qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfgh jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvb nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer [ANALYSIS OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING] tyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas [GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BIM

] dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc
[04-07-2011] ANANTADITYA AIMA

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INDEX :Preface..............................................................................................................................................................3

Phase 1 : Studying BIM……………………………………………………………………………. 1.What is BIM……………………………………………………………………………………….........….4 2.Importance of BIM………………………………………………………………………………................9 3.Definitions………………………………………………………………………………............................10 4.Dimensions in BIM………………………………………………………………………………..............12 5.BIM : Uses………………………………………………………………………………...........................14 6.Infrastructure Requirements……………………………………………………………………...…..........21 7.Major Steps involved in carrying out BIM..................................................................................................27 8.BIM Deployment Plan…………………………………………………………………………….......…..32 9.Analysis Plan……………………………………………………………………………….......................52 10.Project Collaboration and Communication Plan……………………………………………………………………………….........................................54 11.Project Technology Plan……………………………………………………………….…………...……61 12.Risk Management..................………………………………………………………................................64 13.Summary of how BIM is carried out……………………………..…………………...............................69 14.Technology Platform and Software for BIM.................……………………………………...................72 15.Benefits Value and Challenges in BIM………………………………………………….....……………………………...................................77 16.Analysis of BIM Tools and Comparison.................................................................................................113

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PREFACE :
This project was inspired by the observation that interest in the subject is rapidly growing in popularity. It is easy to miss the breadth and potential of this “revolutionary” process due to its inherent nature. Yes, the process is revolutionary in its anticipated effects on the construction industry; yet its concept has been practiced for centuries in a variety of forms. This report attempts to present the current “best understanding” of BIM a format that will benefit readers with varying levels of understanding of the subject. The attempt has been to help others become well versed in applying these tools and processes, to educate owners and construction colleagues, regarding the various benefits and the methodology to be adopted for BIM. It is not easy, however to introduce change to the construction industry. The ability to sell and encourage use of BIM concepts to owners, construction companies, and project team members may be of more use than the ability to utilize the processes themselves. Humans resist change and these processes require a great change. In fact, they will result in a “cultural change” in every company that commits itself to their adoption. At this moment it looks like there is a potentially insatiable for BIM skills developing in the construction industry. All of design and construction education will need to rise to address the needs of the industry immediately; and the professions will also need to educate themselves as soon as possible. This work indicates a direction for the learning process to anyone wishing to add value and be successful in the construction industry with Building Modeling Information. The fundamental success of the BIM approach lies in its ability to facilitate what already comes naturally. The model helps us to more quickly see what’s wrong. Viewing a 3D model thus can turn this characteristic into strength. Since the 3D model also provides more transparency to the entire process, it can cause a certain level of discomfort; our work in the model can be seen more clearly by all those viewing the model. As humans, we like to see, but only be seen as we wish others to see us; in other words, we like to mask over those areas we have deemed substandard and emphasize the attributes we are proud of. Because BIM does not hide much, it requires a bit of getting used to. BIM demands a lot of collaboration and forces us to relate to each other differently. It is psychologically a very healthy development, but not necessarily an easy transition. The necessary collaboration develops a team spirit and a particular enjoyment in supporting each other with the responsibility for the end product. The team members will more deeply appreciate their similarities, as well as their differences, and take comfort in the ability to cooperate, rather than compete, and take pride in the shared results of the team’s efforts. There is a parallel between what internet has done for communication in general, through e-mail and websites, and what BIM is doing for construction projects. The challenge of any age is to use the circumstances of the age, rather than to be used by them. In this age of technology the challenge is not to loose ourselves in the availability of information, and to manage the useful information properly. Technology may be forcing human interactions to change, but in their art, we can only conclude that it is presumptuous to think that technology will change human nature. Thus it is in all of our best interests to understand human nature a little deeper, and use technology to bring out the best in ourselves.

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1.0 WHAT BIM IS AND WHY IS IT DIFFERENT?
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the process of creating and using digital models for design, construction and/or operations of projects. Building Information Modeling is the development and use of a computer software model to simulate the construction and operation of a facility. The resulting model, a Building Information Model, is a data-rich, object-oriented, intelligent and parametric digital representation of the facility, from which views and data appropriate to various users‘ needs can be extracted and analyzed to generate information that can be used to make decisions and improve the process of delivering the facility. For all of the history, design and construction of building have relied on drawings for representing the work to be done. They were defined as contracts - legal documents, were assessed by building codes, and used to manage the facility afterward. But there are two strategic limitations of drawings: (1) they require multiple views to depict a 3D object in adequate detail for construction, making them highly redundant and thus open to errors; (2) they are stored as lines, arcs and text annotations that is only interpretable by some people; they cannot be interpreted by computers.

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BIM involves representing a design as objects – vague and undefined, generic or productspecific, solid shapes or void-space oriented (like the shape of a room), that carry their geometry, relations and attributes. The geometry may be 2D or 3D. The objects may be abstract and conceptual or construction detailed. Composed together these objects define a building model (not a BIM, in my view). If an object is changed or moved, it need only be acted on once. BIM design tools then allow for extracting different views from a building model for drawing production and other uses. These different views are automatically consistent - in the sense that the objects are all of a consistent size, location, specification - since each object instance is defined only once, just as in reality. Drawing consistency eliminates many errors. Modern BIM design tools go further. They define objects parametrically. That is, the objects are defined as parameters and relations to other objects, so that if a related object changes, this one will also. Parametric objects automatically re-build themselves according to the rules embedded in them. The rules may be simple, requiring a window to be wholly within a wall, and moving the window with the wall, or complex defining size ranges, and detailing, such as the physical connection between a steel beam and column.

DIFFERENCE : 2D MODELING AND BI MODELING
The original premise of a CAD system was to automate the task of drafting. As such, the original focus of CAD applications was to represent 2D geometry via graphical elements, such as lines, arcs, symbols, etc. In this context, walls, for example, are merely represented as parallel lines. To establish some meaning behind these graphical elements, the concept of layering was introduced to group related elements, such as the lines used to represent walls on a given ‗wall layer.‘ By doing so, discrete 2D drawing files could be generated and plotted from CAD, but more complex information, such as the relationships between elements could not be represented. The emergence of 3D CAD initially focused almost entirely on creating geometry in support of visualization, and subsequent advances concentrated on creating realistic rendering and lighting effects. More recently, object-oriented CAD systems (OOCAD) replaced 2D symbols with building elements (objects), capable of representing the behavior of common building elements. These building elements can be displayed in multiple views, as well as having non-graphic attributes assigned to them. The inclusion of parametric 3D geometry, with variable dimensions and assigned rules, adds ―intelligence‖ to these objects, permitting the representation of complex geometric and functional relationships between building elements. In this paradigm, walls are objects which can be stretched, joined, have height, be of a specific cross-section type, and ―own‖ associated properties, such as a fire rating or insulation value. Similarly, doors and windows are represented as objects, capable of representing their relationship to the walls in which they are placed and behaving accordingly. More importantly, abstract objects, such as a space, can be defined by the relationships between physical building elements, identified (e.g. room number, room name, etc.), described (e.g. area, volume, use, occupancy, etc.), and referenced (e.g. listed in a room schedule, counted to calculate total floor area, etc.). Capturing

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these relationships and behaviors and the richness of the intelligence are just not possible in the previous CAD paradigm. Building information modeling (BIM) is the latest generation of OOCAD systems in which all of the intelligent building objects that combine to make up a building design can coexist in a single ‗project database‘ or ‗virtual building‘ that captures everything known about the building. A building information model (in theory) provides a single, logical, consistent source for all information associated with the building.

The key to any successful project is clear, concise understanding between architects, engineers, construction professionals, facility managers, and owners. Today, building information modeling (BIM) is breaking down barriers and bridging communication between extended design and construction teams, providing consistent and reliable information across the scope of a project. BIM is an integrated process that vastly improves project understanding and allows for predictable outcomes. This visibility enables all project team members to stay coordinated, improve accuracy, reduce waste, and make informed decisions earlier in the process—helping to ensure the project‘s success. Building information modeling covers geometry, spatial relationships, light analysis, geographic information, quantities and properties of building components (for example manufacturers' details). BIM can be used to demonstrate the entire building life cycle, including the processes of construction and facility operation. Quantities and shared properties of materials can be extracted easily. Scopes of work can be isolated and defined. Systems, assemblies and sequences can be shown in a relative scale with the entire facility or group of facilities. Dynamic information of the building, such as sensor measurements and control signals from the building systems, can also be incorporated within BIM to support analysis of building operation and maintenance . The process of using BIM models to improve the planning, design and construction process is increasingly being referred to as Virtual Design and Construction (VDC). Under the guidance of a Virtual Design to Construction Project Manager (VDC) BIM can be seen as a companion to PLM as in the Product Lifecycle Management, since it goes beyond geometry and addresses issues such as Cost Management, Project Management and provides a way to work concurrently on most aspects of building life cycle processes. The Virtual Design to Construction Project Manager (VDC - also known as VDCPM) is a professional in the field of project management and delivery. The VDC is retained by a design build team on the clients‘ behalf from the predesign phase through certificate of occupancy in order to develop and to track the object oriented BIM against predicted and measured performance objectives. The VDC manages the project delivery through multi-disciplinary building information models that drive analysis, schedules, take-off, and logistics. The VDC is skilled in the use of BIM as a tool to manage and assess the technology, staff, and procedural needs of a project. In short the VDC is a contemporary project managing architect who is equipped to deal with the current evolution of project delivery. The VDC acts as a conduit to bridge time tested construction knowledge to digital analysis and

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representation. VDC position avoids the well intentioned failures created by competent managers who lack the knowledge to implement the technology for which they are entrusted. Recent economic conditions have placed a spot light on industry wide deficiency in the organization of architectural staff, the lack of interoperability of project generated information, and the amount of non-beneficial redundancy which eventually finds its way to the client through an inferior project with increased cost. The VDC fulfils a critical role in contemporary project delivery in part due to the single platform integration of sketch tools, massing, solid modeling, analysis, & rendering organized within a singular object change engine. Available technology removes the need for digital redundancies and file conversions at each stage of design. Information can be tracked and managed from inception to project delivery with the use of a qualified VDC who secures the clients return on investment by tracking stated project performance objectives. The development of virtual design tools from 1957 to 2007 has created a digital landfill of applications, many whose continued use has hindered progress all the while accelerating Architect, Engineering, Contractor costs without increased accuracy, efficiency, or integration of disciplines." It is often assumed that VDC (or BIM, for that matter) is a software application because the process relies on a variety of software programs. This assumption is wrong. The true implementation of VDC represents a revolution in relationships and mind-set. All of the project participants are empowered to work as a unified team utilizing a single 3D model (BIM) of the building rather than a varying set of conventional 2D documents. BIM is able to achieve such improvements by modelling representations of the actual parts and pieces being used to build a building. This is a substantial shift from the traditional computer aided drafting method of drawing with vector file-based lines that combine to represent objects. Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and shapes or polygon(s), which are all based on mathematical equations, to represent images in computer graphics. Individual objects have individual attributes and characteristics which are unlike pixelbased images in which each and every pixel has separate attributes and properties associated with them. The editing of vector-based images is also very easy. The main reason of this easiness in editing is that only the properties of the lines and objects has to be edited in contrast to the process of changing attributes of every pixel. The interoperability requirements of construction documents include the drawings, procurement details, environmental conditions, submittal processes and other specifications for building quality. It is anticipated by proponents that VDC utilizing BIM can bridge the information loss associated with handing a project from design team, to construction team and to building owner/operator, by allowing each group to add to and reference back to all information they acquire during their period of contribution to the BIM model. For example, a building owner may find evidence of a leak in his building. Rather than exploring the physical building, he may turn to his BIM and see that a water valve is located in the suspect

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location. He could also have in the model the specific valve size, manufacturer, part number, and any other information ever researched in the past, pending adequate computing power. Such problems were initially addressed by Leite et al. when developing a vulnerability representation of facility contents and threats for supporting the identification of vulnerabilities in building emergencies. “BIM modeling services facilitate the creation of models which serve as a virtual representation of the actual construction process, by matching each step with a frame by frame real time representation. With BIM modeling support, quality is standardized and streamlined; risks are mitigated; conflicts and errors are easily detected and efficiently removed.”

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1.1.1 WHY BIM IS IMPORTANT Today the world is looking at providers of a complete building model solution from a single contractor. This would mean a single firm creates a building model with its cost and scheduling analysis and presents such a model to the constructor who would construct the building according to the details in the model. The question is that what details should these models include. Details in the model at the concept phase may include :    Architectural Design involving the stress analysis, building materials selection, etc. Model and design of each and every component in the building including pipelines, electric wiring, HVAC equipments, Doors, Valves, etc. Energy Model of the building by making use of energy modelling, listing out modifications in the facility which would lead to so much energy savings. Costing involved and the scheduling of the activities involved.

Such a model can be submitted to the final contractor(builder) as a revit(one of the tools for BIM) file (ie a BIM file) and accordingly the building is constructed within the costs and the schedules involved. Because 3D objects in such a model are machine readable, spatial conflicts in a building model can be checked automatically. Because of this capability, at both the design and shop drawing levels, errors and change orders due to internal errors are greatly reduced. Pieces can carry attributes for selecting and ordering them automatically, providing cost estimates and well as material tracking and ordering. Thus as a building representation, BIM technology is far superior to drawings. This is very clear for contractors and fabricators, but what about architects? The larger implications of BIM are not just consistent drawings, cost estimation and bills of material and clash detection. Because building models are machine readable, it becomes practical to use the data they carry in many other ways: for energy, lighting, acoustic or other analyses not as post facto checking if an almost finished design is "OK", but rather to provide feedback while designing, informing the designer of the effects of changes or to explore the relative effect on alternatives. Thus building models allow for better integration of design processes, allowing the kind of exploration that is equivalent to having a team of analyst consultants assessing our design as we make explorations. The result is that designers taking advantage of BIM can develop and demonstrate design trade-offs in ways that have been impossible in practice until now, and providing better services. Many of the uses of BIM data are waiting to be discovered and developed. While building modeling first gained recognition among architects because it was the only way to get blob buildings and exotic forms constructed, big payoffs can be gained for even simple buildings. Building models can save costs, save construction time, and support better building performance and control. It can potentially beneficially impact all parties in the construction process - designers, engineers, contractors, fabricators, facility operators. the whole construction

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industry as well a owners. In this sense, BIM is similar to the automation of manufacturing in the 1980s, when most manufacturing industries first adopted 3D modeling and digital representations. The change of ways of operating in manufacturing are still evolving. These capabilities also facilitate much improved coordination and collaboration. Designing a building once for contract drawings, then developing a set of detailed drawings for shop fabrication is recognized as involving much waste and inefficiency. Design-build and other forms of architect-contractor teaming have been recognized as more efficient - in terms of cost, time, and for reducing the potential for litigation. Building models tremendously facilitate this process. A 3D model is easier for all parties to interpret and visualize. Design or fabrication work can be coordinated in person or at a distance using web conferencing tools such as Webex and GoToMeeting and virtually walking through the 3D model. Owners are recognizing the performance benefits offered by BIM, in terms of reduced cost and change orders, in terms of better building performance, -- and as a result are increasingly requiring it. Examples include GSA, DOD, the state of Wisconsin and other government organizations, as well as universities and health groups.

1.1.2 DEFINITIONS OF "BIM"?
1.) Building information modelling is an integrated workflow built on coordinated, reliable information about a project from design through construction and into operations. 2.) A digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility and a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle. Building information modeling covers geometry, spatial relationships, light analysis, geographic information, quantities and properties of building components (for example manufacturers' details). BIM can be used to demonstrate the entire building life cycle, including the processes of construction and facility operation. Quantities and shared properties of materials can be extracted easily. Scopes of work can be isolated and defined. Systems, assemblies and sequences can be shown in a relative scale with the entire facility or group of facilities. Dynamic information of the building, such as sensor measurements and control signals from the building systems, can also be incorporated within BIM to support analysis of building operation and maintenance. Under the guidance of a Virtual Design to Construction Project Manager (VDC) BIM can be seen as a companion to PLM as in the Product Lifecycle Management, since it goes beyond geometry and addresses issues such as Cost Management, Project Management and provides a way to work concurrently on most aspects of building life cycle processes. BIM goes far beyond switching to a new software. It requires changes to the definition of traditional architectural phases and more data sharing than most architects and engineers are used to.

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BIM is able to achieve such improvements by modeling representations of the actual parts and pieces being used to build a building. This is a substantial shift from the traditional computer aided drafting method of drawing with vector file-based lines that combine to represent objects. The interoperability requirements of construction documents include the drawings, procurement details, environmental conditions, submittal processes and other specifications for building quality. It is anticipated by proponents that VDC utilizing BIM can bridge the information loss associated with handing a project from design team, to construction team and to building owner/operator, by allowing each group to add to and reference back to all information they acquire during their period of contribution to the BIM model. For example, a building owner may find evidence of a leak in his building. Rather than exploring the physical building, he may turn to his BIM and see that a water valve is located in the suspect location. He could also have in the model the specific valve size, manufacturer, part number, and any other information ever researched in the past, pending adequate computing power. Such problems were initially addressed by Leite et al. when developing a vulnerability representation of facility contents and threats for supporting the identification of vulnerabilities in building emergencies There have been attempts at creating a BIM for older, pre-existing facilities. They generally reference key metrics such as the Facility Condition Index (FCI). The validity of these models will need to be monitored over time, because trying to model a building constructed in, say 1927, requires numerous assumptions about design standards, building codes, construction methods, materials, etc., and therefore is far more complex than building a BIM at time of initial design. The American Institute of Architects has further defined BIM as "a model-based technology linked with a database of project information", and this reflects the general reliance on database technology as the foundation. In the future, structured text documents such as specifications may be able to be searched and linked to regional, national, and international standards.

1.1.3 WILL IT BECOME STANDARD?
BIM tools are as different from CADD tools, in the same way that a slide rule is different from a computer, or as a set of toy soldiers is different from a battle-oriented computer game. BIM supports on-line simulation of a design, on-line simulation of construction - called 4D CAD, online simulation of a building‘s operation, mechanically as well as the people organizations within it. The BIM processes provide better building products at lower costs to the owner. A growing number of case studies have shown the benefits to users who have used a building model to apply BIM technology. Building models and BIM technology will certainly become the standard representation and practice for construction within most of our lifetimes.

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1.1.4 DIMENSIONS IN BIM : 6D APPROACH
Building Information Modeling or BIM is one of the major inventions of the construction industry which has change the whole scenario. Now, the entire tedious and complex jobs in the designing phase have done by this wonderful tool. But doing the designing work is not the only purpose of BIM. It has much more utilities in the AEC industry. For what, many architects and contractors promptly adopt this wonderful tool. The aspect of the BIM can be called as 'D' that means it has many useful purpose for the construction industry. The 2D of BIM is something which has two dimensions that means height and length. From this aspect we can get a flat drawing of any construction project. It is helpful to get the print version as maximum printers do not support the 3D version. The 3D is the added dimension of width. We can get a more real time image of the construction. This 3D aspect of BIM provides less risk, less rework, less delay and more accuracy, more predictability and more confidence. We can detect clash and mitigation which help us in better constructability. We can get an idea about the cost, schedule and coordination. With the help of the BIM, we can get data on construction analysis and fabrication through out the project. The software allows easy aggregation of existing design data to visualize the whole project, simulate scheduling, and identify interferences to help gain insight and predictability while improving productivity and quality. The 4th dimension is the factor of time. In the context of BIM, the 4D has been used to describe a model with all the information of project schedule, alternative sequence, erection coordination and actual progress. It is also used to visualize the construction assembly. The entire delivery team of owners, engineers, architects, operators, constructors, subcontractors, manufacturers and materials suppliers can share one virtual vision of the project in real time. BIM provides the estimation of time and proper scheduling of the work. This is a very important aspect for the bidding process as the estimated time is a valuable point for the building owners. This aspect is utterly helpful in synchronizing the design, proper planning and scheduling, supply chain management, risk management and earned value management. The 5D represents the cost aspect of any construction project. BIM can bring out almost accurate estimation of the expenditure of the construction project. This is an ultimate guidance for the AEC industry for bidding purpose. With the help of the BIM, we can get the idea about the quantity of materials, number of labors and possible amount of days. BIM can reduce cost of the project by reducing the number of change orders. For each project stage, starting from business development through preconstruction to actual construction, BIM delivers an end-to-end integrated construction service. These comprehensive deliverables and analyses help us plan ahead. They enable informed decisions that lead to better buildings for our investment. BIM is the best tool to get the 'what if' situation. We can choose from a variety of option of material and designing without doing much investment.

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The 6th dimension constitutes the life cycle of the building which is also known as BIM-after construction. 6D Process Facilities Solutions aim to transfer all prevalent BIM Documents and Electronic Files to the Owner and Facilities Team responsible for managing their newly constructed facility. The 6th dimension dictates entirely by technologies used during the construction project. BIM records the as-build documentation for 3D modeling. From the above discussion, we can understand that BIM is real god send for the contractors, architects and engineers. They can get ultimate help from this tool. BIM enables them to concentrate their core business without bothering about designing, cost and time estimation and many other things. We can get help from the company named BIM Outsourcing, a leading name in the BIM services. They can help us in the BIM service, MEP service and HVAC service, cost estimation, time estimation life cycle data provider, BIM model for architecture, woodworker, structural and detailing service and many more things. We can get a full description at bimoutsourcing.com, the official website for the BIM Outsourcing.

1.2 USE OF BIM 1.2.1 RANGE OF USE
The great promise of BIM is its expansive range of applications for users. At its basic level, BIM represents an evolution from traditional 2D design to a dynamic 3D model built around a database of a project‘s physical and functional characteristics. The more data users add to the model, the more benefits can be leveraged from it. Beyond 3D visualization of a project, information about specific objects within the model can be used for a wide range of analyses such as building performance, schedule and costs. Today, 3D modeling is by far the most popular use of BIM, with architects leading the way. Other users, such as engineers, are finding selective ways to model elements in BIM. Contractors are building momentum for the use of BIM in 4D (scheduling) and 5D (cost estimating). As users continue to gain expertise with BIM, they will further capitalize on the technology’s potential and push for new ways to garner benefits in areas such as sustainability and building operations. Architects and engineers will likely use BIM to do energy analyses, and owners will use the BIM model to manage and maintain their facilities

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.1.2.2 MODELING DETAILS BIM users gravitate toward using the technology to model specific elements within their respective practices. Although some use BIM for a broad range of applications, there is significant room for expanded use of the technology to model certain design elements. Architects tend to use BIM to model a full range of elements at a high level. However, electrical engineers and contractors do very little electrical design modeling. Among some disciplines, such as mechanical engineering design, there is a mix of preferred uses of BIM, suggesting that users have yet to realize the benefits of some design elements.

1.2.3 ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS
  The frequency of modeling all architectural elements is high among architects. Exterior openings, building skin, and exterior wall and skin are the most frequently modeled elements by architects. Floor assemblies are the least frequently modeled element by architects. However, these elements are still modeled at a high level.

1.2.4 MECHANICAL ELEMENTS
 Mechanical engineers and contractors use BIM to model duct systems, air handlers and major equipment very frequently.

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 

Grilles and diffusers are also modeled fairly often by mechanical engineers and contractors. Notably, energy management systems and controls are rarely modeled by mechanical engineers and contractors, with three in five saying they don‘t model those elements frequently. With the rapid rise of the green movement, demand to model these elements more frequently could quickly gain momentum in the near future.

1.2.5 Scheduling in BIM
The potential of BIM to offer scheduling functions—also referred to as 4D— is an emerging benefit. Although the design capabilities of BIM are widely employed by users, the industry is still in the early phases of adopting BIM for scheduling. This is likely due to the large investments that firms have already made in project management software. As BIM use among contractors expands faster than among other users, greater use of 4D can be expected in the near future. User Differences   Contractors are most likely to use scheduling in BIM, as that is a significant portion of their practice. As could be expected, architects (78%), engineers (85%) and owners (87%) use scheduling in BIM much less frequently than contractors.

1.2.6 COST DATA IN BIM As with scheduling, users are still exploring how to incorporate cost data— also known as 5D—into BIM. In some

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cases, companies may struggle with how to integrate BIM with existing estimating systems. Although there are considerable opportunities to improve the use of scheduling in BIM, the lack of cost analysis being executed in BIM represents even more potential for future growth. Developing an automated cost estimate is dependent on using a consistent framework to organize the many components that constitute a building. Several taxonomies ‐ techniques of classification, have been used for years in the AEC profession to organize building information. Methods chosen for use are very dependent on the project phase and detail required. Preliminary phases require a much more generalized organization than the detailed information required during the mature phases of a project cycle. UniFormat was developed in the early seventies and enhanced in 1993 (by CSI, GSA, AACE,

R.S. Means and others) to organize information for estimating and design costing analysis by a project‘s major components. This framework breaks building systems into categories such as foundation, superstructure, shell, and interior construction, and into subcategories ‐ such as floor and roof construction and exterior walls and windows. The format is useful to cost estimates being generated in the preliminary phases of a project. BIM applications, such as Revit, use UniFormat for organizing their objects and assemblies.

User Differences    Contractors are most likely to use cost data in BIM, as estimating is a key part of their practice. Three in 10 use it at least moderately frequently. After contractors, owners are next most likely to use cost data in BIM. Owners also focus heavily on costs. Engineers (82 %) and architects (85%) are least likely to use estimating in BIM.

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More experienced users are far more likely to use cost data in BIM than others.

1.2.7 BIM ENERGY MODELING TOOLS Firms like Smith Group are using BIM tools to redesign buildings to be more energy efficient. As shown in the graph below, using the modeling tool, Smith Group was able to identify energy savings of 19.6% resulting in cost savings of 22.4%. This was primarily achieved through lowering space cooling and lighting, and through exchange of pumping and heating energy usage.

1.2.8 Growing the Connection Between BIM and Green Just as BIM use is rapidly expanding within the design and construction industry, so is the green building movement. Although these two trends are evolving along their own paths, there are significant opportunities for BIM tools to address issues related to sustainability. Data incorporated into a BIM can be used to analyze the performance of a building, including such green aspects as daylighting, energy efficiency and sustainable materials. As the green movement gains momentum, BIM users are beginning to tap into the technology’s potential. As BIM continues to develop, technology providers will need to improve its ability to address the sustainable design and construction demands of the industry.

1.2.9 BIM USERS AND GREEN As sustainability continues to gain momentum, BIM users are among its adopters. Three-quarters of BIM users are involved in at least a moderate level of green projects with half reporting that their involvement in green building is at a high level. Green Design with BIM The thoughtful designer can use BIM models to save resources AND money for project owners by incorporating analytical studies into the early design phase. Given a detailed BIM design model, softwares now exist that analyze correctly not only the energy impact of building orientation (north-south versus east-west, for example), but also can

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calculate the benefits or drawbacks of various building forms, envelope material, window types, light-fixture arrangements and so on. An analysis might find that a tall, narrow building will outperform a shorter building with a larger footprint, and that an exterior insulation and finish system envelope will reduce energy consumption by 30 percent compared to other claddings. This allows the owner to, in effect, know—during the design phase—how green his building will be once complete. These analyses will also help the owner determine the lifetime cost of operating the building, and will clearly show a return on investment and repayment periods, based on various designs and material Analytical sun studies Conducting a sun study helps the designer to evaluate and refine his project to effectively use daylight sources. Continuous control of usage of resources Quantities and detailed data about building components can be generated, providing the architect and the owner with valuable information about the materials used. What-if scenarios for design optimization The ability to run different scenarios supports the green design process.

Computer energy simulations Computer energy simulation is used throughout the design process to assess the building‘s energy conservation value and construction costs. Architects and engineers can collaborate to generate many alternative concepts for building form, envelope, and landscaping. This allows focus on minimizing peak energy loads, demand, and consumption. Typically, heating and cooling load reductions from shading devices, better glazing, insulation, efficient lighting, daylighting, and active and passive solar systems allow for smaller and less expensive HVAC equipment which, when well designed, can result in little or no increase in construction cost compared to conventional designs. Simulations are used to refine designs and ensure that energy-conservation and capital cost goals are met and to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements.

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David Vandervort Architects -- Located in Issaquah, Washington, zHome is the first multifamily, production, zero-energy, carbon neutral community in the United States. In addition to presentation images and construction documentations, BIM was used to create sun studies which helped shape the roofs. URL: http://www.vandervort.com

BIM AS COLLABORATIVE FOUNDATION Effective green designs use the BIM model as a basis for measuring the various performance analyses. The BIM approach provides an optimal collaborative environment for specialized applications. Developers of BIM applications have become one of the leading forces behind interoperability standards such as the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), which allows sharing and exchange of the 3D model‘s information for generating building simulations across multiple applications. As a result of this interoperability, the BIM model functions as a fulcrum around which everything else pivots – from structural engineering applications to collision detection, building performance and energy analysis regardless of the software manufacturer. DATA SHARING Using the BIM model as the data backbone for the process, energy analysis software such as IES, ECOTECT and EnergyPlus in North America or VIP and RIUSKA in Europe can contribute valuable data to a project. Primarily used by engineers, this software can be used to optimize systems such as solar, thermal, lighting and HVAC. EnergyPlus and RIUSKA users can take advantage of IFC compatibility for a smooth collaboration with the BIM application. Green Building XML (gbXML) is used for connections with Green Building Studio, ECOTECT, and IES Virtual Environment.

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Architects -- Currently in design, this 4-unit development in Seattle, Washington, seeks to achieve zero energy usage and/or the PassivHaus Institute certification. Throughout the process BIM and energy modeling has been utilized as a way of evaluating the design. Strategically oriented site planning, roof slopes for solar photovoltaics and clerestories, glazing percentages, building envelope and wall thickness have been carefully examined in BIM. URL: http://www.b9architects.com

ENERGY ANALYSIS WITHIN A BIM MODEL Energy consumption is one of the main contributors to a building‘s air pollution and maintenance cost. Graphisoft has developed the tools that work within a BIM model to generate energy reports early in the design phase when the architect has the greatest opportunity to influence the efficiency of a project. Similarly companies like autodesk has acquired ECOTECT from its parent company and are providing inbuilt energy analysis through ecotect in Revit (their BIM tool).

BIM and its Interoperability with GIS : GIS has traditionally been used at the beginning of the facility lifecycle process, before BIM is needed. The role of GIS has been primarily to determine where a facility would best be located by addressing a variety of criteria (for example, zoning, flooding potential, customer driving distance demographics). In this instance, GIS and BIM do not need to interact at a very significant level, if at all. In the context of facility management, GIS is being used by building owners and managers to manage multiple facilities spread out across a campus, even around the globe. Here GIS data can be used to answer a wide variety of questions that involve location, time and tabular information, such as: • What is my average number of square feet per employee by department?

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• How many fire extinguishers do we have to inspect in the next month and where are they? • How many ADA-compliant toilet stalls do we have and what is the maximum distance someone has to travel to get to one? • What leased spaces do we have that will be available in the next six months that could support a coffee shop? • Which valves do I have to close to isolate a main break and which buildings are impacted? The only way any tools can be developed to answer these questions is to capture all of the natural and man-made features—including what is on the ground, under the ground and inside the buildings— in the same seamless database. In theory, storing all the BIMs for a given organization on the BIM server could enable richer interoperability. By creating features in GIS with a foreign key and using SOA-based web services to link back to the native feature in the BIM, the GIS could retrieve the detail it needs on command. This approach could provide true interoperability between GIS and BIM, while maximizing the value of each.

3D facility management GIS showing rooms color-coded by use type

User Differences      Architects and contractors are most heavily involved in green projects with three in five reporting a high level of activity. Nearly half of owners are involved in green projects at a high level. Engineers are the least involved in green projects. Large firms are significantly more likely to be involved in green projects. More experienced BIM users also tend to be more heavily involved in green projects than others.

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1.2.10 HOW BIM IS USED BIM is being developed with a broad range of users in mind. As such, its uses are extremely varied and in many cases can differ significantly among build team members. Still, there are some areas where team members agree on its appropriate level of use.    Routinely using BIM’s 3D visualization capabilities to communicate with all parties is the highest-ranked use reported by each team member. BIM reviews in collaborative environments with multiple parties is used moderately by each team member. Eliminating shop or field drawings by having parties work within a shared model is still emerging among all team members.

User Differences The top uses of BIM among architects include:  Routinely using BIM‘s 3D visualization capabilities to communicate with all parties

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 

Increased time spent on design Reduced time spent on contract documentation

The top uses of BIM among engineers include:       Routinely using BIM‘s 3D visualization capabilities to communicate with all parties Increased time spent on design BIM reviews in collaborative environments with multiple parties The top uses of BIM among contractors include: Routinely using BIM‘s 3D visualization capabilities to communicate with all parties Meeting with key disciplines for clash detection analysis BIM reviews in collaborative environments with multiple parties

The top uses of BIM among owners include:    Routinely using BIM‘s 3D visualization capabilities to communicate with all parties BIM reviews in collaborative environments with multiple parties Meeting with key disciplines for clash detection analysis.

1.2.11 BIM Infrastructure Requirements
Getting up to speed with BIM requires a varied set of tools and skills. Although it stems from traditional processes and principles, BIM represents a new way of achieving project goals. The transition to BIM is analogous to the transition from riding a bike as transportation to learning how to drive a car:  BIM technology—such as software, hardware and connectivity—represents the vehicles we use and the roads, bridges or tunnels we travel.

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  

BIM content is like the fuel for our vehicle, which needs to be plentiful and easily accessible. BIM standards represent the rules and regulations for all aspects of the infrastructure that allows us to travel efficiently and consistently. BIM education, training and certification are like the learning and licensing processes for operating our vehicle.

These are all key components to BIM, and without them we won‘t get far.

1.2.12 OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT BIM users want to improve their experience with BIM technology as it relates to their own data and the data generated by other team members.    One-third of users cite the need for software to be more interoperable. Only a small portion of users (1 in 5) want the software to be more user friendly. Although many users could not name ways to improve BIM software, few (13%) do not believe it needs to be improved or have no opinion.

User Differences    Architects do not see a great need to improve training. Contractors are far more likely to see the need to improve interoperability. Owners are much more concerned about improvements to training and standardization of the BIM process than others.

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1.2.13 TECHNOLOGY CHOICES BIM users are generally savvy about the software choices on the market. Most are highly aware of the primary BIM software platforms available and have a moderate awareness of other software tools that are used in conjunction with BIM. This understanding of software choices can prove critical on jobs that use integrated project delivery. Although every user does not need a working knowledge of every tool outside the user‘s specific area of practice, it is helpful to know what software is available to other team members and how those tools can affect one‘s own work. For example, while a team member may not use fabrication software, it can be useful to know how one‘s data can work with that software. In an integrated team environment, the limitations of a piece of software can have implications far beyond its primary user. As such, the decision by one team member to use a particular piece of software can be influenced by others. As users gain experience with BIM and tackle the barriers of non-interoperability, this level of joint understanding will grow.

1.2.14 Content Demand As capabilities and content continue to be developed for BIM, users see gaps they need filled. Although many have demands that are specific to their practices, areas that all users agree need to be further developed include:   Structural elements Mechanical equipment

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Building envelope and windows

User Differences Architects see the greatest need for additional content. The top BIM content demanded by architects includes building envelope and windows; structural elements; stairs and railings; and objects that work with analysis tools for evaluating sustainability. Engineers report the lowest need for additional content. The top BIM content demanded by engineers includes structural elements; mechanical equipment; and sewer, water and drainage system components. Contractors and owners both demand the same top-three areas of BIM content: structural elements; mechanical equipment; and building envelope and windows.

1.2.15 ESTABLISHING BIM STANDARDS The development of building information modeling is bigger than any one company, industry group, software platform or practice area. Because of its broad impact, players throughout the industry are contributing to its evolution. This broad-based approach has created a very dynamic environment in which new pieces are regularly added to the puzzle. The greatest pitfall is that any added piece might not exactly fit into the big picture with the others. As a result, build team members might not be able to share data across the various technologies used on a BIM-related project. With so many players working to develop BIM, many are calling for standards that will make these divergent platforms and applications interoperable.

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Under this mission, the building-SMART Alliance was founded in 2006 as an expansion of the International Alliance for Interoperability to define standards of data interoperability within the building environment. Among its efforts, the group helped establish Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs), which electronically define elements of a building design in a format that can be shared between applications. Players throughout then industry are experimenting with implementing IFCs. Other standards are also at play, including XML, which stands for Extensible Markup Language. This format is used for exchanging data via the Internet.

1.2.16 DEMAND FOR TRAINING As more BIM adopters significantly expand their use of the technology to gain a competitive advantage, many companies can expect their training needs to increase as well. Since BIM is still an emerging technology in the industry, users express the strongest immediate need for basic skills. However, as they gain experience, it can be expected that higher levels of training will be needed in the coming years.

Training Methods BIM users as a whole draw from a diverse cadre of training resources. Users are almost evenly split on the decision to bring in external trainers, train at off-site locations, use internal trainers, or teach themselves. User Differences    Architects are least likely to be self-taught and most likely to use external trainers at their offices or at outside locations. Engineers are most likely to be self-taught. Contractors are most likely to use internal trainers and least likely to train outside the office. One in ten owners outsource BIM and therefore don‘t need training.

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A majority of expert users rely on internal trainers. The use of internal trainers rises steadily as the company gains experience. This suggests that as users become more

invested in BIM, they see the benefits of staffing trainers.  Beginners and small firms are far more likely to be self-taught than all other users. Another solution to quicken the BIM learning curve is for firms to encourage colleges and universities to train students in BIM tools and to recruit ready-made BIM experts when the students graduate.

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STEPS INVOLVED IN CARRYING OUT BIM

1.3 What should we be concerned with when starting down the BIM path?
Step1: To Find The Right Plan The best way to get started is to have the right plan and keep it simple. First, make sure we pick a specific BIM objective we want to accomplish for our company—pick a new job that will help us prove a return on investment. Keep it simple and specific; an objective we can measure for tangible results. Consider the following in our plan:   Steering Committee – create a senior management group involved in the BIM implementation process to ensure leadership support. Dedicated Effort – dedicate someone to this project who has a keen interest in BIM and will see the project through. Then keep them focused on attaining results by empowering them with the authority to make decisions toward achieving our goals with effective regular status updates. Integrate the Effort – ensure that the project works with our existing business processes and partners. Work with what we currently have for processes, whether starting with a new 3D model or converting 2D drawings to 3D, and identify where the new BIM tools will require change in our processes. Pick a project with team members who will readily share the data.

Collaboration – BIM tools work best in a truly collaborative environment with our partners. Sharing information at various times throughout the model life cycle will be critical to success, so make sure we and those we work with can be flexible in collaborating. Use standards wherever possible to ease the collaboration efforts. Hardware Requirements – the BIM tools will require appropriate computer hardware to make the tools work properly. Avoid the temptation to throw the tools on inadequate equipment for expediency‘s sake, since this will cost more time and frustration in the end. Follow the minimum recommendations for the tools. Connectivity – because BIM tools work best in a collaborative environment, make sure that there is appropriate connectivity to the Internet and our office network as well as our job site. Being able to update a model from the office or the work site may become invaluable. Typical DSL connection speeds of at least 256 kbps should be adequate, but as with most applications, the more bandwidth, the better. Do not over complicate the plan—the goal is to get started and see results quickly. Pick a

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specific case and stay focused on it. All too often, projects fail because of the dreaded scope creep, just like out-of-control change orders on a job. Stick to our goal until achieved, then learn from the results and adjust for ongoing use. An alternative to using BIM for the first time on a new project is to take an existing project and use BIM tools to remodel it, to see if we would really have gained savings. The problem with this is the added cost to remodel a past project without an actual return on that investment. However, we can consider this an investment if we achieve an ROI on future jobs. Step 2 : Collaborative Process Mapping To get the most out of collaborative project management and BIM initiatives during our project, invest a bit of time up front to map out planned collaboration among team members at each phase of the project. Below is a sample collaboration plan for three different project delivery methods—integrated project delivery, design-build project delivery, and design-bid-build project delivery. Definitions for each project delivery method: • Integrated Project Delivery: This method calls for integration at the onset of a project, and utilizes up-to-date technology to foster flexibility and successful project outcomes. This method collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants, fosters a great degree of communication, and promotes intense collaboration among the project team. For BIM this method is supposed to be more appropriate. • Design-Build Project Delivery: With this method, one entity performs both architectural/engineering and construction under a single contract. The design-builder warrants to the contracting agency that it will produce documents that are complete and free from error. • Design-Bid-Build Project Delivery: With this method, documents are fully developed by a designer paid by the owner before bidding by multiple contractors. This method limits a contractor‘s ability to use BIM to its full potential as a coordination tool.

Step 3: Selecting The Right Set Of Tools What should we look for in a BIM tool? Once we have our specific plan, finding the right BIM tool(s) for our use is best accomplished by making our selection based on the following criteria:   Simplicity – the software should be easy to learn and use. Functionality – ensure that the tool meets our specific needs and usage by reading about

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the tool before we start using it.     Interoperability/Collaborative – the tools we use should work well with other software, as being able to interchange document formats or convert documents helps. Providers Longevity – despite a quickly changing technology environment, make sure we are confident that the vendor will be around for the long run. Support / Training – the tool should have quick, effective help and the provider should include appropriate training (electronic and in-person). Environment – double-check that the tool will work in our environment with our hardware, communications, and collaborative partners. We may want to consider using one of the various technology hosting services to provide the environment for our tools (especially in the beginning, until we determine our specific needs).

1.3.1 HOW DO WE PICK A BIM TOOL? This may seem like a daunting task, but if we have a plan and know what we are looking for in the tools, the best BIM solution to choose can be much more obvious. To help with selection, this guide includes a matrix of ―Example BIM Tools‖ (page 113), that can serve as a starting point for understanding currently available BIM solutions. The matrix includes sections for both BIM software and BIM services showing: Product Name – tool specifically for BIM (note that this matrix does not contain 2D Drawing tools, which are already plentiful) Manufacturer – the company that makes the tool BIM Use – how the tool is intended to be used in modeling Description – a brief manufacturer‘s description of the tool Supplier – who supplies the tool Hardware Requirements – specifications for manufacturer‘s recommended hardware with which to run the tool Approximate Cost – an approximate cost for relative comparing and planning purposes only (always check with vendors/suppliers about free downloads, trial subscriptions, volume discounts, etc.) The sections of the ―Example BIM Tools‖ matrix include: Software

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3D Modeling – software tools that create and manipulate 3D models 2D to 3D Conversions – software tools that convert 2D to 3D models (At this time, this type of tool is custom developed based on specific requirements. While many of the 3D tools will import 2D drawings, 3D tools may not be able to update the 2D drawing.) 3D Interoperability – tools that allow us to work with a variety of different types of 2D drawings or 3D models, regardless of format Tracking – tools that allow us to track changes among drawing sets Services Training – these are service providers or tools that train specifically in the use of BIM tools Consulting – these are service providers that offer consultation on installation, support, integration or other implementation needs specifically for BIM tools Hardware Lists typical hardware that meets the minimum requirements of BIM software from several popular hardware providers.

What will BIM tools cost? There are several components involved in identifying the cost for using BIM tools, from software and hardware to time needed to set up and use the solutions. The ―Example BIM Tools‖ matrix includes the range of cost for the solutions listed. Note that the suppliers of these tools may have a number of differing pricing options, depending on the number of users we have and how we use the software. It is wise to check with the supplier to determine current pricing models and offers. Hardware costs vary depending on what solution we choose, but can be estimated from the pricing in the table included in Appendix B. The ―Example BIM Tools‖ Matrix identifies approximate costs for hardware that meets the minimal requirements of BIM software. While our existing hardware may work for BIM software, it is wise to make sure that the speed of the computer and graphics capability are sufficient to give a positive experience when using the tools. Hardware is relatively inexpensive, so do not skimp on obtaining the best hardware for our needs. Other costs that we may incur are for consulting services to help us set up and use BIM tools or help us develop appropriate processes that use BIM tools effectively for our firm. The bottom line is: For as little as $5,000 we can get started with BIM and begin to see the benefits. A wise plan would be to consider an investment of $10,000 to $50,000 depending on our needs, recognizing that these costs will quickly be recovered by the benefi ts our company attains.

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(Note that this matrix is meant as a guide only and is not a recommendation of any one tool over another. Nor is it an exhaustive list of tools. Items were selected for inclusion in the list based on high availability and popularity. The costs shown are approximate and any specification may change over time. AGC cannot guarantee the accuracy of information, as it may change at any time.)

1.3.2 The BIM Process: How is it to be conducted ?
From a contractor‘s perspective, the ―Model Based‖ BIM process depends on whether the project is designed initially in 3D or if it is designed in 2D and later ―converted‖ to 3D. Hence there may exist two approaches : 1. 2D Conversion 2. 3D Designs

1.3.1 COMPARISON OF A ―2D BASED‖ VS. A ―MODEL BASED‖ INDUSTRY The traditional 2D Based design evolved from pencils, to overlay drafting, to the layers and levels seen in CAD programs. These long market-accepted ―flat‖ media, the separate nature of the layers, and multiple design and consulting disciplines have contributed to the 2D, layered, disconnected process prevalent today. In the 2D process, the tools and process available to the team contribute to a distinct inability to see, think and document in an integrated 3D (and beyond) way. The implications of a moved beam on a duct simply cannot be known or seen in a 2D environment. They must be imagined. The 2D Design process allows the possibility that designs are not complete, as all areas are not drawn. In a 3D Based process, the technology and tools allow us to see, and collaborate in 3D. More important than the technology-enabled way we see in 3D, is the information we get, the interactivity and linkages it fosters, and the intelligence and analysis this linked data promotes. Use of the intelligence housed within a BIM allows us to see and interact differently, and can make us far more intelligent than teams using a 2D process. What does this next evolution of ―3D BIM‖ require? Certainly it does not take one ―all knowing‖ expert, who has won the ―war of the BIM.‖ In fact, the reality is quite the contrary. More than ever in the BIM process, it looks as if it will take a village of BIM-enabled collaborators who can use the intelligent tools to cope with the pace and amount of information. In a 3D BIM approach, model reviews, virtual huddles, and electronic CAVES (computer-aided virtual environments) change the environment, duration, nature and results of our process. Shop

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drawings might be waived in favor of shop models or CNC (computer numerically controlled) fabrication models. RFIs might become obsolete, or at least significantly reduced in number, and be resolved much quicker if the model is deployed as a jobsite tool. The following table looks at many of the common tasks of the construction process and compares the traditional 2D method versus the Model Based process:

2.

1.3.2 PARTIAL BIM USES – WHAT ARE THESE? Most contractors are likely to start using BIM through ―partial uses.‖ The list of partial uses of

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BIM seems almost infinite. For contractors already using BIM, the list seems to grow daily. For those getting started, the following list represents some of the more common ―early‖ uses that most contractors experience in their experimentation with BIM: a. Visualization b. Scope Clarification c. Partial Trade Coordination d. Collision Detection/Avoidance e. Design Validation f. Construction Sequencing Planning/Phasing Plans/ Logistics g. Marketing Presentations h. Options Analysis (see example: ―Partial use: Value Engineering Analysis,‖ which shows Precast versus Brick) i. Walk-throughs and Fly-throughs j. Virtual Mock-Ups k. Sight Line Studies Item e., ―Design Validation.‖ is a task the contractor would perform during design phases: preparation of design documents or construction documents. The concept of ―design validation‖ is a task performed by the contractor, distinct from the ―design coordination‖ task performed by the design team. The contractor does not take responsibility for ―design coordination‖ simply by engaging in ―design validation.‖ The design validation is performed by detecting signifi cant clashes. Perhaps a more detailed clash detection is performed by the contractor after the subcontractors have integrated their shop drawings into the consolidated model. 2D Conversions When will most designs be delivered in 3D? Most estimates range between five and ten years. In the meantime most projects that ―use BIM‖ are designing in 2D and ―converting‖ to 3D. a. What is a ―2D Conversion‖? A 2D Conversion is the process of taking the traditional CAD fi les (such as .dwg) and using the attributes necessary to add the third dimension that allows the 2D Design to begin taking its 3D form. There are a number of software programs, primarily the same software that designs in intelligent 3D, that allow a person with relatively little training to take 2D Designs and add the

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attributes that allow it to become 3D.

b. Typical Process—2D Conversion Once the reasons to convert a 2D Design into 3D have been established, and how the model will be used has been determined, the 2D Design fi les are opened in 3D Modeling Software. Attributes and 3D elements are drawn over the 2D Design. Here are examples of some tasks that must be addressed:        Determine the level of detail necessary (this affects how much information will come from the model) Establish roles (who is doing what in 2D? 3D?) Assuming there are multiple models, determine who will assemble the composite model Establish exchange methods of files and formats Locate a central, shared repository for the drawings Establish (0,0,0) the origin point for model alignment It should be noted that there is still a review process (similar to the review of a paper set of 2D drawings) to confirm that the design does not have any major conflicts or errors. For example, there may be an error in a wall type in the 2D Design that is likely to be caught during the assigning of 3D elements to the design. Implement regularly scheduled quality checks of the model.

Once we have reviewed the 3D model and are confi dent it is complete, how we actually use the model from this point forward is essentially the same as if it were a 3D design. In other words, once we have the model to use as a tool, it should not matter where the model came from or whether it was converted to 3D or designed in 3D. c. How do I do a 2D Conversion? Anyone with the right software and training can convert 2D Designs into 3D. (Most contractor‘s modelers have been able to make remarkable progress with less than a week‘s worth of training.) The length of time it takes to do a conversion is of course proportional to the amount of experience the modeler has. Once a modeler becomes reasonably proficient, a typical project conversion should take one to two weeks to create. Conversions can be done by the contractor or by a growing number of third-party service providers.

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d. How much does a 2D Conversion cost? Assuming a contractor has made the initial investment in software and training, and is past the initial learning curve, the actual labor cost of the conversion itself tends to average between 0.1% and 0.5% of the total construction costs. Remember that portions of the project may be designed in 3D and/or converted by some of the suppliers or trade contractors. These models can be combined to create the ―Composite Model‖ where all of the models are viewed as a single model, even though they are really separate models. e. When and where to do a 2D Conversion? This has been one of the biggest challenges, particularly on fast-track projects; everyone wants the benefi t of the 3D model as early as possible. However, recognizing the nature of the typical linear design process, it is not unusual for designs to change substantially from the early phases to the later design documents. (This is a temporary problem unique to 2D Designs, and there is no clear best practice on when is the best time to do the 3D conversion.) For now, the best advice is probably to wait until the major program (including square footages, architectural fl oorplans and basic structural scheme) has been developed. Otherwise, it may be necessary to do 2D conversions more than once, or at least update them. f. What are the benefits of 2D Conversion? There are many benefits derived from doing the conversion in-house. Most importantly, our firm benefits from the experience of doing the model. It is a good idea not to pass up this opportunity. 4. 3D Designs a. What is a ―3D design‖? The term ―3D design‖ is intended in this section to mean an intelligent BIM model-based design. A 3D design is one that is produced with one of a number of BIM software applications. The BIM is in a three-dimensional, geometric, object-oriented representation of the project and has data attributes making the model ―intelligent.‖ Eventually the data embedded into the BIM can include design criteria, detailed specifications or performance criteria. Commissioning, maintenance data and spare parts list, and other information that may be useful later in the lifecycle of the project also may be included. This kind of data is not typically available today and should not be expected until data exchange standards (interoperability), currently in development, are established. b. Typical Process—3D design Upon receipt of a 3D design fi le, the fi rst step is determining how best to open the file. The software it was created in and how we are planning to use it will affect this determination. Are we planning on just viewing it? Are we planning on extracting data? If so, which data? Are we

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planning on adding data to make it construction-ready by, for example, taking a single solid slab and breaking it into multiple slab pours? (Important Note: Almost all 3D modeling software offers some type of a free viewer application. Therefore, a contractor who is being provided a 3D design from the design team, but has not made any initial effort towards investing in BIM technology itself, should at least take advantage of the visualization of the 3D model. With the free viewers, this most basic application should be available to any contractor at virtually no cost!) As in the process of a 2D Design, an initial review of the 3D model is necessary. A basic review for overall completeness and accuracy is necessary. Though similar to 2D Design, it is easier because of the added benefit of seeing the design in 3D. Depending on how we are going to use the model, and on its completeness and accuracy, we may need to refine it before we can use it. Depending on the amount of refi- nement necessary, we may need to have the designer do the updates, or if they are minor, we may go ahead and do them ourself. Either way, a process of communicating the results of this review should be established with the designer-of-record. Once we have determined how we plan on using the 3D model and the best software application to open it, and have actually opened the file, we will need to take time to understand what we have been given. Among the things we will need to understand are the standards used by whoever created the model. This includes what objects and labels were used (e.g., how did they distinguish wall types?), and how they actually used the objects. Once we have reviewed the 3D model and are confident it is complete, how we actually use the model from this point forward is essentially the same as if it were a 2D Conversion. In other words, once we have the model to use as a tool, it should not matter where the model came from or whether it was designed in 3D or converted to 3D. c. How do I use a 3D design? If we are fortunate enough to be given a truly intelligent, 3D design from the design team, using it is as simple as opening the fi les. The software could be the native software programs that the design was done in, or it could be viewed and coordinated with a collision-detection viewing software such as Navisworks. Rarely will a 3D design be ―construction ready,‖ and some effort of adding detail to the models is typically required. For example, adding pour breaks to a slab to be able to align schedule activities of individual slab pours is something that the contractor will need, but the designer may not. d. How much does 3D design cost? From the contractor‘s perspective, the cost is relatively minimal. The major part of this effort is usually only to take the designer‘s model and combine it with other models. e. When and where to use a 3D design?

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Since the 3D design is available at any time, using it for some purpose almost from the very beginning of the design process is practically a given. Early efforts with this appear to be similar to the process of getting phased design documents. However, a 3D design likely will not be as linear as a traditional 2D ―phased‖ design approach. 1.3.3 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS a. Using Converted 2D versus 3D Designs Once a model has been created and reviewed for its intended purpose, from this point forward, how the model is used is essentially the same regardless of how it was created. Once we have a composite model, it should not matter whether it was converted from a 2D Design or designed from inception in 3D. b. Linking the Model to the Schedule (―4D‖) Either the native design software or a third-party application will allow us to link the objects in our model directly to the data from our scheduling software. Note that different modeling programs work with different scheduling software and this should be investigated for compatibility early on prior to the creation of both a model and a schedule. Various ―what if‖ scenarios can be evaluated much more effectively to ensure maximum use of materials and labor. All participants benefit from ―seeing‖ the building get built virtually, activity by activity. Project Phases/Milestones: Traditional project delivery includes phases of schematic design, design development, construction documents, construction operations, etc. Integrated project delivery (IPD) phases may include conceptualization, criteria design, detailed design, implementation documents, and others. Hence in this phase the proper estimation of the project starting and finishing dates to be worked out with the description of the stakeholders involved in different phases of the project. c. Outsourcing or Building the Model In-house? Ultimately experience has shown that developing the models in-house is better than outsourcing. The experience gained by going through the learning curve first-hand along with developing the in-house expertise for the future, make the in-house solution the better option. In this case, all options should be analyzed and if there is a possibility of taking the benefits of location economy then outsourcing would be rather better. d. Upkeep of the model during design? During construction? Regardless of who is maintaining the model and updating during design and construction, someone has to take this responsibility. During the design phase, the model can be updated as each consultant issues its next release. It is recommended that we run collision/clash detection after each update. During construction, our own project team and the major subcontractors must

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be involved and aware that the model is being maintained. Incorporating design changes into the model must be an identified process. Early experience has some contractors using a dedicated person, ―the project modeler,‖ while others have done it within their project team.

e. The Project Delivery Method/Lean Construction Getting the maximum benefit from the technology and BIM is directly correlated to the ability to maximize collaboration on a project. This leads to a belief that to fully use BIM, it must be on projects delivered with some kind of collaborative approach such as CM at-Risk or DesignBuild. However, experience has shown that there are still benefits to the contractor on traditional Design-Bid-Build projects. Running clash detection and correcting design errors prior to starting construction in the field can save time and money, even if the design is complete and the project was awarded based on a low bid. Also, looking at ―what if‖ scenarios on construction sequencing and scheduling can offer opportunities to improve project schedules. The key is that BIM does not automatically guarantee collaboration. BIM does allow collaborative projects to be more collaborative. Using BIM and sharing levels. This is where Virtual Design and Construction brings the core concept of lean construction, eliminating waste, into the equation. Eliminating waste and lean construction become ―givens‖ when teams are exploiting technology, sharing information and using BIM to be more efficient. The project acquisition strategy will define the BIM model creation, and hence it is imperative that the decision to use Design-Bid-Build (DBB), Design Build (DB), or Integrated Design & Construction (IDC)1 etc., be determined at the initial stage of the project so that BIM can be properly structured and managed to support the acquisition. The contracts will define the integration or separation of risk and responsibilities for the design and construction contracting entities, and therefore, the Level of Development (LoD) and division of responsibilities, such as the number of BIM Managers (there may be only one BIM Manager throughout the project if IDC or DB is used, and two, a Design and a Construction BIM Manager if DBB is used). Similarly, contractually defined risk will also determine whether there are separate design intent and construction BIM models, or whether they can be combined into one model.

f. Getting over the Wall? There are many barriers keeping contractors from using the latest technology and BIM. The barriers include fears (legal/risk fears, fear of change, fear of the unknown, etc.), initial investment costs, the time to learn how to use the software, and perhaps for many the biggest barrier: the lack of support from senior leadership of the company. One suggestion is to include senior company management as a steering committee as we determine the best strategy for our organization. This can be an effective way to gain their buy-in and support. Additionally, they

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will receive factual information regarding the process and its implementation, avoiding the fear of the unknown. These barriers represent a ―wall.‖ On one side are contractors who have not used the technology or experienced first-hand the benefits it offers. On the other side of the wall are contractors who have begun to use the technology and have begun to experience for themselves the benefits BIM has to offer. Are the fears legitimate? Probably, but as the rate of adoption increases, the technology becomes easier to use, the benefits become more widely understood and the new processes continue to evolve in the Model Based approach, these fears should dissipate. Getting company leadership to have this vision of the future, buy into it, and commit the resources to invest in it is a decision the leadership of every company must make for themselves. 1.3.4 CLARIFICATION OF RESPONSIBILITIES : As stated in the introduction, BIM is like a tool. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have made BIM technology available and relevant to the work of all members of a project team. The use of BIM may well change the ways that projects are conceived, designed, communicated and defined, but this tool will not change the core responsibilities of the members of the project team. In a fully integrated 3D virtual construction environment contractors and construction managers will still need to organize and lead the onsite construction effort. No amount of technology will replace the need for a well-thought-out approach to construction that will allow each specialty contractor to apply its skills in a safe environment. Similarly, BIM will not replace the need for designers to convey their design intent, nor will it replace the dialogue of the submittal process through which subcontractors demonstrate their interpretation and understanding of the design intent. Outside of the immediate construction effort, owners and code enforcement officials need to be afforded the ability to evaluate the cost and adequacy of the various components of a project. Again no amount of technology will replace the core responsibilities or actions of these members of the project team. Software vendors and data warehouses must recognize the work-flow processes and responsibilities of the project team members in order to provide software and infrastructure that will adequately support the application of BIM technology. BIM technology processes must facilitate the building process and these relationships as they exist. Attempts to shift the responsibilities of the project team members into a contrived software work-flow process will ultimately obscure the goals of the project. In order to optimize efficiencies from a tool such as BIM, a collaborative team structure must be

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in place. One in which team members are either contractually obligated or have agreed to work in a cohesive fashion and one in which they will provide each other with data that will allow its ―partner‖ to perform its work faster, better or cheaper. BIM technology can radically change the form of the work product of several members of the project team. It can allow projects to be built faster, with fewer surprises, and lower costs. However, the final goal of the project will remain an economically completed building ready for safe occupation and use. This goal can only be achieved if each member of the project team faithfully meets each of its traditional responsibilities. 1.3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES THAT MUST BE RECOGNIZED AND ACCOMMODATED BY BIM PROCESSES: Submittal Process Shop drawings, like slide rules and blueprints, may become a thing of the past, but the dialogue between designers and builders that is the basis of the submittal process must continue to be accommodated. Regardless of the medium of communication, it is necessary that the builder and designer confirm that the design intent is correctly interpreted prior to procurement of materials and performance of construction. The safety and economy derived from this system of checks and balances is essential to the success of the project. The submittal process, while critical to the success of a project, is often difficult to implement through traditional methods in the fast paced environment of modern construction. The dialogue is further complicated by the extensive use of performance criteria, which allow specialty contractors to bring savings and speed to the project through the application of their proprietary designs and processes. These proprietary elements must be reviewed and approved by the designer to ensure that the design intent has been properly interpreted and that the project design is modified where appropriate to incorporate them. It is important to realize that the dialogue, not the medium of communication is the critical element of the submittal process. BIM technology allows electronic information to replace printed documents as the medium of communication. Information contained in BIM software is extracted directly to the detailing and fabrication processes without the need for further human interpretation. The speed and reduced cost of electronic communication saves the project the time and money associated with printing and shipping traditional shop drawings. These savings are easily identifiable and on large projects can be significant. Submittals can be handled electronically through review of the subcontractor‘s BIM, regardless of whether the design is issued in a 2D or 3D format. The purpose of the submittal process is to check those elements of the design that require interpretation on the part of the builder prior to construction. The database qualities of BIM allow many items of a design to be explicitly defined without the use of the traditional symbols or schedules utilized in two-dimensional design drawings. This database quality of BIM could reduce the amount and content of submittals. For instance, if the builder extracts the information

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directly from the database created by the designer, no interpretation of the design information is required by the builder. A practical example of this is a situation in which a designer provides a BIM model with the size, grade and location of each steel beam contained within it. The information in this BIM model is then extracted by a fabricator and placed directly into the shop drawings. In this situation, no interpretation of the design has been performed by the builder and therefore a submittal showing this information to the designer would be redundant and thus not required. The submittal process will continue to evolve as BIM technology develops and is adopted by the industry. Ultimately, the format and content of submittals is the responsibility of the entire project team. Each team member must realistically evaluate the extent of its responsibility and ensure that the interpretation of the design is adequately evaluated prior to implementation. Changes BIM processes must accommodate changes. Changes are part of the building process, and no amount of technology will or should prevent them. Regardless of the delivery method, the design team must be able to present the various alternative design solutions forward. Design is an iterative process that spirals toward a final solution. It is not a straight line progression, and attempts to force it to fit a contrived work-flow to facilitate BIM implementation will obscure the ultimate goals of the project. As discussed previously, several elements of a project are often built according to performance specifications, and implementation of these elements may require refinements of the design. Changes in financing, emerging technology, and building use will also dictate changes to the design as the project moves forward. Design teams need a process through which to issue these changes and must be able to maintain a current set of design documents, whether paper or electronic. This set of documents must reflect the design intent at any stage of the project. Without a current set of the documents, the ultimate basis of the contracts will be in question. Without a firm basis for a contract, owners and code enforcement officials will not be able to evaluate the project‘s cost or suitability for occupation. Any BIM process must allow all project team members to modify and disseminate the information that they are responsible for. 1.3.6 Impact of 2D or 3D design on Project Responsibilities Whether the design is issued in the form of 2D printed documents or a 3D electronic medium or in a combination of both, the responsibilities of the members of the project team remain unchanged. However, it is not necessary to go to this level in the 3D model for it to be effective. The important issue is to ensure that project team members thoroughly understand the nature, value and exactitude of the information that is being conveyed. BIM presents the designer with the ability to precisely model every component of a design — showing every conduit, bolt, door hardware set, bent plate, and carpet pattern in a project. This is

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not reasonable or desirable. In order to economically construct a project and complete the design in timely fashion, the builders must be allowed the flexibility to coordinate the trades. BIM design models cannot be photorealistic representations of the completed project. It is also important to recognize the difference between design and coordination. Creation of a coordination model does not require or supplant a design that is conveyed in 2D printed documents. When a contractor or CM creates a ―coordination model,‖ the BIM tool is completely analogous to a light table used for overlaying mechanical and electrical drawings. Likewise a design model must not be interpreted as containing more or better quality information than the designer has included. A steel analysis model may not include the exact geometry of the project, and yet it may still be a valid representation of the required load paths. Regardless of whether the analysis model is an exact representation of the project, it is the responsibility of the design engineer to accurately convey the load carrying members of the project in a design document. Recognizing the validity and value of the information in any BIM is the responsibility of every project team member that utilizes it. 1.3.7 ACTIONS/RESPONSIBILITIES OF PROJECT PARTICIPANTS TO ENCOURAGE THE USE OF BIM: Contractors and Construction Managers Contractors and Construction Managers need to recognize that coordination, whether with BIM technology or a light table, is a core service rather than an added service. BIM tools that can facilitate a great deal of coordination are now available, and when applied appropriately they can reduce the cost and time of construction. The question is not whether BIM will be used on a project, but to what extent it will be used. It is known that BIM coordination improves communication, which decreases construction costs and time, thus reducing risk. Contractors and construction managers have a responsibility to evaluate the costs of various implementation processes and provide the results of this evaluation to owners and design teams in quantifiable terms. As the leaders of construction coordination, contractors and construction managers have a responsibility to encourage and facilitate the sharing and distribution of BIM technology on a project. They must also understand and convey the nature of the information that is being shared. Appropriate contract language that will foster the open sharing of BIM information must be developed. The contract language cannot alter the relationships of the project team members or change their responsibilities beyond their ability or what they are licensed to perform. As an example, if a designer approves an electronic fi le prepared by a detailer, and this fi le contains a dimensional inaccuracy, the designer must be protected to the same extent that it would be had the approval document been a printed drawing. Similarly in the case where a designer provides an analysis model or three-dimensional façade rendering to supplement the design documents, and the designer has stated that the analysis or rendering model shall not be considered to accurately show all aspects of the geometry (presumably the designer has issued

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and identified a separate document for specification of geometry) the designer shall not be liable if a detailer ignores the warning and bases the geometry on the supplemental model or rendering. The 3D information is valuable and should be shared with the team, but its use and accuracy must be carefully defined.

Design Teams Design teams must recognize the benefi ts of sharing all available electronic information with the entire project team. Structural analysis models, for instance, have value to other team members, so delivery of these models should be part of the design contract. Along with the responsibility of sharing information, the designer has the obligation to convey the quality of the information that is provided. If the geometry or the load cases in a design model are not completely accurate, this needs to be made known and documented. In addition, the source of the correct information in the design documents needs to be established. Design teams must also honestly evaluate the submittal process and work with the rest of the project team to develop the best process for the project. Together the team must find appropriate ways to facilitate communication without unduly burdening any single member with additional liability. Requiring printed shop drawings or resisting the requests of the team to distribute electronic fi les, simply because that is the way business has traditionally been conducted, is not helpful to the project or the growth of the industry. Public Agencies Public agencies, like design teams must recognize the industry‘s movement toward electronic information and evaluate what information is truly needed to perform code enforcement checks and permitting. They must ensure that project design and construction are compatible with community safety and facilitate community development. They must be open when appropriate to adopt new formats for demonstration of a project‘s compliance with specifi ed standards. Owners & Program Managers Owners that recognize the value of BIM must accept the responsibility of the costs associated with it. While the use of BIM coordination does not constitute an added service, it does represent added value or better service. Owners also need to recognize that additional deliverables (such as fi nal as-built models) do constitute added services, and pay for these as warranted. Subcontractors Subcontractors are responsible for fully conveying their interpretation of the design intent to the Design Team. They also must coordinate their work with that of other subcontractors by sharing the electronic information they have developed in fi le formats that can be used and combined

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with the work of others. They must encourage their software vendors to develop fi le formats that can be readily exchanged between the various trade subcontractors. Subcontractors also must ensure that all parties understand what they will supply as part of their contract and what will constitute additional work.

Software Providers and Data Warehouses To date, BIM technology has been developed to facilitate specifi c processes and activities related to a project. At the core, BIM software is a database. Its application to a process requires that the database be initially populated and then maintained as the project progresses. The

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amount of redundant effort required to develop and maintain the various databases of the many subcontractors that employ BIM technology represents the greatest source of waste and error associated with BIM implementation. In order to facilitate the full integration of BIM technology, software vendors must develop ways for the various members of the project team to input and maintain the data relating to the specific aspects of the project within their responsibility. In short, interoperability is essential, and must be accommodated by the software industry. Software providers must also understand the process of design and construction, and fit their software to these work-flows. BIM software must be capable of modification as design progresses, so that the increasing levels of detail characteristic of the various design stages— from schematic design to construction documents—can be included in the BIM at the appropriate point in the design process. The software must also be able to accommodate changes 1.3.8 PLANNED MODELS During the course of our project, the project team may generate multiple models. Typically the architect and any sub-consultants generate a Design Intent model to depict the design intent of the building, while the contractor and any subcontractors generate a Construction model to simulate construction and analyze the constructability of the project. The construction team should provide input for the Design Intent model, while the design team should provide input for the Construction model. Even when the team is committed to using integrated project delivery (IPD) methods, it is sometimes necessary to create separate models due to contractual obligations, risk factors, and the functional intent of each model. For example, the Design Intent model—used to depict the design intent—may not include information on the means and method or sequencing of construction. Other models may be created specifically for certain types of analysis, such as energy consumption or safety. These Analysis models are usually spinoffs of either the Design Intent model or the Construction model. In the table below, outline the models that will be created for the project. List the model name, model content, project phase at which the model will be delivered, the model‘s authoring company, and the model authoring tool to be used. For models that will not be used or created in our project, just leave the row blank; add rows for any model types we anticipate a need for that are not already listed. The first row offers an example.

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1.3.9 MODEL COMPONENTS As an aid to usability during later phases of our project, specify what the content, level of detail, and file naming structure of our models should look like. FILE NAMING STRUCTURE Determine and list the structure for model file names. The first line offers an example.

PRECISION AND DIMENSIONING Models should include all appropriate dimensioning as needed for design intent, analysis, and construction. With the exception of the exclusions listed below, the model will be considered accurate and complete. In the table below, enter which items‘ placement will not be considered entirely accurate and should not be relied on for placement or assembly. MODELING OBJECT PROPERTIES The level of property information in the modeling objects and assemblies depends on the types of analysis to be performed on the model MODELING LEVEL OF DETAIL A detailed Level of Detail (LOD) Analysis will be performed using Exhibit A. The exhibit will

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help the team identify which components will be modeled, by whom, the level of detail, and during which project phase or milestone they will be modeled. The LOD is broken down into four levels: L1, L2, L3, and CD. In L1, the model will include basic shapes that represent approximate size, shape, and orientation of objects. These objects may be in 2D or 3D. In L2 the model will include object assemblies with approximate size, shape, orientation, and object data. In L3, the model will include data-rich assemblies with actual size, shape, and orientation. In CD (Construction Documents), the model will include detailed assemblies with final size, shape, and orientation used for construction and fabrication Certain items will be excluded from the model. These items can be defined by expressed exclusion and/or by object size. Exclusions: List the objects to be excluded from the model in the table

MODEL REFERENCE COORDINATION Models may be linked or combined. In order for the referencing to work properly, a (0,0,0) reference point must be established. Fill in the (0,0,0) reference point for this project in the table below.

SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT CONVENTION Specify the units convention for the project. The following project will utilize the [___________] (Metric or English) measurement system. CONTRACT DOCUMENT DELIVERABLE REQUIREMENTS Two-dimensional paper drawings or documents may be generated from certain models to fulfill contract document deliverable requirements. Certain models will be used for analysis purposes only and will not be included as part of the contract document deliverable requirements. List the models that will be considered part of the contract documents in the table below.

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1.3.10 DETAILED MODELING PLAN For each phase of the project, the project team should create a detailed modeling plan, which should include modeling objectives, models included, and the roles and responsibilities of model contributors. Model objectives and model manager roles and responsibilities by phase are outlined below. Conceptualization/Conceptual Design Objectives: Provide initial design based on conceptual parameters established by the owner, ensure that code and zoning requirements meet project objectives, and establish a 3D reference point of model coordination. [List further objectives if needed.] Model Roles: A model may or may not take shape during the Conceptualization/Conceptual Design phase. If a model is created, its role will be to depict the visual concept and general layout of the project. [List further roles if needed.] Responsibilities: The architect‘s designated model manager will establish a baseline model to be used as the basis for other models. During the Conceptualization phase, model managers from all parties will establish modeling standards and guidelines. [List further responsibilities if needed.] 1.3.11 CRITERIA DESIGN/SCHEMATIC DESIGN Objectives: Provide spatial design based on input from the Conceptualization/Conceptual Design phase; provide initial design for building system and attributes including architectural, structural, and MEP; identify initial coordination issues among building systems; receive input from suppliers and fabricators regarding system cost, placement, fabrication, and scheduling. [List further objectives if needed.] Model Roles: The Architectural model will show the general design and layout of the building structure and act as the baseline for all other subsystem designs, such as MEP and Structural models. The subsystem designs will be used to show initial selection and layout of building components. The combined Coordination model will show the spatial relationship of the Architectural model and subsystem design models. [List further roles if needed.] Responsibilities: Once the baseline conceptual structure has been created, the architect‘s model manager will send the model to the subconsultants so they can develop their designs. The subconsultants‘ designated model managers will audit and deliver the completed models to the architect‘s model manager. The architect‘s model manager will review the models to ensure compliance with the phase requirements. Once the models meet the requirements, the architect‘s model manager will link or combine cross-disciplinary models. The architect‘s model manager should also eliminate duplicate or redundant objects, and accurately name the Coordination model and store it in the collaborative project management system. [List further responsibilities

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if needed.] 1.3.12 DETAILED DESIGN/DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Objectives: Provide final design of building and building systems; resolve coordination issues between building systems; provide a Construction model capable of analyzing schedule, cost, and constructability; provide Fabrication models to analyze the coordination of trades. Once the final design decisions have been made, the architect‘s model manager will send the Coordination model to the subconsultants so they can finalize their designs. [List further objectives if needed.] Model Roles: The Architectural model will continue to act as the baseline for all other subsystem designs. The subsystem designs will be modified accordingly to represent the enhanced design. The combined Coordination model will continue to show the spatial relationship of the Architectural model and subsystem models. [List further roles if needed.] Responsibilities: The subconsultants‘ model managers will use the Coordination model to revise and complete their designs. Once the models are complete, the subconsultants‘ model managers will deliver their models to the architect‘s model manager. The architect‘s model manager will review the models to ensure compliance with the phase requirements. Once the models meet the requirements, the architect‘s model manager will link or combine the multiple models to update a new Coordination model. The model manager should also eliminate duplicate or redundant objects. The architect‘s model manager will deliver the Coordination model to the contractor‘s designated model manager. The contractor will use the Coordination model for the basis of the Construction model. [List further responsibilities if needed.] 1.3.13 IMPLEMENTATION/CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS Objectives: Finalize design of the building and all building systems, prepare documentation for agency review, and provide construction modeling that highlights constructability, trade coordination, and fabrication. [List further objectives if needed.] Model Roles: All design models will be used to reflect the final design. The models will then be used to generate the contract documents. The Construction model will be used primarily for estimating, scheduling, and constructability analysis. [List further roles if needed.] Responsibilities: The architect‘s and subconsultants‘ model managers will prepare contract documents for agency review based on the Coordination model. The contractor‘s model managers will send the baseline Construction model to the suppliers and subcontractors. The suppliers and subcontractors will submit Fabrication models, which replace traditional ―shop drawings.‖ The contractor‘s model manager will incorporate these models into the Construction model. [List further responsibilities if needed.] 1.3.14 AGENCY COORDINATION BIDDING

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Objective: Revise Coordination model based on agency feedback and finalize Construction model. [List further objectives if needed.] Model Roles: The design models will be adjusted to reflect agency feedback. The Construction model will be enhanced and further used for estimating, scheduling, construction sequencing, trade coordination, and constructability analysis. [List further roles if needed.] Responsibilities: The architect‘s model manager will communicate agency comments back to the design team. The subconsultants‘ model managers will revise their design models accordingly and submit them back to the architect. The architect‘s model manager will update the final Coordination model. [List further responsibilities if needed.] 1.3.15 CONSTRUCTION Objectives: Update Coordination model based on submittals, RFIs, or owner-directed changes; maintain the Construction model based on construction activities; develop an As-Built model to reflect the actual fabrication of the building. The construction team will submit RFIs and submittals through the collaborative project management system. [List further objectives if needed.] Model Roles: The Coordination model will be revised throughout construction, based on owner directives and unforeseen conditions. The model will always reflect the revised contract documents. The Construction model will be used for scheduling analysis, construction sequencing, and trade coordination. The As-Built model will be used to represent the actual assembly of the building(s). [List further roles if needed.] Responsibilities: The architect‘s model manager will work with the architect‘s consultants to answer the RFIs and submittals and adjust the Coordination model accordingly. The contractor‘s model manager will update the Construction model and will work with the suppliers and subcontractors to develop an As-Built model. [List further responsibilities if needed.] 1.3.16 FACILITY MANAGEMENT Objective: Use the As-Built model for facility management, and update the model based on ongoing operations. [List further objectives if needed.] Model Roles: The As-Built model will be used to represent the actual assembly of the building(s) from construction. The model can be updated further and used to show construction changes and facilitate the operation of the facility. [List further roles if needed.] Responsibilities: The facilities management model manager will update the model based on ongoing operations. [List further responsibilities if needed.] 1.3.17 ANALYSIS PLAN

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By listing and specifying what types of analysis our project is likely to require at its inception, we can ensure that key models will include relevant information, making analysis easier and more efficient. Analysis Models Our project‘s scope of work may require certain kinds of analysis, such as those listed below, based on existing or specially created model(s). In most cases the quality of analysis depends on the quality of the original model from which the analysis is derived. Therefore the project team member performing the analysis should clearly communicate the analysis requirements to the original model authoring team member. Quantity Takeoff Analysis The objective of quantity takeoff analysis is to use modeling property data to automate or simplify the quantity takeoff process. This information the quantity takeoff tool can then be imported into or tied to cost-estimating software. For the quantity takeoff process to work seamlessly, the original modeling author must include the relevant property information in the design. Scheduling Analysis Scheduling analysis lets the project team use the project model to analyze the timeline and sequencing for construction. This information can then be used to modify or adjust the construction schedule. While tools do exist that allow project team members to visualize construction over time, no such systems yet interact automatically with scheduling tools. Clash Detection Analysis Clash detection analysis is done to check for interferences among the designs of one or many models. To reduce change orders during construction, clash detection should be performed early and continue throughout the design process. For clash detection to work properly, our project‘s models must have a common reference point and must be compatible with the clash detection tool. Visualization Analysis Visualization tools let the project team view the design or construction of a project in 3D, giving a more accurate perspective on the end product. LEED Rating/Energy Analysis LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Rating/Energy Analysis tools help the project team evaluate the impact of design decisions on sustainability and energy consumption. This analysis model is usually based on the main Architectural model, after which material and

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building system inputs can be used to evaluate the project‘s sustainability and energy consumption.

Structural Analysis Structural analysis tools use the model to analyze a building‘s structural properties. Structural analysis programs typically use the finite element method (FEM) to measure the stresses on all structural elements of the design. For structural analysis to work seamlessly, the original structural modeling tool must be compatible with the structural analysis tool, and the original structural model property data must include information about the structural elements. Detailed Analysis Plan For each type of analysis that may be performed for our project, list the models used for the analysis, which company will perform the analysis, the file format required, the estimated project phase, and the tool to be used for analysis. If there are other instructions associated with the analysis, mark the Special Instructions column and list the details in the Special Instructions table in the next section.

Special Instructions Certain types of analysis may call for specific requirements or instructions. The company performing the analysis should communicate these to the original model authoring company. List specific requirements in the table below.

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1.3.18 PROJECT COLLABORATION AND COMMUNICATION PLAN Creating a collaboration and communication plan early on will help team members efficiently communicate, share, and retrieve information throughout the project. Such a plan helps us get the most out of our collaborative project management system, saving time and increasing ROI. COMMUNICATION PLAN Messaging and Communication Protocol All electronic communication on the project should be captured and stored as part of the project record. Many collaborative project management systems have internal messaging functionality. All electronic communication between Core Collaboration Team companies on the project should be uploaded or sent through the collaborative project management system. A copy of all project-related emails sent from outside the collaborative project management system should be uploaded to a folder in the document management file folder structure, or uploaded to the correspondence module. List our project‘s electronic messaging protocol below. [List the project electronic messaging protocol here] Meeting Minutes Meeting minutes and agendas can be created in the collaborative project management system. The minutes and agendas should include general information such as time, date, and location of meeting, attendance, and discussion details. The discussion details should include information such as issue origination date, responsible parties, and required completion date. Meeting minutes should be posted to the system no later than [__] business days after completion of the meeting and should be electronically sent to all attendees. The attendees have [__] business days to dispute the content of the minutes, and all disputes must be resolved by the following meeting. There will be different types of meetings on the project, including general progress meetings, design coordination meetings, safety meetings, etc. In the space below, list the types of meetings necessary for the project, meeting host(s), required attendees, and required technology. The first row shows an example

Correspondence

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All formal correspondence among Core Collaboration Team companies should be generated in, or scanned and uploaded to, the collaborative project management system. Important correspondence received from non-Core Collaboration Team companies can also be scanned and uploaded to the system in the correspondence module.

COLLABORATION PLAN
Document Management We can create a file folder structure in our collaborative project management system, then give project team members the ability to upload, download, edit, mark up, and view documents in the folder structure, based on permissions assigned by the Core Collaboration Team.

Permissions and Access The Core Collaboration Team for our project should decide on permissions for the document management file folder structure. In the table below, list the folder or subfolder, intended file content, and permission levels. Examples are shown below.

Folder Maintenance Although file folder structure and permissions should be defined by the Core Collaboration Team, the project system administrator (PSA) is responsible for setting up the structure and maintaining the system. Folder Notifications Select groups, individuals, or the entire project team can be notified based on activities in the file folder structure. Notification messages should include information about the file(s) updated and

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who updated them. List the people and groups to be notified for different activities in various folders in the table below. The first row shows an example.

File Naming Convention Earlier in this document (see section 2.2.3.0a, Model Components File Naming Structure), we specified the file naming convention for model files for this project. All other files should be accurately and descriptively named. Avoid using the date in file names, as the collaborative project management system will control the dates and versions. If there are files with special naming requirements, list them in the table below. The first row shows an example.

Design Review The collaborative project management system lets us efficiently manage our design review process, enabling the appropriate parties to efficiently log and update their design review comments, issues, and clash detection reports. Our collaborative project management system should allow users to log design review comments. The system will also track progress and resolution of the design review comments. In the table below, list the model(s) being reviewed, the reviewers, estimated design review start and completion dates, and how many days the authoring company has to respond to the design review comments. An example has been provided.

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1.3.19 BID MANAGEMENT For faster, more efficient bids, all bid documentation—including drawings and specifications— can be made available in a Plan Room on the collaborative project management system. The potential bidders can be given access to this Plan Room by the PSA, and may access the documents, download them, or have them printed at a reprographics firm. When there are changes to the plans in the form of addenda, the collaborative project management system will automatically notify all bidders.

1.3.20 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT The collaborative project management system supports our construction management process by managing requests for information (RFIs), submittals, meeting minutes, daily reports, and other modules selected by the Core Collaboration Team. The Core Collaboration Team will also define permission levels and access to the construction management modules. RFIs RFIs will be created in the collaborative project management system by the [______________] (specify role). The RFIs will be issued to the [______________] (specify role) for a response, and copied to the [______________] (specify role). The primary reviewer will have [___] days to respond to the RFI. The RFI will include all appropriate information that describes the issue, along with electronic attachments that may include photos, specifications, and marked-up drawings. Submittals Submittals will be organized and electronically submitted through the collaborative project management system. The [______________] (specify role) will organize and submit the submittal packages. The packages will be organized by specification section and should be numbered with the following format: [______________________] (Fill in submittal package numbering format, e.g., spec section-package number within spec section 09900-01). The

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packages will consist of one or more items. The items should be numbered with the following format: [______________________] (Fill in submittal item numbering format, e.g., auto-number 001,002). The submittal packages will be issued to the [______________] (specify role) for a response and copied to the [______________] (specify role). The submittal packages will include all appropriate information along with electronic attachments of the submittal items whenever possible. The submittal packages will be issued with an electronic transmittal. The primary reviewer will have [___] days to respond to the submittal package. Each item within the package will receive a response. The possible responses include [__________] (list responses). All revised submittal items will be resubmitted through a package revision, as opposed to a new package. Daily Reports Daily reports can be entered in the collaborative project management system. The following parties are responsible for creating daily reports: [______________] (specify role). The daily reports will include the date, general information, weather conditions, activities, manpower, major equipment used, major material deliveries, safety incidences, and quality control issues. In addition, progress photos and other electronic files should be attached to the daily reports when necessary. Daily reports should be entered into the system no later than [___] day(s) after the day of the report. Other Construction Management Business Processes Most collaborative project management systems have a number of modules not listed above. List the modules the project team plans to use, including any special instructions and processes, in the table below.

1.3.21 Cost Management The collaborative project management system will facilitate cost management by managing budgeting, purchasing, the change order process, and the payment application process, as well as cost reporting. The Core Collaboration Team for our project will define permission levels and access to the cost management modules. Budgeting The [_____________]‘s (specify role) budget will entered and tracked in the collaborative project management system. The [______________] (specify role) will be responsible for

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entering and tracking the budget in the system. Purchasing The [____________]‘s (specify role) contracting documents will entered and tracked in the collaborative project management system. The [______________] (specify role) will be responsible for entering and tracking the contract documentation in the system. The executed documents may, if needed, be scanned and attached to the contract records. Change Order Process Requests for change orders (RCOs) will be created and tracked in the collaboration project management system. RCOs will be created by the [______________] (specify role). Each RCO will include all appropriate information that supports the change. Electronic backup can be attached the RCO document. RCOs should be sent to the [______________] (specify role) for review. Once an RCO is approved, the [______________] (specify role) will issue the [______________] (specify role) a formal owner change order (OCO). Payment Applications Payment applications can be created in the collaborative project management system. The [______________] (specify role) is responsible for creating a payment application in the system based on an approved schedule of values (SOV). A signed copy of the payment application must be submitted to [______________] (specify role) and copied to [______________] (specify role) by the [___] day of the month. 1.3.22 Project Closeout The collaborative project management system can ease our closeout process. The punch list process will be managed in the system either through system functionality or by uploading the documentation to the file folder structure. A number of documents, such as As-Builts, commissioning documents, warranties, and O&M Manuals, will need to be submitted to the owner. These documents can be uploaded in the file folder structure. As-Built Model An As-Built model [_______] (fill in: will/will not) be delivered to the owner at the end of the project by the [______________] (specify role). The As-Built model should represent the actual built conditions. The level of detail in the As-Built model will be governed by section 2.2.3.2, Modeling Level of Detail. List any inclusions or exclusions from the As-Built model content in the table below.

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System Archiving At the end of the project, Core Collaboration Team companies can request an electronic copy of the project documents that were created and stored in the collaborative project management system. This information will be provided by the system owner at the requester‘s expense. Each company will have access to the project documents to which it had access while the project was active.

1.3.23 PROJECT TECHNOLOGY PLAN In this section we‘ll define our project‘s corporate technology plan. We will select the software systems to be used and define requirements and administrative responsibilities. Software Component Selection So we may get optimal results from our BIM tools, one should recommend using tools that meet the following criteria. Model Creation The model creation tool should be built on a database platform that allows the creation of parametric and information-rich objects. Parametric modeling dependencies should be automatically updated whenever changes are made. Since the design may come from multiple parties, the BIM tool should accommodate file linking, sharing, and referencing. The BIM technology must be capable of producing 2D plans to fulfill contract document deliverable requirements. The system should be able to create and output files that conform to the IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) file type standards developed by the International Alliance for

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Interoperability (IAI). Model Integration The model integrator will be used to combine multiple design files from different software platforms. The tool will also be used for model simulations. The simulation tool must allow the user to simulate construction processes over time and allow for real-time walkthroughs. The model integrator should be able to open and combine at least .dwg, .dwf, .dxf, .sat, .ifc, .dgn, .prp, .prw, .ipt, .iam, and .ipf file types. Clash Detection/Model Mediation The clash detection tool should be able to perform clash detection analysis on one or multiple design files. The system should be able to generate clash detection reports, which can be exported into either .xls, .csv, or .xml file formats. The clash detection reports should include a list of clashes along with visual evidence. Model Visualization The model visualization software will be used by project team members who do not need the full functionality of the BIM model creation, integration, or simulation tools. The visualization tool must allow users to look around, zoom, pan, orbit, examine, and fly through the model. Model Sequencing The 4D model sequencing tool will be used to visualize the scheduled assembly of the building. The tool should allow users to visualize the assembly of the building based on scheduling input. It should also integrate with standard scheduling systems such as Microsoft Project or Primavera. Model Quantity Takeoff The quantity takeoff tool will be used to extract quantities from BIM models for cost-estimating and purchasing purposes. The tool must be able to extract quantities automatically from both 3D and 2D design files. The quantity takeoff software must be able to integrate with estimating programs, or the information from the system must be exportable to an .xls, .csv, or .xml file format. The quantity takeoff tool must be compatible with the model creation tool listed below in section 2.5.1.7. Collaborative Project Management The collaborative project management system may be made up of one or more software packages. However, for best results, the complete collaborative project management system should: • Be web-based or web-enabled—so all relevant, authorized project team members can access it

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remotely • Accommodate different permissions profiles for different project team members • Allow communication through either internal messaging or system-generated email • Include document management capability that lets the project team create a customized and permission-based folder structure that offers upload, download, and version control capabilities • Include a viewer that allows the project team to view .dwg, .dgn, .plt, .dwf, .pdf, .tif, .jpg, .doc, and .xls files • Include construction management capabilities for tracking requests for information (RFIs), submittals, design review, meeting minutes, daily reports, issues, correspondence, and transmittals • Be able to interact with the file folder structure in the document management section • Include bid management capability, and allow the project team to post contract drawings and specifications for viewing in the form of a Plan Room • Allow for cost management controls including budgeting, contracting, change orders processing, and payments applications tracking • Allow the project team to run reports based on information in the system • Allow for workflow and routing throughout the documentation, construction, and cost management components of the solution Select the components and specific software we will use and list them below for easy reference.

1.3.24 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS AND ADMINISTRATION Model Creation, Clash Detection, Visualization, Sequencing, Simulation, and Quantity Takeoff Tools IT Requirements The BIM tools should meet the criteria and perform the functionalities outlined in section 2.5.1.0, Software Component Selection. All project team members who use the tool should have the hardware and software to use the system properly; refer to the vendor‘s system requirements for more details. We recommend running BIM software on Intel Core® 2 Duo 2.40 GHz or equivalent AMD Athlon™ processors, Windows ® XP Professional (SP2 or later) with 4 GB

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RAM, 5 GB free disk space, and a dedicated video card with hardware support for OpenGL® spec 1.3 or later. Funding Source Acquisition and access to the collaborative project management systems will be funded by [_____________] (specify role). Data Ownership Each Core Collaboration Team company can, at its own cost, request an electronic copy of the project documents that were created and stored in the collaborative project management system at the end of the project, as outlined in section 2.4.2.5b, System Archiving. For more information on digital data ownership, see AIA® C106™-2007 Digital Data Licensing Agreement or ConsensusDOCS™ 200.2 Electronic Communications Protocol Addendum. Administration The system owner should designate a Project System Administrator (PSA) to manage the administration of the system. The PSA will be responsible for managing and creating all new user accounts. The PSA will also be responsible for managing the company and contact information in the database. User Requirements • High-speed Internet access is required at all locations where the system will be accessed. • Each user should have a unique and valid email address. • System licenses to use the database will be provided by the system owner for all users who require access. • Licenses will be granted for current projects only, and in accordance with permission levels defined by the Core Collaboration Team. • Requests for new user licenses should be submitted to the PSA. • Company and contact information will be managed in the database by the PSA. • All parties should submit company and contact information and revisions to the PSA; each party is responsible for ensuring that his or her information is accurate. • Each project team member will have his or her own license and access to the system. Licenses should not be shared by two or more persons; passwords should be confidential. • Users will be prompted to change their passwords no less than every [___] days.

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• All users will log into the system no less than once a week (unless otherwise dictated by project requirements) while the project is ongoing, to check for messages and outstanding items. • All parties should notify the PSA immediately when an employee with access to the system has been terminated, in order to deactivate that employee‘s user account. • All parties are responsible for obtaining training in the use of the collaborative project management system. Security Requirements The security of the collaboration project management system should include 24/7/365 system monitoring, perimeter security with designated access only, mirror data storage with a secondary facility in a separate location, daily backups of the information saved for the life of the project, an Intrusion Detection System (IDS), and at least 128-bit Secure Socket Layer (SSL) technology.

1.3.25 RISK MANAGEMENT : Legal Environment And Contract Documents The emergence of BIM as a vehicle for dramatic change in design and construction occurs in a legal environment that has not fully come to grips with all the risk management implications of the underlying technology of electronic representation, or transmission of documents of any type. Some concerns are obvious—what are the liabilities associated with participating and collaborating in the model? As the use of BIM expands, other concerns are only beginning to be recognized. But even as lawyers spot the legal issues, how best to resolve those issues remains an open question. Some fear that an excess of concern over all the potential questions of liability, risk allocation, shifting and sharing associated with BIM might inhibit many from experimenting with it, and in the process deny owners, designers and constructors the opportunity to sort through the issues as they experiment in the laboratory of the real world. This report will not attempt to answer all the legal questions presented by BIM, but rather will discuss some of the concerns contractors should at a minimum understand and if possible address as they climb the BIM learning curve. While the risks presented by BIM may be different in some respects, it does

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not automatically follow that a contractor‘s risk should be greater. First, contractors should do their best to reach an understanding with all parties about the ability and right to rely upon the model. Disclaimers of reliance that some have sought to apply to design documents in electronic format should be discarded. Second, the same risk allocation principles that apply to traditional two-dimensional design should apply to a BIM model. Even with a BIM approach, the architect/ engineer remains responsible for project design. A contractor‘s involvement in, and corresponding liability for, design should not extend beyond that typically associated with constructability issues, construction means and methods, and shop drawings. Thus, for example, the fact that the shop drawings are added into a model should not change the risks for the information being added. The crucial questions for the contractor are: what are the deliverables and who is responsible for them? Third, when a model is used, strict rules are applied to police the model, so that access rights are reasonably restricted, the ability to change the model is strictly limited to those who are responsible for changes to that portion of the model, outdated versions of the model can be destroyed, and a precise audit trail can be maintained for the various iterations of the model. Anyone who has been involved in a project where one of the participants was working off an obsolete version of the drawings knows that the 2D world has problems of its own. In fact, adherence to 2D drawings as the ―gold standard‖ of design is built on a faulty premise. The problems long inherent in the use of 2D drawings make clear that regarding them as sacrosanct is a mistake. The issue of ―ownership of the model‖ can be worked out through the contract, just as ownership of design documents is now addressed in AGC‘s standard form documents. The issue of ownership of the model becomes much more complex when the final ―model‖ is actually a gathering of the input of a single model or of many models through the use of software that allows such a roll-up process. Many parties will have contributed to the ―model‖ in a fully modeled project and the issues of design input versus design responsibility will need to be sorted out. In addition, the licensing and royalty requirements of potentially ―selfi sh‖ members of the Building Team need to be discouraged in standard form documents. Owners need to be particularly aware of the implications of such issues and are expected to play an important role in addressing them. Other issues that should be understood and considered:     Methods for maintaining version control of electronic documents, including a depository of record copies of transmitted and received electronic documents. Specific privacy and security requirements. Storage and retrieval requirements for electronic documents and data. The parties should review contract provisions in the design and construction agreements

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that address the line and flow of communications among the project parties. This allows them to assess whether such provisions need modification in appropriate, limited circumstances to permit direct communications among parties not in contractual privity, such as the principal design professional and a specialty contractor performing a portion of the design. In such circumstances, contemporaneous notification of such communications or exchanges should be given to the parties otherwise in the line of communications.  Contractual reporting requirements for known or observed errors or omissions in contract documents should be reviewed, to ascertain whether they are adequate and consistent given the potentially increased pace of electronic document exchanges. Confidentiality provisions should be reviewed for consistency with similar requirements in exchange agreements.

Finally, as the use of BIM becomes more and more commonplace, standards will be developed as to who is responsible for inputting what information into a model. Currently, the National Institute of Building (―NIBS‖) is engaging in such an effort. BIM and other collaborative technology will compel owners, constructors and designers to interact differently than they have traditionally. As those relationships change, so too will the contractual language that defines them. However, the current uncertainties that accompany the changes brought on by BIM need not inhibit the constructor from experimenting with and ultimately embracing the future of construction. The traditional tri-party approach to design and construction will, over time, be replaced by ―Integrated Practice‖ and collaboration.

Insurance Any convergence of the design and construction processes signals the need for contractors to review not only their overall risk profiles, but also their risk-financing programs. BIM presents many of the same risk management questions contractors already face as they increasingly provide preconstruction services that require them to analyze, price, and suggest modifications to the architect‘s design prior to its completion. Therefore, it is strongly advised that any contractor looking to participate in the BIM process consult with an insurance advisor to examine any potential increase in risk as well as the appropriateness of its current insurance coverage. For example, the Commercial General Liability (CGL) policy should be examined. Unless so endorsed, the industry standard Insurance Services Organization (ISO) CGL policy does not contain an exclusion pertaining to the rendering of design and/or professional services. However, many insurers will add such exclusionary language by endorsement. The optimal situation for a contractor that undertakes design-build projects is to have a CGL policy with no professional services exclusion.

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The next-best option is to have the CGL policy endorsed with ISO form CG 22 80. This endorsement excludes coverage for claims arising out of the rendering of design services as a standalone service, but will provide coverage where the contractor also builds the project, i.e., design-build. Bear in mind that the CGL policy will respond only to claims for third-party Bodily Injury (BI) and/or Property Damage (PD) arising out of a design error. Claims arising out of services provided as part of the BIM process may only be passive in nature. That is, they could involve pure economic loss when there is a design error that needs to be corrected, but BI or PD as defined in the CGL policy has not occurred. Thus, as neither BI nor PD has occurred the CGL policy will provide no coverage for the purely economic loss. As a result of this potential coverage gap, it is recommended that the contractor who becomes involved in any level of the design process consider the purchase of Professional Liability (PL) insurance. Here again, the counsel of a savvy construction insurance professional is critical as not all PL policies are alike. For example, some PL insurers may exclude and/or not specifically address coverage for claims arising from such services as value engineering and constructability review. Frankly, these are services that any contractor may currently be providing without having become involved in the BIM process. A thorough review of the contactor‘s involvement or intended involvement in the design process should be undertaken to assess the potential exposures presented. Contract documents should be reviewed in conjunction with legal counsel and modified as appropriate, and available insurance protection should be discussed with our insurance advisor (including, but not limited to, Commercial General Liability and Professional Liability insurance policies), prior to entering the realm of potential design risk. Beyond the design/professional services liability issues that may arise from participation in the BIM process, or that may exist with current project delivery methodologies, the contractor may very well have exposure to other electronic data/technology issues such as: project management software, project web-hosting/web-sharing, transmittal of electronic viruses, or intellectual property ownership/infringement, to name but a few. These potential exposures should also be discussed with both legal and insurance advisors to address both the contractual and riskfinancing options of these and other technology and/or intellectual property related exposures.

Exposures Checklist If we answer yes to one or more of the following provisions of services, it is recommended that we discuss these exposures with both our legal and insurance advisors. Making these advisors aware of such exposures will allow for an appropriate dialogue to address the contractual and risk-transfer/risk-financing options available for such exposures. Does our company provide (or

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may it become involved with):          Value Engineering and/or Constructability Review? Conversion of 2-D design documents to 3-D design documents? Building Information Modeling (BIM)? Design of specific project systems and/or full project design, whether performed in-house or subcontracted to others? Revisions or modifications to construction documents with or without design firm review and approval? Provision and/or development of Project Management Software? Project Web-Hosting and/or Web-Sharing systems? Transmittal of Project data/information using electronic transmission devices/systems? Ownership of design and/or intellectual property rights?

Surety Bonding Industry The utilization of BIM technology by the construction industry will be an ―evolving‖ underwriting process for the surety industry. At this date, BIM technology is such a new concept to the surety industry that no clear industry opinion has emerged and individual sureties likely are still formulating their own positions. This is especially true since little guidance in the form of industry standards exists concerning the proper utilization and application of BIM technology on construction projects. Some contractors, as early adopters, are utilizing BIM technology internally. Such internal use by contractors likely does not bring any additional burden to the surety, as its use is not made part of the contract documents at this time. However, where contractors utilize BIM technology as part of their contractual performance requirements for a project, certain surety issues may arise, particularly in the absence of a clear contractual delineation among the project parties for design, coordination and communication responsibilities. AGC of America will continue to monitor the utilization of and developments surrounding BIM technology as more contractors seek to use or are required to use such technology on future

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construction projects. This discussion will focus on only the broadest surety implications of BIM technology utilized in three methods of project delivery: Design-Build, Design-Bid (or negotiate)-Build and Construction Management ―at Risk‖. Please keep in mind, however, that much about the legal and risk implications of BIM technology is unknown at present. Utilization of BIM technology on projects requires a clear understanding of each party‘s responsibilities. The parties will need to define and address the data standards and protocols, the preparation of the model, and the distribution of information from the model. In this regard, a contractor and its surety who are evaluating BIM should consider how the contractor‘s organization can best manage the risks associated with utilizing this new project tool. If BIM technology is clearly defined contractually, it should decrease conflicts and make the design and construction process more efficient. As a result, the surety industry should embrace its utilization.

1.3.26 SUMMARY : The major objective of this section was to generally introduce the subject and provide an outline of the ―how-to‖ for getting started. Regardless of the extent to which we decide to participate in BIM, simply getting started and understanding the topic will keep us in touch with a subject that is probably the most revolutionizing tool to come into the design and construction industry in recent times. As this guide identifies, BIM is a tool that enables our industry to more efficiently operate in new and increasingly expeditious ways. Initially, BIM and 3D models have primarily helped eliminate design conflicts with far more efficient coordination. Expanding beyond this premise to some other specific practices, contemplate the future with BIM in regard to:  Project scheduling and the concept of 4D, in which time considerations are inserted into the modeling process. With manpower loading inserted into the scheduling portion of the model, the project team will be able, on a long-term, look-ahead basis, to observe and plan to the detail on a daily (perhaps eventually even hourly) basis. Manpower can be best concentrated in a constrained area, thus providing resolution to increased field

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production. Imagine drilling down into the 3D model and actually being able to realize that our schedule exposes the conflict of an erroneously planned overabundance of manpower in a constricted area. By identifying such a conflict early, redirection and rescheduling of manpower will allow for fewer field conflicts and increased production.  Estimating and quantification when 5D concepts are incorporated with the BIM process. As the 3D model is developed, a materials quantity report is instantaneously available. Further, depending on the sophistication of the software, pricing information could also be instantaneously generated. As good contractors know, the human element and judgment process for estimating will never be replaced by software. But given the capability of instantaneous estimate reports, as long as they are properly monitored, the project team will be able to ―tweak‖ the design in real time to match the project budget, thus eliminating the need for complex value engineering after a design develops to more complete stages. The speed of shop drawing development and the associated coordination between all trades. Simply put, with 3D, it is realistic to envision that shop drawings could be developed simultaneously as the design unfolds. Thus, the ―issued for construction‖ model is just that—eliminating the need for approvals and submittal ―turnarounds,‖ as that process will already have been accomplished during the design period. Requests for Information (RFIs) will be significantly reduced during field construction due to the enhanced coordination and conflict reduction with the use of 3D. Accurate as-built drawings are available immediately at the close of construction with the use of BIM and a 3D model. The 3D model, as it is updated throughout the project duration, actually represents in electronic format the physical design and construction of the project throughout all trades. Imagine the future capabilities for the owner in maintaining and revising its structure or facility when inheriting a 3D model as its asbuilts. The use of BIM and 3D modeling allows for the optimization of lean construction techniques and principles. Modeling allows one to precisely plan and coordinate the design and execution of the project, leading to the potential for increased prefabrication, the minimization of waste in both the shop and the field, the reduction of field interferences and collisions, and a general increase in productivity at all stages of the project.

 

And the list goes on and on when our creative thinking allows us to imagine the possibilities with BIM. As the use of BIM accelerates within the design and construction industry, it will lead to a

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revolution in project delivery. Many are already referring to this revolution as leading to the fully collaborative project team. The theory of full collaboration generally envisions the entire project team: Owner, Architect, Engineers, Consultants, GC/CM and Specialty Contractors being involved from the project‘s inception by ―sitting together at one table‖ in developing the project design. Essentially the team constructs the project electronically in 3D with the use of BIM. This full collaboration allows for increased speed of project delivery, enhanced economics for the project, and true lean construction all at levels—never yet experienced in our industry. The Construction Users Round Table (CURT), an organization of international owners from a variety of industries, is addressing the future of the design and construction industry from their perspective. Their research and committee work on collaboration is summarized within their White Paper publications1. Owners are under increasing pressure to more efficiently and expeditiously deliver projects due to more intense worldwide competition, which varies by each of their respective industries. Increased or full collaboration fulfills the owners‘ new and futuristic objectives in delivering projects. We must face the fact that our design and construction industry has historically reacted rather slowly to change, especially revolutionary change. The use of BIM, for those who react quickly, will propel them beyond their competition in monumental proportions. Fortunately, as contractors, any magnitude of the use of BIM will improve the way we conduct our business. Additionally, contractors do not need to wait until other specific areas of our industry adapt the use of BIM. Many of the specialty contractors with whom GC/CMs subcontract are well established in 3D coordination. With the recent developments in BIM, the software tools are now available for the GC/CM‘s coordination of the overall project with 3D models, thus allowing incorporation of these related efforts of specialty contractors. This is one of the major reasons why this ―Contractors‘ Guide to BIM‖ Edition One specifically addresses the use of BIM by contractors when receiving the project design in a 3D format or when receiving a 2D representation of design for conversion to a 3D model. Simply put, we as contractors can only move further ahead just by coordinating a project in 3D versus utilizing existing 2D methods. Reducing field corrections and re-fabrication alone provides tremendous labor production increases and resultant cost savings. Just as the technology and software of BIM expands and improves, this ―Contractors‘ Guide to BIM‖ is expected to evolve through future editions to keep AGC member contractors on the cutting edge of this industry revolution. With this guide, we now have a ―roadmap‖ to begin our company‘s industry participation with BIM and 3D models. We control the options and decisions regarding the extent to which our firm will get started and participate with BIM and 3D models. But more than anything make those decisions and… GET STARTED USING BIM!

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TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM AND SOFTWARE FOR BIM :

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Approved BIM Software for VA Projects. (“The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Office of
Construction & Facilities Management (CFM) provides design, major construction, and lease project management, design and construction standards, environmental, and historic preservation services and expertise to the Department of Veterans Affairs to deliver high quality, cost effective facilities in support of our Nation's Veterans.)

VA accepts object oriented software applications that comply with current industry interoperability standards and are able to be used in a collaborative environment. All software platforms used for VA projects shall be compliant with: •The most current version of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) file format •Commercially available collaboration software that provides interoperability between the different software applications (see below). •Traditional 2D documentation shall be prepared with approved IFC compliant BIM authoring software and plans, elevations, sections, schedules, and details shall be derived and fully coordinated with the coordinated building model. All other documents are to be submitted per the VA contract requirements.

TOOLS IN BIM

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The field of BIM players breaks down into makers of three distinctly different sets of tools: • 3-D modelers. • Viewers/Surface modelers. • Analyzers. The 3-D modeler is the true BIM tool, working with solid, parametric objects in sufficient detail to virtually construct the building. Not all views of the project have to be in that detail, however. The financing entity may want to see what the building will ―look‖ like—as may the owner— and for that all we need is a surface modeler—or a viewer—to which all shapes are hollow. All it knows about is surfaces, which is all it needs to recognize in order to show concepts, and detect clashes for instance, and as such is of tremendous value. Analyzers are normally third-party software that speaks to the main BIM tool, meaning it can import and then analyze data from the 3-D modeler to determine the model‘s energy efficiency or daylighting, among other things. 3-D Modelers Although there are several additional 3-D modelers on the market, these are four of the main players at this time: Autodesk/Revit By all accounts this is the most widely used of the BIM tools, primarily since Autodesk‘s AutoCAD has for several years now more or less ruled the auto-2-D drawing market and Revit Architecture appears to be a natural extension of that—which it actually is not. Revit was originally a startup, acquired by Autodesk and introduced as Autodesk Revit in 2002. Revit‘s platform is completely separate from AutoCAD, both as to code and file structure.

Bentley Systems Bentley Architecture, introduced in 2004, was an evolution of its earlier platform, TriForma. Several other Bentley modules integrate well with Bentley Architecture: • Bentley Structural. • Bentley Building Mechanical Systems. • Bentley Building Electrical Systems. • Bentley Facilities. • Bentley Power Civil.

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• Bentley Generative Components. With these modules, Bentley addresses almost all aspects of the AEC industry. Vico While Vico is a new company, its BIM engine is based on the almost venerable Graphisoft ArchiCAD. Graphisoft sold ArchiCAD to a German software developer in 2007, while it at the same time spun off the ArchiCAD-based construction suite to Vico software, a new company focusing on the design and construction industry. The engine, ArchiCAD, has been a solid modeler since the mid-1980s, and is now a very stable platform. Other modules in this suite include project management, Estimator, and Project Control, which is a scheduling software. Tekla Tekla is a Finnish software house founded in 1966 that specializes in structural steel, steel reinforcing in concrete, and precast concrete modeling. In this area, the software is capable of taking a design all the way from concept, through design and structure analysis, through detailing, all the way into production and assembly. Therefore, we can use the same model created at the outset of the project for prefabrication output. Viewers/Surface Modelers A viewer/surface modeler builds its model entirely on surface dimension. A box will have six sides, all of which will be incorporated as adjoining planes, but as far as the software is concerned, the box contains nothing. Google-SketchUp Originally, SketchUp was developed by @Last Software, and has, ever since, due to its ease of use and affordability, taken the design community by storm. Google purchased SketchUp a while back, and it appears to be a good match. NavisWorks This tool is a viewer of models; that is its mission. NavisWorks has developed links to virtually all BIM modelers on the market, and so can import, say, a plumber‘s 3-D model along with an HVAC 3-D model for the purpose of clash detection. Like SketchUp, NavisWorks will also allow us to rapidly put a surface modeled design together for communication purposes. Analyzers Analyzers are those freestanding software programs that specialize in importing BIM data from modelers for purpose of simulations and analysis. There is a wide array of these players in the field, such as these:

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Energy+ EnergyPlus is now the primary software tool used for energy performance analysis of commercial buildings by the Department of Energy‘s Building Technologies Program. Developed in 1996 by DOE, EnergyPlus is a new generation building energy-simulation program that builds on the most popular features and capabilities of BLAST and DOE-2. DAYSIM DAYSIM is a daylighting analysis software that calculates the annual daylight availability in arbitrary buildings as well as the lighting energy use of automated lighting controls (occupancy sensors, photocells) compared to standard on/off switches. Among the dynamic daylight performance metrics calculated by DAYSIM are daylight autonomy and useful daylight index. ApacheSIM This analysis software enables us to assess every aspect of thermal performance, from annual energy consumption and carbon emissions down to individual surface temperatures. ApacheSim is at the core of the IES suite of thermal-analysis products, each of which simulates an aspect of thermal performance: solar shading and penetration (SunCast), HVAC systems and control (ApacheHVAC) and natural ventilation and mixed-mode systems (MacroFlo). LifeCycle NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) and its partners created the U.S. Life-Cycle Inventory Database to help life-cycle assessment experts answer their questions about the environmental impact of materials used in building industry and other industries. The database provides a cradle-to-grave accounting of the energy and material flows into and out of the environment that are associated with producing a material, component or assembly. It‘s an online storeroom of data collected on commonly used materials, products and processes.

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THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM
Getting Building Information Modeling to the Bottom Line

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VALUE AND BENEFITS OF BIM : Better Than Expected Value Return on investment can be calculated in various ways, but those who take a data-driven approach see more upside to BIM. Users who formally measure their ROI report better returns than those who estimate ROI based on perception.   Seven in ten BIM users who measure ROI see positive returns, compared to half of those who only go by their perception of value. One in five BIM users who measure ROI see returns greater than50% double the perceived value.

Competitive Advantage BIM is seen as a way to get a leg up on the competition. This is particularly true among less experienced users who are promoting a new service.    Marketing new business to new clients is the top rated business benefit of BIM. Half of users say offering new services with BIM is a significant business benefit. Two-thirds of users say BIM‘s ability to help a company maintain repeat business with past clients brings at least a moderate level of value

Improved Productivity BIM creates efficiencies. Users realize some of the greatest value of BIM through its potential to cut down on rework, such as rekeying information into models or making changes in the field. As users become more proficient, the opportunities to improve productivity are more pronounced.    Reducing rework is the highestrated business benefit among experts. Four in five experts say it brings high to very high value, compared to 23% of beginners. The potential of BIM to improve productivity is ranked by architects as the top way to improve their return on investment in the technology. Reduced conflicts and changes during construction are among the top rated ways engineers say BIM adds value to a project.

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Clash detection and avoiding rework are the top rated ways owners say BIM saves time and money

Investing in the Team Users recognize that BIM brings build teams together. Whether they aim to seamlessly exchange project data or communicate ideas more effectively, BIM adds additional value when used to integrate project processes. Likewise, obstacles that affect teamwork rank among the greatest challenges faced by users.  Better multiparty communication and understanding from 3D visualization is the BIM benefit rated most likely to improve ROI. 80% of users give it high to very high importance. Improved project process outcomes, such as fewer RFIs and field coordination problems, is the second-highest rated way to improve value with BIM. Communication of project data is critical to meeting this goal. The number of BIM-knowledgeable companies on a project is a top rated factor affecting

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value on a project. Three in four users see this as highly to very highly important.  Presentation and visualization of architectural design is the top task that benefits owners during a project. Owners also say improved collective understanding of design intent is the top way that projects can gain value.

Fewer Legal Issues In past studies, users raised concerns about legal issues, such as liability in an environment of open data exchange. As the legal framework for working in BIMhas developed, those concerns appear to be fading.  Two-thirds of non-users say concerns about liability have little to no impact on their consideration of BIM

Rapid Adoption BIM has quickly gained momentum that is expected to continue in the coming years.    Half of the industry is using BIM or BIM-related tools today. This represents a 75% increase in usage in the last two years. 42% of users are at an expert or advanced level—three times the amount reported in 2007. Half of contractors report using BIM or BIM-related tools—four times the level reported

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two years ago.     Two-thirds of experts use it on more than 60% of their projects today. One-third of all users utilize BIM on 60% or more projects today, but twice as many expect to be using it at that level in two years. 42% of non-users believe that BIM will be highly or very highly important to the industry in five years. Nearly half of non-users haven‘t tried BIM, but are open to exploring its potential value.

Owner Demand Owners see that BIM creates value.      70% report positive ROI from BIM. Lower project cost is among the top rated ways users expect BIM to bring high value. Half of owners say overall better construction project outcomes is a significant benefit of BIM.The AEC community looks to clients when deciding to use BIM: Not enough demand from clients is the top rated reason non-users have not adopted it. Seven in ten non-users say owners demanding BIM use on projects would significantly impact their decision to adopt BIM.

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Value by Project Phase Users can reap benefits throughout the life of a project, but are experiencing more value in some phases than others. Users see the greatest value as designs are fully developed and construction moves forward. Construction Documents BIM pays off as designs become rich with data. With the addition of specifications for contractors, BIM aids in improving communication between the design world and the building team. Design Development The design capabilities of BIM are among its most obvious and immediately understood aspects, particularly as more detailed models are created. Construction BIM can save time and money—a benefit that becomes clear during construction. For example, reducing systems clashes can help budget and schedule. Fabrication Accuracy is critical for fabrication, and a data-rich BIM model can have a positive impact. By using BIM, many fabricators can extract data rather than draw specifications that feed directly into their existing systems. User Differences   Two-thirds of architects see high value during design development and construction documents, when models are populated with higher levels of project data. Almost seven in ten contractors experience high value during construction and fabrication, when the bulk of costs are generated and opportunities to save time and money arise. Nearly half of engineers see high value during the construction documents phase, while four in ten say BIM can be highly beneficial during design development and fabrication. Engineers are most heavily engaged during these phases of a project. The later phases of a project, such as closeout or operations and maintenance, are not seen as valuable opportunities for BIM by any users, including owners. As those capabilities improve with the continued development of BIM, the potential value during such phases should improve

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Banking on the Benefits  Reduced conflicts during construction. Conflicts in the field are costly, affecting both budget and schedule. A large majority of users (68%) recognize that reducing conflicts produces the highest rewards on a project, particularly contractors (83%). Engineers also ranked this as the greatest benefit on a project. Improved collective understanding of design intent. With BIMoffering 3D visualization and a rich database of project information, two-thirds of users (65%) say collective understanding of design intent provides a high level of value. Most owners (73%) believe this and rank it as the highest area of value, as they can use models to better understand and monitor ideas that carry through the lifecycle of a project. Improved overall project quality. The proof is in the finished product. Most BIM users (54%) see that the combined benefits across the life of a project add up to a highly valuable end result for the owner. Contractors (58%) and architects (53%) are the most likely to believe this. Reduced changes during construction. When BIM reduces conflicts, it helps teams avoid costly changes in the field. All users rank this among their top benefits, including a majority of contractors (64%) and owners (68%).

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Reduced number of RFIs. Complete and conflict-free data shared across multiple users helps clarify intent. All users rank this among their top benefits.

Impact of Experience Users are evenly split over BIM‘s ability to reduce total project cost and overall schedule. Roughly one-third believe BIM contributes highly to these, while one third believe it brings little to no value. Experts are almost twice as likely as beginners to see these BIM benefits bring significant value, suggesting that with experience they can eventually pay big dividends. Benefits With Limited Value Few say these are contributing high value:    Improved jobsite safety (14%) Faster regulatory approval (14%) Improved commissioning, close-out and turnover (19%)

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Emerging Values Experience drives the ability to reap rewards. A large portion of experts see these tasks gaining high value when done in BIM today, while less than half as many beginners see that level of value.       Client engagement (72% of experts) Drive shop fabrication equipment (54% of experts) Quantity takeoff (52% of experts) Less time documenting,more time designing (45% of experts) Shop drawing process (50%of experts) Cost estimation (41% of experts)

Future Developments Few users of any expertise level see high value in using BIM on the following tasks today. In some cases, users may not see BIM as an improvement over current methods. As software is further developed, outlook on BIM‘s impact on these tasks could change.      4D scheduling (17%) Energy analysis (16%) Submittals (other than shops) (14%) Operations & Maintenance (14%) Project turnover Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2009 & closeout (12%)

Users have an upbeat outlook on BIM. Most have yet to unlock its full potential, but see significant improvement on the horizon. Drawing from a list of potential benefits, a majority of experts believe that all of them would create high value in five years with the exception of BIM‘s impact on safety issues and recruitment and retention of talent. At least four in ten beginners also believe those opportunities will be very valuable. Contractors are generally the most optimistic that they will see higher value in the future.  Better-designed projects. BIM can help integrated teams push more of the key decisions to the earlier stages of the process, allowing for smarter designs that capture a more detailed view of the entire project. Seven in ten users (68%) believe this will prove to

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have high value in the future, especially contractors (74%).  Lower risk and better predictability of outcomes. As more users share information across models in the future, the ability to lower risk will improve. Two-thirds of users (64%) see this having high value five years from now, with two-thirds of contractors reporting it. Prefabrication of larger, more complex parts of projects. BIM is helping push the movement toward more prefabrication. Six in ten users (62%) say prefabrication will bring high value to projects in the coming years. A large majority of contractors (77%) see this as very beneficial. Greater professional satisfaction with project outcomes. Predictability and improved performance go a long way toward making a company feel good about its work on a project. Six in ten (61%) see this benefit as having a high value in the future. Reduced claims, disputes and conflicts. The more questions we can answer up front, the more we can eliminate the gray area that will cause problems later. Increasing predictability of projects can help reduce future claims and disputes. Fiftynine percent of users say this will prove to have high value in five years, especially contractors (68%).

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BIM and Green Building
Green building experts are searching for ways that BIM can help deliver sustainable facilities in the future. Research shows that BIM has limited impact on green building processes today, but many predict it could be a valuable tool in the coming years. Results of this Smart Market Report reveal that one-third of users say BIM is highly to very highly beneficial in delivering betterperforming completed buildings, ranking it well below other potential benefits. More specifically, few users (15%) are currently getting a high level of value from using BIM for energy analysis—a key process in gauging building performance. However, users see its impact increasing on the horizon. Three in five users say BIM will be highly to very highly valuable in producing better-performing buildings in five years, especially experts (69%). In a separate study, McGraw-Hill Construction surveyed firms involved in projects that had achieved U.S. Green Building Council LEED Platinum certification about the impact of BIM on green projects. Again, the snapshot of today is far different than the future outlook. Among respondents, less than one in ten used BIM on LEED platinum projects. Most of these projects were certified in 2007 and 2008, suggesting that much of the design and analysis had been done years in advance when BIM was still in limited use industry wide. One-third of those who hadn‘t used BIM on a LEED platinum project still are not using it on LEED projects today. Another third are light users, utilizing it on less than 15% of projects. However, 69% are forecasting their use of BIM on such projects to increase by at least a moderate amount in the next two years— with 35% predicting a high increase. More Analysis Capabilities Needed When reporting current concerns, some respondents noted that BIM is still a nascent technology that needs further development, particularly in the MEP fields. In order for BIM to better apply to sustainable projects, many respondents specifically cite the need for improved energy modeling and analysis capabilities to test design alternatives and budgets against performance. Additionally, some see the need for broader applications of the technology in the future, especially if it is to be embraced by owners seeking LEED certification. A respondent from an architecture and engineering firm says that—despite the fact that BIM implementation has been ―expensive and difficult‖ at his company—he sees opportunities down the road. ―We believe it will actually reduce the size of project teams, and make those teams more nimble,‖ he says. ―We believe BIM will facilitate smarter but simpler buildings, less reliant on technology and taking better advantage of site-specific design.‖ An owner‘s representative says he thinks that BIM could help with ―the integrated design process that LEED projects encourage.‖ ―I see every project in the future using BIM, but until it is integrated into the design process from the beginning of a project it will not [be] fully accepted by owners and the industry,‖ he says. Still others hope that one day BIM can

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play a role in ensuring that green projects continue to meet their efficiency goals throughout the ongoing operation and maintenance of a facility. ―While BIM aids in the design process and recording the predicted energy usage of a building, BIM should help integrate ongoing measurement and verification of actual building energy use and compare it to the predicted model,‖ says one sustainability consultant. ―This could help inform project [members] that their building may or may not be performing to their assumed designed energy standard.‖

Player Value of BIM
When using BIM across an entire project, each firm has an opportunity to realize its own distinct benefits. Companies may see savings individually that collectively create significant value. These could be tangible benefits that improve productivity, reduce costs and save time. Although each player sees its own opportunities, most recognize that value can also be gained by improving the ability of every build team member to share data and become more integrated. Architects The evolution of BIM started with architects, and many still see its value emerging from its use in the design phases. Most in the design community, along with many contractors (43%) and owners (41%), say that architects experience a high level of value. Structural Engineers Nearly half of all users recognize that structural engineers can garner a high level of value from BIM. Such elements as steel columns, beams and trusses are frequently modeled by users. Contractors are the most likely (47%) to see structural engineers realizing significant benefits. Construction Managers andGeneral Contractors Money is largely spent and saved during construction. Reducing rework can help keep budgets in line. Owners are the most likely (57%) to see a CM or GC as gaining high value on a project, most likely because that savings could be passed on. Fabricators As BIM reduces conflicts and creates confidence in building plans, many team members see opportunities for value in fabrication. Accurate fabrication of materials reduces waste while preassembly can save time. Contractors (56%) are far more likely to see fabricators as

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experiencing high value than architects (23%), engineers (38%) or owners (30%). MEP Engineers There is a range of opportunities for MEP engineers to use BIM. Modeling larger elements such as duct systems and air handlers are approachable options, while smaller elements such as electrical switches and outlets might prove more challenging. Notably, very few engineers (22%) collectively see MEP engineers reaping high value. Nearly half of contractors (45%) believe MEP engineers see significant value. Owners Owners ultimately experience all value collectively gained on a project. More than half (52%) of owners say they experience high value, but less than 30% of all other users believe this. This could be because other team members recognize that owners have yet to see much value from BIM for use in operations and maintenance. Still, most owners believe they can bank on the value of BIM during design and construction. Specialty Contractors Although specialty contractors are charged with executing the complexities of a project, few team members (23%) believe they are experiencing high value from BIM. On the whole, subcontractors are smaller firms relative to general contractors and the costs of adopting BIM would be more pronounced. As BIM users employ a wide range of software applications, subcontractors may face interoperability issues and incur added expenses to work within various models. Building Product Manufacturers Very few (11%) of build team members see building product manufacturers as gaining high value from BIM. This could reflect team members‘ belief that BPMs are not supplying sufficient BIM-related information yet. Architects Architects recognize BIM‘s value in both definitive and more intangible ways. Productivity can be improved as designers spend less time rekeying information or addressing the concerns of other build team members. At the same time, BIM adds new dimension to design and allows expanded levels of creativity and communication. BIM gained an early reputation as being design software, but architects see the need for an expanded community of build team members to enter the BIM environment. Efficiency Architects see BIM as an opportunity to be more efficient. Among their top benefits reported, architects point to improved coordination of documents and drawings through BIM. In part, this also helps free up designers‘ time so that they can focus on being creative, rather than being bogged down with documentation. As their work gets passed on to other team members, they recognize that BIM can save time by reducing errors and requests for information that could hamper the schedule. The potential to improve productivity of personnel by using BIM is ranked by architects as the top way that they can

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improve their ROI with the technology. Three-quarters of architects (74%) report this is a highly important factor, more than all other users. Visual Impact Architects sell ideas, and being able to effectively communicate is critical to winning a job and bringing vision to reality. Presentation and visualization of architectural design are reported as key benefits realized through BIM. Although users can create data-richmodels, the 3D aspects of BIM remain a critical part of how the technology brings value to architects. Architects say:  Better multiparty communication and understanding from 3D visualization is the top way that their firms currently see ROI on BIM. Eight in ten architects (79%) rank it as highly important. Improved collective understanding of design intent is the top way that BIM brings value to a project. Two-thirds of architects (65%) rank it as highly important. Teamwork Architects realize that how they experience value through BIM extends well beyond their individual workstations. More than any other users, architects see a greater need for more of the industry to have BIM skills. Architects say their firms would see more value from BIM if: There were more external firms with BIM skills (77%) There was more internal staff with BIM skills (73%) There was more incoming entry-level staff with BIM skills (59%)

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Engineers Many engineers believe they can leverage BIM to their benefit. Given that engineers are more likely to report challenges with BIM, those who have become proficient at the technology are using it to get a leg up on the competition. To reap more benefits from BIM, engineers seek improvements. Insufficient software functionality and interoperability issues can create challenges for some, hindering their ability to see value. Many engineers also report that there is insufficient BIM content to meet their needs and that they don‘t see its application to their practice. Marketing Engineers who use BIM believe they are in demand. The ability of some to use analysis tools with BIM has the potential to bring value to an entire project. Those who can leverage those benefits see it as giving them an edge on the competition. As such, BIM can be an asset as firms look to drum up business.

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Engineers say:    Marketing new business to new clients is the top way that BIM benefits their business. Four in ten (43%) see this as highly beneficial. Offering new services is the second ranked way that BIM benefits their business. Nearly four in ten (38%) see this as highly beneficial. Positive impact on marketing is among the top three ways that engineering firms say they see positive ROI.

Productivity Engineers see BIM saving time and money. For them the analysis is simple: less problems equals more profit.   Reduced errors and omissions in construction documents is the third ranked way that BIM benefits their business. Reduced conflicts and changes during construction are among the top three ways that engineers say BIM adds value to a project.

Challenges For engineers to maximize the value of BIM, they need to see improvements to software platforms and how they interoperate. The top factors that would increase an engineering firm‘s ability to see business benefits are:    Improved interoperability between software applications. Eighty-three percent rated this as highly important, more than any other user group. Improved functionality of BIM software. Seventy-eight percent rated this as highly important. More clearly defined BIM deliverables between parties. Two-thirds (65%) rated this as highly important.

Structural Engineers Structural engineers who use BIM do so to varying degrees. A survey of structural engineers in the 2008 Smart Market Report on BIM showed that four out of five BIM users frequently model steel columns, beams, trusses and concrete. More detailed elements pose a greater challenge. Three in ten frequently model steel details and reinforcing, while 6% model framework,

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according to the report. Today, structural engineers who use BIM see benefits both internally and at the project level. Compared to other engineers, structural engineers are much more likely to say BIM brings value by:   Helping maintain repeat business with past customers. This is their top-ranked internal benefit. Reducing overall project duration

Other highly ranked benefits:

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Presentation/visualization of architectural design Spatial coordination

MEP Engineers Mechanical, electrical and plumbing engineers often work in great detail. A survey of mechanical engineers in the 2008 SmartMarket Report on BIM showed that a large majority of BIM users frequently model duct systems, air handlers, grilles, diffusers and other major equipment, while one in five modeled energy management systems and controls. Electrical

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engineers see more challenges. Very few electrical engineers who use BIM reported frequently modeling any elements. Competitive advantage The level of challenge posed by modeling detail in BIM could favor those who have adopted it. MEP engineers who use BIM recognize that it can be a competitive advantage. Contractors Contractors see many of the most obvious and dramatic benefits of BIM. With the vast majority of a project‘s cost dedicated to the construction phase, real savings of time and money can be experienced in the field. By pre-planning their sequencing and reducing conflicts and changes during construction, contractors can avoid many of the mistakes that erode budgets and schedules.

Cost Savings Change is bad—at least during construction. As change orders add up on a job, schedules and budgets suffer. Contractors see that BIM can help reduce errors before they lead to rework in the field. Using BIM for clash detection while coordinating various subcontractors has proven highly effective for many users. Contractors report that avoiding conflicts and changes are the top two ways that they save time and money on a project.   Reduced conflicts during construction is the top way that contractors say projects gain value with BIM. The vast majority (83%) say this brings high value. Contractors point to spatial coordination as the specific task that shows the most value. Eight in ten (78%) rated this at a high level of value.

Problem Solver BIM can bring clarity to a complex project. Given that effective coordination brings value, contractors see more opportunities to realize benefits as the level of complexity increases. With greater confidence in the coordination process, many contractors are pushing for more prefabrication of systems and other building elements to help ease schedules.   Project complexity is the top rated factor affecting value in a project for contractors. Seven in ten (72%) rated this as highly important. Prefabrication of larger, more complex parts of projects will be the area where contractors expect to see the greatest value in the future. Nearly eight in ten (78%) expect prefabrication to bring high value in five years.

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Individual Effort Although many contractors using BIM see big benefits, working as a team can be a challenge. As contractors see significant savings through their own tasks, many may make the decision to use BIM regardless of whether others are able to share BIM data on a project. These issues will need to be addressed if BIM is to be broadly used in an integrated environment.   The vast majority of contractors (82%) say that better multiparty communication and understanding from 3D visualization are top ways that BIM can improve value. Improving interoperability between software applications is the top way that contractors say they could increase the business value of BIM. Eight in ten contractors (78%) ranked it as highly important.

Contractors By Discipline
MEP Contractors MEP contractors are champions of BIM in the building industry. Four in five MEP contractors who use BIM say they are seeing positive ROI in the technology, more than other contractors and all other team members. In light of those results, three in five MEP contractors say they have adopted BIM. That rate ranks above other contractors and matches the adoption rate of architects.   44% are creating and analyzing models By comparison, 10% are using BIM tools to analyze existing models, showing that they are much more likely to work in their own models, either by preference or necessity. MEP contractors are reaping benefits in many of the areas that most directly apply to their trades. More than any other contractors, the MEP trades place a high value on: Spatial coordination Shop drawing process Driving shop fabrication Equipment MEP contractors are also much more likely to find value in quantity takeoff with BIM compared to others, although at a moderate level.

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General Contractors A large majority of general contractors who use BIM are reaping rewards today. More than seven in ten general contractors are seeing positive ROI in BIM. Compared to others, they are most likely to see ROI above 100%, with 14% of general contractors reporting returns at that

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level. The GC community sees a broad range of business benefits, especially those related to productivity and communication.     Spatial coordination holds the highest value for general contractors. Presentation/visualization of architectural design is of high value to them, more so than other contractors. Reducing rework is also seen as providing high value. General contractors are more likely than others to say that BIM improves younger staff‘s learning of how buildings go together.

Construction Managers Construction managers are searching for value. Among all contractors, construction managers are least likely to see BIM pay off, with 43% saying they see positive returns on investment. Among those who do experience positive ROI, most see returns below 10%. Construction managers are adopting BIM at levels on par with the industry as a whole (49%), but trail other contractors.  30% create and analyze models, less

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than other contractors  16% use BIM tools to analyze existing models, more than other contractors.

Like other contractors, construction managers see value in:     Presentation/visualization of architectural design Spatial coordination Offering new services Marketing new business to new clients

Owners Owners see the big picture. Even the most involved owner can‘t be in the trenches during every phase and individual task of a project. Owners are looking for BIM to deliver results that can be seen in the project cost, speed of delivery and quality of the finished product. While owners ultimately could realize benefits that extend into the operations and maintenance aspects of a project, few are seeing those opportunities materialize yet. Communication Owners want to be kept in the loop. BIM expands the ways that project plans and progress can be communicated to owners. Owners report that better understanding of projects in any or all stages is the top benefit beyond those that save time and money. Likewise, owners want to see other team members improve their communication to keep projects on track. Owners say:    Presentation and visualization of architectural design is the top task that benefits them during a project. Two-thirds rate this as providing high value. Improved collective understanding of design intent is the top way that projects can gain value. Two-thirds rate this as contributing high value. Better multiparty communication and understanding from 3D visualization is the second most important factor that could improve ROI in BIM. Three-quarters (76%) rate this as highly important.

Cost Savings In the end, it all comes down to budget. Owners bear the ultimate cost of a project and are highly

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interested in any opportunities for savings. Owners say:   Clash detection and avoiding rework are the top ways that BIM saves time and money. Lower project cost is the third-highest way that they could see improved value of BIM.

Better Projects Whether one or all team members on a project saw benefits by using BIM, owners see bigpicture value. Owners say:   Overall better construction project outcomes is the top business benefit for them. Half of owners (48%) see this as generating high value. Improved project process outcomes, such as fewer RFIs and field coordination problems, is the top way value could be improved. Half of owners (52%) see this as generating high value. Better-designed projects and better-performing buildings are the top two ways they expect to gain value from BIM in the future.

Owners Perception Owners who use BIM see a very high rate of ROI, with seven in ten reporting positive results. Given those results, many owners expect the firms that work for them to use BIM. This is also true among those owners who have not adopted BIM themselves: Among owners who do not use BIM, only one in five estimate that design and construction firms working for them are not using BIM at all.  Nearly half (44%) of owners who do not use BIM believe that firms working for them are using it on at least a moderate number of their

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projects. Owners‘ view of BIM use on projects appears to be higher than reality, given that half of the industry claims to use BIM or BIM-related tools today. Whether owners use BIM or not, many see value today and expect the firms they hire to use it.

Overview: Two Year Rise in BIM Use Building information modeling has quickly gained momentum, and much of the industry is adding it to their toolboxes. Half of respondents (49%) report using BIM or BIM-related tools. The move into BIM is relatively recent with two-thirds of users adopting it within the last three years. Data from the 2007 McGraw-Hill Construction Smart Market Report on Interoperability backs up this trend, showing that 28% of the industry was using BIM or BIM-related tools at that time. This represents a 75% increase in use in the last two years. Meanwhile, users have quickly gained proficiency. In 2007, 14% of users categorized themselves as expert or advanced. Today, 42% are expert or advanced users three times the amount in 2007.

User Differences  Architects, who were early adopters of the technology, remain the highest users of BIM. Six in ten of all architects create BIM models with half of users also analyzing them. Today, 43% of architects who use BIM consider themselves advanced or expert users compared to 26% in 2007. Contractors are gaining ground faster than any other group, as more users discover the value of the technology beyond the pure design process. Half (50%) of contractors report using BIM or BIM-related tools—four times the level reported in 2007 (13%). Four in ten engineers (42%) use BIM, but they continue to lag behind architectsb and have been surpassed by contractors in use. Many engineers report that they struggle to find sufficient BIM-compatible content to meet their needs or they don‘t see BIM‘s application to their practice.

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Owners are gaining ground with more than one-third (37%) using it today approaching the usage rate of engineers. This growth comes despite the fact that owners have yet to realize a significant impact from BIM on their own operations and maintenance needs.

Authoring Versus Analysis
Users typically create models, rather than working with existing ones. Although some team members, such as contractors and owners, use tools to analyze existing models, a majority of players author their own models. In some cases, this could be because the team member is the only one using BIM on a project. In other scenarios, multiple team members may choose to create their own models that focus on their individual needs rather than alter or add to an existing model. User Differences   Six in ten architects create BIM models with half of users also analyzing them. Engineers tend to author their own models, although at a lower level than architects (40%). While 12% of contractors use tools to analyze existing models, one-third create and analyze their own models. This could be because models from other team members either don‘t exist, aren‘t being shared or don‘t provide sufficient information for a contractor‘s needs. Owners are the least likely to create models (12%) and most likely to analyze existing models (17%).

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Differences in Disciplines
Engineers, as a group, trail other main team players in their adoption of BIM, but there are notable differences between disciplines.  Structural and MEP engineers are using BIM at levels similar to industry-wide averages, while civil engineers lag far behind. More than four in five civil engineers are not using BIM. Looking toward the future, many engineers see significant changes ahead. Among BIM users, one quarter of structural engineers utilize it on more than 60% of projects today. Twice as many of them expect to use it at that level in two years. Among BIM users, one in ten civil engineers utilize it on more than 60% of projects today. That level of involvement is forecast to almost quadruple in two years. Among BIM users, one in eight MEP engineers utilize it on more than 60% of projects today. That level of involvement is expected to almost triple in two years.

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Client Demand for BIM
Lack of client demand is the top rated reason AEC companies do not adopt BIM. But increasingly, contractors are mandating BIM from key trades and owners are demanding it from entire teams. ENR Top 100 contractor Layton Construction of Sandy, Utah, mandates BIM from key subs, especially for health care work. BIM Manager Damon Socha says BIM willingness is now a prequalification and even first-time users cooperate. Most owners will pay extra to have subs model their work, he says. A sub‘s decision about how much to model follows a simple rule, he says. ―If it‘s not in our model, then we‘re responsible for coordinating it and any cost of moving it, which gets us pretty complete models‖ he explains. On the federal level, the U.S. General Services Administration mandates BIM for spatial validation on all projects. The GSA goal is that teams will continue using it through construction, which about half currently do. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers mandates complete BIM for many of its standard building types. Both agencies provide BIM guides detailing its requirements, but no financial support. Wisconsin and Texas mandate BIM for most new projects. Texas plans to host a master version of the project model on its servers during design and construction, so that at completion it‘s ready for energy and facility management. Many private owners are also mandating BIM. John Moebes, director of construction for Crate and Barrel of Northbrook, Illinois, runs an all-BIM nationwide program and is constantly pushing his teams to ―deliver BIM value the board of directors will care about.‖

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Non-Users Remain OpenMinded
Although nearly half of building team members aren‘t using BIM today, most nonusers are open to evaluating its potential benefits. These team members see numerous possible opportunities for BIM to pay off, but challenges lie on their path to adoption, primarily a lack of demand from clients and peers. With use of BIM expected to expand significantly in the coming years, demand will rise and push more team members to put BIM to the test. Key Findings About Non-users       Nearly half of non-users are open to exploring BIM‘s potential value. Almost a quarter are already convinced it will be valuable. Almost a quarter are currently evaluating it, but haven‘t tried it yet. Few non-users have no interest in using it (11%) or have tried it and decided not to use it (2%). Engineers who have not used BIM are the least likely to be actively evaluating it, but one-half are open to exploring its potential value. Architectural non-users have both the highest number not interested in BIM, and the most number actively evaluating it, a sign of this segment approaching a mature state of adoption

Client Demand and Competition Drive Adoption
Savvy design and construction firms understand the need to keep pace with their competition and fulfill the needs of clients. Current BIM users recognize the impact these factors have on the value of BIM to their businesses, listing marketing BIM services and satisfying client demand among their top ways value can be improved. Non-users are influenced by these same issues when considering adopting BIM. Many say they don‘t see enough client demand and believe their competition isn‘t using it very much or at all. This perception doesn‘t match industry

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trends. Nonusers hold these views despite the fact that half of the industry is currently using BIM and that 70% of owners recognize that BIM brings positive return on investment. Perceived Lack of Demand Two-thirds of non-users say they haven‘t seen enough demand from owners or other project team members to prompt them to try BIM.  Four in five non-users (86%) believe current or prospective clients are either not using BIM very much or not using it at all. Half of architects believe clients aren‘t using it at all. One-third (35%) of owners who do not use BIM believe the design and construction firms working for them are using BIM on a moderate number of other projects. Another third (36%) believe they are not using BIM very much.

Little Pressure From Competition The vast majority of team members not using BIM do not see their competition adopting it either.  More than four in five non-users (89%) believe their competition is either not using BIM very much or not using it at all. A third of engineers and contractors believe their competition isn‘t using it at all. Three-quarters (77%) of owners who do not use BIM believe that other owners similar to them are either not using BIM very much or not using it at all.

Challenges to Adoption
Beyond client demand, non-users see challenges that are of moderate to lesser concern when considering whether to adopt BIM. As a new technology, dealing with costs and training issues have been the greatest hurdles on the path to adoption.  Haven‘t had sufficient time to evaluate BIM: With construction running at record highs in recent years, many firms had been too focused on their existing projects to consider testing new methods. In light of the recent slowdown in new construction, firms may find this is not a significant issue moving forward. Software/hardware upgrades too expensive. Architects and engineers are most likely to believe this, which could reflect the fact that they generally bring in lower revenues than contractors.

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Functionality doesn‘t apply well enough to what we do. Engineers are most likely to believe this, which illustrates a belief that BIM is not addressing their practice-related needs. Insufficient BIM-compatible content available for my needs. Owners rank this among their top reasons for not implementing BIM, which could indicate that they see BIM as more relevant to the work of other team members

Issues With Little Impact on Adoption Some issues that have been identified by users as challenging are not seen as significant barriers to adoption by non-users. At least half of non-users say these factors have little to no influence on their decision not to adopt BIM:      Concerns about insurance/liability: 64% Current methods we use are better: 62% Poor interoperability with CAD applications: 54% Software too difficult to use: 51% Insufficient training available: 50%

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Influential Benefits

Just like those who have already championed BIM, non-users want to see it improve efficiency, eliminate errors and reduce costs. Accuracy Improved accuracy is a big potential draw for non-users. Seven in ten are enticed first and foremost by the potential for BIM to provide more accurate construction documents. Every team player ranks this among their top benefits. Reduced number of field coordination problems is also seen as a critical benefit by all non-users. Productivity Productivity issues are also driving factors. All non-users list improved communication between

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all parties in the design and construction process among their top benefits, especially owners. Naturally, architects welcome the prospect of less time drafting; more time designing. Owners and contractors highly rank reduced number of and need for information requests. Schedule and Budget Saving time and money is a core goal of any building team, especially owners. Contractors and owners would like to see BIM lead to reduced construction costs. Both rank it among the benefits that would most influence their decision to adopt BIM. All users except engineers say improved scheduling capabilities as well as improved budgeting and cost estimating capabilities would be influential factors. Less Influential Factors Less than half of non-users said these potential benefits would highly or very highly influence in their decision to adopt BIM.         Reduced construction schedule Increased ability to use lean construction techniques Improved code checking, compliance Reducing litigation, insurance claims Improved ability to do sustainable design and construction Parametric modification of designs Improved operations, maintenance and facility management Improved ability to do digital fabrication

BIM Survey Methodology McGraw-Hill Construction conducted the 2009 Building Information Modeling Study to assess adoption of BIM across the construction industry and to gauge the perception of value that firms are receiving by implementing BIM. The research in this report was conducted through an Internet survey of industry professionals between May 28 and July 2, 2009. The survey had 2,228 complete responses. The ―total‖ category displayed throughout the report includes 598 architects (27%), 326 engineers (15%), 817 contractors (37%), 118 owners (5%), 73 building product manufacturers (3%) and 296 other industry respondents. In addition, MHC further segmented the engineers and contractors categories. The use of a sample to represent a true population is based on the firm foundation of statistics. The sampling size and technique used in

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this study conform to accepted industry research standards expected to produce results with a high degree of confidence and low margin of error. The total sample size (2,228) used in this survey benchmarks at a 95% confidence interval with a margin of error of less than 5%. For each of the architect and contractor respondent groups, the confidence interval is also 95% with a margin of error of 5%. The engineers respondent group had a confidence interval of 95% with a margin of error of 5.4%; while the owners group had a confidence interval of 95% with a margin of error of 9%. For the top three engineers subcategories (structural, civil and MEP) and top four contractor subcategories (mechanical/sheet metal/plumbing subcontractors, general contractors, construction managers and estimators) the confidence interval ranges from 90% to 95% with a margin of error ranging from 7% to 14%.

Using BIM for Greener Designs
Designing a Greener Building The LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System is a national standard for developing resource-smart, sustainable buildings. As adoption of the standard grows, many owner/operators are requiring that their new building projects achieve LEED certification, which rates a project based on site design, indoor environmental quality, and efficient use of energy, materials, and water. A high LEED rating recognizes the quality of a green building design and also qualifies the project for an array of state and local government financial incentives – an important benefit for the building owner. As we can imagine, complex engineering analysis of the design project is critical to achieving LEED certification. Many design firms typically outsource engineering analysis - as it is time-consuming and costly to do in-house. But now, building information modeling solutions such as the Revit® Architecture software provide robust design models containing the necessary level of detail for the analyses. Pertinent design data can be easily extracted from the building information model and input to various analysis programs. With the recent release of the Green Building Studio™ from GeoPraxis, Inc., this process has been streamlined to the point where architects can perform energy analysis in-house, reducing the overall cost of the design process. Green Building Studio GeoPraxis is an industry leader in the development and implementation of building energy analysis tools and web-based solutions. Their Green Building Studio web service and XML connectors integrate their analysis tools with major building information modeling solutions, including Revit Architecture, AutoCAD® Architecture, and AutoCAD® MEP. With this capability, architects can more effectively use the better information created in the building information model for testing building performance and validating design options over the Internet.

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Running the Energy Analysis Using traditional CAD solutions, energy analysis can be a painful process. If it‘s a 2D solution, either special 3D analysis models are created or manual plan take-offs from the floor plans are done. If it‘s a 3D solution, building data is extracted from disparate CAD files and then merged into a single input file. In most cases, the data must be massaged for analysis import and then the output has to be ―translated‖ for the designer‘s consumption. Now, with Revit Architecture and Green Building Studio, the process is simple. When we initially register for Green Building Studio web service, we download a small Green Building Studio client. Then each time we run an analysis, we simply make sure the rooms have a room number (the unique space ID used in the analysis programs) and the model has a defined project type and address (for building codes, local climate information, etc.). On the file menu, we click Export, select the file type and save the export file to our hard drive. Then launch Green Building Studio from our Internet browser and submit our saved file for energy analysis.

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Within minutes we can view the results, which provide energy statistics for our project and recommendations to improve our design based on local standards for building type, climate, etc. We can then modify our building design and repeat the process to see what impact a design change has on the energy efficiency of the building. This simple process belies enormous computational power. Behind the scenes, Green Building Studio relies on a large network of relational databases containing hourly weather data, design data, and regionally relevant libraries of default building characteristics with common energy code baselines. It will even make recommendations regarding building products appropriate to our building (greatly simplifying

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the early specification process). Win-Win Results With the Green Building Studio web service utilizing better information from building information modeling solutions, a significant cost barrier to designing green buildings is diminished. This combination provides more accurate energy analysis, leading to a more efficient building design and lower operating cost for the owner. And it lets architects perform these functions in-house, which makes sustainable design services more affordable for the client and increases profitability for the architectural firm – making building information modeling a win-win proposition for everyone.

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BIM TOOLS COMPARISON

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Software - 3D Modeling (or 2D to 3D Conversion) Product Manufacturer Name BIM Use Manufacturer’s Description Supplier Hardware Requirements Approx. Cost

Revit Building

AutoDesk

Creating and reviewing 3D models

Autodesk® Revit® technology is Autodesk‘s platform for building information modeling. Built on the Revit platform, Autodesk® Revit® Building software is a complete, discipline-specific building design and documentation system supporting all phases of design and construction documentation. From conceptual studies through the most detailed construction drawings and schedules, Revit-based applications help provide immediate competitive advantage, deliver better coordination and quality, and can con tri bute to higher profitability for architects and the rest of the building team. At the heart of the Revit platform is the Revit parametric change engine, which automatically coordinates changes made any where—in model views or drawing sheets, schedules, sections, plans…you name it. Compatible with 2-D drawings

Various http://usa. autodesk.com/ adsk/servlet/ind e x?siteID=12311 2 &id=2435651

Microsoft® Windows® XP (Professional, Home, Tablet PC Edition) or Microsoft® Windows® 2000 SP4 (or later) Intel® Pentium® 4 1.4 GHz or equivalent AMD® Athlon® processor 1 GB RAM with 1 GB free disk space 1024 x 768 monitor and display adapter capable of 24-bit color Internet connection for license registration Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 System Recommendations: Microsoft Windows XP Professional SP2 (or later) Processor: Intel Pentium 4 2.8 GHz or equivalent AMD Athlon processor RAM: 2 GB with Twobutton mouse with scroll wheel

~$4,000 To $6,000 Per Seat plus Subscription

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Virtual Construction (ArchiCAD)

Graphisoft

3D Modeling/ Virtual Building

The Virtual ConstructionTM suite of technologies employs 3D modeling to virtually construct your project. This process identifi es constructability issues during design and/or preconstruction. The 3D model is further utilized to extract accurate estimating quantities and to analyze alternative construction sequences. Finally, design (3D), schedule (4D), and cost (5D) are all interlinked, so a change to any of the three automatically updates the other two. Graphisoft‘s construction tools include Change Manager. This solution automates revision of drawing changes and allows members of a project team to easily identify, communicate and manage those changes so they have minimum impact on time, cost and schedule. 5D Construction Management

Various based on region http://www. graphisoft. com/products/ where_to_buy

Bentley Architecture

Bentley

Architecture Design

Bentley is committed to delivering complete BIM solutions that support the whole project delivery process for the entire lifecycle of facilities. Built on a single platform while supporting industry standards, these solutions focus on design rather than drafting, integrate design with engineering, facilitate multi-disciplinary collaboration, and allow distributed teams to ―build as one‖ within a managed information environment. Bentley Architecture, an advanced Building Information Modeling (BIM) application, virtually creates 3D prototypes of buildings, thereby providing signifi cant business-critical benefi ts for architectural design and AE/EA fi rms of all sizes. Able to deliver better buildings on time and on budget, they can substantially improve client services, reduce costs, and increase revenue. Prerequisites: MicroStation V8 (08.01.02.15 or higher) and MicroStation TriForma (08.01.01.30 or higher) Supports DGN File Formats

Bentley Architecture http://www. bentley.com/ BentleyWebSite / Tools/sales_ contact.aspx

System: Windows® 7, CPU: Intel® Pentium 4, or compatible processors with equal or higher performance , RAM:2 GB of RAM is required, 4 GB or more is recommended for complex models , Minimum of 1 GB free hard disk space is required for a full installation. Additional 2-3 GB is required for work with complex projects and 3D, 024x768 resolution is required 1280x1024 or higher is recommended, Graphics : Open GL compatible graphic card with 256 MB or more on-board video memory is recommended to fully exploit hardware acceleration capabilities. (http://archicadwiki.com/VideoCa rdsForArchiCAD14) Intel-compatible Pentium PCs running Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows NT or Microsoft Windows XP Memory: Minimum 256 MB Hard disk: 200 MB minimum free Input device: mouse or digitizing tablet (tablet on Windows requires WINTAB driver or Bentley‘s Windows Digitizer Tablet Interface) Output Device: Majority of industry-standard devices supported; works with Windowssupported printers Video: Supported graphics cards (256 or more color card recommended for rendering); 16bit color minimum for QuickVision GL); dual screen graphics supported for Windows NT4; multi-monitor confi gurations supported with Windows XP and Windows 2000

~$8,000 Per Seat

Contact Bentley sales for a customized quote: http://www. bentley.com/ BentleyWebSite/ Tools/sales_ contact.aspx

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Architect

VectorWorks

2D and 3D Production Management

For more than twenty years, VectorWorks Architect has provided building information modeling (BIM) capabilities that offer a true increase in productivity. With BIM, your 2D drawings, 3D drawings and project data are linked into a simple, yet powerful design environment. VectorWorks BIM technology allows you to design in 2D and 3D simultaneously. Changes made in one view are automatically updated in the other. And, because your drawings are linked, a change in one can automatically ripple through the entire drawing set, saving you time and reducing drawing errors. Plus, you can integrate information into your design to automatically generate schedules, as well as track materials and costs. And, you can export this information to use downstream in other costing and database programs.

VectorWorks http://www. nemetschek. net/sales/index. php

VectorWorks ARCHITECT RAM: 256MB Hard drive space: 200MB VectorWorks ARCHITECT plus Render Works RAM: 256MB Hard drive space: 1GB Macintosh Operating System: Mac OS X 10.3.9 or later Other Software: QuickTime 6 or higher Processor: PowerPC G3 or newer Other Hardware: CDROM drive Screen Resolution: 1024 x 768 (XGA) Display color depth: 16 bit Windows Operating System: Windows 2000 SP4 or later; Windows XP Other Software: QuickTime 6.5.2 or 7.0.2 Processor: Pentium or newer Other Hardware: CD-ROM drive Screen Resolution: 1024 x 768 (XGA) Display color depth: 16 bit

~$1,400 Per Seat

Notes: 1. Products presented are not in any specific order. Costs are typical and may vary based on configuration.

2.

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Dprofiler

Beck Technology

3D Modeling, Real-Time Cost, Estimating, Integrated Development Proforma, Integrated Energy Analysis

Beck Technology provides building information modeling (BIM) software and services to contractors, architects, and owners. The company‘s flagship program, called DProfiler™, is a ―macro‖ BIM solution used in the planning and conceptual design phases to produce an accurate, simultaneous cost estimate of a proposed design. Traditional BIM solutions deal with ―micro models‖ that provide value in downstream processes, such as the production of construction documents and clash detection. DProfiler™ is used specifically to help project teams make better, more informed decisions

Beck Technology : http://www.becktechnology.com/contact.asp, sales@becktechnology.com

Windows XP Pro or Windows 2000 w/ SP4 Pentium 4 2GHZ (Recommended 3 GHZ) 1 GB Ram (Recommeded 2 GB) 128 MB Video Card (Recommended 256MB) Internet Connection 8xDVD-ROM (Recommended 16x)

Entry point is an annual license at $3400/yr; most customers choose network license that costs $7500 + $1500 annually for support and maintenance; list price of nonsubscription version is $5000.

Software - Training
Tutorials : A complete set of self-paced training exercises is available to help you become more productive using Autodesk® Revit® Building. Revit Classroom Training Autodesk offers Autodesk Revit Fundamentals and Autodesk Revit Advanced training courses from our offi ces in Waltham, Massachusetts and San Rafael, California. How-to Articles Through step-by-step lessons written by recognized experts in their fields, Autodesk how-to articles and tutorials can help you master the techniques you need to become more productive with Autodesk products and solutions. API Training and Consulting for Developers Visit the Autodesk Developer Center for the latest courses and schedules of hands-on API training. Also, get information about Autodesk API consulting services.

Autodesk Tutorials, Classroom Training, and How-to Articles Prerequisites: Implementation of Revit ~$1,000

Revit

Autodesk

Software Fundamentals and Advanced Training

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Virtual Construction

Graphisoft

Transition Services

Bentley Architecture

Bentley

Bentley Training Programs

Various

Kristine Fallon Associates, Inc.

BIM Training and Transition

To both ease the transition to the new technology and to provide additional customer support during peak loads, Graphisoft Construction Services will utilize this product line under the direction of the Customer‘s project team. Services include: Construction Modeling Constructability Analysis Estimating Support 4D Sequencing Support Production and Procurement Planning Support Site Planning Support 5D Construction Simulation Presentation Classroom Learning Led by experienced Bentley instructors, classroom learning is offered through scheduled courses at Bentley training facilities or as accountspecifi c training in your offi ce or nearby training facility convenient to your work location. Distance Learning Live, instructor-led distance learning is taught by experienced Bentley instructors via the Internet. Distance learning is available through scheduled courses or as account-specifi c courses tailored to your workfl ow. OnDemand eLearning OnDemand eLearning delivers professional training to every desk through recorded interactive courses and lectures. Hundreds of hours of OnDemand eLearning courses are available to Bentley LEARN and Enterprise Training Subscription users. KFA has developed training curricula and conducted training in multiple BIM products. KFA was principal author of Autodesk Revit Building 8 training curriculum and materials. KFA restructured the training curriculum for Autodesk Revit Building Essentials from a fi ve-day to a three-day program and the Advanced curriculum from a three-day to a two-day program. As part of the documentation review, KFA verifi ed

Graphisoft

Services Include: Construction Modeling Constructability Analysis Estimating Support 4D Sequencing Support Production and Procurement Planning Support Site Planning Support 5D Construction Simulation Presentation Prerequisites: Implementation of Virtual Construction Suite

Varies based on need

Bentley

Programs for every user, goal or budget Bentley Institute offers a variety of training programs that make it easy for any individual or organization to get professional training. Organizations can increase return on investment and train more people through the annual training subscription programs, Bentley LEARN and Enterprise Training Subscriptions. Prerequisites: Implementation of Bentley solution

Varies based on need

KFA

KFA has followed the evolution of intelligent building modeling technology for over a decade, developing academic programs using advanced modeling products, producing a Triforma white paper for Bentley Systems, evaluating the maturity and scalability of BIM systems for the

Varies based on need

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BIM Training Various ERDC and Support

Various

Gehry Technologies

Digital Technology Integration

all model sets used in each unit of the programs were complete and had the necessary building components and families for students to create models. The conventional training manuals were also reformatted and adapted for modifi ed online versions of both training programs. The ERDC Computer-Aided Design and Drafting/Geographic Information Systems Technology Center for Facilities, Infrastructure, and Environment (CADD/GIS Center) provides the expertise, standards, and onsite implementation support to execute BIM technology in the Federal design arena. The CADD/GIS Center is wellacquainted with the unique requirements of the Federal user, including longterm management, operation, and maintenance of facilities in the Federal environment and the impact of the President‘s current Management Agenda GT brings fi fteen years‘ experience applying advanced digital technologies to complex building projects undertaken by Gehry Partners and other leading architecture and engineering companies. Our clients and partners are fi rms and building teams interested in moving beyond the limits of drafting and paper driven project management and into 21st century, digitally enabled design and construction practices.

Spallation Neutron Source project at Oak Ridge National Lab and assisting Revit Technology in market research and feature prioritization prior to their initial product release

U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

The Center offers training and implementation support for this software to the Federal user community. Must be part of the Federal User community.

Varies based on need

Gehry Technologies

Gehry Technologies (―GT‖) is a building design and construction technology company that provides integrated, digitally driven construction practice tools and methodologies to companies and their projects

Varies based on need

Software Interoperability

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JetStream v5

Navisworks

Combining and reviewing 3D models

Powerful and flexible yet affordable and easy to use, JetStream v5 saves time and reduces the risk of problems onsite, thus saving money. JetStream v5 gives access for all stakeholders to work effectively together on a project employing 3D design models on the desktop or over the Web, and regardless of size or fi le format. BIM compliant, a solution for Virtual Construction and an aid to LEAN construction techniques, JetStream v5 has become an integral part of many major companies‘ review processes. Our product is used in diverse markets including Engineering, Construction, Oil & Gas, Petrochemicals, Energy, Shipbuilding, Automotive, and Utilities, and offers proven benefi ts in saving time and money throughout the project lifecycle for both engineering and procurement contractors as well as owner operators, and for CAD and non-CAD user alike. Our fi fth major release, JetStream v5, is scalable and easy to deploy and administer; fitting into existing processes and linking to third party software and databases.

Various http://www. navisworks. com/resellers/ resellers.php

Minimum specifi cation for NavisWorks would be: Pentium II processor (or equivalent) 64MB RAM Windows 95 or above Recommended specifi cation for NavisWorks would be: Pentium III processor (or equivalent) Hardware-accelerated OpenGL graphics card 128MB RAM Windows NT 4 or above

~$8,000 Per Seat

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JetStream v5 Roamer Navisworks

Combine Designs into one model

Roamer can be used to navigate and explore the design free from the limitation of pre-programmed animation and without specialist skills or hardware. Fully compatible with the all major 3D design* and laser scan formats, Roamer can quickly open and combine competing 3D fi les to create a single virtual model for review of geometry, object information and linked ODBC databases. Textures, materials and lights can also be viewed from .nwd fi les or, when used with the Presenter plug-in, other compatible formats. Stereo viewing support, collision detection, gravity and a third person view improve the reality of the Roamer experience. Allows collaboration using 3D design models regardless of format

Various http://www. navisworks. com/resellers/ resellers.php

Minimum specifi cation for NavisWorks would be: Pentium II processor (or equivalent) 64MB RAM Windows 95 or above Recommended specifi cation for NavisWorks would be: Pentium III processor (or equivalent) Hardware-accelerated OpenGL graphics card 128MB RAM Windows NT 4 or above

Component of JetStream plugin architecture

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Software - Change Management
Key Attributes of JetStream v5 Clash Detective Check for intersecting, distance between & duplicate geometry. Workfl ow planning based on time & space coordination. SwitchBack to 3D design software for fault fi nding & fi xing. Full audit trail of detected clashes. Extensive interference management & reporting capabilities. Clash test XML import / export. Point / Line Based Clashing. Key Attributes of JetStream v5 TimeLiner Improve site planning & enables ―what-if‖ scenarios for visual risk management. Integrates with existing tools such as Primavera, MS Project & Asta Powerproject Time-based work-fl ow planning when linked with Clash Detective Graphisoft Change Manager features include: Easily defi ne document sets & analyze changes. Assign changed documents to project team members. Review changes on a document-by-document basis: Adjustable contrast with color-coded identifi cation of new, deleted, and changed entities. Slider: overlay of new and old documents with a slider control to shift the display. Shift: mouse control that shifts the position of the new document relative to the old to make it easy to understand the changes. Cloud annotation with logging. Project Log: Stores the list of changed documents, action assignments, change descriptions, and action completions for each document set. Both included with JetStream Roamer v5 Pro which is ~$8,000 Per Seat Sold separately: Clash Detective: ~$4,000 per seat TimeLiner: ~$1,500 **(Indicated cost For budgetary purposes only.)

JetStream v5 Clash Detective & TimeLiner

Navisworks

Report indifferences in 3D project models and track project status

Various http://www. navisworks. com/resellers/ resellers.php

JetStream v5 Roamer is required for use of these plugins

Change Manager

Graphisoft

Identify, communicate and manage changes

Graphisoft http://www. graphisoft. com/products/ construction/ products_and_ services/change_ manager/contact. html

~$895 + VAT Volume discounts available

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Ignore Change: Stylistic changes such as fonts and repetitive changes such as revision numbers on title blocks can be identifi ed once and ignored in all future documents. AutoCAD® Release 14 DWG format and above

Software - Consulting
Revit AutoDesk Autodesk Consulting also provides consulting offerings for project assessments, process audits, and a range of implementation services. Custom consulting offerings are also available to meet your specific needs GT brings fifteen years‘ experience applying advanced digital technologies to complex building projects undertaken by Gehry Partners and other leading architecture and engineering companies. Our clients and partners are firms and building teams interested in moving beyond the limits of drafting and paper-driven project management and into 21st century, digitally enabled design and construction practices. Built specifically by architects and focused on the building design process, Autodesk Ecotect is an environmental analysis tool that allows designers to simulate the performance of their building projects right from the earliest stages of conceptual design. Acquired by Autodesk in June 2008, the software combines a wide array of analysis functions -- including shadows, shading, solar, lighting, thermal, ventilation, and acoustics -- with a highly visual and interactive display that presents analytical results directly within the context of the building model. This visual feedback enables the software to communicate complex concepts and extensive datasets, and helps designers engage with multifaceted performance issues -- at a time when the design is sufficiently 'plastic' and can be easily changed. As the conceptual design evolves, whole building energy solutions, such as Green Building Studio, can be used to benchmark its energy use and recommend areas of potential savings. Once these fundamental design parameters have been established, the software can be used again to rearrange rooms and zones, to size and shape individual apertures, to design custom shading Various Prerequisites: Implementation of Revit Gehry Technologies (―GT‖) is a building design and construction technology company that provides integrated, digitally driven construction practice tools and methodologies to companies and their projects. Minimum system requirements for workstation for Ecotect 2011 • Windows® 7; Windows Vista®; or Windows® XP; Windows® NT 3.5x; or Microsoft® 95 (or later) • Intel® Pentium® II processor or equivalent, 300 MHz or faster • 128 MB RAM or higher Autodesk • 85 MB free hard disk space or higher • OpenGL® hardware accelerated video card • 1,024 x 768 high-color (16-bit) screen resolution or higher Comes embedded with autodesk Revit Architecture software Varies based on need

Various

Gehry Technologies

Digital Technology Integration

Gehry Technologies

Varies based on need

Ecotect

Autodesk

Analyze BIM-based designs and environmental analysis to get feedback on performance of building design

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devices or to choose specific materials based on environmental factors such as daylight availability, glare protection, outside views, and acoustic comfort.

Product Name Manufacturer Performance

Base Description

Product Information & Functionality

Approx. Cost

Dell
Processor: Intel® Celeron® D Processor up to 330 (2.66GHz, 533MHz FSB, 256KB L2 cache). Operating System: Genuine Windows® XP Home Edition Genuine Windows® XP Media Center Edition 2005 Memory: Up to 1GB (dual channel) Shared1 DDR SDRAM at 400MHz for superior performance (Note: 400MHz memory performs at 333 MHz with 533 FSB processors). Storage: Ultra ATA Hard drives up to 160 GB2 to meet your storage needs. Processor: Intel® Pentium® D Dual Core with up to 2MB L2 cache, Intel Pentium® 4 HT & XD Security up to 2MB L2 cache, or Intel Celeron® D Processor Operating System: Genuine Windows® XP Professional Genuine Windows® XP Home Edition Windows VistaTM capable Memory: Up to 4GB1 of 533MHz Dual Channel Shared2 DDR2 SDRAM Starting base at ~$350 Fully loaded at ~$1,000 (Price may change as

Dimension 1100

Dell

Low End

Basic Essential Productivity at an Affordable Price

product is customized)

Optiplex GX620

Dell

Mid Range

Maximum performance and scalability that meets your most demanding needs today and provides investment protection for the future. The GX620 also shares a common image and BIOS with the GX520, providing unsurpassed choice while minimizing ownership costs

Starting base at ~$1,100 Fully loaded at ~$2,250 (Price may change as product is customized

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Processor: 64-bit Dual-Core Intel® Xeon® Processors (Up to 3.73 GHz, 2x2MB L2 Cache, 1066MHz FSB) or (Up to 3.0 GHz, 4MB L2 Cache, 1333MHz FSB) Dell High End Operating System: *Genuine Windows® XP Professional *Genuine Windows® XP Professional x64 Edition *Windows VistaTM -capable1 *Red Hat® Enterprise Linux WS v.4 (EM64T) Memory: Up to 64GB3 quad-channel4 architecture DDR2 FullyBuffered DIMM 533 and 667 MHz ECC memory Storage: Up to 2TB8 of SATA integrated storage or up to 1.2TB8 of integrated SAS storage, both with integrated support for RAID 0 and 1; up to 1.7TB8 of storage with 500GB8 SATA boot drive plus 4 SAS drives, Optional PERC 5/i PCI-e RAID card supports RAID 0, 1, 5,

Precision 690

The Dell Precision 690 is an ultra-highperformance workstation that maximizes performance and scalability in an innovative, new, customer-driven chassis design. The 690 offers up to two 64-bit Dual-Core Intel® Xeon® 5000 and 5100 series processors, up to 64GB1 of memory in four fully-buffered DIMM channels (with an optional memory riser card) and a wide range of high-performance OpenGL graphics cards. The Dell Precision 690 is designed for the most business-critical, computer-intensive and graphically demanding workstation environments.

Starting base at ~$2,358 Fully loaded at ~$8,500 (Price may change as product is customized

Gateway
Intel® Celeron® D Processor 346 (3.06GHz, 533MHz FSB, 256K L2 cache) Genuine Microsoft® Windows® XP Professional Edition (SP2) ATI® Xpress 200 Chipset 512MB DDR2 PC4200 533MHz SDRAM (2-DIMM) 80GB Ultra ATA100 7200rpm hard drive w/ 2MB cache When it comes to affordable computing solutions, why compromise on performance? That‘s why the Gateway® E1500 SB Desktop is an invaluable business asset for organizations keeping an eye on the bottom line The Gateway® E-6610 Desktop is designed for optimal performance with workstation-class confi gurability. Benefi t from the top-notch level of performance and features, including the latest Intel® 975X chipset, OpenGL graphics, Starting base at ~$645 Fully loaded at ~$1,165 (Price may change as product is customized)

E-1500D SB

Gateway

Low End

E-6610 Series

Intel® Core™2 Duo E6300 (1.86GHz 1066MHz FSB 2MB cache, non-HT) Genuine Microsoft® Windows® XP Professional Edition (SP2) Intel® 975X Chipset with DDR2 and Intel® Core™ Duo support 1024MB PC5300 Dual-Channel DDR2 667MHz SDRAM (2512MB modules)

Starting base at ~$1,350 Fully loaded at ~$3,530

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Gateway

High End

160GB Serial ATA II/300 7200RPM w/Raid 0 (2-80GB Hard Drives - Striping)

ultrahigh-speed hard drives, ECC or non-ECC memory and RAID options. Complementing these highend features is BTX Technology with ultra-quiet dual-fan cooling for improved reliability.

(Price may change as product is customized)

Hewlett Packard
Operating systems installed Genuine Windows® XP Home SP2 Processor type* Intel® Celeron® D 326 Processor features 2.53GHz, 256-KB L2 Advanced Transfer Cache, 533MHz Front Side Bus Memory 256MB PC2-5300 (DDR-667) Hard drive, internal 80GB SATA Hard Drive (7200 rpm) 3.0 GBps The HP Compaq dx2200 combines essential business features and proven technology for a PC that is ideal for mainstream business applications and environments

Dx2200

Hewlett-Packard

Low End

Starting base at ~$349 Fully loaded at ~$850 (Price may change as product is customized)

Dc7600

Hewlett-Packard

High End

Operating systems installed Genuine Windows® XP Professional Processor type* Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 640 Processor features 3.2 GHz, 2-MB L2 Cache, 800-MHz front side bus

Memory 512 MB (533 MHz)DDR2 (2x256) Hard drive, internal 80GB 3.0Gb/s Hard Drive (7200 rpm)

The innovative design of the HP Compaq dc7600 Convertible Minitower provides increased expandability, flexibility, convenience, and savings. With easy conversion from a minitower to a desktop, the CMT offers maximum expandability and performance options. Security, stability, and manageability features add IT peace of mind.

Starting base at ~$849 Fully loaded at ~$1,500 (Price may change as

product is customized)

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BIM Tools Comparison based on General Description, Strengths and Weakness : Revit, Bentley Architecture, ArchiCAD, Digital Project, AutoCAD based application, Tekla Structures, Dprofiler

REVIT

General Description • Introduce by Autodesk in 2002 • Leader for the use in BIM • gbXML interface for energy simulation and load analysis • Direct interface to ROBOT and RISA structural analysis • Conceptual design tool • 2D section of detailing • View interface: DGN, DWG, DWF, DXF, IFC, SAT, SKP, AVI, ODBC, gbXML, BMP, PG, TGA, TIF

Strength • Functionality is well-design and user-friendly • Broad set of object libraries • Direct link interface • Bi-directional drawing

Weakness • Slow down on project larger than 200MB • Limitation on parametric rules with angles

BENTLEY SYSTEMS

General Description • Introduce in 2004 by Bentley Architecture • Integrated with others Bentley software

Strength • Broad range of building tools • Supports modeling with complex curved surfaces • Multiple support for custom parametric objects • Provide scalable support for large projects

Weakness • Large and non-integrated user interface • Hard to learn and navigate • Less extensive object libraries

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ARCHICAD

General Description • Produce by Graphisoft in early 80‘s • Serve MAC platform in addition to Windows • Support range of direct interface • Contains extensive object libraries • Suite interfaces for energy and sustainability • OBDC interface

Strength • Intuitive interface and relatively simple to use • Large object libraries • Rich suite in supporting applications in construction facility management • Only strong BIM product for MAC

Weakness • Limitation to parametric modeling • Encounter scaling problem with large project • Partition large project to manage them

DIGITAL PROJECT

General Description • Develop by Gehry Technologies • Require a powerful workstation to run well • Able to handle even the largest projects • Model any type of surfaces • Support elaborate custom parametric objects

Strength • Complete parametric modeling capabilities for controlling surfaces and assemblies • Relies on 3D parametric modeling for most detailing

Weakness • Steep learning curve • Complex user interface • High initial cost • Limited object libraries (including external) • Architectural drawing are not well developed • Output section to drafting systems for completion

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AUTOCAD-BASED APPLICATION

General Description • Architectural Desktop ( ADT) • Autodesk original 3D building modeling tool prior to Revit • Provide a transition for 2D to BIM • Relies on AutoCAD wellknown capabilities for drawing production • Interface: DGN, DWG, DWF, DXF, and IFC

Strength • Easy to adopt for AutoCAD user • Drafting functionality and interface

Weakness • Not parametric modeling • Limited interface to other applications • Scaling problem

TEKLA STRUCTURES

General Description • Offered by Tekla Corp. • Multiple divisions: building and construction, infrastructure and energy • Support fabrication-level detailing of precast concrete structure and facades • Structural analysis • Interface: IFC, DWG, CIS/2 DTSV, SNDF, DGN, and DXF • Export CNC

Strength • Model structures that incorporate all kinds of structural materials • Support very large model • Concurrent operations on some projects • Multiple simultaneous users • Support complex parametric custom component libraries

Weakness • Too complex to learn and fully utilize • Parametric component require sophisticated operators with high skill • Not able to import complex multi-curved surfaces • Relatively expensive

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DPROFILER

General Description • Product of Beck Technologies in Dallas, Texas • Provide feedback for construction cost and time • User gain a set of drawing with financial and schedule reporting • Can input own cost data or data from RS Means • Support Sketchup and DWG • Interface with Excel and DWG

Strength • Market as a closed system for feasibility studies before actual design begins • Ability to generate quick economic assessments

Weakness • Not a general purpose of BIM tool • Purpose is economic evaluation of construction project • Interface to support development in BIM • Design tools is limited to 2D DWG files

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REFERENCES: 1. Norbert W. Young, Stephen A. Jones, Harvey M. Bernstein, and John E. Gudgel, ―The Business Value of BIM: Getting Building Information Modeling to the Bottom Line, ―McGraw Hill Construction, 2009. 2. Harvey M. Bernstein, Stephen A. Jones, and John E. Gudgel, ―The Business Value of BIM in Europe: Getting Building Information Modeling to the Bottom Line in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany,‖ McGraw Hill Construction, 2010. 3. Harvey M. Bernstein, Stephen A. Jones, and Michele A. Russo, ―Green BIM: How Building Information Modeling is Contributing to Green Design and Construction,‖ McGraw Hill Construction, 2010. 4. Autodesk Building Solution Whitepaper on ―Barriers to the Adoption of BIM in the building industry.‖ 5. A report by Autodesk on the ―BIM Deployment Plan : A Practical Framework For Implementing BIM‖ dated 2010. 6. The VA BIM guide published by Department of Veteran Affairs dated April 2010. 7. BIM handbook by Chuck Eastman published in 2008 by John Wiley and Sons. 8. Autodesk Website for few details : Link (http://usa.autodesk.com/building-informationmodeling/) 9. Whitepaper by Autodesk on ―Building Information Modeling in Practice‖ 10. Whitepaper by Autodesk on : Improving Building Industry through Integrated Project delivery and BIM.‖ 11. Whitepaper by Autodesk on : ―Using BIM for Greener Designs‖ 12. Wikipedia Website : (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_Information_Modeling)

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