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Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area. One of the most common symptoms is abnormal vaginal bleeding, but in some cases there may be no obvious symptoms until the cancer is in its advanced stages. Treatment consists of surgery (including local excision) in early stages and chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced stages of the disease. Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrhœa, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen duringpregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhea method. Outside of the reproductive years there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause. Amenorrhea is a symptom with many potential causes. Primary amenorrhea (menstruation cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems such as the congenital absence of the uterus, or failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells. Also, delay in pubertal development will lead to primary amenorrhoea. It is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 with no menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age. Secondary amenorrhea (menstruation cycles ceasing) is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, from premature menopause or intrauterine scar formation. It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation or nine months for women with a history of oligomenorrhoea Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a generic term for inflammation of theuterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. This may lead to infections. PID is a vague term and can refer to viral, fungal, parasitic, though most often bacterial infections. PID should be classified by affected organs, the stage of the infection, and the organism(s) causing it. Although an STI is often the cause, many other routes are possible, including lymphatic, postpartum, postabortal(either miscarriage or abortion) or intrauterine device (IUD) related, and hematogenous spread. Two thirds of patients with laparoscopic evidence of previous PID were not aware they had PID. Treatment depends on the cause and generally involves use of antibiotic therapy. If the patient has not improved within two to three days after beginning treatment with the antibiotics, they should return to the hospital for further treatment. Drugs should also be given orally and/or intravenously to the patient while in the hospital to begin treatment immediately, and to increase the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. Hospitalization may be necessary if the patient has Tubo-ovarian abscesses; is very ill, immunodeficient, pregnant, or incompetent; or because a life-threatening condition cannot be ruled out. Uterine fibroids are leiomyomata of the uterine smooth muscle. As other leiomyomata, they arebenign, but may lead to excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), often cause anemia and may lead to infertility. Enucleation is removal of fibroids without removing the uterus (hysterectomy), which is also commonly performed. Laser surgery (called myolysis) is increasingly used, and provides a viable alternative to traditional surgeries.
Uterine leiomyomas originate in the myometrium and are classified by location: Submucosal – lie just beneath the endometrium. Intramural – lie within the uterine wall. Subserosal – lie at the serosal surface of the uterus or may bulge out from the myometrium and can become pedunculated.
Surgical treatment Myomectomy is a choice to remove myomas. It is usually done when the patient wants to preserve their fertility. This can be performed with either traditional surgery or through laparoscopy. A rectocele results from a tear in the rectovaginal septum (which is normally a tough, fibrous, sheet-like divider between the rectum and vagina). Rectal tissue bulges through this tear and into the vagina as a hernia. There are two main causes of this tear: childbirth, and hysterectomy. Treatment depends on the severity of the problem, and may include changes in diet (increase in fiber and water intake), pelvic floor exercises such as Kegel exercises, use of stool softeners, hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women, insertion of a pessary into the vagina, and various forms of surgery.
if inguinal testes have not descended after 4–6 months. 5. andadenofibromyomatous hyperplasia. just below the kidney. often as late as young adulthood. refers to the increase in size of the prostate. enlargement of the breast tissue can also be a sign of testicular cancer. often by a pediatric urologist or pediatric surgeon. the region where sperm is produced. but in many communities still by a general urologist or surgeon. MedlinePlus states that testicular cancer typically strikes men between 15 and 35 years of age.MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM DISEASES Testicular Cancer MedlinePlus indicates that testicular cancer is a type of potentially life-threatening condition that begins in the testes. fluoxetine. The primary management of cryptorchidism is surgery. About 3% of full-term and 30% of premature infant boys are born with at least one undescended testis. found to have "wandered" from that path. an enlarged testicle and testicular pain or heaviness. Penile Cancer Penile cancer is a type of cancer that starts at the penis. Blood clots. promoting the accelerated proliferation of prostate cells. that is. urgency (compelling need to void that cannot be deferred). Risk factors for developing penile cancer include smegma. The study (conducted by two Israeli doctors: Dr. the cause for penile cancer is unknown. and femoral canal. Menachem Goren) suggests that BPH is caused by malfunction of the valves in the internal spermatic veins manifesting as varicocele. Cryptorchidism is distinct from monorchism the condition of having only one testicle. However. Surgery may be necessary to place a shunt into the penis. leading to the gland's enlargement. a foul and cheese-like substance found below the penis' foreskin. . radiation and surgery to eliminate the penile cancer cells. Benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms are classified as storage or voiding. In unique cases. found in the inguinal canal. found anywhere along the "path of descent" from high in the posterior (retroperitoneal) abdomen. genital lesions and pain or bleeding from the penis. to the inguinal ring. Priapism may be due to such diseases as sickle cell anemia and leukemia. Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. MedlinePlus indicates that specific symptoms of penile cancer include a painless sore on the penis. It states that priapism is common in boys between five and 10 years old and in men between 20 and 50 years old. and voiding at night (nocturia). Treating penile cancer also involves chemotherapy. A testis absent from the normal scrotal position can be: 1. cryptorchidism can develop later in life. Yigal Gat and Dr. spinal cord injury and cocaine are some other causes of priapism. Treating priapism involves draining the penis with a needle (aspiration) and taking medications such as phenylephrine. about 80% of cryptorchid testes descend by the first year of life (the majority within three months). urgency incontinence. the perineum. A study published in 2008 in the journal of andrology "Andrologia" reports on a newly discovered venous route by which free (active) testosterone reaches the prostate in extremely high concentrations. Storage symptoms include urinary frequency. 4. benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP). says the Mayo Clinic. Treating testicular cancer involves surgical removing the cancerous tumor and using high dose radiation energy to kill the testicular cancer cells. a dull ache in the lower part of the stomach or back. called orchiopexy. It is the most common birth defect regarding male genitalia. It may also be due to such prescription medications as sildenafil. 3. It says that symptoms of testicular cancer include a lump or swelling in either testicle. making the true incidence of cryptorchidism around 1% overall. found to be undeveloped (hypoplastic) or severely abnormal (dysgenetic). It is usually performed in infancy. 2. a phenomenon which has been shown to increase rapidly with age. Priapism Priapism refers to a painful and prolonged erection. found to have vanished (also see anorchia). the opposite scrotum. Chemotherapy medications such as cisplatin and bleomycin may also be used to manage testicular cancer. The two main medications for management of BPH are alpha blockers and 5αreductase inhibitors. At this time. ectopic. usually outside the inguinal canal and sometimes even under the skin of the thigh. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy(technically a misnomer). diazepam and warfarin. Also.
but in many communities still by a general urologist or surgeon. leading to the gland's enlargement. refers to the increase in size of the prostate. A study published in 2008 in the journal of andrology "Andrologia" reports on a newly discovered venous route by which free (active) testosterone reaches the prostate in extremely high concentrations. Menachem Goren) suggests that BPH is caused by malfunction of the valves in the internal spermatic veins manifesting as varicocele. • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy(technically a misnomer). Yigal Gat and Dr. The study (conducted by two Israeli doctors: Dr. promoting the accelerated proliferation of prostate cells. The two main medications for management of BPH are alpha blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors. andadenofibromyomatous hyperplasia. a phenomenon which has been shown to increase rapidly with age. Benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms are classified as storage or voiding. urgency (compelling need to void that cannot be deferred). . Storage symptoms include urinary frequency. urgency incontinence. benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP).a pediatric urologist or pediatric surgeon. and voiding at night (nocturia).
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