iP~rt. ill).(l. Tb@l'i@lev.i]SQ O'JiIJ the scale of the phencmenelnvolved (Sect. 'V]i9! the .oo :a. 4). of the particles a.ent .e gemliJJ€it:ri.r-eequivalent (Soct.spa.t' feetuee ofth.ysioal mAfllae'.l)8Us:i and. wllli!C:h~~ €fE~ctiV'€lytreatedaa [pQiIllt.h.muLaltion.Jlc-ription de&es the motion of a syst.t.icl€!tmll!l8 In.e S.e.be Eulerian.em by giving the vernc~c]ty field. pm-Udes that.theeva:lution~ Le..g ]i. ll ph_y. AlIlpnysi'cal quanti'tl.. m. By ooopt~:rng anineremental point ofview ~tb:e E·uJ'er:i(1.03.tal validai..cros(lOp:icph.3" pa:rt]cula:.r experlenea.!i.ty (If the v~].is. 2:).con. ~volv€s.eWd.g~:a:l1JJgiflJl and Eulerian d~riptioJIls a.Mon.lt [5 based an tbepresent configut"!ltion and the sp~tial va:ri.y.es are defined in thJS'i.f time.e piooew.E:x:ped:mell.l adshlig ef p'rob~em and. SOI!!le .ti'(}]]J of cO:[I.tmui~y arises UQillll .£ a coatinucus rnooium is a.S pathtine~ as arUficUo:n o. Continuity ]8 expressed.In Brief 'The concept 0.oo:rmg:nra.lle [l)airticl~ by~beir ..r'igian description id~nJt]:fies from @'V€ryda. descripnon is expressed by th.hroHghout.do-setogethe:r wmrema]u so (Sect.oo. region fined w~t. of this co.nmpt" 3\ mechanical ~s\Y'B:te:rn represensed by a.a.

.ty qU..nescrlptloll d . VoliJ.t1.F'irst cited PO..~ty assceiasedwith a pa:rbde i~ L3:grR'I!Igi~n description ID.. (3. ) 2 (3.ill) (4.!me 'el~n~ef!!.8) .1) (3..2) Aoce. t) ¢($j.O~ U(~.":~1) (4. :po]nt Q:ufintitY1i\t a secim~tr]cal ~:tIEUJ~.(X. >qua. d~cli~pUalml lk:(~~'t) b{~.r~n. t Vwocity tB JL~graD~an \t:elGe.Q'lI.siIt~1fi vector iB Pnsitionvector .jan oWthe tral18[tl.'ti:n cl.J(X"t) dU@ Jaoolb.B(X. oato KQ flo.8) (3 .nti.t)1 BijectlJoflL of no Of..].5) (3. \) 4 (3.ve]..[lJtt.eriit.l!Jto n~ B .a!t~o.t) g(Kj' it) V~lu!meelement in ...i:ty d!~ipt~1O\1l (3+~O) (3.:t) Va~ue of a.2) 1!.eilraltiDImI 111 L<l!gill~llgialn.<:!i.iw.s~b~jection (!if :nt. !to ~t {2:..1} (2:.O in Enlliedt&l1 d~dpt:i.1) (3.

.••. . .. . •• • . . CQin:rng~!i..a:!lf..A!. .. .• + •..tJuui. .a:s ......3 2. 3. . + 12 12 15 1. .••. .potheses.••. . . ..•. e •. . . ..2 3..th1i'~~ .. • .Jn€l~ o[~fli!r(lnOBaud Coor.. .b~ PhYSlcal In1tierpretati. • .nr. .. .. :E:x'€.. ... .eI:1i]n:g: o:f Co:n.... .4 MateriaL Ffa:~e Ind~fJle. .••.. ..•.'.••..•. . . Sefl1i-Steooy NIot~@(lls . . .e. . .• ~... ......4 T~lIe lMm:!:liin Ide'3.... ..dinate Sys~~m.. . . . ..l ID~~ter~~hli~]Jg P. . 3 a . .... ... .i!j.3· 4... .!:i:ty ~I... E'u:~~rioo] :D~l'jptioo..3 ..y •••. ". . " ... .on .. 3.([c~ses . .. .... •• ..5 ~J). ..ottl liar Ve~oc.. • ... Fri!.. . . +.. +. • a • . ... . • . . • • +a •. .. .. ..ef~(!. . .y Weak. .• .1 2..d!aUoin Co:ncept!!i.••.t:i. M.. . . •. ... .on 8tr'BfikHfn:BS "' Particle V:e~Q(. .renoe ..i. . .. . + •.... B!I1IJd FQrll'ruu~at.. . . • .. .. .. . ... .!lIIiin Fi:n::mJ!!!I]. . . . .• . .m. " . .. . . . .. ." ... • . .. .••. .. ..... •. . . . .. . .. ..1 ID:efi:mt]o~ Cor~Ci:fnli. . .. ... . • . .5 . 8t:re. . .•. .eMe C'QflJfigur.. • . G~~er~UsedR.od@il.. . 2. .lllt!l]iu€lfI . .. .. •.••••...of the System.y. .. . .3 . .. " . Steady :l\il:ot~ani5 . a . . . .• ..•• . 4.t. ... .. . • .... . . .eLagrangiWI1 Descr. .a:ti{ln +•+a + •. .•. • .•.. .Y ·Hypo:t. .'13.. .•.• JL~gra!~gIDarlDescr:ipt~o!:1l. •.. ..••• +...•.... • . .. . . .3. . . • .Y' @f NI.a. ... • . • ~:. . . . .. ". . . ..rund Vali. .. . P.iil....~tbli~les 3. . ........ • . . .o]1s.. s .. •• Rem. . .2 4. • .••.. . . • • . • " . .. •• '7 8 8 9 10 U a 3. ..2 2.. SlLliul.. .. .. " . 4.I 2 Scale.•••..••. ." N·ot®oti.5 3. .. .ks .. • . .. . • . • .. . ..ipMo:n..... . . [1e:f:i:!I1IJ1tlo!l1lJ .... . . . .. .•••. " . . . ... .•. .. m • • . .••.. .... e . .. . of th..

mUlh:net.l!Il the Quesd.acteristic ~adn sizes 6lU'"Wl1el~ between a.D.}"M.thu.appHca. ExtrI18~0>l1f. a '~.de'lll.o:n of stability m~ ]nst~b:il- hundredmetres.ID. Model.rrud. It is ..buildj!]]lg:3" buttresses.ThUmJd.~gl'a.uQusmoo.gs. tililesi.t. the pmlr l~m (If st~b:iUtyin ~~I!JJ.. We In..hrooand depends in an ess~nt.physjcs.o:f IquesUons bmng asked aborut them. 1L. . defonnahie ooii).!':'e ~nda ten.nda.Ii'omo'ne metreto severel In the course o. Die :stal1li1lplL1.t:io.g 'tl1i. dams andse i()'n~\\r:ithdime.aflsumptio:(lJ)afmjcroocopic .f 'eJWgineer .trt!itetb~s by au e:x. . eertain type o.oy. without to inany WoilL!y ooutr:a.g all.tinuous!medlum._I1l~~Qlll~ rangj. th.iulD comes tomind '!j\ihetllWe obof :seIN€ the k~n.a~.Mng ·the l:lIlajte:d.dy slilbsoi]s.Sa!]'Ii'~! CEA) iFlg.~y i]lus.ype o.dlofstiUd defcrmancns shown ]1] F'i.ula:r nl<w~e[ia1s with cl]j~r. From this kind of eJqlerience'I. {Le DfJ~aroill" Ph. and VaUdaUon T~he :rmt.eHow of a liqurudi or the' e..ial'~fljy >Q).di!ctbl.etre. (JE~imF) .elID and this type of . CivH engineers work on construetions suchas fO[J..a:mp~et.. 1F~s: •.c1early related to the :phenomena.f therr l'mrk1theYMe faced.e ..iollSj. al 1lJulJinilUJlll a]]. The notion of the sC(1jlere~evanfuoo a p'fOb~emJs tlms introduced. Scale.he observer IDl:tractst:he idea j 'th:a.Un7.CT(lScop'ic seale '~ a&'3imUa.~ tulae. (Do(jUl:D!iLEl:l:U1t o kindly sy.tb of a milIDhn. mvo. or ag'am.Far thi~ .t.1.1rp~~onand compressien of a.fprrobl.ppl:~~ Ill.ug. witlll.fm'om the everyclay problems faced b:y a. 1 and 2:. gas.t certruin p:l~oblellllStan he 'treated on a 7TMJ.oofi. 2:.dming cold or bot 'f@l'mingp[ooes:ses.WQtI a.s.

andthen to 3--dimens ional centin- Q!btai 00' zr1ifl1idively .the eoncepe of Icontim.lr:te maeroseopie ooaJe !Qf eoutimnnnmeebanics.a$l!tell l.a.~be:Main Idea usual ec<perhneo1tal a:PPw3. he relevance of such an.. W. WbUSl1 remoo.i{perirnent.:il'[1.i!iB]l timehave similarmotlons and remain neiglrbcurs threughout. key p~r. 'solid It.em.. fio.S of these labeUed 'cl.s inthe system at tBlgiv6nh1lLstaJJt and then follow their goo:met:~{k:aJ ~voh.l models .ea.lEl. true Dotkm off 'planepeoblems' prese:i!1!. T11Ley must subsequently hevalfda-ted: thelr '![.8. process here iswell knoW:D. and then to [ormlda. APP'l'Of)!C~'U~Sl'i~].ppH· tiona ill both :liuidmecl.oo:~er1.bouri[!g elements gj..y~ this 'markiM wUl eoneern a small reglon of I:nallieTia.11' mark :nI:.sation. T app\liO cannot be aseessed . I~:I]I be ~Jm:wJililruOi!Jt~lyt.a1011lt.ca]lJI label 0.~t:h. are eonfroutedwlth the re'ev~nt expedmental results. eases.1the 'mlcre-maero' O!: e'l.tiG.lQIIl.am en expmence.illc~cleal:!l. to 14).1Lducing stilt-able models .f a.~'IIv.they fueque:nitlyreferto elassiealmodels of contimnnn meehs .nics and deformable solid. priori lit is confirmed byexpeJ·ienoe... I Ch.. ~..:11various levels 00 tackle <t single probtOI l~m. 2.mstinltionbetween 'H. 'VWtl\y also. proV'ldeso. .aJoovetne mieroscoplc scale of the P.ents evolV1e in time: [!e~gb.~gyirlre l'TI<1. 1.l·titut~.h€l"lfay the geomet.oma.. to t.. Sect. T .~:tiveiy!.esulUrutWW:eIiI.nju..~l"tim:tor U!C~ q\dre' ~.).UY and varled l and ha¥eleoowe ve:ry eommon In contlrmum mecl:lamcs tad8¥.es rather difficuit 1i.be .g.llem.entlo:oed. 16 00 8~ U.. meehsnics (lin oe:rta~ .t~heter~1lli ~oont.mds~and "soJid~~beooIl1.~e aim in the 'Pl'1ege:nt.£a s:kft[ng process would ob'\i'lous]y not <illppe<\l11 to a.he 0 bserver muat phys1.il'llU.Um mod~m.tifntlU1ugb ... Exper]ence (eitber e.l'IDSo.1 e~ ofmldt~p4e-sca\~e models.] the 3~d:ime:]]si!o:rlaJ clags]cam l(lontintnu'lll[ .. 'CC(J]JtiDu.g the Cril!!f.. In U:ds \lI"Af we shall mode. X1l oo.. ~miero-mese-maere the 'tra.eciictions oeneeming the applieatlon nl question.OO. ~~e canthen 8].r tha.5[p!El.hy'stoal .tio:n er .Jffi5ition.])osedt(D t]lG 2I'"diliTIl-mi'o:tml CO[il't..e :stud.given the natnre of these ma:liJell'laJs. above.na t[u.] .Modclli~.rllru.t~i1Ih. an ec>::am[O'~e>l:ietw:ning to tlae granular material As lJl!l!!ntl !Iil{!dah>ow.d XII) ·~odetermine il:lte.dsl.ve material 'element. 1 .W1.:5s~CEIIUy. 0:.-. forees inllu:: rona.].'Uii1J :m.i!dty]sb. and others.:i]]lj]:!lJU~! rather i:nl~ is o:\\'p!(}wJriate. 0.!''l!''he1tilel"~e are studyingthe . such as 'the d~forma.l.) 2:.T . S~ also.a::ne e]asl.erni. Cla.tma~ often go Ul1IDOitJtced.ches (~ee Chs:p.a~Y£l!i.n:ityf is connected.rmlLllla'tioD 2.periefice) pla.g5. ics 8\lthou~[11itis qJl.ru .from u'tJ~ . T.-d]:me:l1:siQna.!l:].hrt ...h:ic:h has .'IJ.we first 8.:nmaihe~rlbca..teit mathematicaUy .'. 5)..]:liYSl.tll!d'to ~hiB str~t..g well .a.a. of r.]t]an (Fi..~edI use models.chapter wlll be to understand the eoncepc of ioon~in.l and such an element will be oonsid 'red~rL6nitesim..s.~.tite !clea. Clrnc06Pts and!F1o. in Appendix M illn~ where pl.Struetueal . ity of a corudl'ucfuicm.kJ:!.ljn as defined in.tiulluw._odels.ll example.dew it]QIl.ppem to theth ory of one-disnension aJ! medi (see Chaps. Cl.Iow of polymers I this tr:aiBl.ch. i. homog.I'~.w of SJ r the dli:!fo['Uil.

sJ\!IJ'. &aJ.arUclesith_rough- .].t this eoncept will (I]}]Y valid ifwe are able to idlentiQr the be re]evmt 'ma.the same coordinate 'trmsEonnation on the OOmp.ou:t. e.t Refereooe and Co(utdlnate Syste:m In orderto formillate the above ldeas mEllthematl.a. the reteeence fremeistn some sensethe 'Lthe Euc&idea. The spatialli pr.) denot.. ~ ch~nged fr-om R to Rf b:}' CM.c:es postuleted.~~idfor all ebservers.all1!1i.ear~ha. T.@. Chap.for the physical concept of oontknudty must therefore pirwmarUy be cfa goom..te. As tbacnneept of co:nt::imruitydepends IOn observing the evoiutioo ofthe system. MOJ. 'Ihe' co:n:wpond:ing ~.rt~cUe5 isuniqualy cha.coo. Frumthe g€ome. physical.ln da~iicaJ m~cThlmties..tricaJ.cUd.edtogj.etricaJ..'l.i!1{! 'Rl CQo:tdrnQ. ® the :oof~renoe frame :i:sthen the set of all points in the E'u.l. 'VIlE: must guaranteethe out the motion: !II foHow]og f.ractel:ise:d by ·tb.the ld.m.lelements'. aJtho~htl~ is not esserDiitia!ll) with. a (c1asSiica[n:u~c. w~'4Yto describe' the g~tem ·thr(ll].te or Q. ·the ~"{]ste:n0~ of <Ill1'l1.8..:i hwtoodl..l. renllsatjo:n.ed by R) is said 'to move with the (Ib~r.otbe:r.etdcaJ.haniea[) ltir1n!l]l: scale '. ~n ]11 otheir WOlids" ex:.in 0.(\I.nspooe 'Cal'f]OOby the ob.t is c~.a.ea thAt tbiemeC_h.dtbemotion is @]It. stand po tnt classiealeoneinuura mechanics begins wl:t..J:~a.gl~ou.e notion of reference pu'tnel itseH related tothe idea of ob5t':.l.et ofue5'.mduoed ·to flepF'eSe'J]jtp.eh·PQ·Biil:.nti:l.tens]l'e pb.aJlie'aJl fTmn. 1.rl.ryimg.:iiirrug:a.itieJ'.ities this frame (F~g.ean space wlth the rigid body motion (a t]:medependent isometry) 0:[ the Qbseni'~r.hjs kind o:f diefimt.ml€[lIm .at each mstant oft~me. o:fpatticl@8 when they sre considered to be l\e.e. Weirst inb10dluce th.rr~~yspeelfled bya 've~odty field. or 'R. 3). e:ndlowed wUh certain special properties.. qu.Ire represented 'by ·d.nicru i$. he T g8['nn. o(rWg.caJly) we mU£it find a.IIe to an.ystem oS' ~s [~pr·eool!ltedby $'\i'iolu:me .or neigllllooudngp. uature. ][V (Sed.of inb'inmc objects (vooto.:JI.1)..\<"e!t'.]OIll c!l11y serves to specify ene frame relRtl.llit. in time. wm j zn .at ''We are dealing with materlal points that have been ~dHut.R (oft.]!e8. The ka.rg a:~.Ucal mode~.dlte:nsor-s)m:t.e of relere:l]J.!. used to speak.ioll far ph.D~. It mathema.tjan.' eeaservation of geometrlcal pi['oximity ~!limilar evo~.m.bl .'\e i be said bl. 2~2 ]!Tame .yska[ ql..t il. chronolOf)1JI' 1.to· ~ frame 'R by establishing a coo'ilrlina:t:e sY8te:n1: ..yaica.This explaiestheterm Imate:rialpOintl1l' ~ruse. sta:te (lf~hese])a. Let us giv"e a :mol'€! mathematical dtd]j1'ili'~io:m <D we begi:nbyli.. the e:~ementary constituents or ~p!llirtides'l .s:itlons ofpa~t~c1es are label]~d :l!elaUve .Q i~ whicl1l.en orthonQ[maJI.gerv~r. abooh~. eViolil!l.wpperu' as integrals of volume densities (and not as I di~[·~te sums).~ngtherigJ(l·body motion of tbeframe n can 'be conB~del".a\~.'Vle .epoint. toehareeterise certa:in fealtuOOlilof the system.We sheuld understand th.rver.p:resen!tOOlgeometl'lC<l1lUy bill"a sinlgl.hysi·eal quant.ed~ some :sense.on 2liD.

another R'" fOf dl. The geOlmetrkalconfigmation of 8 is described by the set.R' 3 o~ o A change o~ f[mllJe'.t]veto the: other (F.orIgi:n . y. e'!il(.tb~ . Inaeened with. ('\raryilJg mth dme t).oAf.be illustrated by ehoosin..-n :i~$ta. This .t a fjive.".l.gu:rat].. R in n.g" ~ roorocl.n. cam.ig.hiclt S:lPooify thepooil.id boOdy) moticn of one frame 11e]a...R ftH·~h.:zedtinle to.t a/time. Unless otherwise sta.thrut~s~ change of observer. .it:1on vectors .~a:b€lUt. with botUHlw-y{iJlt. The state OIf a.to = 0 (and tIle re~el'en.t~Ol1:~~ .the intuitive ideaof oon't]l111ity presented we shall choose . fi. .:incteo.bymesas of pos.oeconfigma.~.a.""If.~1l at. of particle positions! labelled lle[ati. iniHa~ oon~.I]ve.Ms isthe partlcular (5oJ'!Lfigura:tio:[!' of the system .on).n'lrector ~ eanbe spedfied by its coordinates (x.e frame R. (If eaeh particle of S at timet: :relativeto .0 of a c:oordina:te system.e frame 1l" 'lrrvh:ichhappen to >ooinddie Q.g of the geoulidr~clll cOIu6gw:a(t. We also Introduce the ldJ... calledthe o{)mjiyumti:ofi of the system..maj~es-ysl:lem.ve to the f"rame 'R..bieved. 'Th. The region. aliso de:llo~ed. z) 01' xi(i= Ij '2.ted.ea ofrefere.n n is .3) relative toR.iol1 l.'$w]thtime as they follow the (r~g.a:c.. 4} o 3 O- 2.I'\.]ol. These are' dJs:t.e. ordlnate sy:s:tJems and th€! eorrespondenee between them.lt a.tion win alsobe caUed the . and. 'The "re05lBnt configm:a.1'u::e con:Ji1Juf'atio'n.tio:rn jS~l'l1.ratem S attime t lna frame RiJ:l. occupied by is in tllis oo:n:figill".'f!pCB~t:io. T.e:dcany designated by K.

. Soct.~y measured by each observer in eoordinate sj'. are reb. Y" Z) or l:~.e.'jwnL8 RMid .. j OJ'~. Far 'l:J\r?Cior q1L]a:ntitles~ it-is u"'E!:r~}1 !'efer to [i']g. For a ~oola'r qlJ.~_mJilfel!:\enoo meaifll5 t:hat t'l!"O' O1bSG["'Ver8 obtainthe samevalue fcrtbe qua[[tity~n their lJ1~pB[:tiv{) frames posuions OEtt.and.asmre 'I''e!]Ddty vec:tm:s that a. The coordinates ef the POg~tiO:lt vectors 0 IvI 0 of ~j) in flTh.ted.~e areled to oOil."'I.0:£ ftatne remec:t:sdlle o~jeelivUy (]If a phys:kai quantity. whieh willbe fotmulated mathematically ill. . 'the intriutsic nature of ~ tna:thema:tic.. 2.J'IHtYj thl!l rra:t]1le .~nd ' n"". In !co~t. Morege'nerramy.o:d.h.WO of .. Hence.ed bytbe OotteSpoil. the OQ!l'IBS'po:n. x~ { .rastt 'the \teloci'ty ~ be 8SlJoc]a.~ pMUdB atti.0 = X v!ldhooanhnatJes (X.a-:!f!e' indiff'e'l'G]]t If t[1. ! S also 2 occupies a volume n'o ]nr. tii:~ati¥eto o~iClrdin~l:tes R~o and Rr fo:to..6) .Franle ]ndiff:~:re~oe to i:scl'tieck!e:d by~[I~UFillg th!'!i~tbe e.M!iic5."' at the time t.! t 18 not [:r~lime hldif['@fe~t: in thBirr.el.1sidier ~. the rigid.1:5 Te£!1!r[['loo.:.~re]~.1mesh such as the :iuiMal reference· timet!) and the :p'1'eSen:t thnet.te ·t!!'!&T1sformation fQr. i.e sy~. As auexample.!l!<m@sR.rrlllh\ partides at t~l!y!e is r1'arneir~(H:fferei[!t.tems R and 11.Q1U.8 ob'tiiined.]J!.(!II!~r'CIlr the v:aJue!jof tb~ crua.t]'!.. Z) or Xi(i = 1.fe tohis orher own :Er<hlntt are related by t. by~wo obseevers.l{p]:1e~~i. bOody ID01t. . mIl Beet. 1'hesemay (F~!1:. boundary ..r.0 [1:'ame n.1 and. r~dR:~ futU:iJe ot.'luultiUe.eMorql1~nti·ties of G'EMJ'al rank a:ndtype : ..(l:teriai Jm'!rU::' in(1iffe1'"e:r~r:.fj'f]b (fig..3 .e samnc fUl"i·[.~" coordin.~.dafmcim.. 41.:~owith.djng eoordiaate trallsfurmati. observations carried.ates (x.[OU c of fr.. an equatieu ~or ~ ]aw ~and . 5).5 are fr.temat-]csHydenoted either (X~ Y... Sl!ruch CJ.t..espectiV'B f-r.=~. to instant t.:nge of cecrdtnateachat e:xpl:e8Se-S.!1Je R~o .on fOI'mJuJa:s:R/. 3). 1l.d.~n~ities in Kater cheptees {see Chap.[[']J1. R~ to R~ . e.w]r. dmere~'I'f1.'-'lDC!3 betW'lEle['JJ oordinate sys..ecoolld~nat..h:e:t. W]th. tlWD observers Ill!e. 4!.1) In me!(:1:l.1UJU.11·'r. X:o.in Sect. thevecscr 'beh1ffle~ geometrical at <lU1iY as ".We shall HiI1JC-oun:ter xamples of such qu.e not I"elated bytheoool!dilul. Hve 1.x~ ~~! ][1.t.6).... (2. e j (Ap'pendix~)..~Y'~z) Of."R.. 2.nt. out a..fl.. object ~nder ch~tlg~ .s..e (ixpifessiiDii'i.tem R of n wm be sy." toR~u . 'I'hevectcr OMen wm also be denoted X.

"'. V"'''' U'~ . .~ ~ ..tica] f:ormlil~tion of t. Cb8imli~ ofha~:l). In eertala cases" the La. 6..epresoo!ttlmeand ·the p~rti:d.[1ldilim)cmt it-Si@lL j! ~j~ .Si:Cal q.~Oill:5 in spa. .ifylng and.~ . (~0Jl'i! Ii3oim..€:!V~O'UIS sections . s. 41~·ae· ..Ca."".fr.':lImei.1. ']'0 Utis end...'\iVlth.mot 'everyphYiill.! i!d~nt.oiQ it is :im.~ c C! _ .!"reR4Je.. .w. elea'r thoni!:.a. '''''''>!il. ( 1'l36-lo13" .". here isto give a precise mathemll..dies Ponts .es of all Phy. short ex.oepts ruulwtllitivekh3:agpn~sen:ted in the pt:.t a rsu:ffi.l8llw of physics can be anwys:ecl.U.'1I1anMMes in the present configura.t..w e'Kb. j 3.cl€!nt OOOO]t]Oil1Ji(oir it to be.a... VJ[~ Sect. e.. ~. This means th. q •.bicht'hey are ~ochltedl' L e." •...F .'" rlltllLlLL [i~Il" CJl1llI:Matities .i. laM.Lagrangian Deseriptfrm S. labe:1.~as a m]lctio]]' of \'luia..!"e:ts "'''''''' "'. acco:r<iJng IDQwltich tn.ibit5 this pro:pe·r1ty.ki....Fltg...1<tiYl1!r.Ition ~n. S .~. [\! S~t.~:IldiH'enmt. The fund!arnental 1aw of dyn8ltIlicsi [see Chap. ill a G\9>lUea:n [ram. ~) j."'·n]1'" "n·v: ]· ''''' ·.t.~.~•..©bserve:rsi ~1I'8 1:&.GE a1lJld Ce:ntra~. ~~ol'~I""!I ]··f· "'''''1 ... _ ~ . "" •.~erms ofth. .lli) eJCemp~~ a.a!t isD...tiolUl which ]Sta!1!rl1ll1 asa reference and denoted .. L...fOlrtWQ .a) the l'er'e~emoo T.. " •. C!ec" .oe (:see Glulip . d~5thlg'llish tbe~r :r~pecUve f~a:r~esb'-Y~fie~lJ~n'e!:l:ts theym'~e in thi€m..ti.the ]a.ob~e'j..tiQ:!1l~xpresshlg' the pbysi'ca] :Law wx t\'\I'O . oon:espon.o" lQr72."'. O~l3..d:i£i~~:uc:e of all equaUon expl'ess~J]:g a...l Definition The aim..8. 2I-d~nleJl:$i:QfiaJ.ws for t[l]e belt~¥hl)lUi: 10if' m~teri~ S:a<tisfy th~ pri~eipi~ of matenal !mmef:ndijJ'l. a..a~marking ·of smal1matedal elementa . expressing theva]u.u.he ot. Q:nJybe'i:ngvaJ..eh:l.. '0u t.pooure allows us to visualise ve']odty6elds in: . Chap.e:sban :reqll.ussee~) ])1 ]ated by tbecorrespondinl!g coo[!(i]ntlite tla~6fo:rm.siti'O':I1!i.dwng fflwlne:r.. 2..oufigura.lire (Ch~]).. by the' vectorial quafl!tity X."'" ee 01.t the eql!.e': laiymg a..ucn WlJieqrua:t.es with.bles X and t: :2:'~ .e.be con. ·4. the: La.h regardtotbe plliys]c. VII.l ]a.~ .e:r reduces til)) a principle of ~patla~ ~ot11DPY.~111 ect .h·e ft~m'l\i of the Mo.lher hand~ 'W. 'I. .Lab()]'o:to]:re grol!Hl!d~ b) tb:e!)1efe~~!]:ce: frame of the £oUl1:dakio!]...eJ8 .VillE) tba.litl£l thepartkl@8 making upa syS'bem bytbe]l' gso- metrleal po.. 'wit. ~.¥lt.. '!>~•..meu~tioll!ed..) in some c.criptio:n2:i:nvolv:e!ll.a.M. ·..'l·O"" .L.et Gha. It]::.. 11 I'" "" '<. ·fQijjnd~tiorl.~ .ot&~lm~ . powdery ~O'uJld .w·t.h]8 :is no. u C y b •.gra~B!n des.:<> ") agrange.1.possiiMe .!tb.h)[Il formu1... e t>!) The fram...e~o p:rlrv'ilegm direct.2 a:nd.

any rank. (ene-to-one .. 3. (spatial.. of Tile foHoll\ring 11l}'Potheses.s:.e~es ]sU!le:reby specified as a functicn ofi (see' "'Afemust now examine the mathematical condi tions 011 4> which provide a.he [OUOlM]l1g classical CQlW. vu. The value of 8l physics] q1l8..en!tsof X are called the mate~'iajcoordinates oft.i!c].! con. and 'P'am . gelll¥raJruk!I' of elass C1 ()r C'? wa br.iahles Xud. or 1t.denotedty¢. <Llr€ c. its.surfoo@..ru .. also OCC:lJp~1 conneesed a region of tI1i:esame dimensiouain l4C~t (VOh~lTI!ej.aJh~d.Q.t]ty~aegc:r]b~d in. queaces.\/Vema.e]niUallily loc!llt.2 e0111!UIJIIJ!.thus describesthe the geometrical correspnndencebetween K~. ~ of tlilepart.1L. vector.y m<'J. t/)_' will 8Olti..l'{l =.Ce experience..r3t the fUlndioH B' ]5 assumed to be eon .t}.) (.llLltity B amociatedwUhtbepartlcle is.3) .oept of oO~itii1l). !:.gklil~n hy O.C8he de:il!Oteci.2bU othe:-r configiilt~l:ti.whichallow us toexamine tlilev-aJidity 0.~. (3.he pru:tl.d@ under constderationand the eomponents or .nable. ~'llb~e fO'I~[n'il1~<ibth}jTh the hlhtitiw.cln3 • • ~ and 1/.ity Hypoth.tt]O'ns lfi:o and The whole geomeb:ical evn]ut:i. ibsm. Sect.aiPPi11lg)of no onto. (jIlf 1°) Two particles ln K. ordh18100S.iJ:itah'l ~.~bijection .E the model ill the .e.&1. spatj.2) whereas. Itself satisfying !'II.tity relers tQ B' m~be it l a scalar.~ Ot . B = . These hypotheses implyt. ('!L.g'~l1@l'~'tnyasSUJl"n@dtobt! !Of class ClOt' eVf:lj cr. 2 . 2°) Particles occupying a connected region In lin. The funcnon ¢.ed at ..suit .. B~ct.· :flullctlon of ..c::uf'Ve). n'~!With inveese hijecti..esp.B(X.fat[on this i'>@]~t ionshi p in . 3.. tinuousail:ld.~c't to an var.. For a typical pIZYl5:ica~quantity .etlID.u~a similar to (3. t.11Il.otion.]].~\f!. S 1.'!O a.en50]..:0.Hence the positlonvector in~al h'l. ]s .11401 where the C()iniIJ()i1.Qwhose: pooit~o[ls differ b'y an infiniieshna]oopa.' are oont:i~uous w]th respeccto all space andtit-ne ~.4J).oIJl of the system. f-~' . dep"'n(jing onthetype of pbY$'icn[ q~J.are put forward: '.g .()nf~ll!l"a. for:m.

l111artt:he:ma. tram.T !@it .S f:[~om (3.t:dces of¢> a.~~..ve .cl~3.h@ .£ the same e.biHty..es.iDiriI cOD'ver. T.X3) {l . kn the oOillijgw'~HolfJI ~ and its ]m~e undJ. The :result expressed the volume o.i1IU8. X'~:i respec 1<. of Ule maasure d3.ap. .tl fol~ow. fll) =1 t) < +00 (3.e.ot~.a]'ticle8 Ioeated . il10jjQ .a: \~.n i:o:fimtesimO!lllreg.helds when Ris not ~=t.uous:ly dHfu:r.(l"teach instant oftime.kll.bonormfil.ed~ . JfX':) t = D'(X]I a.tlo11 ~ to .nool'em Qr elsssical anaJys]s.e:B:nit:~on efthe eeneeptof materialelem(.retaUon .3) .fa partlcle in (3 .con:ligt:l:ra. .~urne e.be the volof ume of .€: card.t:ical d. ~l!''We 2 may mready supply a physlcal. 3. th.fj[om .3)J' where we have OQfit111UOUSi As ¢'Q.!! ~S'then.Ad! 'VIOb].~: ]1.]vol- ume is a ma!tedal ri:ililrf1lCe.(~rel&~eat'.~ incethe Jeeobian wa.'!n. X2.th.~e~~p.Wenn.]e:mel"llttra:nsportedto lVI in the oomigUl·a"tiouo'l:t. be interpresed as the OOI~jWmem'tio or tto.X and t.tt.b~sisthe de'~ermln/am't o:f UU~Jaoobianma. D ~.~ wren '.! t) of P_ at time t aJl!d po~itio'll eXI.3 and 4 . illtthe'f€:IDol'e foUGw.~~]_:I1.l. In addiMoD~ it can be ~eith. J(X] t)....wHhin SOIDoe dosed surface.Pfo.p' arem.~. l3rr...ported surfaee at all Umest.~l~e lCe.1'~t. remain withinth~ !i.~'~ ::Ii .ians~oni:n U!lJQ.may define: the JaoolliJia:n de'tennh:~ml!t J(.. h1].lt (ora.d. dxl is: tlu~voblm. 5° ) Usingtheb:ypothes:ls IOf continuous di:fferet1ltla.QiF.'as~'B d.\.7) 01<J(X j AnfJtidplatinglt'e5u]tstoo be develoip.0 ~.flt ~ 4i l l n innwt€8:ul1ru.trix of ."'0 and.at~ a... occupied by the same set of particles ..ilIn..d 01}the motion.2 .X.J. dnt the volume 0.ihe l.t]S the geometeiealreglon . 2.!~ltr dOOij!cetl'N. 'Then J(Kjt) call. istheroJore constMt Civer 00 and throughou't tbe motion. in Ch.5lllt ~tm.er zero :nor 'i'nJi'n~:te. L e. The image . 4°) EillparUcuJar. X3).. .q.]ves oft.X.p." t totl . ][f the irdinite.5) and oont]fi. s I~ sign.6.~3.d.elll!jlt..appu~g· ~ lis the~eoou:re ooo:rdiir~~'Jlte' ~y$temRis ort. Let dJ1[].tIlci 'if! are J(X.~dlE:2dm~'~OI" dXldX2.iab'~~~followsthat l't J(Xatf]s co~tin~o~ ''iI. dm~iva:t.it( X I ~} .g~ ing to pUWJl1 MD..roportlcma!l IDD the volume m~l!JIle.X!dX2'dX3 lI:Eldtl[ th€m..8l:. \I This is a t.dX~) d~.tiol1 K.r: n.O)P.. (Sect.om.i.).:IJ.configm:a. implying that It is always made up of 'the same partid.d.emeMtLre. make a. is an element tmlr~po'f'i'e. 7) can th'Usbepic:tlJJI~ed in thefol[Qwing w:a:y:: " conserves its sign ~11Id1 can become ne1.hllig the 'Pm':t. X2:1.erzero nolr.!tne:sd"fJ'(j ~~d d. ..l1l respect to .Hooce the boundary or a ·ffmjteria.nd .1gma:Uoill .ut'ual inverses.~ the boun. (3.ed.~.:1'8[.dMy of S is 8lm~teriaJ surfaee.an :lIMh'terlal element at the point Mo In.ho~Qrm~l iSHllcet]m n:1.

iO:!1 1~i!:l.y\ which is aI't thevery heart of the model.D.l bypo:t. However 1t:1I1~ tr-eatm!eI[lt of .ame:-na r~quires a .81J11US expressedabeve would appear' to..IiGcwtl1G::. Asyrnmetri:ca11y p:1!.).0 om intuitive idea of ~'Q(}]]!tiilluit. in East Pbysique du G [o'be) . 1983. 8). thesis. In these CMe$~ the condition requiring oolJ)::3e!l'vatio[l. and jet surfaces in 'suid mechanics (Fig.ks (Fi~.ce:rtaill..e:mai~ic.m. s. conform [. T.~ block Asia.botJl'ing points t.hm:ugboutffibe evolution ~sto(]. lnstit~tde (01!:ppHc~t. F. 7)l. E[accture surfaces..of the matb..ld. aCro. (l(~Qm. Examples aDecracks in fracture mechanics. Di8OOfit]nnit]~ must beaJlowed in f.d1Jed pt~~. Ph.n.fle[t~e:r.SO!lleW hat more su btle assessment .traiu locaU'3a1tiom.echM. pben.ig:.The 1'e. :soUd. slip surfaees .S5 certain surfaces. and.he.![~trietive.of prorimi:ty f-Of neigb. m.ses.1ill. in.

o be discentinuous across: a.ctiou 4> a]ld/ol' its.ematheJlnatica..deocriptjon is sat..4and. :Il11idmechanics .]s@d time.Qntrnn't1:~ty a'nd .es are ]l1volv·edj. 3.8.t. 4. Tb.a)l and. nIl 8ect . U' we consider the pa.eoJ the point.giiM1l Desc:r:iptiion.41Physical iIio!terpretat. the Lagrangian .ulation of a ~imple experimentsl veality. At time T > to.Jinity of 6urfa~llts . sometime tOl W@ maekeachpsrtlele passing through P. 9).tr.Hmtahl@ . pathline.a::ea]1owedt..3. An insta. dl€1'l1.ntrz. the pa. 1_ I .]nelt'e iSbock: wa.thU]}e of a given particle can be visualised l.se c. Indeed (S0€! Soot..me T.em]'l..1. puraffi<@.heseB are weakenedby requirmg QIlJY1l'iecewi. Ed).t:iaiJiJity oJ¢.l.: Pathllnes TIl'@..'{. At a !}ioometrical poin~ P in ''R~with (loo:r.':lte$ ~ ~ l and sE<:ht"ting from. tb.h.c!nltintllous a2iferen.takin.rticlie to be iden:tj6ed by X'j (.d.\~.o.@ (:le.OUS across the wave surface.metr'ioal ctt. temporal derivatives may be disOO:l:ltil'1:lI.v. (.c"ling geo. P observed att].e oontjnUDt)" bypot.yskaHy ~Jnar:k~n.~ equation (3.dl.1lf. s.. derlvaU'Ves. b:y Sharliing at ~ime to!.1) specifies the motion inthe system.ect..g a long i")2J.TI.o:~:m.1).he positions of these particles are observed inR" 'I'hecor:reS'poD.]) deaeribes its.g~ ]tat the ·t]l'l1:@ tO'land.a1t-Sl snaps-bot leads us to introduce l a:n.)OISU.. 1!_ remains eontinuoes whHe:1: Its spati.cdp . (see Chap. in theframe 'R: b.11Jeist:i1e 5tr'eGJ~lin.y ofeaeh particle For this reason" t:LOU.l :f. For these reasons ~th.(}th@:l:'t-ype of geometrieal curve known asa streakline and defined as follows (Fig. Tbi:stype ...of eN:pe:rimen:t is eommen practice in aolidmeehealcs :and.ion of the Lagran. to he a pal:hUn. Lagrangian descrlption is.\!"e photograph Clf~helowfr·omUru~t time on.

.th~i[leef the particle In 1?.e parUcle X which was marked as it pessedtarough 4 P at.\_. paransetrised bytf.(.'9) In frame 'R!th.JIWQU_fl~y dl:le~:G'D~ o tlable.llJJ1l1St the lnveese bijecti... '.c].~ on the stlreaJcline 8!t time T: :t: .h:m X~n :/'. Nt is the vect(]lir~ .1' roord." .(li(i functlon f_: = can be COillstructed by intr(Id. r~ T\. These are called the ""'(. :I (3. t~ = . de.)lli:iyfaUow. t')...o.ector V{X. is ~()ca:teclal.fil3ctor where 'VI:I denotes the region oceupied r.The equatlon for this curve. at the point ~ = !£( X! t). '?I'I(~..~ont:i.\!::. The motio. by the system in Ko11J" For th.H)) The ve~oc]tyv.ed mfr!.ady t.H) The L~n.t~s oJ th~ pm:tjd. 1) by :spedfyiugtbe \. deseriptiou ormation given above ideatifles each ])a..1).n 'f/J.0ean be ohtail1!edhnmecliatelyfrom (3.13) we tbenhuve: P_]]]]lSt.l:ratiQ]1 r'Oo.Ulg]~n..iua. Likewisethe eeceleration .€: co:. set ·of 1.t' and.t (3.tifl]~Q Ute'P8.2.0.. ~iP' ~ 1. andao . is obtalned from (itl) ar.rnJigtl!. .ity of the padi. . The Jacobia:n .~ (3.angen. t) in 1l is.U!cinga.3) to index: eachpartlcle.e veloc.l!d{3. -.e Identified by its p081t. of descrlptlon three parameters . The s~rI1!ekigd.iingtb.~'fice Gfn~fifJumtifJ1l.oIthe partic[e [s: {3.l\'ticleby itsposlUonin 1l'i in the configl. = !t:.ntjo[! "'-.'l(.. . la~()!~t) UlX . .~.'fl'(J'ralis.e i:t1Jthe llP!. 'tim..n is then defined ina way analogous to (3 . stil] hre b~jle:ctive" 8nd!piecewi~e COrutiUlJ!(Nill$ a!l.

e:nns of cyHndr~G&~~o(n:dinates (r. j.ns:t~·tute a set of ge. (i).2a:1 . ooo\l.3 .. U ].irol..r@:'tatiofi O'f~he t~iII'~m'g.es themotdon ef'the sy. \. 'Do.'l·ll) "the' ~pa:t~al variables xiI .l.' \{l ..f\din.~. .v)' t) dJO . 00\ ~. respeeste w varIables 0:.tallt on. As far as the geo'metr. de'mru.e'specUied (1e]~Uv.SllreV)Sua\lw8!tion.eooI!l:6gm:~lit~().. .e :ElI.f. = .g~o thephysical im~eTp.gtu.]fiedwit. (t + dr]. t. · L _. ~. !one -i'e~:ilt oonfigur. Elder fl70r7-1783).[la:t 'eftcil . description :it.mlll~~eS:~l'Irith l1ElglOn VIiIJ defined 01 theseece ~. nne space (R..~ W~ { b.~L.a"tio]]: .ifl!l:tThll'l:f zero 110r ]Dflni te (the Jaeo biaa matrix be~ng im:rvedible)" Its sign listheoofo:m .q.\fetbe rQH()w~ng fOll'mulafo:rthe vohnne e.tes:imal evo. t J(.gm:a:M.. L.ne pOShlon U! .].of a SU0()€SSlon ofinstantanecus snapshots.'aUan~ ~oand fL.(1.point . .3 ~ J{. .is also given lnit..Q lang@l' :f'GfertQ ·a..an~ oft1me in order to eXpll:es5....ms.2~~.[CLe· by the eyHfirl.:rUde l T .gian representatien tn terms Let us gll'€ a simple examp~e of oE8.agaiDJ]..R.ricaJ..OIJS ith.1[[~eJ]J!~ .ill' .z).llll.Monbetweent and.1~t.' 4.mul. inde~edby (a a tine is ·CCHruUIIlUl.7'. .] ~ (1.neralillood Lagr. bygivlillg.The the VO]ll[fifl e:xpfilt'lS~Q'll b~'t:l.-enne .gene[~Hsed con8guf211:tk~ln.~CU.atio:n. '.1) ve~oc~l. d~ocri.tltwu~ fnot~on) aJ:UlOugh it may not bepositive .tio.':J)!j $13 ax.ica:l a-spect ~6 ceneemed. .h.ce tb.Il.nde:Meocbpfllft.. tllevariables I!l L. the lEtderlan.w. thefoHowing intuitive idea.a.)' 'Ij' .-.11J.'~.anglM.l!c..l]e:rlftndeS!c~ipti!onffii' via. we :may . J)! de:ady fDUOWSttlon-!.. :thm1J.M Once . om long e:l{po.·t.introdu.!: " . Jl[J' ~]]I K. :o. '7.llll:1pM.e.Lns.:and t~and can he :1il.on . In a more m!lJ!jtheInatt.the Eulerian description of ..h 'the padides astirne goes by.·tthe goom-net.y .~! For li_he pa. .. o:ftheplH't~cle~ocated a.c{.I". t'h~yC:a\unott]:H:!!l"e~Cl['e be iden!l'.:ption hued.t. .. :at eaeh instaat of tiJ:net~tihe (4.-yst@. as the l1e:~er€lf.e~o the c'Un-en~ oonfigurofion and.I'·.[utates the eUFr~:l:tt'Qo:r~figtlJ:ra.~hepm:ameters .oom. Eulerian Descrlpfien ~fer.nn evolv111:§ :s. Uowever'j~:niUk'e ~I'lI(.s. The langexposure image' can be' bu:Ht up by supel'pos~tio:n .v6en two oo:ruIfi.refsrenoe oo:ml. 8l1C.a~esR 8' &lJld Z of its pooitioiD."POOS~O:l1. d.UII.rAC~l ooQi.~.j.a.iI'h:l.ical for.l..he inlfilll].Lagran.fjaud Z oo.o.rI.f··t'c '. we na¥e a vector fUDction of 4: scru&J:~~a.. . ~lfe (3.2 .ble5.a:'il:.14) a.

. system of 3 dilff€'l~ent]. ~1'lI due course (Sect. 3. ~x = U1:(~j -t) d. t) ~...g]lll1nae! we s. t) = E!X. 1). a.6). Indeed.a~quations e of' .rtg the two expr:egsions foethe 'iI@:lndty of X in 'Ratthn€! t 1 and.an desc:ription.fjJ{Xt) · . intn~thte~y inth@ previons section is.(4.l =CL~(pjX. we w01J1]d like '~O check th..the v<illtiah~e t.ll :1):2. In otber woeds. t) " Nate that U.. iD 3 unknown scalar functions ~.eloUollI:fin:g eqnation for the vector fnnckimlltJ!: infact determining (see Sect. eqnati.2} In. orderto beable to' decode formulas at a .at the Eulerian description introduced. £l(X~t) { = U{¢C~lt)l. t) = B{ .t { (4. s).=o "V:e are I f}. Hi t) I I I " • I - .4) the patblines of aU partteles as functions of time.: will denote funeeions belong~l1Ig to the Eu[erlB11.t) (4. we must so]v1I2 th. Vile must cheek tbat the fanetinn ¢ of (3. Conversely. p_(X1 O)=X init]al condition" = X ~ in]&lall condltion I a.]) can be reeoustrnetedfrcrn (4. (4A} l' .. 15 precewise " _..5) ~liI.2 Determ. 4. deseriptiaev wbilst uppes case letters [ikeXw]U denote those belonging tathe Lagrangi an description. tower case letters such as:!.p(1<. ]t follows that: Ut(~. :tal . system S can be 00the tZhined immediately as so 0]] aswe possess a.ntity B associated withpail'Ude l{ attime t.en~:~C:1 and we shallseeumto it. 4.L~tgn). The problem can also be expressedin didIw:eIllU.3) b(~. To thia end..haU generally adopt thefallewlng CQ]:lve]1'&]o:tl.a\b~e (if A·' • C"') Y!.to the Lagrangien descrlpcion .9lJ fonn. The 'VelocIty will be th.e exceptionthat proves th. also the twoexpressious for the qua.~is then piecewise continuous and continuously d](re!-e]It].g F'athUnes Gh:lf!!r]y~ Eulerlan description for the evolution of a.inin. indeed equivalent .tllgi..

u!~noal C·'lj.Ealw.amily of goome'trioaJ W c. dx1 dx3 Tj .orus.ra:m.i'e.U.t~oDSgiven jn 1(4.'I'his s:oluti.oosX'~ o[ M@r).s. ina.pammdle·ra'm.f(. These lines are defined In.f1l1to introduce athirdf.gtmm t:be d. in 'flalt dx2 .€l T form a. Rb:y d:u:l system of dlfl\el'enM~l eqU!a..a\k~ up .Uirves arisin.2:.:.on.9: pathUnes of two pMt[eles .a 3~:poo]'amete!l:' f'am]:~. in Sect.lUh th..tiol1t)~ t isuse.a¥fWl]} (4.ion.3r)~ fa-r' certain ap]l~j.e metion J:n.oOJHistingthere$ore of two equa!l!.ooultiuu. d Tlae set ofall Cll1:Vl3S pta:l"tlcle p~tb~in~~n Rm.Ul(i1l! T) .5) and (4.et is then obtained I:n. reconstrected .ay:t.i.ca.t~.s. of .oi'!:JIen :ti'me T~we: def:hlethe s·trean:t!ines .~111..~&8ion (3. .Uf satisfies certain l'egUlla.en1S of d~f[erent~&l of ~:ll.8 assoelated V. 4.e paeticle locatedas ~ at thn.lnct~mmaph.t~o:l1i. 8tr(%. .~:lty oondiM.!~T) . 2'~.. DvUoo' lin~. Providedthe function is the function iSO!Ug~lt and th~ patbUn~sa[etheIieb~' etermtned. 3. 10.of fuh.ous medium.6) dUIer .4 not and.:st.~a\ble: int:be :first and :fbl:ed indl~ seeond (F~g.ily' ()Jg('loT.e:fl:n~l.(ms ll:l(m·.tbef'[~l1l1ie Roo bethe envelepeeurves oftlhevel.2) fh'l'tb@v.!w'e can determine tbelLlnruqlli5' solntionf:Qr eaeh in~t:ial co:nd~. j i Fig.~nl:€ . j These ]i~es sbourudJ be oonfit1lS(%.fiew andthe iSyst.2)~ which inverts (4.ocityvec:w['field Ut (x.~a.t~1!e obvious w.\1lJi1inGSa~t time T .)' T) . The Lagranglan e.y of (thepa.Kp:r. themotton of a .iSVM.aJ]u€ of a p:hysical qUallit]ty ..eters being the ooordhla.on.n.i with the paU])HJlesdefined. HJ).ys~c:a~ pO~IOOt .~n a fUIiI.A:ta. The tl\\i'OflilrB quite di.Sed.da:FJl€'IlJi.. 1]< X2: I'x3• The atreamllues tifn.

amy be constructed if 'we .droamlines form" a c!!'Epa. since (4.:zyt.a.8) This wsidentical to.wngICO[1:clllS~Oll!.tl~e!i':j'7. tile. these show ~ha.I! the ve.on ofth@ p®lll.£ es. (4.! at each instant of time 'T~determines the streamlines. This meansthasthe posl tiOll !VI attime t of the IJ'M:ticle Iocsted a:t..l' .) Umes eIlfl... ) 9 Smoethe geometrlaalproblemhas been.].epM:alWet~r 1" =t -t!. Retw]])iD.1) imply (4.tbe ceordlaates o.D .o.ttimet' (IIily de-pen&.ri(Jalc~-irvesr iden.t hBoomes tirne ~ntlepe'ndent 'irt t/:.s. . . the system (4. When we usethe systen-~of dltJer-.lIoog them the pl'oble1n i j spoUts m~1D a purely goometd. solved. 3.abHshmg Indeed.:pa.the streamliaes . .5) and (4. determine the time dependence of theparUc[e[j)osi&]on. : . Itl' a.1I. heeee a function oruJ of .othe :pho~Qgraphlc .t) is indrepend'e1l~ of t and.:5&0 6nd. Hence.7) dx.logy use-ah'). be stoodY]D a f.r wMcJ.U3 (~) (4.the:l3Q!ua.-i!. 0.jttime T can. dx2 .u.VVe may tben. In Us Eurner]9:n dJ3Scr~p't.point .m.!.r.a_ ..tbHnes is tb. Tbe Id~H@l'~itl{le betwoonst!l:eamHneSi audi.he mot~o:n 1:8 satd M.g a.rame'R.ns (~1.o'~~on .!lfe.on ofth. if.e:n dear" 1'. 14}.a. Sec~.u2 d:li3 • Ul (~) - (.f.nl't~&l'equati.tant of time.limowthe ve~oclty fie:~din thefram~ 1l a:'tth~s im.'. (..'~iQal~oth~ lo/tn/tty oj smeaml:ines.f~lLIe geometrical ._na. the [oUow.tbepath.&om M~!perimenJta:l standpomt.~i2ition. This system is also inde:pe411:d.t.mmeter family oj' g'evme.hlin€ipass~ngth:f\Ougl'il M' as ' funct:w.ent of T.t. IntThlis ease..d the HmJ. Indeed.tl.akin.separateproblem t he time sequence.a.C~L1I be reaehed .n·tunder time tnltnS.e exercise and .~ ·t.! dependence ofpartieh!! p·ositiJom: .tocru'ty :6ehi~8 shown '~.'S) which.d . 51101"t exposure photograph aJttime T (F:~g...is ~nt1ana.{)tlg iotscurve.'JIndiI.•l1!1 ) VI. on lVP and~he dLfference (f -n: (4L10) Tlns formula gj.lJl.

~'aY' ofvisualismg pa:tJWiin.Flith!!i.. S'poc~fyilil:g theve]ocity hl 't'b~.1). 4.fo:r 1the CQin:6gur..a.&batthe funcUons:p_ and .s. 'Ii paUiHnes OHGB a. ThiswUnW5 ru!l1l3cUyfi'.d) sa't.aF description is U. t) = ~(.1i\\ ftame :is som~tirnLe8 tlsed.8.for Velocity The 'I!18ll1~_l notrution . art of the pat:h~~ne. .be .~ t'.1.!f!_(:l . T~il3i.io.acrt dlataU paortidMpamifJIg th_ro~gh. the .singU~ro. (4.gltP.mg funet~onal relatien in the 'case of a.oolll:l1gur. Indeed.It.e[ential operaters (see Chap.isfy the Io]]:olAlT. of ~~sem:i.idientic!.6 Notation .rn . l th~t functions 1!a.t time T! andparametriaed .t. For this Mllid of rJiolfi.~o]1owlt.·\vdtillg spatia:[ Va.~od'Ud:ng a.n (3.hl '. \V.sll be ShOW. This is the same as the notat.ch~'l:actGIi.11) of .It rcU01iv.mb~guit. and ~Iand dHf.recisety iI~e down~ sirea.he :samepathHI!Ie.A(:t)ll "vema_y .dSlb~es(X..ely '~O eause .€ of .-ste·a<ty!mot ~D iOIrl.' G~ven (4 ..n 19ft) f'Olt .c pM1(lipeilr~Y: .ny of geemetrteal .is d.ufficetJo ~:e:n~o"veny . Il.om the f.s.he more precise notation (4.efinoo by (41..i8ti.it.h1!ougi.14} 'We shall .P' . is unlU:.9) gl\i'l:ng 'the streakline pO~lJIit P observed a.3) ~fie:r~Uy :s.l'amefi. cru-ves. ]nt. Sect.~)~we have: (4. iI instead of (4.ion used in the Lagrangian descripfui!o]l .t'lt .t~JlUne-s ate thnB itlJdiill!pMd@!L1.y.. ste~l(]Iymot:[on. pl". in the Ellledan flmctlon.::::tl~iIl..11). the COO€! of steady mot1CIDl.~ po:linJ!t just the Gownstr.t'l .sbQ~ to the r~mjly of S't:rea ml1mes...ct.sEml.F :is.irniti.iolo ..t').t.. Pis p p$s]ng l1.mnch eonfuslanslace the cenventioas fOil..~.mUthe n3'StQf~hJebook..adop:& thl. This. Inptac~~Q~ tmm'}. Uthe need arises" we can always a resort to t. of (S..tb (4Ll()).nd V!' s:tim :$~tis:EY a rela4.s6dio:n of thepa:Utliw~ 'Pas.~ seethatthe we :ll:t100iline oJ. The jdea.~on.ve fUJ!.: p_(. 5.s:conve]]UoJ~ thmugfu.efind ~ha't the equa~io.~t.~on.of tYPG "4.1[).~.gaJinform a 2~pa.this pmvidooa.13) U ean ti1.esin.el~£~m.'>l:o"n other words. - (4L1:2) ConTpadr~gw!.wrthe tien ~~ and. can be wriUe:-n: -0 t_ _ <t<T.

tl. of ·the. I (Sect. 'th. qUfitiQn int.nfJ!milode] Pn'~:!]too aJbc~ .n~tio~iii.e~Q(:iated! w~th.l rn~Ui\'!. pl~.~"I'illE!' go beyond!.sx:per~m.t an ~b~:tI~t]OH .)i. tn ord.~\t. fomlll. . Ip<wtid@:!oonoGlals a ml'c:ro!ltnll::t:um"!!i!fuQ.J.jt.Fc:r !!l]t!s.t-hIll of tbellli!C1"'Osri!.ld®j ooveral r\'l'lIlai.ids.tch~a.~cm.el3.adol1 tecl1n~q1Jlet3. ~rycla:Y pr..[\unt. ~it.i~l:f~ ~u:ch ~~o~d®l$sic!.Qlultio.[oOil1'nding t~:i!ili point.1lSSoo:j. sueh ~t~OOIfjj' iHlJJ!13t:!:a:tedi.ma:ooda!lpO~llt~ Qf.El1tthe:nis tbe :p.~c:aJmea:ni:]1jg oathe mlev:Emoe of the 11JClitlOro (lif' •part ide th!:!ltwe.cle~ We tll'rue!teIo:re ~ek 'the gJ'ea:test simplici'ty oOirn~'8..e'ter.ks are su.erw lr:epr~'Il1l:.:!luvoives a regi(m Of volume of i :mat€r~td. tha.b:e model must .m~ of 8 . oOfiC€4'aing owe-dimemi.tal. of tb.$.elrl.~ piil.. U .ruiMi t~~e ~est Jlossihrue 'Way.ba:vemailethebasi:sfa r oij!r.b sbouh:1l..~G d~l~ptioD.ggifl'Bb~di by . b~ex.et:r]c<lilpos~It.~] Ico~th~~~tl:t.fom . answer 00' tb1!5. 5.E!I.he roUow~ng m~l1Je:r.s~ e'W}blt~Mlwe gee.ise the p~ysicaill e'v. igF~g.mde.tter [lo\V small it may bet~ro~~]]d the ehosen ~piil~nt".a~ 1'h.ob3i13r¥. tilJdsframe\'l!GlJ"k.tbe rota.1ll :r. D~s~gl:Uiooo mm prc:d~di!Jnsit. 'W1l. I~EDCUUJ1tt1e:r oll~d~m~nsloniaJ .:le~tOlit.marthemati:caJ. in In tiIJJe: dassic~ m~deru" we tfl>1IJe ~lodty field U M s~mcien!tto provide a the 81iJ~tBb~BId:~e:Wll:1'81t.11> .olta.[O:!l.i{l~TI.Lif1t'.~t~o~-~ .o.Y. ~lla~ter ~u.~lwa.li. !Iron! Uw veh)city fi~ld.es ~tD w ~h '!mate'l'iaft p~il1t! I hibeUed by its ~oom. £0'1 ej(a:~~le~ Oil' in the m~ :tUrns wWchexi5t on UJiis.'1l.~for '~9i:rn:p]e'l q'l1~~n 'titi.f 'the oollllitlmu1l!l!u:m l1l1{H~jeL TheEle remar. .tion of UlI.t ru~!>tarnoo! we m~gh:t ifWtrnd~ooj.p.subject" rut is claa r tlul>ttbelmarki.ructuli.j 'lrJl1ie X :sh~1 GX:i<Il:mplew~th.is jlllls. . In Qei!!"~.II".€.ernkrost[wct-u-~. ICh~\p.C obserwd.~8li.llll.V ~win (S€:Ct. U to 14. :DlIDRla.Utfua I.~lll:i~ed i~ 'Cb!ll!. be made about thls CI'u5~~I.ible ith w Q. 3:).hJJuu.~f th.e .model?Wem~ghtform. suitable i(\ep~Menlta.i:l 'th~ee-dhnen~.w!lJiiJst in. In 'D'tn®T'wo:l.t!e arl.• Sud':! a:mopei!:. t I To (jO:Gc~lII..single 'parti.~d.ePMitiClIe5.c~~caJ app:t~c:a.[]..l[ne t'!.otajt~ol1al vector ~e](1 wldch is iluiependent of Ul.3 •.l:: 'Ilo does:Cli. 'ph~nOml!lD.

el of III high-speed lncomet ive.'IiwUlld !i\ rl!r:ld.at model of COlu::l1n:le~lI h'l(m:ii'!1g cOllfig'l.rn~g kinclily supplied by ONERA) l_ . (Ducnm. ~op.Fig. Boltf}'m.llJ'B:Lion (v:lf'\!o'ed f:Jrorn abnve]. [1U\\' !.1115lng a~rfJdynmnir How5 by hydraulic analogy using water tunnel simularicn and ro]OUIrM tracers. 11. ViI5U.' [low around .P.

M. (DO(!liJIllllg:n:l kind]y supplied..l1dl.tB adva. Flow'vlslunisS\t]om in watertunnel by efll. ERA) ..ys[I:pp]Jecl by ON". by ONER.F'ig.(DoclL]me:nt ki.suaUsation ill water tunnel byem:issicil] oil'ClololJl. l'ectetl1..:le'ad:lillg~ edi~e vm~. U.gulrur wing.A) FIg. .ncingendi on . Flow v]. 12..ex at the aad of 8.l'ed trooel"S.i:ssioill of c~lQured. 'tracers::altJel'b n1lLct]ng\'orUc~ in thewake of athin p.I.

ilj~~iOi'!l spiIllcdi :How ovlilir .(!Ide~ iu\"at~+ Llll'!i!JIel: Ugbt.of Oon.ilIO m. ([)Gc:umu~nll:.n5life:rse fl:r.low lFi1g.iUOIill. ID:}"ONER.oss:.colldiem laJDdilllg C:Onfigur8l.y .~at~{lrn).oo...A) . .i.j~!agair bubbles" . ~heeit j]1.e&hodi iJ. F~iJI'w V~!lu.k]nd~. 14.. (~b:on.:suppJ.

\ d ::i' {'l dx L {£.l' Li.fJr (.r.!!_.r:l ~I~=o = ..1) . n . ~) - u~(.d.l' d' l' { =-1 ~.

tion J~(·X·-··:) ~ 1 .l CarOOSJall.e:rdl€ ort. orthouermal Cartesian eoordiaates moticHli. UJ = O. on.)J.{. coordinate t.eWMk The eV'Ql~t~Q~ here ~5 8 ~i!!1J:p~e st:re'tcMng: ll1Git}O~.. stl'il§lM'~]Jinesatt:~m@T.]CH] IS . Over wbat time interval is themotion defined. .ata:dlU.dand pathllnes. ~.~800111 ill the [[Wll3'R.~bli:tlJ~. y piI[]i'lliesm-e difle:rs: flrOln O.h. ·t t~]e . consider the Fl:iFldtn.R in the frame 'R.fi coordinate motion defined 'by: iSysoom~l1I.eLagrangian descripUon for " . l' t .El is))a.~ . Tine :mot.o. thef:'r.-~te\'il!dy aad ~trea:L~]i:nes eolnefde wit-hpa.n. == I + at is indeed pos.. :R.restil'm:g:ht ~infi pa.~2t2) ..I.€l streamlines atthue T ::> 0 .n.•._ ' .ed fer t :> 0 by: :S.~~d/(]~. '.ul '""''O:'X~. ~IIIi. = 0 .()t~.: 1/ .·3 L~tIl..mot.~U2 = ~(~l ~ (I..O! V:3 = a.rill'!¥i Determlnethe ·the m.h.t:h]in·esa.~2t2) 11.l:sm.U2 = .e moeion and d~t€l:nn~..m. ..n.al Cii1f't8S:~<)..O'n ofth.:1 c 'SlmeUlDr .ive.ul = Cl:$d(1I! + at) ~.e We find that J(Xlt) . Solution Ghre the nu:~erian ri!presefitat~..iOOli::. U2 = 0..:raIDl€~ ~. Solu.? Determine the pathlir~es GIve .UI = 'C!:'(~2.e mot:lon de. Co:r~~d.. 'I· . .1. str~lgbt lines pa. ·tbeEiIl]e:rian represe:ntation of U.ra:Uel tothe de t:!!. Find tlw.. defined for t » Obyt .1l. semi..la.i!. t.Q:.. 'R.<.J.e v(lloc:i~yfi"el.2 If R is aa ordl:oI!lorma.l.ri:ed by (!!:l::t l ~) if Xl o·r X:2 I .hortot.a... eenslder 1.nn. • 0' 2·~ .ot]on . to . .R h>e <\i(n Ua. (..01' p. :Pa.

+ o::..dJ. .\(adi .* are definoolby L~gnulJ!gian.[Q:!:. th.r~es[a[1l. + .--1 :i""'":'". L4 Thocho.. ai[g.3)" Show that U!IIis.·d' .thoutvolmne varIation. thefr~...ax ~.ty pMaU€J to some vector ~l ~to be determiaed. Elbow t!b.h ' +.Uons.n:u~1l'" moving re~a\M.18 steady in.(tl )). 'R.I!oUOIil! d'eit100![ei~t:ive to a. a:.! = Cl::Xld:t obtain. '... (. lJIa.= -k:al. a.R{~(. SL~...!ilXi ~.Ji..~ U = 0... representatien: C!l!.~ = Ct~2 de .!!2) + 'UJ.tbQ~M:.tegr.on:. .!I!!..~.~ = X] s][!h cd + X 200sh c.~<@.jisoo. Xi dXl j .. under wllkb..a2 •. H!rl:I:iIO~l..R is an erthenormsl x:] = al + R('aQ) 'cos (wt $2 X3 = G2 .\ dB +::. buiifue. we]i defined \1'(al! ct2: < 01:.3 eosh ot + Xi sinh .d R1-®: a ).s colncide with patM~nes81nd Mehype. F'ind.s1tiants.. R m!1I!Ist be 'UJ(i!. dB..l·1 .QM Q:a .~ R = ~ ~xp(k a:~)" (We can a"l:rfll.ille t~m..e. I(.. t) = 1 ~·' .1'b~tra:ry CO. fUnC't~..ntveloci. Strea:rnH~e. .e motion is. k~j.2: .:S:oh:rtian '.ng:~ (. Lagrangian eeordinaees (~.]ndependerut. Determine the partiele p:athlinoo inthe frame 1l and . .Q:. (~2~ t)3~ independent of t.W't ..a = constant = =03. g@ne:ra~is:OO. J(a:.. . All ')'" . moUm!J.:~ ..eonstans 0i.. R(a2) and ..i:dal Sea SweU.[l!t .) wit~1!ini:ti~ 'CQE!di~ Xli. reference co:n:figuraUonb'y the Lagrangia1Th..R(Il2) sin (wt = (ttl ~ + A (.r motl()~~.:: X] ~2 X.alt]fi:g th~sy:ste:m ·tiO!]..at the streau~lines bl!i. Spec1fy oondi.igi~).rpr'e't the genera. "filley In.. (•.} = 0 by oha"¥!1g-e of time or.::t ~ = X3 ! eoordmate system inthe frame R" ccnsider the :i:f..(1. E'er . U .A(all) ~ . equatl.: j' d~:~ fort . dx::.veto'Rajt a consta.'..A(al) such that these eql]at~ons represent a moticn 'W. Steady ph\ua.~ .

~ii!.'t. ).!..). { :1.i. .Rli e.O( P.o of'R.) ~er~mc'~iQms of xi af~d efthe meticn relative to ncO< ~l..'ling R(J :> IO}• • ' WewMi:der n" rnovwng withve]odty ~l Wi Ik~eJ!i. al ~~' jafe the eooedleaees of tll eentre of the eireulsr p~Udj ne.'L]i!li)!U!ll O)[l){1!.:: .ad' =. fl.ed at (~jstmlooRo . .I f:l':j - • T11e .Jiit.):rgymet~t(wt .. a2·i'~I. .~Qci.:.aI. It can C ('l cheeked th1illt U'~(~~)ist.2.u '~Atti .€.~ a. k ..~''w1itn ·ve.k:~..no.1t (kll.ill If~ ~tb~t to Us w]Uu:mt sUpping.Q 1l aud ·tflkethe ceerdlnaee sys..:e) O.c'€~W'\e of:~ circle ofr . Sin.It foll.{:tl' .0 'It. .wlk.a a."'ehe eurve p~'['a[J:]etrised.s pe_.- L-) .J t . (a2 = ~2" ~J = 'f.·~3 """ .! -c 0. oonstan~ !il]gn and :reulaj!1 finite deHn(1ld here by 6l{. X3::::::: ~3. {k~_~n .Y.2 ~ &( e~p(..' e Tl Tile l~ ~. X3 .. + .) eurve is gene~ated llIil 'R. n_(· .l ni..a..J<!J ~~= a.lmf.tothe pathUn€8..kt. and thema~!O....ka.tiem .~ . Such. (.ttbe Wiu .ocws tM.r." ~kicr.xp(2k~) . wi k " ."Mbline of the ~Mticle wt&hg'€ueraH!lecli {lOomrnaJII!ES.!! . ~ .ge~JJt to this CIJ!["V~a.b.!i!!.~Jhu.~. by whb ~ql1<!lt]~. poi fit ~~" l/k f.ill(wT.ka])t s exlP. Rela:t ive '~ol-iil" ~ the velodt.' Eli]eriafirepteSe~l!taitliQ~ inde:pe1.2= if..~.Ro 1(_ .k 'T~M~ s~n@s by 8 g~!nleL~ricaApointP !Situat.he .~e%p(2'ka2) IT:!:u~t be of.\diniEl:ce 1'l:2+ ilk..t . me InlOW]] ~ troc. _ .l!ll..!tll. .Q.18.-de:nt oft . rels:t1. \'11 .s the circlee a 1)2 + (X.~.\I\eco 'R.l:..k(h).as .a-:i·}) l.i U~· ].. . V: "'" I .~ '~!'.l) ~ ':1 =10.Qid) n~ R€ma.•.~([ = 1.::. .k~t) 2 = -w R{lI( 'exp (ka2))1 oo~Cwt. a.k'~.set 'Qf ~q]~~t. ' _= :.t. (f. ts the· :reswtmlt oftbemot!oll relat~ve to 'R. (1.e]] eoineides -'\lifith n"vhe~ t = O.J.(~... (TIm.cru.. .l'~ - ldiefiil]e 1:1.n(wt .. cOO(~1T-ka~.a.2)." . whence k :> 0 and Ro <: IJk (ch!oo!..ruQns~bm9i!~th~.. 1)...A W.mi~~s..da~d OJ ~~.boids. 1 ."" ]11 frameR'"' 'li. ~3 .!lIxp'(kg.ntrrnetri~d by time throiJJgh the I.) R..!'!.' = -w .e for~ U· = .' { wt +. beoo<Dl!es: { 'IDrP{.kat) .l.' J{au.i&y =g]. (w.a) From t...t th. Vir~." ..:lTq .. !.'.!!.exp(ka. . tlIDde~ '~~e hori~:nt~1 ~~:IleWDt']l oJr.. ..(tivet.il·uc"".

ExpansJul.re[uenL Ct:!ome.Chapter II .'IlIlI"IUI'1t'fln'!lrnt.m~p. Tr"n~srUnmi. i. lnfinit esimal I r<'tli~f(lrnm.iu.tif]II. Di. Strain.nt>IQnuJllim'll.Wl.'l.. Convect l:W' t rans [H.n.sulnetIrY.l. Rigid hudy tra.di~l1l uf ~ lnm~~Ur~~lll\. S~retch.rI('al eumpati billty.:ipla.tiou. HOillUglil. C:r£\.1. .

t'U the exte:nttlo whjcb thetransfcrmation suffered by the S. a" .l lengths.~~N.e d.:t is most sim:plyerx:emp]:ified Interms of t.expresses the c'Onoesponde!l1. w In t.ea... :For the oont~muunmech.ffillle ma.]!~l prh]!eip~l a:x:. Tihe F~)rm!JiillasF.dieulail: casein wbich the system undergoes..Wtl.l.5).cH.esafth.h€l mstrle.trod. surface or volume involve the Eudide.to the . stretch which is an.hnalelement 1. Thlsls defined by the gracUentt>enSO. si:mpUfy b:Jl li'n.homog-ene:(}1l!.locallyf. fact tb~ gmdi.! areasand v{d.m:. 3).ent oj fbef:ranslexrrn. tran dorm atien . It g.ect]'!!.ausiO:rlllatl.u:mes as fhrfinite· elements in the cage oi' homogeneous j tli:ans:wrmatio'M (Sect.an tensor associated with this Un~ar rnapp~ng (.fittmimal transformations (Sect.5! tmnsfor- matiiD'n~ that Is.!pearu. The fbrmlJllM desc:db~ngtransport..r infimitesl:ma. .~Yr tbetrans[Ol"[llatiOD 8iuff~edl by the i:n:ifini.scect.~€:me:n.iI1.a.)r~l1!fi. The .[.nomogen60u.s.e andls bTh.~ a. a t.a!pp~ng.ts.bid:[ is the same at aU points.s: me :m.he vector fUll.efurmf1\tioui !i:ogg~b.ld.2) . two eonfiguratiens d~H:(.ch.tiJon a.he 'case of an arbitl!:'a:ry transformation of the system.rovide a way o:f M1I8[YSl. a. is U!latl locaJ.i'etl'anspcmt of the :pa..a!!l~.a.yst.!1oedto express lei1lgth and aI!lgle\1R:riatiQIilS.ug-es]ocall cl!lMge in shape (Sect .rti.o.istory.b€ psrriele al:' material point~and.two when we OOllIpmr€i basic geometrical.e:r ith. These are the concepts of~raru:iportand Or'TJl.at~o>n.r1se.NH. .s.tioll.ee between curreneand in:ithll positions (lIthe m~tedaJ. of a ma. the €xpans~on and stmin tenSi.'3 quasl-homogeneous all:.In Brief In a Lagranglanrepreseaeatton.epmb'lem hy sEudwin. ll. rotation (Sec~t.[ oft.witb.ransfo:rma.(liiocn. 4l). The ides o:f de]O'l"ttUl.w.tiol1lw.)fS from a di'l'OCi~some. b~~ng: clear]yrB~at@d Eot. :h.c~de:£-ormaticmsare oonc~~e and measurable t. . a.e may remove the ]oca:~aspect of th.S tangent map. SUI.d.mula.if}r~n'g the charaeterlsties of a material (Sect. we ap. mt turns out t:halt t:b€ltr.g: struetures and idoo.ystem~ \vithout e:x:m::nlnir~gi~s intervening d€l:ro:r:mat~()}jJJ. UShlg analogous fO[.pipillg that fixes the three o:rthog. linear m.De:Fo:nna.. To beJgln.a:tiom:s.[5 a.on of the system can be decomposed intn twopa]'ts. 7).ies.t..a.t~veetor.tmLam pnm.:.)).:s' we can define the same ooncepts fa. of . cenceptsare illh:Qdu~d the current and in]t~a[ con6gur. .etion €!Xpressing the (lCH]!V.g the pa. each point.h:bllgSl which p.V'octive tro'nS']. .€1n between. e..

On:. dU~l:tmf31J or hygl:'ometrhl ex~itMjons.whleh._n im'posed .transitlens.ool .al:rroill'ganisatioJl oreven fracture (Sect. .a.Jby !ch~mi~~[e\i'oli~t. ". produeed by external n@' :o:rm.tu:~aJ. 01'1.oIDJtin.tibtel they induce internal ferces.[ . at the boundary of the: system.y leadto BtJructlll'.ftefo:rmationsa:re )]. if they prove 'boo great.0'& oomp.oornipamJnldy then anses: are the deform atHJ]]5 . The ~ootH)n 'Of goometti.8!.). Vvhe. 0.]1Y condH~ol1sthatmay be Im.oj)mpitib1ewiththe.mechanical.'!!l are j I 1. ma.strur.a..uity 'of the medium.t]. I I .]~n. ~nd so.oBed upon dispmllOOments.

Meaning .E"(X"t)
dM®~d5o

Gradient of the tr:a~srirJrmai;.io[!
Line element
Lil',€'

(41.7)
(4.8) (4.8) (~.[,'3)

in

t>;g ,.

ds® ""'"I cl.MI} .1 d$

dM,.ds dA=NdA
d(4.

element in

K~ ~

= I dAd I

Surface ,eLement ~n

""0

= ~d(t

,Su:ria.ceeLement ~n.fi;~;
Ex~ansioJi]
te:nsolr

(41.13)
(~U.~I,)

C(,K,t]

~(~IO

Gr€en- Lagraonge strain tenooil: Dis:p[acen:lenL
Linear]sedJ 8tmi~IT1 tensor

(4.].5) (4. H))
(5.2') (S.U) (5.U)

~(X!t)
~(X'!O 'V' ~ad

Grctdi.@'J1t in

ft6
r;;~

G.rad:i'€n:t in

1

n,a:D;Sport.~ 'I~a.:llsf'CIrm;aA>~QI1." and. De:fllrlna:t:ion ,

, .• , .. , . .
, ,. , .. , ". , .. , . , . " ., .

2

Cb~]''!fecthrn' Tra.nsport :.1,3 2.4!
2J.! 2",2

hl

3"

I;Iom.o,geneotiS Tta&lsJ;Qlt,IT;ila:tion

31 38
38

HarlillJog~neal];s 'Transl(of'matioNi .. , .. , ., ., .... , . , . , .

Ma\t~ria.l Vec·t,O'{aad Ccm:vective 'll;,;i!,IfI.lJipO,rt "",."",.,.,., TrB~Sp'O.rt B!I1ldExpan5~anof a Voh;J,f.f.u;: ,. , Tra~sp~[t of a;!) Or~e~ted .Surface, , .,, Us~ng t~le Expa;l1sJ.oH Te~sor ' . , . , . , , •.. " Gnmm-Lagntnge Str[l!]u Th~so:r, . " ., ., . "

, ,. , ., ., .., .,

39 ~O 41:2
4.3
·<illS,

,3

3.2
3.3 4

~rur[~at~on Ln, a" Homog!,"l[J1(liOtll8 'Th,iil.\us:fo:rl1liiatioil1 ., . . . . . . , . '" . '" ., ., . . ." 3 ..l :Expa!l1ls]c!\~. 'Ill:t1tso-:r '" .... " ...... " .. , . , . " . " ." •.• , . ,. ' •..••••• ,.

" " , . , , , .•. , ., .,
,.. ,.. . . ..
s• ••

45
48

3.,4,

Po~a:r:Factor.isa:tiQn

,

" ., ,. ,. , .•. ,

50 51 .54
54 S5
56 53

41..3 De[orma·tio:ttS ' ., , ., ,..•. , .. , 4,,4msp.I,a;.o€:m,i)nt , . " . , . , ., " ,. ". ,. , .•.•... , ., .... " ., ., ·~,J).fD[arFacto:r.i:!>1!I.tior:JJ. a~~cl. ~gidBody 'n.',~Uls:FQr:ma.tjO~l R
4,.(1,

,De£b:r.~a;t.i()nof t~e CWlnthlYiLUn; G€:Mxa~ Casl5. " ., ., ., ......•. , . " "" 4.1 Baste Pil:.h].dpLe; The Ho:rililOpl@JOOll:S TaJIIg,e:nt :Map . , .., ,. , . ". " 4.:,1' 'na.:l1spod Equ~t](li!lIs, ., ., , •. , ••........•. " ... , , ., . " .,

!:!a

, ."
,

'Fra:me Indlilleren.ee·

". "

"

,

,.
,

5

6

5,,1 '&fiil1litioill '" "" . " " . "' . '" . '" . ,.. ,.. " , .. , ,.. ,.. ,. . 5.2 U~][eij;j'.ised Str~i[1J, Tenoo'I , 5... 3. Grad~erut of a 1'oHso:r Fi.~ld onthe CIJLF.rontCarnF.igltuation .. " . , Goo~t:rjcal Oct;mpalti,b:ili,ty of a, L,i:Il~[tdsed! 8t.ra~n. .Fl.eld... " " . .. 6·.1 St~1lie:[WiI1.:lill!t of the Problem .. " ., .. , " . "' '" " .., . . . 6.2 Comp£l,\trbm~y Oondit~or~$ , ,, " " ,.,. o{L.3 .R.e~n.a~ts , "......•.. ,., .,.., , ,..•.. , , . . ...
s, ••• , •••• " •• , ••• , ••••• , , ••••• ,

hl6:n:i~i:ma[

'TranS:'fo:r,mat:.i.olls

, . " •..•.•....

"

"' . , .. ,

"

,~r7 57 ~8 59
59

5'1

,60 62 ,65 ,65
164.

7

'(;"4

FJi~1!al or~r!l,e:n:t:s,. , , ' . . " .. , ,. ., ,. . . . , . . . . . . . .. .. , , , , , . , . C 7.1 Tralns:fllfrnlatioll ElIlG DI.':!(formatlolLl ., "' .... , . "' ., ., .....
lLragrallgl::U1J.Pa:ra.:metrl1:lat:ion Re]a;tiV-12'1l1o .11: Ge:ne:raJis:ed. O:mfiguralUo:n

A.p:pUcalti:oIl

" " .. ,,' '" . .. . . ,. , ,. , "' . '" . '" . '" .. " ... " . '" . "' . '" . '" . .. . " . '" " " "
+• • •• , ., , , •

, ., .... ,

"1'.2

, . " ." ., ., . .. . . . . . . ..,

7.3
SUfi)Il1l!ill"y

PI'~C'ticaj] lmvest;iga;t,~onof St:ra:i~s of M:run For.m1l11~ "" "
, , ,

, ." , " "

f~5 , . , .. " ., .. , . " ,66 , , .. ". " .. " . ,69
1'ill

E~~:!'cis~

, ., .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .... •

Deformation

F~lgure

1 i.]lus:t:r~l;ies~ fo([,th.e die stamphlgpWCe58

a'lready sh.o\lvml,in Fjg. '2~
<;liS.

Cha'p.. ]~ 'two s~ages in 'the evo]u't~O:~l oft.he block
ope~<\'IiM.O:iIl:

irundergees

~uc'h

all!

~!] )tbe block ia rectangular and cove:r,ed by a. ~q,it~:egdd, ., in l.tsc'W'rell,t sta.te (oon6iPlra,t[on JIi~)~ appUcaUon of the die bas Cowed. :m~'t$ria.ldO'\!lnoo th~ base aad If;itO Ul~ 'l!l.pp~ '[Jart .~. ~qu~r-ed :fC)f ·the fo:rmbIlg processjoand tb.€ grid has been dcfoemed,

., in its or.:i,glna] staLe' (oomfigura.tion

Tl'hepl'eSGD.t ,cbap1teJ: is d.ewtoo,to p:reclse~yt.h[s kind of geemetdcal 'DOlJllpanson between two SJiJ.lIpsbots.,withou.t l'Ieg,&rd to. intermediate .pos~tioo~.. T.hroo ooll.ceptscaw itmmed]a;tely be .k},llllltH.ied in sud'l a.COllll~e::'(l;.. CO~ltl,ective :t~sporl; or trans:port b;y moHon, already latrod need. in ella-I])'" ] (See~. 3), e:xpr,ess€stne fZtCtt.ba:t the Saine pm:rtt:ide eeeupies dif:..· FooeIn!~llosi't;[oM re:~lht~\fe'tofE'a_me llm. 'O(}I'lI_figu[at.~ons a>_nd ..,;~. Fal· fix,ed .. I ~ J a1l:ld tl~he ~dor~W1ctiOiITh tP g].v~1 ail1. expHdt l~epr~sent,aM.on of the oonvect~V'€ t.rMSPOil't of :pmiUcle X between ~o and. lit! (l.lli)

m~1
-~
--

Fig ...1. l)~~ 8t~pmg:

a ]bloc].;: ofp:Jast:[dIiilB.

(l~ D()uW'o~, P'.b D. tb.es]!iI UI71,. .•

CEMEF)

381
Thil

Chap'er

n.

n.rm".. 'iOD

e]lIJdd.abesth.e notion of mat,erial point. \¥ewm need to formuiate the .~de of convoctivet[[,'m1sport fO'f oUler simple mat. erial elements, '[h.e fmnsJ~:nw:tlttion suffered by the sJf'stem [i.e, theblock], 10:[ by part of the :te:m between, ~a,nd ~~, [15 defined geQmetdCf~U.y bythe fni~ctiotl ¢tor fixe, t! X running over the\folume,Qb cccupted b,y t he s'ys~em. i~'lI'i'(j'.' ]le ci!ejo1"'1J16;tion between ~I and K~refers to the pert of the transfortaaUonthat effect~ a change in shap e, i.e. "t'lae extent to whichthe geometriea]
j I.

.s

'tr _'Ilrm.a!l::icmsll:iI'@lfer]. by the sys'te:m be:tw~en. J<i:o lill m isom~ru,
]j is

,~!!.

diffm's, froma
'4:}lnl,lJl,le

tliri~d

impOi!.'ta_n.tto remember tbat we all'€;dealing wi.tb the
'Oll€: Kt,

geo-

i
\
\
j
I

eth

m@fi.1!~cm comparisoa ,of twn snapshots" i' ,B,:S result of the translormation
I

chosen as

attl

\Ooosseshere, The

QJ,>gWDe.l!lt

t in (1.1) or

There
~t

]S

a" relereuoe ,ft;OI, and th.e no appeal to intermediis ;ill partlme'~ r and HOit IlL

~iJXi:,le.
, 'eba~ chosen te em ]lh<'lll8~8e the ~n~rinsic: olr coonfin'Q,te indep€n dent ex, presS~fllinsof foemnlas in this book, wri'tlng them mterms of Euelldeanvecto-

~

rial, a.ndi,te'l'lI50riw (Ibjiect~., (Nolte Ulait the corresponding in A , , ,endix II Seet. 5.)"

n{J'tatiQ:r~i~ defined

,2., ClIODvecti.ve Transport

:iLn Bo:mogeneou5 a
:2.1 Homo'le:n@;cms I
1

'nan~t7orDlaUon

Tr'a:nsml'·Ill:la.ti:OD,

In F~g.lj we C~Il seethatthe deformatien ofthegrid between, eonfiguratiens ~ a' i. ,~~ Is: not the Slam.ea,t caeh point, There is vertical str'€ltddng .n~m,r the 10 Dtr,a,li exis and fia:ttening an the 'edges. It is i.ntuitive]yc]ear that the inves ~~t],o~'l oftransport, transtoematicn ~ud1 defo.rm~t~Cln mentioned. a.J)Q\I'e

wiUneraUy 'ha.;veoo be ,ea.r.r.i.edout on a. ].oca.l level. It, ,Do .first siI:i@p,let us eenslderthe simple case of a
ffl\ai~'01 ,

hO'1'I:wgert6(j<us ~'f'(:J,nsJQ'r~

in which ell elements oftb:e grid are defonned in precisely the same 2). In ~rder 1i;01 give :IlII ma;t.hema:Mcal formulatkm of this notion, choose <'3,l'lty ooordimrulle s~r:5tem, R: ((J~~]l!~, ~) forthe frame ''"R, in whk:'h eonfigurasions ~[JI and.~ 2U\e ,observed., Tbe!ll,()t~'t~o:.n, 0 ]V[ , Xi ,X_~xi ~~ :ha.-':lt:h@!'!aJ~U!! l'lJJ.e.M1.brug .!Vi 00 1:111 !hap. I, (Sect. '2.3). 1'h.e.n ,8, bOl1!10,g,enemlls,~ranSIDQ]'ma:t:lOlJl. from no to. ,~t is one m 'l\'!,l'.b.ru.ch,1!_ of (11L.1) is represensedbyaa affine m.a:pbetween OOO'lId~:I']Ja!lJes
w.8:y (:'ig.
1 ~

;];'~ ;

.; =~I ~',0). • 1 ~ JIL'I .~,~.:::!

(._?•

r)
.:II..

."Surti."
onto]'

H. ,ooe oonside:riugthe
j

elf dsflned by th~P:

linear ma.pping o:l:t]l,e Euclldean space (frame :R.) j (t ) in. 'th€l ccordlnate sys:t@liI1 R, the associ.atoo,

,ooll"",.tiOllior ",poa,orll uldice,.

I

It must also sat]sfytb. .'mel1J..1 -e .' t') v v <.2 Ma. "= -~j D(.c]es occhlpying a straight ]hl€l s@{l. 3.1rnl@ t.'JJ1l x2 ::I~3). these particles occupy ~ straight Hne se:gm0!!JitJH1vP at 1.3) clearly satis. [ The vector MoNl~remalns a 'Vectorwhenteansported by the motion between conf]guraitio:L1IsKoand I!\.e] . the reference eonfiguretiou..y cmld!tiOQ5\'\ri~h t~~p(. Sect.3". 3~ w~nO'w consider the set ofpall'tj..:.2) . \iVe mat:y them s. (SeC't..teria1 Vector and COIlvective TraDs:pol't Rjefer.. Chap.. Because' (2. X + ~(t) . X2..4) whence the cQ-ndiiticH11 :[) <: det =~..t. <:: Ftt).3.€ condition wl!ler'E:~(t·)denotes " ('I'"""J :"( '. 00 '.~ ~= F(t) ..(()1'1 in the sense introduced in. The function ti> thusdefined by (2. D(Xl. <'.pe.bi]it. the vector cl.5) 2."".lctto X that were reqntred ]l1i Chap.) specifies an affine [elation.2.(!:r"i~l'v1C!'.~k of i1.. X3) 1 I (2. .00.rirug to Fig.' j (2. I.t JVJoM~in. m(~t.yand differentia.Hes the (ionJti!lluH.{t) ~~.

2 .. we introducethe second rank te:rJ. C and ~Irespec~i rely.. .~ is the paraJ~eh~pi ped withv~rtex M the PQ~gt. vector triad.rt3SlSes the cof.J ~ ~- .at].Glr associated .~III C" counterpart under eonvective transport inso the configurasion ft... Q deduced from A :.eseooll:s©<f8 is cl~aJE~tn.r€tat~on hI (. .l.~..be vBc:~orMo.c. §_J (J = IJ II~ UI)£Qr V aJ..QfiS. and the eorrespondiog vector fill NI' [Ufi. •.. .Mo ill K[]! by V.:port and Expansion of a.. Re:f-erdngto F."....~ ®~l .. (2. 21 3) :u. evenwhen the bases same. .lb ~ .aUcallyusooin F'brV In .nd .:iUltt aI"€': O::lctua1Jyt:he co.tbHY :re:ferto. It can he '~\ld. t.!llling the This 110'tatLon.r.131 C by the eonvective transport (2A3) . e ~2 + C @~3 .'® ell . J 2 Tbe goomettica~ !l ! m~pp]D...to a.UnGar.1JJd ~ (i = I. bewritten ~= F(t).Deno&iugt.3) that the m. V .6) This €J::p. when decompos.1 1Xans..4 ~ .:801''s2 ns Fit = A ..11\ homogeneous transformation.i V ~i ~J t .t by Jb we find from (2.If Ul.e1 + b CO (3.otion tran5po!rtio_g :ll. It is sometanes coavenient to chose diffe:reil1lt bases in "R.hl't us consider a paraflalepiped of l'ii:odefined by one vertex: atN10 andthree linearly indep endent vectors A . ) ..". 114"l Bind defiuedby vectors g J' ~.. ~l .3) Implies that the mo~]on tl'anspo:l"ts any linear submemifold of ~O[n. +B ..6) ]8 dei9!l:]Yunchanged.e The affine character of therelatiou (2.:r~:Hg1l1r...F = a ® . (2. ..Q:Qi ~d fJt (If thesetwo parallelepipeds. linear submanlfold of ~~ withthe same dlmension.fi. Let us establishthe rela:tionbetweeu&hevohll11es.'. as a way of d]sUn.spor't oj a vee tOT fn . The lntrmaic fcrmula (2..".tte:n.guh.a\Ds(m:m tbe it[t€rp. Volum.ved'i·vetmn.e'XpUc:i:tly I ~or ' .is system.oa. 13.h(l V can . To this end.~.2 -+..". i.l1g V hI ~o and ~ in i'I:t~.'' {V~ = VJFi cr(tL~i ® pet) = f.7) some textbooks..~i!l1ltot:he tr]ad!s A.~g.

.5)hi Sect..the resul t dearly extends to the volume of a regJ.J ~ aiDd. (2.lh'l det F(t) ~..I~. .·. (A ~ B'.4. Qfthiepar.U) Sincethe transformaticn is homogeueoua.." given ('2.2' ~..1Id (:t In) together ~we thus obtain the re.[atlolrl betweenthe t\\I!Q volumes correspncding 'via convective transport under a homogeneous trensfonnation. . (g ~~~ .j-I. " J .a''F'bltmriJ....'.off .10) Putting (2. (2. det.) r€r~rs..7) the caleulaeien of det .!.1r(~ay also p~ove convenient .he form (2.. In this case.Co .y. F(l:tt~ij 0(3. jj]a..The quantity J{t) -lis t).o. ".F(t) ]8 the 'lJ.. illfboth bases ere OlttbOH.@.~e8 one of th..ill bases {g~} U:J...us P()IU~ n is c:.9) aJ.'9) t'~. an: just the scalar tdplie products.~.ol'!:l. known. i.8) (2. ll[fF( .JJ]] Do . nort.Q.a]1el'epiped:6 in~t and KO :3 det . aJ~o calledthe of current volume to initfalwolurne t hie b~i~i~~Qtort110lt'1(l([!l1~11' 'tQel4letwQ determlnanes are proporl.uoIl!. the ()t!l'.-.. seme cases.'§}.n.l 'I·basie lor ~l an 01 .me e~anston under the homogeneous transformatlonbet ween in]tlal and current configuretions .. ..0 cnoose ·ri>.6)~are related by: (2..-". 3.i llOMld o: Note that the volume €X!Dans. :iJ llWben I. romorrn . tvo be defined in teems of.:h . .he signed volumes nt and Go.ful. ~ Q)~ equalto t.F(:t) obvioil:ls1y~qui.. > •. det[af< Fj(t)). J{t) = det .~ai)'e ill 01'\":0.al..i "VVe oht1ll.fl\ (:}:IlJ..Ea ~ { det!A- n~ '~ no.km.l~r: = at' £to( " or !. A".is wT'itteniut.orlll}. u.aj with the sameorientaetcn it is 'VOl'"t}~ noting tha:t we simply ha:ve: detF{i}= det[Fj(t)].~o the :ratio .i. as tbe c1!]bic~1 d i~O:l:t~Uo~~. . and det ~.c M .'. ti~ volume lrat.' rt it 18 .~J whkh.fen" . .

e haee w 'fher·egi.A···· .is defined by the transported sllu:fa..a:tion oCtile aurfacewill change in the frame 'R.Fis.~[!".y UV .. ehoiee . This suda.et..dl I'D. It 1}"]l0 velum -'.Q.[!.cuP'yin.aJ1sported. is neither 7)9'1"0 nor LnfillilIJe. 3.g. '(Fig. havethe same :sign.cri..rans[pod" bethshearea Mr:ld. cOrl_se['"'l.l[· peodueta .e Ojt~eWlit~tlioEii aJb~ut Th.iJ5~ndepe'Jlde]!}..OW examine the convecti VfIl tra:nspon-t of a 2~dimB:n:d. " _.r.r~po.ra:l'Jispo[ts~o a plane surfsee of area a inftt.curve: 0]1 A~ orleneed mO!JmO!Hi ist..WethUJS. and~hevo~umeexJP~~on.. '''''f. (Sect. We . in lito.s:h.~ry'\lecto[ ~'!'V .:!:...t.""".141) 1:1 a: dOS'ed clilllrve on awi:UiI.!..~mouDts t~.tra.. n. ~1111 .'~l'p[e~at... _"...5l .o.Md ~..t ofV. ..0i3Q the cylinddcaJl:e:gioru 5".h. and t~i§ i~wbat 'l'\f6 eimto make ex:p~icit.. h~ such a way that t:I'UJi !l!ca~3.c...Ch eonsider V~·~~.ruT/ace OfD.J(X. . and 1T@!I~ .c: (2:.~.ap. .2) of I.on oorn~spondingtQ' tMs under convBdivBtran:sport. l'"U~·"'. vector ~.V and.I..ce . tblil sam.i'ingthetra~n:lS¥el'5e orruel:1!t~tio[!l of u'U:~Sli.g a p~a. ill 1\. It .~ -.lLr-f6Ce: a dosed ..1!.eriaJ e:lemel1!t~..""'-.!iJ" ...~. DUl"]ngt.deRme the &l'\e~vector A=AN inthe COlwgrru:alt]On "...1totlD..n. . andthetr. m anarbkt.h:~l'Ji given in 'Ch.N' .~".I". ill.he· eO:fIJdJt~on (2. KG. return tothemb.l1 .e.aJm~t.'-'b' __ .[1:ed w ~. C'hoQ-.ent..5) imposed 0[1 .. ~ with base oorn1i~ W''aitionK.[J..sing U1!€l: orient~Uon of D:~ml~t normal vedorto a.JOO A rml ~. Let N be the unit normal vector to the surface A. cOlllsmting of thepart]cllieg oc.. t) = deit F(t)~ the or'~e'lWtaUm~ the region o[ is eonservedbeeween /\..

~a.g homogenOO!ll9 ban:s:formatiolll mom c01llfi.shaH put this idea to use in the following.of a .t.1 material vectors as tb€. (F'(t).ho.14) a.'V@cthre type t:r.· carried between .Now (2.Sect.r::o\o:da..at A4.IIJ'8 'oons~de:r ehe evehlti. n~Q)= det F(f)Oo(.non was conserved.1 (2'. Defo'f':mation in a Homogeneous Tt-an__sforma.(\m!JJwetj'v~'trO$ospar.o.'Y ali.a.! no and nt.guration.@metry (prcdu. use the polar' f'aCtorisationto .6)! ' 1 . oYI<he scalar product of any t\\I{. 6).yi]J. W = (!:{t) .S't.KO and . it fonow!5~ha.!Il:dVVetwo vectors .:ij.tl.!! and w the vectors b co:n~ctiv'cly trat1:sportoo to .Q'WMJrls Iit~apMt fromthe 't.tan~da.t ofi.:b1.CiomhhllJin. V').i'"Bct i.surface under .:go~rng fram Kotoo l'ibi~j . !:.y defermastons in thegeometry .[lij (2:.wl!2en. 8.18) which describestbe t:ransport o.tO <ooMgu.tmia~vec:tClrs): OU[ !I.s. ~ll (2.t.efonned .g (2. no&a.t.['·e:n'l: in its CQID. v= (d~t!(t))A.F(t).~11IfO {F]g. if the orienta.4 where we shall.:i.o "!ilrWdJl.•Therewoaldbe no defonnation of tiTheystem In thetranss f'ormat]ontWom liCoto~~ ifthe distances between the geometrical positions ()If malteJ.!.fJ1 .s withth. These ~". ~~!) j .. hemogeneons trar.0 containing Mo 1.~.1l) gtV@S.:s.e/(nmai1..1 and.4.lli. th~~re.ong and rotations in ]13) .tioil1JJs aro€:a.13.y.QDl.).anspo:rt t.oi(1.t~o:nCWfryLng Motor lil.17) V11.a-a. the sJsvem~s .ometry.kn.otrans:fol!'ma.on'b@t.eorrespondingvohnnes aadertbe . and more }J[ieetse[y\vitll theldea of d. COilltra. 3.d."It.t (2. UlI). In order to brmg out theextellltt.~.[sfonnatiol'!1. hO.V that a r~gionit]! . 'We . lntultlvdy the notion o:P(l.IDJ::Idergoest'!!¥otransfarmaUons of quite d:iffG.a.H3) nda.cl. Le'tV ..C't oifl:.s.Elipoints inthese two oonfigurations were invariant and.io[]J fiil-~. stretch and ~ Jatatio'J]!. (2 .tion purpcse here Isto stu.~m~lCi!ldergoin.a.NJl) H€J:11Ci@.fan o:dem~ed. preblem w hieh inVioivestbemetric! le:I. (2..M in K~ (ma.

"'. Q(t) .0' (3.l "'.U allows U5~O express the scelar product of trans:portel vectors. CF(t) • F(t:» . Gmen (179i3'-1&41).. JL = - IBf2~ O.....<".vo.e:Kpl!'CS8eEl ]alb product of the initialveetors [:soo Appendix l~ (.. . .' _. 'teu25or. (3.. in...Wl"..6..ed into..ogonoo".hus .1 u.e rlght C~IH:::hy-G[oon t~tilSor .. I1.. G.~ 'i'f' \ .l K detCft)= I - (det L_ F(t))2 < odbo[lj[umaJ 00.i<>'lJI~tio.". I[) H:@.id confuslen. orag<ID.'i.J.et.J' .~ethen A. ~em.l!!i~.. W= (y. .nu sym .50 ' ."'.5i.tillm .iQO 1"". . J .. tF(t)) .Ill. I I Fig.-~'~~'~'~~'.""'"... Sect.. teID'IIIll:S of the uThitiaJ vectors..V" O(t) .ll:tb.3) Th''e tensor G'(t)t. ~ 1 u:~eair ]!Qlm. _ by (2.... .of the deformation . 8eC't.__.nchy:-Creel1i i strain te:0801'..m' "'I>.. which ...-.tia[!." I I I L ..2) Th~s 1le:n:sOi["s caUed Ca:lilchyls denOtlD.V= (I ~ V = QI.41) "'um'. for the scalar product of veetors '£n. f'l:t.JJ)..50)]i: (3. ~.'i C·"")"'" a.. iN" . D~fN'm_a. .i.]ogue Orf the meteie tenscrjl.U.~~ .~ <il>QL.ap]?eaTs 0[1 ~.C(t} ..c. Jl. fnIl!chY (i1l18Q l. (? 2")" thlit' ~b:'-]'.].. 5:1) !l.''''''''' hi" checked '~. ha.5.1_) tha.a. _... 44 I Chapter n. "}.••j.. n..e.~\.: ""I'". """.~ttempt fuoa. 'fir" (3.1. l_f._.or:.) . isan bmis (gee App'endh:: I. 1l.~ 00 the ana....) is oJjecMve: 'rI ~ ..1. H"". or 'the right Ca.!. (l:(t) .__ _ "0 W".8S 7). 'we shall adop'fu the tm expan6iiow.lted quadratie form is pcsltlve de£n:lte since <p as given =.W) =V . .l . ". 1I.. in all . .'1 Fbrt]jj" sake of hrevl~Yl and. W = V .:ve j 1 r~ 1 ~. (').S@ocia.' (0500 Appenrnx.Its 8...

< .V in theinitial oomIiguxat]OD ~.. ]:2). ~L2j dilIe~ent bases are usedin ~ and ~~. ij beoom€8 =g.engll.!.>r..!I1l loep.€!e )Fh ~Ff:i ~ C .2) '1'i.H""· ~NIIi"!! ~r j " HI . vecto. Pnt'Ung ·\l=~Vh:l ~:. . V !.l.s]15...resent!:lition- WriUng out (3. ) .llitl aJl~rbi~r<Jl.-3) I.: • ..f Its transported ]m.~ by (~.(h (3.111.figur-aUon ~h as is coannan ptantice 1.es~~t1 in Sect .!.r R V i~ defined to be the ratio of the length o:f U:rlt~ to that (If thevectorV in the h:ntiaJ.0.tl:ie ~mo5.\I'l!:IJi that ..tioll tl).i~)in (3. :st.' (:~:. . .~olJl 3.2} { _ The expansionteosor b e'twoon~1J and ~~.h o.8·'tfiet!ch iin On. zy!["..2)1 it fona".3) is the twice COVaria.15) . . "BI 'Q'.a_. t _ I~I=-'-'. L. the experimentaleorstext (s@:eFig.Ctj~.tllatm·aljr'\epl'\ese!ntatiQn of Q(i) based O:~ the de:finingre1<:Ltion (3. .·V'· C· 'if)· -.ty ha..e containsall inJ:onnatlon n~ladngto the change of :mJ!!It:ric The aim here is eo compare thelength of <:h vector .ge i_nthe ocm. s ~t '""~ .l!gg. l:' l t::A I~~.wlthtb:e]. .'1<.! J = '(:11.helll F{t) has tll@ natural represel1taUo.' irnpbiog that Cij={g.3)) we obtain The stretch ~n dirndion transported vla. @qua\t.L<. Direc·t.ngi. oQlldigm:a.

l'ec'tors of the 1 a .them. HO:~']1Qgenoous tll:all.e tlll.h. for a pml" of It is g "ridly posi'tivl~ and HnUe.tretches Thegrfundpal Mea ot the real symmetdc Euclidean tensnr O( t) are defined.ong V is defined as (3.o -.] dir'ec:ti'(Ul$ in ~[l f) in t\". olrlth. :ELl1d.1l1t:naUy orthogonal y and l¥.pair of orthogoD.p al Axes and Prwcipal S.W b~twom. In .Let us COil"llSlder t.V)1/2(W...ne the angnrua:r. It is UfieflJlto write tms forrnnla .7) AV)='~.F:ig. oo_sf'O'rm. 5JJ1) Th'ey Iie along the el~n'l. We d~6. In component ~cmTI)choosing a basis l'l'itb.t:iCl'l1S.zaloug .[ directians.8) sm. {3.le.!iI. [18.VVe then.~ c:teM]_y i'i:uiuCl2 ffill'llgu~~r vaJ~ia.~. anrl.J£:)l!12 . L~iV. angle b etwean twomtll~'ifd<Ll vectors that are initiaJmy orihogmtfJJ (see :Big... in.5fQlrm~tiOll: anguJar dis~o:rtjon.extemia1! 'ratio aJ.mt:~oiDI for 'this ..e cHMge in. m (Sect. 7).C(t) .dj:st.at]OIl :fr'om 11::000 I1i':hooibe mi'n~ 'the change in angle between them:~ 0·' Ol"U'lJogonal Dlrectlons (3. fr H'': . aPalr Theehm:tging 'crH~. The unit extension or . as expl ined in ApP'@ndb. G{t} .l61 = _ . An~ulal" Distortion.et. 14 for an arbitrary furaD18fonn3iHolJl).utuall. _Q_(t) .tric wi.'lO) Prt!d.y orthogeuel vectors at Mo in KO (FIg. unitedQ17S ~land :!!..

(t) gi.be dJiag-onaJised form of Q. choosing an orthenonnel bMJ. g~!llJ~(l'UJl orthol1lo[Jl1~l.of principal axes in ~Q •.i.rL~ C(t) o:f G{t} ls i/..10) i:mpH. Th r~1: . 3)~ .th[leee::lgen.j.al8 AH.'t:rix.re'fti~e (.re 8tl':iCt~y :pos~t1ve b@CalUS€ the quadr.-~Hovari~t. triad of principal ~es for (: (t).Dsme:ntioned~ (3. .~ has the' 6~me . For this reason.Q[S (If Q(t) in a mi.c farmV. ~.·.tuaUy odb.'!i and denol.a]i.o. Jltprovides. basis.'. 14) m: geometricaUy. ~es~ wem..11) in [rmlpiiest]a.t[0l1l.3.tbisb<'lS~s. App:~..linearmapp~ng~50c~ated..t.l ditiOCtiomi in .plles..tio]is C(t)colincid:e): of (.:~ axes of C (t).e-rmom.u~ray 'Of detenllmin.12) fromwmch ~i (3.of e(jl') a.n.-.the:J:·es no angular distortianh"i""the eOIll!wctiv. t:b.ri~~~pal G1£e5 .~oaJ.w]ue.wg the Isige:ov:dues of C(t) by C~:(i = I! 2.es.5iJ £11 !'2 .preserwtst·he stret.fo:reachpair ofprinc:ipal axes of C.C (t) ill tills basis .o.Ml. oflhonon:naJ bO.re dbtain~h.bis :prope:r~y is thus aeharactetistlc of~he prindpa:ill axes .t'!6j' t is oft.~t. lIJsefu. 1 ) = ~(~) .y (Fig. lai!!.ep[iesen&a.6 im. that t:he ma.ti(ln~'liq~. He'Il!ce~Ai re..e!.ay bdng out their basic The.~ is .·ch a.sing an.e same o:itentatkm.e tr.10:01 the p.K.1 'beci:liID3€ d!3'tF (t) is :pos~twve~ the mu.tdad .ldde)~ ( and di. aU i l'ep:re~e~b!tjJ)~u.[. prE!llCt~.ding the eigetl"!lect. li:o..3.d .g them experimelllm. the: Ai ~e caUoo.dilleC't~. ~ (l.mns: 01"thogonaJI.'1)ect'i'vel~ ·t'rans- 0I.i.fJg mO)tG paJrsi o:fpdllclpaJ. '\vb!jcb rem.a. .rwTIlciplSil axJis:§.o1~ted to orl.~~J2i5pooitivie definite.lM'~a.ddtes.. V:.I:usport from i "[I! to.acgol1aJliseC (i).ogcflnaltriad OE directions teansported into K. with C(t). MIn: oeher wordl. Indeed. :1!Ll1lY tria<1 of orth.e simple expi.. a.y$.at T.obo .ogonal directions imf{. This speclfses t. I~deed~t.re con.'3.otien~atto~. a Gouve'I'.!!!oo :re]][e5e~iJi.ml.bep:ri~diPi9J ~es OOIflsistts hl fh'n.iU. along thepnncipa.g~be ..th.h:reemutua!ly orthogoea[ directions in tile 'OOll!r6~Il'a.) under OO:ll'Vlect.11) In .O(t) . (t) we ll111St have sln () = 01.OOB® a.l¥et. s the oreigi:n.~oon:tm:v. p:ropedy.We shall Ule:[e[o.1l in . Choo. 'the pri'il<dp~l$~:r. FU:rtb. (h'UJwhieb.e~ion (all I.a.8li~y~.9.m diagc.J ~. geometrical. (a..e m.ov@u (. (with.ag(}'n.~.i'bt foct:h€ p·rrnndpa. ge:n~al m~tbodfor d~tefmi~~:ng 'l:.no{Jo'lHj.Ii'~llspO[t frmu I\.3.01 Q (t) in the c-{lnfiguMtio'n .oo better to OO.

.48 Ch~ptef U.ear~y" \:ll . 8) .V .et CcC't)" = till /'1..1 ..'tfa .~y l'e~8i't"ed! tothose of Cr(t). .p. "f . are thus [ed.3.14) Propertles The Oreen=:Lagrang€! strain tensor clearly has the same principal axes as .5) artd {3.1 '01 .!..tiolil.K Ull' 1" I' 'I II I .]ly~ this result Is imm@di31t~l if we' .AiI1 _. The e~Jgenvalu.:= 00 th" Gre~-Lagrn/Ilge tensor-or G'tee1t-S.pplying (2".G:reem-La:grang.11).es e~ aJ'\~. &~I~) and use (2.Mng he difference 1 I.\3 j. Jt).the clnserelation between tensors P(t) aJ:ldl. Deforn1.e expresslon £01: scalar products hetwoo.u 'tra'nspo.5)" det F{t) :=: Al .~y b ~(O~..Q(t). Thda t 'nsoJ:: (a.\2.!l. . called pdncipel strains and a.t diin~!Ctiou.)e the ' cala!" product .t Ve:nacntstmin ten-. tv ~.3.!.2 \ 3 d.and (3.th.!t.sn-.etrk:a.we can now oom.m1.consider the ooQ'.'aif~. VV _. laO) Btm'i'n iis !k_nO\vn .rted or initial vectors. Cl.vective.or for whieh we have established (Fig.e Strain Tensor DefinltioH Eql!JJaUons (3.p6J. ..3.4) bdug out . w -V + '2 V.ch i1il tha:.F(t) -3ll) ... 11) 1. ". to.7) defined the unit exsenaion In a certain direetion in terms of tbe stret. in . JJl' '" (. ~eE(t) "F(t) -fi) . J'i1l1St as {3._noo:r denoted ~(t). ei'~ 1(\'2 2. define a new S'gm'n:u~'bicbe. Wi in (3..~.2 ""iI ' '.t:nmsport~ of: the cube (§."'@ find CeOi!ll.. . by cwlculla. so that a.a.o "----'----'. (t F'(t) V .1) with i s value in the reIer-efice conflgurasicn. 6) .~. w . »" " K'..

vn (Sect.e=:-t[ '.~~ v w = 11 .. rigid bodyt:l:aus:fhrma.ome npplica:tiQ'ns.eJ"[[u..(A:p'pendix I. (the Hnea. . eensritutlve equations of then1l10e:h~1..e.Equ~tioIlS (3.ntlge strain tensor is then sere: g(t) = (1.IO) givIng the stretch. de:fo:rIDatiooO.= = C(t) = tF(t) . it entersthe linearised fcrmulas when small.em. pet) = ft.tion between .tv .obviously' related tothe clefol'tl1I8IMon (]if such an element than the expansionteeser. =-t:re 3. I ~(!!knO\!'~ the e:!.. In particular. sero when Uru.. a.<1:$l$od{ilted w~l~h .~.oo here b:}f l'fl.exarm1p]e~ the Urma. 3· ~=.jla.is I 1s:ia·f1] d<€'fincr] try (::).·eciflelywl~yt:be Green.:risoo.~. i.-.f\.f tl:l!l3i.:te1:I:sio.r.ll') ~e. II1 = "tr e .'r). 5.La.i..we obtaimill :Eroi.F::(t) is ~ oota:t]cm).. (3 [5) a.eLUii~om.g n.I:=-tr'l. Sinc.1) is ~ot ]in~].6) 1to (S.13').2:=-t.n i.iU (3. 'l'h@ Gl'~e.ate1:iale~e:m. so that II ~ II « ]::300~ for .r n.8.(3.u[ar..~tioIi (3. VlIV • =. TenSioF and. e2 .[l]iWI:i~llt8 of .g-.. In The :n:adei:' should Ilote that~lIoe unit .re luwe \. Green:-]'. I.~ .) a direct~sometry~".s of ~(t) by lejerrit~g to the de6nitio!:l parti<.Il.10) the iJ1el.['aiD. This ]. . beexpressed int.B of the materialare eoastdered.e. =t Jill + """"". unit eXIt.e I ==2 = .y related ~Q ~(t) ! For ::."]Jl'esslon fur detP(t) o.ticity ]:ll Cbap.e I it mmoDe . Sect. :Rigid Body TramdormaUon In 8. 5). dengt.ro.and nl:UiglJlla~ dis- 'h)[Uon Cal]..!r' map .-tagitQ(l1ge straintensor it is.1nID te!l:'ms = 2 ) 1..oBInd fi>h [..grange St.spJ.ent remains nndeformed ]. introduced.

18) It!) lYIf' In o:llderto' s~md. tb.OOnooin dd:!.~. V . 3 r<' or by cOl]lwctive ttmlsport 1"'(0 ~ 3'1'~~ 2 t..~e~:r c:ou. rigid bodytransfcnnation in going from K:o t.iong .t:g under C!HI'.is positive.intn K:~! sbo\fll.a:te.s of eft) in KOand. vector F(t) .€: which c~n]estl:nce triad du~diO'DS...-1 (t) .l@d~a:t~ly obvlous.~.:'\ '.o:na.\ l' TI't1s . 7.y in the Ibwo oonffigura:tiolf!lS h~ve ldeueteel erlen .17) (3.it the system undergees a. We write - {3. the LUu:ltmaJily At. 4. F Cornsid!l!Ml"t.hel~.ab~eilDi. Itl.t]on t.il H!.ffilLougthe .t'b. 3 and.~:11 Fig.operty ~mipl ·th8.11 hI . because 'we do not know a priorl whel~er (." e 'Carli.cJaltiedteJUioli. (t) .. Cm]<:s~lrJm'the :pnn6pa~.~ort.1..t) .) lmplies homogenei ty of t:het:lI'a. 3.e!J prhldpru .'1"'l1!d~ve traJ..rorethe· mta~wn oftheElId~d. Defo:rrrnn1!lltion to the one discussed ...u:.UO~iii baeanse det.~t R(t) demote tb~ OS"S'O. t.d!inlcdm:t(ollliDd i tim mitial prim:i". ""is in "".51 G. also.. . above.ot :imm.. l.ttteil'iPQ!t. .. wa.dyment]ol1led (Sect. .mineUlle convesseprcpoeition uam y~does the pr.!l!Xis of Oft) and evaluate vector V of dJ.1s n.2).nsFoirmatloIL We shall return to tJ:Iils question in.obrt.~ on:~otboo~ In eon:l1gura.. sp.eaN. in.!1Ition. .'.Y 2 1 ! I . F(t) . Seeta.l:5.·V = ..tU:'.~ lies . 50 1 1 Ch~pt(l'J·:n.ort.d!s. K.J1.[tl'i~.. cO!iJJ:5g. exa. the lir!e'8:rffi!~' ~ciatedl W]th~(~)~CQn5idel"a ".

defo..~e fl-.. fb~. tl 'C' ·t'· ... '1 ' .r]c]pal axes of Cft) .. I '.20) TL1LlS decompositionIs s:traintel'!.19).g the AJ!na.along U~eJei!let11}ect'07~.~itJe.0l1l rotatlou compo5cdwl. e:xpr~':ed by (3.o:n.lS~ength IF{t) . g.V\v..1J0s1. V i = . 3. 'We thus alf:rtve a.~HI.t the :p.oial'factcrisation 0:[ F(t).(V)~JI [.'iJitm~"!l transforrIlLa:tlo.ltter is aeeerd- ''I.-: .. The la. D-.scl'I. a:pp. more closely asoooeia. I· .= ~[lthe orthononnal besia of plr~.aocesby the co:nvective tr.eontinu.i'~jj.of 'Wiih ~(t) .~'i!''t)~ch t.Qciated .tem.': C-ase _ .2}. '1'· "'. apart from ..r<jlln8por.lli) is thus assumed to be arbitrary.wector l/ and.t.l:njdTh 1~B8in..\..!il (:l'i"if: .iIJ.nera.. ' _ - Let us [lOW ta~e up the study Oft.O. c'· - I'..and ate u01"'rif!sponding eigen'1Ja~ue.e._.S. [ (Sect..nrm. .:l .IDg '~O (3.ng the inverse :rota.19_OnUIUUITI.bf.b]ong~he l)ri[ldpal~e5 !iiY!iitem ]8 . the same directionas the inlti.th a ]]ll:6m'map of C(t}. .~ th(J U~OOf \1:rU~7J'pin9~Bs.".·' (t) to the ol1e .' 4-. G-"'I . I . - (3. we oMai~li a veetor R-1 (:t) F{t} .gllfa!:ti.ltive called the riyht .17): the baiul'" fOl.d. "'t and other (e.-l j 111 other words (3.of the eigenvalues" whose e:igenlll'ectol. In particular we have {4.rul.€! gen~ eral case \V here the continuum undergoes a quite ar.Hy andccnsinuous dtf~· Eel~~ntiahiJi~y oom:UHons ]a5id out in ChJtp..I} The.d.[tf[€ct®d 0[1 the trisd oifprlrndpa.ith the Iconfi. §(t) can be written..e~QT of the sY8.hp()s. pri1~c1pal axes oj C{~) Ue.t" .Jl:siteu~()r).oit. I..tedw.2} .nnatiofiS in 'th.n between I'LQ &L1.Rlon f' -11.l.ra!]sp.::.. Thevectoc function ·ifJ in thero:nmda (4.' .'m~tiQJ:l .tion R.-'- . . I' ..'s Hef.lyi.

~imt Mo inthe arbitrary tra:nsfCilrm.be two bracketed.place j' = ['!loP.oint" We may then . (4.I'o.e trMSttOrmlLtion.3) (4. ~ of a.. (4.)anii.1). ) 1 = 1 I ..horne of the present s'tudy 18 that we t.p i3 tangenttQ the map. .h.. Fgr a . TiJJ. t) isthegrn(Uent Sect.Nlo) =0 .4)] .'~:.o b. ~)Xli] + (".'Y a homo~ gen..b~eaU()..M~ Io( M.)) attime ·t in t FhO (Append:ixE~ 1 R(X ~t) = v¢J(X.f (4. terms intheseselatlons defiae anaffme map between x» and.ws usto write the f:oHuwing r~bldoltlS (i= . 'We have Coofij':rruabes and (4. I).] + I Nl. (M .the results of Sects.ebmie princip[e underlying the ". particle in !Ito and ~.) (4. Tbis lsshown sch. . D..~(!I. :2 and 3t-orthis tan~en~ map. of (2J.]s tangent to it at th.. X.6) F(X.matio.3): 2 CW1'·. t).~~respectively.gj:V!en by (4.i _ 00 e".t the .em~IM. This ma.th. ..'1>1ou" II. and obtaj][l$OE'mU~M which define the transport and strains arhl~:nga. loooUy" .[m~y transfu:nnatiooJJl.ly .app.4} ~ofthis homogenoo1J..3it:.. U$in the IlIotation.f<i..::. 10. M. .g[ve:lI1point lVl[j'and field poJu1i.§:..4.a.3.. (2.t1II1~iU!I'(ojthe assumption that ¢ in (4.ch.e arMt. I a. 6.caUy in Jr].~.tion fr-om lito to ~~. teach point Mo of . o.2): ofthevector .) where j\4'~---'11\110 lim .8 tangent map at Mo.1) is 'ooutiuUJJooly d~fEeoontie.:lle:kl~cx.e~l1s trarm[urma:t:ioll which depends on AlIa i and wh]..]) ]11 the neighbourhood of lVIQ [because o.

.. lli} 1 dOt = dJJo det(F(X.eaJing W]'~~lthebomo~neoustransF~)rm~t]on\vhi.t ehange of notatiol'].]y~ ]11 the ue~ghbQ1i1rhood of AI[l.2.t.~Q.F t) ~.r:en~!al. apMt from the slljgb.[1 ferentbaoos ~.~fth~tm'n.!.. This ]s done by Witrod:uc]:nginiinifuesima[ fine . 09J.f. (dependen..g SBCUOrus.. practical :POiIlt o:fv'1ewl it is often the most 'couve:nie:ntway dU- ·of Ill) and.1I)J~th.~ the formnlas.S:~nce'we art! d.':I~.8. taking (4.[.~ thls terminelegy may be some:w. map relaees veetors h'llt.3 I.tnat.\ .S..eQUill~ngen1!. . FIX "')1 ='. Vector (4L8) ca:lcula!tm~: the gradiellt (If the 'tU:M1Jjsfor. i) ~ so.ofthe goometrica] conilguratioll8 of the fiiys.h~ I(matmial) de..rma.ma.€! ollly 'vuUd locaJ.II III as.. :illidiea:ted.J (X.j. f\16 sbmll a :~e:fero it as the gr:ad~'ent. fii (i = 1~2'j 3) m:e UStld.Mro:tli. 9 :FrQ!Ill a.elemell~stvol1J1m.e. and so OR.€. .j:nt of vie'Wlll.It ~sorten called.II'ij. \rVe'canwrite From a.HJ) =\..llrld M~ (4. .!i::~'O'~ • (4. Mo.. m Seeilt .of) These are.a. ~lr·m1.oii1lt~ lifo and AI} .ey a.ta'n~ gent air..ol:1 gradiEl]]~ ."'" rn.t 1401. atA40 .([Id2.<>J ~~.be' b~!1l. UiI!. ~. 't.~:rn Q["d~1f to .hatm:isle&lingift.i©aJpo.~l.Jlt.in d~fte.in Sects.~ce$ a:tp..thes€l equati.raUYI' a\lld."-'.ons.~oppear in the followm.1'. 2.sl()rnlati:('J'n3 at 140.a:re often wrH:te:l'Ji.J (J= . and .~.2.i1l.'(mlM a ~~ minder that dD.:..5por'£iqua'"Jons . t A ·t 'E! ...= J(X~t)ldJlb .2~2.ml!e :~1tg~t t1'ector$.ch is.clarify :Bome d]SclJliSs~onJ3.tem lllJi.ru... .5) into oocount ~ d.~fjl a~d.4.og:e~.c€ 0]1 X).'i) Trampoil't of a.J(j. spociaUywhen '(.cbaipte:r..t..j..m!3lt~Qri.e elements..

<Itn coordinates.lt11M [I ]S usually denoted dSi(j' h!JJ . parMde located at MID in tii.di:!]itesim~l nne e]~m~if.15) In o.arlo.rmal Gadesl. In t) ofthe . Surface (4\.on KG whilst the length of its transported l:mage dj.Mis."'t· .13) 4".the 0orid:rugurad.CX.3 Deformations Expansien Tensor (4.lnent It is useful to ].4 IDisplac'€. In eemponents rel a.t iveto an orthonormal Csrteslan ooord:hlrute system" 4. The ].ength of theiJ.Transport of an Orlen1ted.. (4.o~ moving between 00nfigUifoatlom.trodtlce~]n the frame 1l~the displace't'nenf.ill4) ~(X~ t) = ~(tP(K)t) .l1.F{X! t) ~ !J .:r:th. denoted ds: which we shall call the ds2 formula.'!CQ and tt.

()]":isation a .olls1'0:[" (X r t) and g( X.ctO:l·i81a1tion of !.tecl. a po:lM :[IlIi.19) .ngs out the 7:tGn-Unea.4~ we .'Tl'lls V'®C&Or ]8 gi ven Q'Y (4.' Hence. [) (4.16) thalt ) l. At eech timet" .rity of the :re~lildonbetween.e[d at.X.l'lOO'll:!StraJlsfon::'matruQu tlJ)ea:.Lhe displacement fi.Ui) l ~(X~ t) = l\lo~r."ea.e~d. since 'we compm:epooi. .(X.andrelat:i:ve 'to Il Wl!':l thus ha. at dlfferentt:ilnes ~d t. 'Vle :ml£llY tben ded tlce 'the ex:p'l~egsl. the Groon-Lagrange strain.eld and.i!l1i Sect.t): llDl FsC'Ii..f =~.18) This formula bri.:n mBJl!:e (4..11) where ''\7~{K!t) is.ca. It Isthen au innnadiate consequenee (If (4. tim" t and :pob~t t ).. ~edor fielM dejltu::4 on '~Ol. (Note 'that it does depend onthe ehoiee . the g[adient Olf the d]splaof!ruent f]. fi. ~·X. C (41.of 'R. Polar As the case of tbel1omQge.tioru.

cO'S(J s.ft...t) . S~c'~+ 3.R(K.ium.E nil " (4.y Tt..t)om associated wi.'I. This can 'be showa by expBd-]y Icarrying out t:h checking p.' e rp srn 61 ~m <tP sm 6 cos GOS 19 ' ~ We til ~1.~n8J coordinates (]nte.med.t[lUOU8 :syst€m illith as Um\y dld fn ~I!l'.tJI _~. frigid body.F(X J I= ves: t) to the deUnlt[orn glven in Chap.e'T.ut. i) in rn~ffi:ng ffom~olto. It is clearthat we U1JUst us 'h!' lcontinuity of tJi:lll'!. tbey eonseitute t a CO[]!t. thenn elves frame iJliduliere.ansmrmatioD Th oooverse to the pJ.Slri VJ • in _" . the formula. t) has to be the same for e.1lJ. Since ~(X t) has positiv€!' eigenvalues j and since det.3.l1d.at'imu assumes that..in ¥J sin 1/J .'NaAi.iv€:SI f !l!_(X.otiUes or bynotililg . .UII) that I~ whlln:l~ det . 'ype.i:n orthono. dM = F( x.!ogeth.~ C (X .oUB mom 'this 'that..Jltrll• av . In aecerdanee wlth the (I. t). dUM' = dlvllll • =\. (X.]y to show th. B[:Id so 'they U'1Jm!stre]'rM'lllo hI per~~t CO'Dl.~~= ..t of 'x.e tl'al:l~:fQrn!'a:tiQn'of 'tIle system b tween eonflgura~t.one !!IJ.. ..\1.2 and 2.n Cbap.iQn.t) istb _ EticlidMll tenaer IlISsocia:1iied with the rOlta.. .-t)..iudifferent .. Toe' result i:s intuID.hl tensor g(X.nsform.8 ...rQcedul'c iudic~'ed i.. HUi the:n the w~':lo[e system. To tim :ndl let US rBcaUth gen ralexpreseion fm"b_ . Bod.()'COl'. Theexpans.p .cos o sin o/? cos ¢ s. t) bas the same prlncipal axes as Q(X. fini.rl1JS of Ute Euler' a. len bringmg the: principal 2hXes of :C'(K.56 Til mmeeric 't~n O'I SlX. t) in ( .'\_..l". It is ob:vi.ement. and _~_ PJ X .t it follmV's lmmedia:tely from. t) in /. ical proof.'! 005 'l/.4) for tensor qua..act w~th.a.gjfl:· he system in fiO to L'i!!decomposed into i]1lfi!llitesii.t) are also frame 11ldUrer0 . matrtx R(X t .008 cp sin ~ . R(K. THis intuitive a:PP'IQacll leads us to a" :math ma..i..ngEes):' l coo tp cos VJ . l/J~d (}iil>re ind p ndent of X b eql1a:ting th crossed ~oud. it remains orn.x .sin e ) 8~n fJ cos 1f. t} > Ot i then Fo]lows ftcOm I ~~15) and.eD:va~U@S~@qlllaJ... '!XIS .on Ilian·:1" Q(K.~(X.lll nnE! fl.Otb._ iitIDdifferen . Jj(X t) must be the gradient of avector :functiOI !p"Pf t). den of X .=+][ f ¥ MrtJ . i· ied d . deil. W '00 that lS frame ...). ~~" On the ether b1lllndi. i~fr~fil. The t :>'lTh'lor R( X .7). 2.ln . t) R''X J R(X ..cos <P' sin ().20) to demonstrate i hat tb..tioll of F(X. n~.acl\ ' l.4)..:t . t).l ilTl!!a. r (' oct. hR:{X. o.·ut ~~D£'€: the sealar dlV .s (} cos ~ sin t/J ...malparallelepipeds. r.:::::: . 1 1 .• I ! .to '1he' prmciipru tretches. must be I_ranrfo~med by f' In ord tiQI!ilt5o end l the ne r-Q:t~t. t) ~IUj ~tl'(!.\vith. . I I(Sect ... +. Each is undeformed in lif since _JX t) = R" and hence 'iJjndl~]['go~only the rolta.gM'dto rigid bmiy t'tYJ.g. o I Ie Reihlr .-_ . at time ·t. I m~ onto fheiir ba:[~lPiOIrt€d images in . 't) is hldep . dJ'!I il wh' ra d. Let UI.b nee indep nden. dM' ..OJ with correap· dillg ~i.:W tha -ogles.) Rig!. e expressthe foc' th ~tF'(K~t .rope~'y s:ta_oo hi..~t. 2...".tiiv ly obvious . ha... (4.

:i....fi.. 5..3) 6(d1\1.3.. 1Jt{ .:r. '::::::' d.(X·. 'l It )) •.acemG:n~" 111...t) .) .er tothe iincill.2L:iJuearlsed are expanded.t) : red UOe.'maJ Cartesian coordinates.. d:i5pl.2) This isthe sym'rnet:r'ic par·t oj the grndit3nt 01 the.[:ised str. ei (i= I. "..'(X ') = -'-'.' .ID. fcrr the pH~sent o11ieT oj . 0)< 6 ~J .. '' .~(K. dNl[J I dJld' 0 _..'e]y.a. d. to the eigenval ues of Q_ (X ~-t) I or more pil"ecis..$o =. r~ ..orl~hol1JO.tion The transfozmatlon of "the medium betwoon..sor ~(X (5. . <1l1i.d.~ in.Jit i['\7.~ml': ~ (X) if) = ¥~V{{X . Us components <lire g~J ..S'l' to f.!. t) + a~J .s ant]symm.Q'n.Nlo .I. fO. 'Tenso!l' Assumingthat (5.'.05) The angularelistertion Ear twonlJaite:ria[ vectors lyi. .. orthoeormalbasle can he written in the ltinea:riserl.-:dnedJ. to Note tI~. (5. ~(2Lt) and J(X.0. denoted. configur~r~h:ll1S: snd n. . of S(X...itli teo.apptQximati...oruy terms to rowest order jn St.1)hci~ds~the G1'€\Elll-Lagt·u. (.. x.mlsJi('jrma1l:. (. "t).ge strain tensor 110 gtven by (iJ: .1 t !.1 De:6.110).. .s ..ni. __ [}'K.l'm of (.O.niiesimaJ if it is suchthat '\lV'he:1l he varlousquanUttes t 11V'~C~:lt) II .{alue . flt..··.~ t)jb~r <:l (5.(.SO . .~(X~ t). The eigenval nes of [(X It). ~.~lreTGt.i.. t} ~ 1 + t:i' ~ (X.5..~ .iI'ain.["yl. 2~3:) l' are related.rst ord...t:::tr:ic~ we ha. Infinitesimal Transformations 5. t) i.l:lg along un~tvoctQitS ~laJld f:2 in all.18) l.. .. ebe ~o frame 'R is saidto be irl..v~ fo[.to the e]gen1j.}:rb]t:m..4) (5._.

.roopo.9a)" 'wit.~ a~5Q T 0:1111fm' a[]ows us to drop tbe h"l1d.1}.€lt(n - + _.hout i.~es thB..'£ Urrru~ t at 'tllegro.h at time ~..y <l\.9h) whet .7) L • tne ]. 2 1 ) wecOID consideethe palM fac- j \tVe .Uon.e:mso1" lsarl:n11I1'<l.. :new:rtotation C(l(l.i.t) = 1+di"~(X.!'jt). L.diucing M... mOl1]' K.g).m. V.tro.t)" denotethe gradient ofthe (5. Sect... a.di!en1tthus de:lir[l~d l:1JL (5.~.a:~hitr<ll'Y field (sc&hlJ:~ veetor..g.en. 1 I .1. 11 j . [I~ (5.i POi]lt~col'.m) field T in tile current Le1t us us€!:gJtad:T(~lt)to iK:L.css.. .Qoml~d€!:r :a:n. t) .'li.cl.]lding to )( under thebijection ¢ of the con" .(1.!l~ lHr V.()~O ~~) i. Oil' te:n~ar) defined on KO" at time! " and denoted T(X) t).. . ~iOO:'"i~ jO!lD! . Held.From (3.GI.s the same value as the fi€dd T . .h:. t» = 1+tr !i(X.·t~ W n .a.l'Y.(..9a) ] ".t) =:~'(X.e..[I'..J ~ 111 1 au'pte< IL Dol"o. Tharank oFUI~.therel:a.:.'the g1'a.illl8formm.-¢'(X. ~ ·~I .p. (5.se bijectionto !.ji. . d!eoofied f. .t) ~ (5.urllltion = X H{X.ti:ve 'traJlSpoil:·t. ~t) = T'(~{~"t)..jon ·~€lL2 ('X""') t .J. which take.t) (5.8) Sfim aseumingan inlinite:simalt:r.ma.bigujty (S€fJ Chao.Sec:t.. f!.tl.. of the same bPe" denoted :t. ~Itl aiso."(X.llL.r ~(. ]:2 T.3.ext: for thetEieU oo\1il'Cl'ei.~(X."vVe can define on. \V1'.~ ". t) .t]o~s. 1.t) conii. 4J:l) . 0 \Ye :ffiincl.] meansea expresston ~X.inver. I.\iVe have chosen ~ denD.metr.1:2 n RTl th~~(seeChap: 1.

F(K.ma. 6. strain fieJd correspends tothe fact Ul.ea>d.tIM in~o wnd.TeK" t) = gra.elt.ti(J~l'l we .in SOCI~. I.t) !11 [he ~wo gmd~ent optwato1'Jl ~'~ cor~ r:€~'Q7uling poi.t i.n it be derived. ranktensor a field defined. '~\le shall return eo Unspaint h'll.t)1 'that. 'Geometrical Compa.l'ical 00mpatrubiHt.~mu>5t.{(X t) between ooilli"igllra. pa.t) .lg>e str~ju :fiek~.~ t)n-am the dlis. V44Xl t) ~ i _-_ (5.c~1 f) .I".t OO.20) is inde. we through (4. rigid body transtonnanon. ill 1).orlS '~()Iandt. . Indeed. It foUowsthat~ making tl~e h'!llm~he. rn a rrame It.t fi. ~(X'.nftnitesimalt'mrwJ()". round: glv'€na symme1i.\/Ve have rur.) by . - . . 5~or the .. far a.t: VT(.ent ·of. from a djsP].41.0/ rna.be conserved by this fleld .dT{~J t) + grad T(~I.rti. contbl'UOUS medium? In other wordsJw.tibili~y()f a. 'OU'~~h tmderwilll.UbUilty Equation (4.y ~(J.a:~n Fi.]ew~&h~sgenera:[problem of t'he !/.6o'm.etncal dema'Dstr~ttetbat.lonbetw.sis an i.B.eocpresSl~ng tbe factt. :t) in (4.eIDd~(Xl.11L v.18) shows ho.tioIDi Kij and rtf I .w~\~ OOElistruct the Oil\oon-.~em of dds kD:nd.L'9s[pondiingpolots in the oornfi'gur'alti.x~ t) =grad7'. .l'ic seoond.f [hecontintU]m compa.field F(Xl' t)~hl U:mCOlItext cia.t~aJI..Seet.ify j of a Linearlsed Str.ha.x by writing down.culw: I .placementfie]d .adi.-y ofthete:nsor fij_.. the g~m.HiOfl:Dlent fie1d~(X~ t}lbya rela)tiQ]l like (4.t) . is.00· .e~tif'tr"tO' first om:er" in I~V ~(X. . - caabetumed . \7'~(X~t) .peDd. .e[d.eJiIt field of avectar~va:l ued function rP(X~ t) ~ or . ~~" In.yenceantered 8\prob.for the displacen:lLe:nt ilt5eU \ve [dJernt.~~N:mca.We now have tbe :follo'!!!ldl1:g :relat.equivaillentlliy~that it derivesfromthe d]spl3JcemJ'm...cb.3:tth@ [!otrt-i71'UitU oj' the rnediu'ml .o. 4.{X.on ft.11) 1 soth$tl by :( 4..explained in Chap. U3)i'? The prehlein From apbysk:a~ point of iJ.e~d 6.t~sthegr.een tbegradients of~h{!twoflie]ds taken a.oclo))]ditie·]]S isthie :fie]da strain meld.

~cesBM.tion '$0]."'n ·'Vl·····(Pe"'~ . in Line of Argu:m€.) .-.Al.V~(K~ is a18othegl'ad~ent t).[" .mutalt]o!rJJ.I.7). cholce isa . 8'. '£0:1:' example:.£o![· the gEl(JJ.adn . Drum: In JW. are ~tT(X .(~grad]e:n:t . m....of ~ sealar fUllc:t~on (tl'u~ (:o:rrespo:ndmg com' pone'lD!tof ~"Li~e'''v]se! each eolumn vector 'Of I.~ plafru:.!li ' .of som€! scaJiam' fu:n{it:~onan ~ si:n~p:ly eonnected f.e mar.]·.It!!:J.gracl.~Thediep.e_nsionru oontinuum).atrh~es: cml~ =' $lid cUrl" (1')J3.(DII • ~. ?~1 w''.. odd pem'l!lI!lIta.t:h three .U. uponthe fu..·f.!Ol'Ii' . ]r!.)1 .. .. ~' d~l1n€: ..)\I._l1~I .esc:dbedby an.e'Ildie<!1oe '~!l .~.. for it Hnearised.-stabUsilln. 'TMs can 'be usedto .Y Mild ~1LI:ffid€l'ID. beestabUsbed.~ It) is the .i~.~.iQ[l for str.€S€lI. I4.. j."!]?"'t'·I'C"..t'!) condii'iof:t$ If a :s:t:rmn fleld with Stx ]ndepend~nt components can be derived ''11'].callar fUIl(:ti'Oll (a. ort'hQ~(:lf'r1Ud Carl~iQ. Sudl conditions. line of argument is based.i' !Iil!".!illle[d of second J:bill: C~~~S.0. 'can. . I if i j Ie i~ ~.dxVlEtKl t) ~sUj.dttioms r'Q:rtlll~cOim.v· nreblems The same mathema:tic:al . eeoedinaee sydem. t i. there mnst be oompa.ti.e<te)l rowveeeer (X )]1!Il.' .D. 'I!'r JJ.Dt The' space is d. 3.ota.b'Ush. We shaUnmv oota..s.t...1L:.2).8" ''Y'ec'tOl' :ruekJito~e ehe gl'~Ue:n'tfield . At each !P~int X. cempenent of {)" A necessary and sufficient ca~1Jdi.<I."'.he 5"ymbols e or ~ a.~im~i. .j klis Be]} even per... 1'.' ~-~.~JII.p[oble:Lnll!~m..~l'Ji!OOV.~.'r.he context of Unearlood serams oft-ype (5. b:y the £onowi~@l :F()]. __ _..r.th:nl.vel[ by components '{f:'~j relative to .lte 'field in Cha..oom:p0.utof a vectorffi:eld~ .~. CUT] be zero. (41. zhere ~~lWJL Ui'!w'=~~. ~) .eg~oIru ist]1e classic coaditionthat its. j i if 'i. ~ we . Ji"'.IIlJJ 'YI _ CL".CleaJ'lYI :from. ~.t c(]IliI.of a: .p<ilitlbmty condItions. Tlirue p:f.IDlowing obsereations S..~llThu]as ilipeci:fyingthe~r .18) from a displ!I11oement :fie~d\~~. orthoaormal Ca:ri::es..c:t~n:ts.leriatl ~train ra..l'len&8.1 .tlrll)diuc:inglohe foUowing !:!iOlta.I'~ peoblam l:ill 't. '!.mpMfy .'\JIIi.e:[al...~.OODOOfS-..:Uo~. '\. (for tll~ 3.'']'~t..Be~d dX! t) g).JI .. arise lvith regard to the co:mpa._ rr~ o Th.e.e GO'LT!liIDCnly used lib..X..r ~.I3D:. oom. IQJ.:rnbility 0'£ an Eu.ci1m.oo~. mathematicalpawt of'{[ew.ool:npOt]en~5 . case of fil1!ite defb':rm__at~o:nfj" En the folJlow~ngwe shell 'only encounte:ll"thiis J:W.t consequence of the ft(:JItat. ]I'm ...lh Hl {Sect. a.II. -m i~~: 'Ie iflclHde13 2: ~dent~e~lndiees . <"..pa)t~bnity of a strain field" EstabUsbin:g eompatjjbm~yeond~UoDS These mnd~:It~O:nEl often estab:UiShed ~. 1.:JI.s dropped to si.'!iJ:U_l.~e.

elll. out" Uris matrix . 8iThd! the colnmnvectors of c~l'll CIJ are the curls of the .~ldtten \Ne 1n8¥ ti10U deduee. = G33.':::1.d:i..2. giveapraetical procedure for inte:gr~t.j t)J sheantdsymmetrlc pa."CfjsarY' (~"(m(l~~tion: (xlrril)(E~ibiUt'!) Jor of the field ~(X~ t): (6.33 - permutation G33.ca.ta. With tlns IDotati1on1.lJW vectors of G~f. .r fYJlIctiQrI ca~ be l!l.at].ed '~p]iciUy hya dh'@et method wh:idl inverts to.rt of 'V~ (X It) :- to iP(X t) = ~CVE(X~ t)-t'\7!(X .2~. ..yrm:netl'y W:I}..atio.23.In other wo:rdS. using (5.cud i(.ooJtUIHlvec:tors ~n T..(fl:Jffi' the comma denote spatial derivatives.patible field §:(X! t).4\) condition produces 6 eqn.]a...radien't of (l\ s.[ng ('1 OOU'l. it is cl. neoessa::ry and.l'tha.cnl'l (~)): ~. t} Compat:ibiHty conditions (fUi)caIJ.31 = 0 ((i5) + cydic permutation where indtcea <li..etbod for the FIeld ~(X.<e@.2'2+ e'22.- ~tH .dea:n tfnsC!Iw(X.) wf..be est8!b]isb.W vectors in T i. !')ufficient oonditionfOl:" each oo'wvector of T' to be the g.an:s ill the second derivatives of the coefficients of ~becallse the toy:rru. In order do 810.' _'. '..l"l(j.netry of ~kmpH.vdtte:ll "" . -.~. Pl'a'cticaJJ[nteg.€:8s.n M..2)~ a r~(j(.UlJ8 [..21 + C3:2. - 2e:23..'l]ntr. of .ochu:o Ul:I:Eu.] r (T)alrethB curls of tbe .3S + cyclic E]3.

f) 1 provided that the region in whichwe are working Is simply connec&J@d.. by (5. t '~ake 8-I'bit.~3.) ia'A.€msom w(X . ons o:fUl'e d]fEeremtiaJ forms I (6.of (6.the l~~lat.n:e.fk' (i.fi~tdof afl!.bn[~y of the dIffere:ll1lwal [O).~ k.tives (lf~ by ~ derivatives O[ the eomponenta oEw are Ne"J~ .2) and (6Jj)l.' _.~ t) which satisfies ('~}'.j. 3.GSt[on is sfrl'1pty c'Onneded..['1!@ [nteg!:abHi.E.ry veluesamongst ]!2. t) can therefore be canstrueted.rede! l 1 .~"td.. W'ij .ti.]orus.d~!. toth.! 1:[' w@hafve a.Hy gMisfied. t) tanlhern be written Wi.. n-(]d of symmetric.y and sufficient to ensureshat a.[0) ~~ idDiUCa.1 Note hat. Ave<.emby .lit/.:J ~ k ~i-ill OOllih~lons. seennd rank Cru'tesiaill t€'J1SO[. - . the equatiens in the: farm wber~. .e:ri\ra. BeU~~m](]835 . j are defined by (!6".synunetriet.ki antffiiymmfl'tr:k j' con.then c:hecktha:t~3.. symmddcten.5.COolllstrlllcta . once ~ain provided. •' The arethus necGSsar.e d...ndlt!i1'B first rigorous proof of sufficiency seems to have been p'llvidedby Be~trami.S ~ lsth.c-~ dXlt) is Indeed the 5Ylnmetric p®rt -of the .900).8.lj. Sai:nt V:e~a~n:. TheSe 001JLd. i..'7).~.an.~j..[OIns (16... that 'the !'€_g]on In qu.e symmetric part o:~the grooientof aveeter field ~. { ]. Slue€! W.g{.(XI t) is runtiS''y_mnl..for oompallbihty 12..8) V\~etHms '0 bt.' .am. •• . ICODd~t.iti{][Is were first given by Saint Venant16 a.tQ]" field ~ (X. These are the six CtJl1versety.w-ui eqUEIIU" ens of (6.k = =: "vA 1. ~'6"i) of tho field ~(X. Wemayth."l1lS inthe indices i and. obvious conseqnenee . l"191-1886).5)jthese conil]i. dient of the field Wf: have {10118t::flLlct'l'!ld .guarar:ThJEoo integra.!iio:!:· field ~(X.7) I 't.. always assuming: they am defined en a simply connected :region..5).gjh.1zy" WlleI'1l! '&:heWij..

6.7).mI!lg 8t:rain6.€l~d.i~$be ~·Yllltem.nr.t i()OIn.(l.the bo~nd8(ry of the r~gilOn .ip:ly COltrU:l}ec~erl~.Y ©onditioM.t) .Jl ~ll&l1!eframe n.0000aUoo.h. The :seco.ll.~.5) ~niD'o. Inp·r.~n}s. For e.gicm. there ~ am ·then 't·lVO :posmbUit:ies.eldw:isi:n. (!)r . This :6~tU<lL\tiO:ll. wh~~.io.ahlH.alry. compla:tibUi'tyco'mld]t~m). witha\ll Mb..!l:pectedt. :r.SU. under the ~n611itesih'!l]a·] tranenot FOl:'Dllatio:o MSumpt.oomp..fUlda constant vector from the inliegration of (.g ('6.V'O ..aib~.h. co.Process@s: thesepeed tDJ.isliba.x:t.s wihB.ifine functions oJ Xk ·ts integrable.eld.'to obtain the oon~pon.y oomp.a:tibinty of wi:th the boun. .H~ruma.eld~. a llgwd body tralllIllSJO:r:l'[li]{l.e iniliui.I))bili.g framthe 00nstMts ofintegr.~i. ehe ]:[Itegration of (lfUl!).il ~ig~d body e d~sp].i:Sl.[ of the oragLl'ila[rneid ( .~ely dJete[m~filje tbe infinites]:m.from. frim:lJlll n.a'nll field :[.5) are nofu~ndlependent. The first . 6..~mpo.CCe8s:l ve i.El1cem_entfield h~dl had remml!JJ0d ~rb]tr.orlho:ruQr'maJ Can.f the veetorfuneslon rfJ'l .mpJ@! wile:l]Jwe MIS w]lcernedwith the dispblC€m~l:[tlieM liIIl.e:fl)rmftJtii)~.. e " The displacementfi>eld ~. dgid bod.Jj· a~ai.rma:t.ecomponents e'ij are a.. A8\vc sai\cvj.octic{l.a.the·field ..dl the Ei. which defines a tronslldiQn.ce a..Ul<'}. the .51'.~oo8ibUity is w th~.~ants i:n~egr8? of 'I::iotl.It.'U the . i_Q~ih!eiDfiI'D.'[.. di.]]j.r!I. 00eUl'.-hl wh~.~CK.rict:LCM ~mp{)sedby 'lih.~ a asseetated w]tb 00 in:fi~jte5]. byusm. tbat it is bijeeUve.@alcill. (6 .splMemen:t field ~.it can be show~l.dR.ents B.Il!sf'Q.may 800m smp[']sin.m.tes~:mal It:ransfor:m:a!thJD.y f(lrth. It i:s thC!lerQirle to' be e. G.'S3.t the six eqU3it1olD:.1 t[:a!l!ilfiifilr:ma~ioI:llOO11t(!.~.g that weendup wit.igm.nt:egra:tio!l'lI.must a~so :satisfy d]splacemerrt oonditioillls on t.:fb. . These M"ethe .tiiJes of lfu3 components eM ~:n. a1I101>w usto ]jl1eOO'.eraUy sp. lndoodl.hJe seoo·nd Id'eri:tl~.for.m:bl@.idbociy[i. equalsthe ~ linead~oofie[d . Ido~ U71: eoodi~il)M'~euul'ing uni~o:rmit" o.5. sbi.ooominates" It tJ.B.~1!I'e .et. Bearing 9 inmind..g Mgid b~~'(Jy di. m:mbined. is defined .in~egrln!·ted.. .conditions (6..~a geometrkuny 'comp'E~Ub[e 8tr.h.d (ftlO)..io·n with a.ofeh.t theIeem obtahl:@:dlfor~11 and notab~.tacemen~ fie~d. determined f!llom the fi.ded to the ones we haveionu.ltr<rl\ry tr. (6.nt~jQUOY).is d~te'rnli:n<E!d up to addition lof .e~ eendltieas mtrust be adI.• • If the domain.tra.nstallt .In! .only defiG[lmlwrueth. of a.dl~t:iOf.mn la.a"UbiUty of the field ~we !Can .ringm I!:.g.comb]ning <I1Il MIb~trMY ~dG[dlbodyt~O:l!mfu·nn!(!:t.Mom ean be g:a~d ]wt~. The la.es-ian ..eld~ involves 6 independent components a.r~d(IJil:'n1:t!:tkl[l i~ wh~d~ the ~t:r~n a f:i!elcl..~ fil:ll]hltC{!.ol:DJ:ld be snrprlsed by this TlBSUU •.~·ldIs .ydlisplaoo:me:n:JI!tH@ld.ddit~on.tter isintrodueed via the co:ms.ryi~:lil!ilitesjjmal.·WlE. !) M1.d.h.cl'DJ.o:n:sis ml1~t..itesiuHl.d rig.iS. It foUDwstha~t'.e bou:ndal'Y of the re.hul.h. which defines en i1ij'1'nztes-im~l nli'tafion.tlonhas DO.:] mtfJ:t:ion) deesnot induee ~qy d. 'elI~d onthe st:rallin fte~d~.d.en.t . .e fu:ru~:tl.'['0' ensure oomp. This wa.sedon dmplacem.aUoIII11 allows DiS.l1iatfrom thegromi@tr:i(aJl .10).g'. fw. T't .i8€ thoe eqt1&tdoills. AHthe equatioas will held in a region Do if 'we' can ensure that three of them hold withm the region and the thr-ee others 011 Hsbm1l1dall]'".exi'l!:mpll~jin 8ect. 1.t:he: rest.wO:!mIwb:k.e.mal trfll.efie[d ·to witlWl .ct .el!Jnde~er.' " No\~e that .a:!Iilt~sy:mme'liric tensor .hypoth.~gidb~dy dii5p]aoement field (illivo]v1ng inll1iu.fi[om 'which it dm:~wSh<\l..

which respectsthe t.ooement co. I .~intler.run field !~ in 'the sclidwhieh isusually ]i:llea:d~ (K) proI}. eequlred to. it.pat~Gn procedure of Sect.d 'by a.sfies the condittons _.e:~d. "\!Ve consider the e.ese internal ioroos.fthe msdt urnand fromwhieh thermal st:l:runs are: derived . V and vmn). bOU..X) is geome~dcally.]:l1bl\gra:'ting ~.~ 'W'e shall nm.rlI. rigid body displacemeas.comp:aMble! thenthere Is a disp[aoo1nen.. I .n (6.thout ghdllg rise to intel'1ial forces (Qr stresses). Inthis ease. Another solutlon will n us be' adorptedl• 'this time only geolllet:[icaUy compatible ill a piecewise ~a'~1fi~" wi't]~ t~calioo(l.i<'fi.ndi.l~y within. upto . ~'l'(X)+~(KJ~sgoometrIcany oom-patib].e (.ied by any field fp:r.e r :[8 ~(A.oducoo by .na.. or more pr.m.atiol1 of the solid '.da:ry disp].[hry ofthe solid or iIi more gelliSraIIDYl'djsplaceme!!l't conditions impcsed at the boundary ofthe solid are sa-Usn . QonUifm'ty o. In any other c~el. 6 2 to Ute case where the field .: . itn po don.fracttlre withint.t ~111 dle region Do. fij.imdty 'Of the mediUID)&w:r! out to be too gpeat fiJrthe strength of the ma..pMi.a: simpleand intuitive way certain ideas to.£i)r example if dl:e field r.e m inco:mp:altibiHtYWID. 'Vi! Anticm:-aiting in .'he saUd (a well known phenomenon 8olrJ" e 'wm m I'Te materials].1'" .:._ W$yUu~thebota15trainillj.!:'allSform.ts. example of how thegeomeerical .. be introciUG@d later (Cba .f1ec:tsofthermal strain . :uebo temperature differenees ]8 Er(OO to occur 'W].tr. maintain goom.t ( :fl@ld~ (X)" determined.\oomperature change ne]d 'T(X) in a .ed. A l:emptfl:l.eoessaI·]lyoo:m.T(Xj Iwen~ay conclude thatthe t. j(}'t' infinite5ima[tnm:sJbn~a:tion."atuI'e field.efthJ~ m&\·tedal o oot be ableto sustaintbem.oeme:n.e~l1!!to p.etrlcaJ conl. tlile:r.tihk: or if it :is co:m.8l !the c (lClIlJditio.i@]d[ 5.ueesa sl:.tb the boundery data.r.t€t1lJ:€h O'W.tiIlli .compatibility comdr:tlOlThS Me appHed.e and.th.®cise'~y~i!'fi.x) resulting from its integration sati.y give all). sttah16eM d X) in such .t]Qns <'Y'!€ imposed onthe bOI!l!'td.f:the mew nm.ill]) fuUy el'nBi_raclJer~Sles igidbedy transformariona r between ltoand! I.a.9.t@rIaJ.Jional to it.y o. If no cHsp]. If '1!is6. the solid In I')rderbo preserve the con.e.t) = 0 may in1.bD.fi.(X) ]8 not geomeb.e.!~ely heck that. oom~ field .1id~nd.k:<llly -'F comp.T • CMllot be sa. S'tiruotim:r. If .ld . but 'i:~o'corresPQndinglle]cJ! (X) can satisfy displ~m.tli1.t.ary ofthe internal forces IlIlUS! ID:. A~'plYh1l!g the i:rnfJte.].ent eonditiens impossd on the~ound. These fDin~esgenera.

ed. G'~l1e.'1)will « be "IIm]id"wit]l oomponents of ~hl.aJ Comments :Hom.. 3....ka[[y referred tbe I~e~wem. We nevertheless observeuhat if W assumean infinitesimal deformation I' charact flood by II~.m. n(X.1)" tbe c~.3.Bhtta1 ! It :fQUow.ans:f'OIr.:2i0!4. 'We need only . Once again. .!l1 mdnees deformation oftbe medium.tive to a.en. X" implies homogeneity ofthe strain ~(K! t)'1 w' have not. ba:' tb~ de'formaitionwill also be infmitesimal.dSiJ)/dso ~.v~~ 'tIle lo.s in wtiwly obvieua.7..1) that leads to all answer as m(licated in Sect.tklns . (5.~' cODt~nui:ty of the medfum ism be' :res~ec:ted.tion formulas (S.8 Using the notation in.Q·tooil· ~]n.!L5 ba the systJ-m in ~(]I hes been spU' run'"o inbiteslmal eubie regiom Iil\Jigned with tha princlpal ~ o.lS (This Ie5W islmmedlate under the bypath S]S of an infinitesimal transforms tion where we can apply the integratlon procedure specified m Sect .~o an . Imn. yet dealt with the converse problem: does bOIDO gene ity."it~foItEi undergc the stmD.. :Nat 1IIl'€ o:f the Tr.L of d rfir~ ma..gl.. the form (ds . We' ha:ve thus labelled 'p'M.t.( t).. 3. t) '.F. They film Ult.m!iormedregions are td. .roilll..2 Lagrangian. as in :Sect~.rnitiaJIlefe:rence conilgruration of the .('! mo:rdinaotes X of their pGsi'tions in 'this .srem. independence of ~(Xl' t) from.5-5.f (2.oonsider 'he counterexample provided b~i'the fi~~d bcdytransformations .ii.nt . j IR6nitesiim.ion In . i.. The 'f ~u:u l.etrisat.nfigu:r&Uon ~o.of th strain ~ lmply hQrn..lts. . . Rela.ndition 'Q\nthe :6 Id F b COUles -Uf~f'{E) = o.acteri13e rigid body transforD:~~'t~o~ '. Final COIDll:!!ent 05 7'. (6.:3.pOOf'lwe have rSYrstema. The converse preposttlon is . C'on. Th ~ b:a.dno)/d~o ~ tr ~(X t.n rais@d .raliE.tda" (.'l"fUlwation is hQm~eROO.e.the :prese.9) show quite deadyUlat.1'7..tion is iDfiini&€l.O'geneity of be tranaformatien? This was the questio.ing dQwn17 the fact that F(K t) is the gradient of a vector function 4!(}fl t)~ we chock that 'the fie1d~(X.Bil.y ~:fwe assume Ithattbeltransfonna. () ~ 2'e1'2(X t) { (d. However:. Parmn. '6.1'6).ne. only palt"t of the 'tl.~npe:l::fect GQntac~ with o~e~_. 17 ].obviously false.1.nt.:mat'UolD Clea. 4.1l.in. By writ. 'f) = _(t ' ismdeed compatible and hat the corresponding 'tra!.. l:Im'DIa:m.1 .ic~ea 'b~tb.sy.although it is quite clear 'that homogenf!~'ty of thetraasfonaatien. I I' (1. i'$is geometrical compaMbility (see Sect" 6.e [~!]'tat10'rn.r~.when tryingtodlar."ansfOnua:tio.I~1 then the formulas corresponding ~Q.2~).fignrat.t.o:ge:nsity Tbe polar factorisa.in Sect.on.e'lltica[ r-ectaEig~~la:rlP'MalI:eIDelP(i:pedsthat l1nlJJS.5..1) 7.

\vber..(J~e the oOlllfigu:r.~'u feature in.QLU" ~ this prope .hat w]ll [..udy of strains Isan esoo]ld..)C[8.tiou. and this on a local scale in the gQm:i::a!lcase (JEll.cal m:d!va-ntagest.C:U]. ca]mdatin.~.allg'e) or linearised strains i.. _ been .al.d.~ (Cbap.onfigm'at]on with is]eill.. de]1. by carry ou. a OOOi FWm aphysicru rstancl!poiwt it ''51D1JJJd becemembered that steetches and s. T.rhn€:l1!.ab[e ~SQ]jds'. 1_ I • l . ~(X ~t) ld4l f)~ andso on.6) and (3..often.hwd ~pe.7). eomponents In more :appropri~11ebases. 1t. unit e::dens:ions.4) £o:r~h ~l1dion t.a..e th. 2: and 5.['Ie:f:..ptpHc~tiGI::i8to.M·ne.cCDindm:mm. .tkm n. ]'8 d.A~art&:omthemathem.{..Gt. (1.ooay mea.it]l8)tes of 'the pO!Fll..ni..ny by measuring s'tmtdrJ:€lsanci.Ijj_ oorres:pon. that The.&:rain: ave dimen.12} the result:ih'e'lH:liy mentioned in Chap .en using (3.dpaJ sl.ern~ng me.P CKIIt) appeaIl'iIllgt!h:ere. hegkn. g. A teutiolJl.·b..Eu~ .ty has irl!lporta:nt IH'acL~calconsequences: we sh!U .such as .:n~~t]oQ.ct~.!! = ~\a~a +_..xtellS]O]) ill .) OI (3."7).i!" tWB obtmn fr~ (4.h'l!tivl': to some 1'i:®.g.ss qt_~antitie5."'... 1Vlclfi. .l'l1ci<Th.3) We can.2} :2 ~a3 t-) j . (1..ch 'or mlit 'e.6.. 3. An the formnlas previOll.j.e:mt..y:st"e'1Jll.'.cljefil1edi.g Log. and ~b..ooififiguraJtbofi .2litio]] (~ = 0).F:I.this lobolling csn at..u. the mechanics o:f def-Onn.. ~.. provide a systematic way ofeelculatlng 9 te:-iEl:i3o. 1. oj b'O-Sis foemulas (AppendlxE~ Sed."l:1t"'' ' ' ~_ . ....e]. tba.a't].tt.OW p~ro.]y given remain vaJid.hen.t..gthe pri1!.ta.tion of 8 particle in this N ·tUlJfally~ thG st~dy of d~fonnaUoiI1S on.gtb ofa materialveetce inthe lluitiaJl!'e:ference!!.Uy ~Qr a.gi an reLa-tiw to a._ parti.sionle. i) . given direction.ti~1. U S'!!11g X to.2 to 6) by s1J]hstit1!l. ..8.gtll'l mthe current cOinflgura. VIlemust therefore j I comp .hoo by A. lb~ """.petit.0. €llastkb€l.'" (7..iy has .ooorrcl.n~ii:':Ii~~"""hawl~_ devts"""'.lt is more convenient '£0:1: c:alC:iL11at]ugthe 5tL"e't.e the :moti n.a]]y oeeupied by the syste~n. pal"&~cul!au:]y hen changing to w climate 8. modelllng the . Sect. ~'"'. ) 't..eiba:nkcal behaviour {e.t ".{ 1 .. I..e.m~noe Gumfigura.aJ (!.(r]sew'hJ@:l1 e forrnuw liatee l1ilat~()llSgov.ng[1e. . 'lJy determtning the p.001 . • . nonhomogeneous 'tt~l]S£Qr. e'S~ f. C).. using (3.rnng tensors Billeddmm.Xes Md.the chang.ip.bavE..the study deserlbed abov€! (8(. 1$ drawn to the tensQnal nature of UH:~ quantities introduced: C. wlrether we: are dealing with finite st'rni'JUl (Gree~-Lagr. [I.. generaUsecl...retd~M and simcins.Ye::.. fiJi:nJC:ti0n~(XJ :t} .3<•.e8cri.Gn.

:! r o \fZl.9. be am.8. • • Various optical methods: h.th a system of fine.l{te:rrs.O:l' the ~l~terior .€! oosuB:ing MGi~ pa'tte:rJllJ (Fig.h'l!3" given direction! andthen messure the correspendiug cb. 2» or by lDcluai!olThs. The deformed system of lines is comparedwith ehe imt~.edby£o.uges so. 'fbe~deabehind thi~method ]g. of = a feW'm:mhmet~es) Fig.ell. • tangen.o]og:rapby. IRoset~es . 12:.th.:ifi~ ous printing pro cesses). ga.eth.tio:n inrosettes o~ 3.~. 1-10.!:l.e£Eect which Cti\t!. tha.. selid by .od! sll.lieresi5taJl!jce. grid (see Chap..ldingtbe wire SeVeE'N tlmes].posesobtainedafter defoematien (F. .W~. elo. ill3). :Markm. I.e :solid under ~nv€::ffiitiga.m1.romelt:ry.~g.. Th.t plane tothe surface of Mo]:~emgUlod.pliH.ai:.of e:.e solid w. to subject a wireto the same extension as t!h'e m.vingthe em.a:[ one by observing and analysing .g. Frngs.extensomeOOIS (electrical strain gauges).t·al1lLda.eoo].rug.t . small circles (0 and obse::_r.o:ugh hlfol'ma!tiol:liJ 'c~m be 'coU@d@'d dei:ler.metric:gauges GITIla:lLlssees ) (Labo:!:'a:toire Om:tr~ des Ptlnh et I I I I I I I II .eJ1I3opboEogil'anllme:tl:y.'Q. 1 and. Moire inoorife.seruyslPaced lines (by @tcllilll.g the surface of a solid vrith.:eda[.11€th€! strain lathe to Hru. 12). A surface marking 'ternn:iqu€l wllli!ch covers ilthe surface of HlI.id (F.rity m.ese e:xbensometersare stuck onte the smr:foo€of tm.arn!emeiectri~ resjstance (an.

se..t pteee w.e order 'of ll[)-J.e:[sUlle orders o:f magnll.rJi test.el'ruSi. here are naturally rather qualitatrve.w the orders CI.' theruut extension of ..limit in.. .~de:fID8~crn ~ mild Sitl5e~ test pi~ just be-yond its.tioned.se :fQr in atension test ~sof~he order of 10-2.f magu:itucl.1:0]] test is ofthe order of 1. t'yprical defonnatlons of il3oUds! _.. FhuI. me~aUictes. is ofth.t helocal 1JUllt. lhC'l!!lJlit e.UYr i'~ is u.smen.]4. . SmlIaoemaiking or . 11'11. • [Oit po~ym.mil seltd (CETn.fewmethod.e involved.siolll for . Brittle 'varnishes amdanalDgotlili solid. .F~g..£1. substances deposited OD the sueface of a Tb!9 last .plasUcpha.iumto. a tCtJiS]Qi.0 stoo]tes·t piece a\t its clastic ..onof .he orcler of lO~3.I1!.'lf) '.. ude of defonnasions are much higher .exltt. tbe u:w. ------- -------- --- ..~Hm strietinn occurs in a te.'t €xten.8" coneretetest piece befoee collapse in :a compression test under short-term loading is oft. klm.

t) ~ ~('\7e(Xjt) + t'Y~(X. F(X :t) .eLA dM..G(Xit) . ~I • 2"'=-' =' lIlIL)'•• ~(KA) = f(Xjt) ~ X. dMi = dM()..F(Xlil).e(X t)'. dNI I) dDt = df10 dlet (F(Xlt)) = J(Xl.t)= 'V4.SUUII1:1aryof Main Formulas F'(X.tlt1c"~ll(Xtt) . = J(X. !lC(Xt)'!::::: . ~. ~(K~.>(lliNl& j j.(X1 t) ~M= . CQfj t) =:tF-(X :t).vetxjt)) ..t) (Inb do.:t) +tV'~ULt) .

t) (dQ1 - = ~fv{(X~n+ l'V~(X~t}) ~ ~(gr!.t) ~()f_.i:nn E:ri- 8{. f) :::: Ell (lIJol..J(lf(~.icaJ mmpattbiltty (.dsr:d/dso (J'::::!' 2el1!l(Xt~. r) = div ![(K.~(X. n 1.ourd iHa~·!is) condiUoul> (if4 QrU1QIIQfI[UlL Cartr. ~(. t) dnll)/d!1o~ l!r ~(X.~b'nu::l 0).=-8 r ..l.'5.) ex._. ~ = ¢(X.~) Oll'ometr.

= 0. 1..~ (l +rn) :1'2[1se. in 8t'["etc:hes: A i= 1 + at .H« I . ·Write· down 'the ]:rj[hdte8]nlla~ traasforreatiou hypothesis. ~. Calculate F' ('t).any d~rection Qrtbogofl.1) ( B.me defined at time t by := (OJ!2. Let R be 1lL11I ortaonormal Cartesian eooi. to ). Determinethe tensor F'( t) for thistransformaticu."oonLagrange strain tensor.. Consider the homcgeneouatranaformatinu K = 2atX2fl . Find their principal M.3 ~ §. y·ec:t.JNr + 0: +Ott)~(N1 + Nl)" (NI-~.ct~p(Ni 1" .11.'!t~s of GCt) and. • II'V'.!:2'2 = eml = 0 . theprincipal stretches andprineipel axes of C (t) . Calculate the eXpaDB]()iflLen~m' and Gl.2/2 l i. Find.= . -. hl.~.eEx. + Nq -1.5. loti .'1 !fJt . .P(t) = (] + .. Let R oOQ:i:diuate system.1 Unlfonm Extension.ba. hl"il~stlgate thecorresponding iminitesimal tra_InJl!fOll':nlbI11.~qn... aad give the eorrespoadingIineerised expressions. 11. Soh!1J.or~avo]unle and an area vector .tion • .~ =: 1• Pl'iueup~l trahlS:' eu ~ Ctt + (l:1i! .2 Si.e...~=o:'t~[ ¢:>. A~.ail. "'0: ~l " Q(t) = {I + at)l!£l + ~J ® . in a.~ tr 1 ® ~1 j ~= at ..' + (1 + at}(N'Je.i ~~2 j~) be an ortbonormel Cartesian n..nsport of a.vesUgatet:na. lnate d :system in the frame 1l aud consider the hot[logei'il~mis ttans:fm~m~·t]al!1 defined at time t » I[) by j.l' ~(~:) (ut = Principal + (J::2~212) ~l ® ~l Plindp2lila. AVN~ + (l + .Nil· ® 1::1+ ~'l ® ~ .DJt) ~l ®!!] + ~2 ® ~'2 + ~ 1&1 ~3" ~= (1 + o:t)'V1 ~t + V~~ + V3!!.ll1ple Shear. C!1 eo) . C (t). and .

plyliIlg .l" .~{t) can bewdttel! . C~ve>:Uv._ -!.gde~ge.2~)~bow.!.e con- '* ~(' = o:t I a:t I <: r ~ .~2 Uh ® ~2 +g.]yi~g l~ = (Vl A_ _. £w are the.II If) +!!. to tlJl.. li.0~.d.. (OA®~ O'B. (a~l§.®) = 2j~i veClfJQI'S ~v and ."". .tl"WlSJIOdQfU~~ that these ~e erthogenal...:2@' !l) l' ®~d el~t) """af e2(~} = -od ~ 'B(t) = O.o[t.2ep (~.\s = 1 " 1'1l~ IOO[I'es[po:n. ""i icll :repj.d~.t<o:ra~V! ~WI ~ A~(- ~l COo.!.gle:p'MaUeJ. llriJit vectors.e t llioUe a~o~lg the in:telfiaJ ~l1d 0xter. OB .~l ®~'.ng]e (r. in.~]fiC~ the..ts pit.~ .e.!8lS0CJatoo with .tiP ~1iIl1 ® ~w +.F(t) = 1: no v:olWllLs chOliiJl. : ssi0l?-I. de:' . 51.r:e o~tahll.lte~nJa .. ~l.§t2 + at) . . t) =~l 'OOB rp T + ~:2sm..181!:l) + 4 Cl:2i'l~2! ® ~2 • TlilPf-hwdpil!. ba8. It call be .~ ®~v + JIi.e cUogOElaJis of the dllOlllbu5.~ -= 1 + 2c:dv'1 + q2t2 + 2~'2t2 hnp]ying AI = (VI + o.i_ndp~l..~) i.gk~(OIA.1(~l 81 n r. . ~ ~w:.2 co!'!v.![IJ.1 '~[ues olE C( ~)(IDd i.ortitruo.. forwhich ~ and.t) = . + o2t2_ at) I A~.defined by unit vactors 0 An = .r/2..].l:..dijn. ® ~ + . a~~obe obtairlledgeomet]:ici'Uy try ]1oting: that M~@ rhombus in offiow. Qira.~.'1.p +~~: 'OO8~)" vec. = 1/)\2.2atv'1 + a~t~+ 2a"t2fun~. S ')= A~!v ® ~v R .' .th. gives]~ the sa~\I€ Qt-der tneV'oo'" and ~ and.T F) =~] ®d~ + 2~d~J..itb sid:&a . + ~. (trul. + ~2 ®~i -t ~ ®.'?rmaJ. ~ . = {-Ct1~1 +~2)/Jl + ct~t2' tramfoi~ms at bltiLS t I.['iliis: :o.11.elyj.ed iramedi- &ti]y :fr~omthea.g p].]J .g ~~ = ~l am~· + :g. + n"2"fJ..I_lV:!.&l'~_.lI't 'titwl.CIJl!cl exteraal ve.~!l(t) "'"cd r(~l ® §.the poiar mctoF]~ cos ~aifrQ~F{~) =B.!1.feo are 006 cp .~ + ~2)/Vl.'.velytrarn..:\. ~ .T'ted. rota:tiontmough El' S:6lIIIJl.s .bo ..l sin ~ + ~2 w~ 11.nal bisectors of 'th)a:JJ.n.~ land aBo.l.e:l:~1llIlts 'emu. b'~-tul:8 . ~ . .. ® ~1 T + ~ ® .3 ~. &TId ~ = ~~] fP 4" ~5ln top. 2\p=:-1/0.]1l!cipru.t :!b" .(t) .l) + ~ ® ~ + ~..® ~ .o.~a.~ .]IJ:e'S~r th€: lineae UJiJI.Spo.g€!.~ j + ®~w Bt) = sjl"D.4 = !h rul.Oa.'l1' ~.ve . ~es '@:.ID!:pi. to. G ') = n + 2:g(t) = ~ + 2a:i W]..\~ttts.~. DB) = ('IT -2~} in N.[1. ( d r~:nmDe &lnee~genVle(lt~)r5a. ta:~ 'P = Al.m.fw lie along th~ ]lIter:nru.• ~2 .~!tothe rhombus in ""-t with 5id~ dtdinsdi b:y unit ~to:m 0. a TheY!'l.checked. In lI]. s· itm.~.:€1S hll .1 .\! ® ~~J (~52~ (~~ ® ~l.~ye :0 t): )l. rp).

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