This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Eastern philosophy includes the various philosophies of Asia, including Chinese philosophy, Iranian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Indian philosophy and Korean philosophy. The term can also sometimes include Babylonian philosophy and Islamic philosophy, though these may also be considered Western philosophies. Classification Eastern philosophy includes the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Iranian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy, Arab philosophy and Jewish philosophy. The division is not purely geographic but also stems from general hermeneutic and conceptual differences that lay between Eastern and Western traditions. Supreme God and the demigods Because of its origin from within the Abrahamic religions, some Western philosophies have formulated questions on the nature of God and his relationship to the universe based on Monotheistic framework within which it emerged. This has created a dichotomy among some Western philosophies between secular philosophies and religious philosophies which develop within the context of a particular monotheistic religion's dogma, especially some creeds of Protestant Christianity, regarding the nature of God and the universe. Eastern religions have not been as concerned by questions relating to the nature of a single God as the universe's sole creator and ruler. The distinction between the religious and the secular tends to be much less sharp in Eastern philosophy, and the same philosophical school often contains both religious and philosophical elements. Thus, some people accept the so-called metaphysical tenets of Buddhism without going to a temple and worshipping. Some have worshipped the Taoist deities religiously without bothering to delve into the theologial underpinnings, while others embrace the Taoist religion while ignoring the mythological aspects. This arrangement stands in marked contrast to some recent philosophy in the West, which has traditionally enforced either a completely unified philosophic/religious belief system (for example, the various sects and associated philosophies of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), or a sharp and total repudiation of some forms of religion by philosophy (for example, Nietzsche, Marx, Voltaire, etc.).
Comparative religion A common thread that often differentiates Eastern philosophy from Western is the relationship[clarification needed]between the gods (or God) and the universe. Some Western schools of thought were animistic or pantheistic, such as the classical Greek tradition, while later religious beliefs, influenced by the monotheism of the Abrahamic religions, portrayed divinity as more transcendent. Much like the classical Greek philosophies, many Eastern schools of thought were more interested in explaining the natural world via universal patterns; without recourse to capricious agencies like gods (or God). Syncretism allowed various schools of thought such as Yi, Yin yang, Wu xing and Ren to mutually complement one another without threatening traditional religious practice or new religious movements.
 Syntheses of Eastern and Western philosophy
There have been many modern attempts to integrate Western and Eastern philosophical traditions. German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was very interested in Taoism. His system of dialectics is sometimes interpreted as a formalization of Taoist principles, but it also has similarities to the dialectical method used by Socrates as described by Plato. However, Hegel is known to be related with people who were in India, so from them he learned Indian philosophy. Hegel read Bhagavad-Gita and mentioned it in some of his works [? more quotes needed]. Hegel's rival Arthur Schopenhauer developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism with Western thought. He anticipated that the Upanishads (primary Hindu scriptures) would have a much greater influence in the West than they have had. However, Schopenhauer was working with heavily flawed early translations (and sometimes second-degree translations), and many feel that he may not necessarily have accurately grasped the Eastern philosophies which interested him. Recent attempts to incorporate Western philosophy into Eastern thought include the Kyoto School of philosophers, who combined the phenomenology of Husserl with the insights of Zen Buddhism. Watsuji Tetsurô, a 20th
century Japanese philosopher attempted to combine the works of Søren Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger with Eastern philosophies. Some have claimed that there is also a definite eastern element within Heidegger's philosophy. For the most part this is not made explicit within Heidegger's philosophy, apart from in the dialogue between a Japanese and inquirer. Heidegger did spend time attempting to translate the Tao Te Ching into German, working with his Chinese student Paul Hsaio. It has also been claimed that much of Heidegger's later philosophy, particularly the sacredness of Being, bears a distinct similarity to Taoist ideas. There are clear parallels between Heidegger and the work of Kyoto School, and ultimately, it may be read that Heidegger's philosophy is an attempt to 'turn eastwards' in response to the crisis in Western civilization. However, this is only an interpretation. The 20th century Hindu guru Sri Aurobindo was influenced by German Idealism and his Integral yoga is regarded as a synthesis of Eastern and Western thought. The German phenomenologist Jean Gebser's writings on the history of consciousness referred to a new planetary consciousness that would bridge this gap. Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term Integral thought. Swiss psychologist Carl Jung was deeply influenced by his interest in the I Ching. The I Ching (Book of Changes) is an ancient text in China, dating back to the Shang Dynasty (Bronze Age 1700BC-1050BC), and utilizes a system of Yin and Yang which it places into Hexagrams for the purposes of divination. Carl Jung's idea of synchronicity moves towards an Oriental view of causality, as he states in the foreword to Richard Wilhelm's translation of the I Ching (Book of Changes). He explains that this Chinese view of the world is based not on science as the West knows it, but on chance.
East Asian philosophies
Confucianism(儒學), developed around the teachings of Confucius(孔子) and is based on a set of Chinese classic texts.
Shinto bears heavy influences from Chinese religions. Taoism Taoism (or Daoism) is the traditional foil of Confucianism in China. purity is the most highly stressed. No judgment calls. and the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu). and impure acts are those which are deleterious in this regard. the kami are to be respected in order that they may return our respect. notably Taoism and Buddhism. Japan and Korea as well as Vietnam as well. Legalism Main article: Legalism (Chinese philosophy) Legalism advocated a strict interpretation of the law in every respect. It has a great influence on the countries of East Asia including China. Shinto Shinto is the indigenous religion of Japan. relationship with the kami that inhabit this world is foremost in a person's duties. According to Shinto practice. Shinto further holds that the "spirit" and "mundane" worlds are one and the same. Maoism Main article: Maoism . Morality was not important. Taoism's central books are the Dao De Jing (Tao-Te-Ching). Zhu Xi is considered as the biggest master of Song where Neo-Confucianism and Wang Yangming is the one of Ming's. often attributed to scholar Tang Xie Tian. It is a sophisticated form of animism which holds that spirits called kami inhabit all things. Worship is at public shrines or in small shrines constructed in one's home.Neo-Confucianism is a later further development of Confucianism but also went much more differently from the origin of Confucianism. Pure acts are those that promote or contribute to the harmony of the universe. Of all of the tenets of this philosophy. Its root can be found as early as Tang Dynasty. adherence to the letter of the law was paramount. traditionally attributed to Laozi (Lao Tzu). But there are conflicts between Zhu's school and Wang's. As a faith. It started developing from the Song Dynasty and was nearly completed in late Ming Dynasty.
It is based partially on earlier theories by Marx and Lenin. the Divine Word of Aum and the power of mantras. the primacy of the Guru. However. hence Veda Dharma. and moksha (liberation) of every soul through a variety of moral. Hinduism is characterized by a diverse array of religious belief systems. as well as the teachings of many great Hindu gurus through the ages. and a decentralized agrarian economy based on many collectively worked farms. the first of the Dharma religions. What can be said to be common to many theistic Hindus is belief in Dharma. reincarnation. It is the third largest religion with approximately 1. thus allowing for many spiritual paths leading to the One Unitary Religious Truth (which Hindus call Brahman). Sanātana Dharma. action-based. Hinduism rests on the spiritual bedrock of the Vedas. roughly Perennial Moral Duty) is one of the oldest major world religion. and meditative yogas. and their mystic issue. . practices and scriptures.05 billion followers worldwide. but rejects the urban proletariat and Leninist emphasis on heavy industrialization in favor of a revolution supported by the peasantry. Still more fundamental principles include ahimsa (non-violence). Indian philosophies Hindu philosophy Hinduism (सनातन धमर्. Many streams of thought flow from the six Vedic/Hindu schools. karma. and an understanding that the essential spark of the Divine (Atman) is in every human and living being. the sacred book Bhagavad Gita is one of the most revered texts among Hindus. 96% of whom live in the Indian subcontinent. love of Truth in many manifestations as gods and goddesses. since the term Hindu is more of an umbrella term for dharmic traditions arising from the Indian subcontinent. is also a foundation of Hindu philosophy. Also.Maoism is a Communist philosophy based on the teachings of 20th century Communist Party of China revolutionary leader Mao Zedong. Bhakti sects and Tantra Agamic schools into the one ocean of Hinduism. This acceptance of various paths leading to the same truth. It has its origin in ancient Vedic culture at least as far back as 1500 BC. there may be persons who believe in none of the above concepts and yet consider themselves Hindu. the Upanishads.
which specifies that all is without substantial metaphysical identity. One effect of karma is rebirth. and said that anyone. The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism. The Buddha himself expressly disavowed any special divine status or inspiration. the karma from a given life determines the nature of the next life's existence. See also: Buddhism — Outline of Buddhism — Schools of Buddhism Sikh philosophy . which delineates the Buddhist concept of causality. Buddhist philosophy has its foundations in the doctrines of: anatta.Cārvāka -.Indian logic Buddhist philosophy Buddhism is a system of religious beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. or phenomenological constituents.Vedanta -. • • • Most Buddhist sects believe in karma. usually translated as awakening or enlightenment.Hindu scripture -. a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. and Buddhist phenomenological analysis of dharmas. and attain Nirvana.Yoga -.See Also: Hinduism -. The ultimate goal of a Buddhist practitioner is to eliminate karma (both good and bad). pratitya-samutpada. Buddhism is a non-theistic religion. though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems yet this practice has taken on different meanings and has become a skillful mean within the Tibetan Buddhist practice. At death.Nyaya -Vaisesika -. anywhere could achieve all the insight that he had. end the cycle of rebirth and suffering.Samkhya -. one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or non-existence of a God or gods.Bhakti -. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events.
"Ek ong kar Satanam" roughly translates to "there is one God un-separate from nature and truth is its name". • The Three Pillars of Sikhism .The Sikh Gurus taught the Sikhs to develop and harness positive human qualities which lead the soul closer to God and away from • . It is the duty of every Sikh to practise Naam Simran (meditation on the Lord's name) daily and engage in Sewa (Selfless Service) whenever there is a possibility. in community centres.The Sikh Gurus tell us that our mind and spirit are constantly being attacked by the Five Evils – Kam (Lust). care centres.Sikhs are asked to share their wealth within the community and outside by giving Dasvand and practising charity (Daan). in Gurdwara (Sikh place of worship).These are the Foundation of Sikhism.Guru Nanak formalised these three important pillars of Sikhism.To live honestly and earn by ones physical and mental effort while accepting Gods gifts and blessings. Krodh (Rage). To “Share and consume together”. Moh (Attachment) and Ahankar (Ego). Lobh (Greed). o Vand Chakna . • Positive Human Qualities . etc. major world disasters. be always vigilant and on guard to tackle these five thieves all the time. "Ek ong kar Satanam" and "Waheguru" are some mantras used for this purpose. A Sikh has to live as a householders carrying out his or her duties and responsibilities to the full. old people's homes. Simran and Sewa . • Kill the Five Thieves . o Kirat Karni . "Waheguru" is used as a meditative practice on the Lord's name.Diagram showing some of the important Sikh beliefs. o Naam Japna – A Sikh is to engage in a daily practise of meditation and Nitnem (a daily prayer routine) by reciting and chanting of God’s Name. A Sikh needs to constantly attack and overcome these five vices.
Nimrata (Humility) and Pyare (Love). cosmology. Karma.  While Jainism traces its philosophy from teachings of Mahavira and other Tirthankaras. It has often been described as an ascetic movement for its strong emphasis on selfcontrol. although as a religion. It is a continuation of the ancient Śramaṇa tradition which co-existed with the Vedic tradition since ancient times. and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone are responsible for one's liberation. Daya (Compassion). Samsara and like have been assimilated into the philosophies of other Indian religions like Hinduism and Buddhism in various forms. Jainism strongly upholds the individualistic nature of soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions. Jainism is essentially a transtheistic religion of ancient India. epistemology and divinity. The contribution of Jain philosophy in developing the Indian philosophy has been significant. eternal and uncreated universe. the nature of bondage and the means to achieve liberation. Jainism was divided into various sects and traditions.Sikhism Primary Beliefs and Principles Jainism Jain philosophy deals extensively with the problems of metaphysics. accent on relativity and multiple facets of truth. denial of creative and omnipotent God. a strong emphasis on non-violence. Jain philosophical concepts like Ahimsa. and morality and ethics based on liberation of soul. reality. These are Sat (Truth).Sikh Beliefs . See also Sikhism . potency of karma. ontology. Moksa. Jain philosophy attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence. Throughout its history. Cārvāka .evil. the nature of the Universe and its constituents.Basic Tenets of the Sikhism . Santokh (Contentment). austerities and renunciation. the Jain philosophy remained unified and single. The distinguishing features of Jain philosophy are its belief on independent existence of soul and matter. various Jain philosophers from Kundakunda and Umasvati in ancient times to Yaśovijaya Gaṇi in recent times have contributed greatly in developing and refining the Jain and Indian philosophical concepts. It has also been called a model of philosophical liberalism for its insistence that truth is relative and multifaceted and for its willingness to accommodate all possible view-points of the rival philosophies.
was a materialist and atheist school of thought with ancient roots in India. Colotes accused Plato's The Republic of plagiarizing parts of Zoroaster's On Nature. However. Several ancient Greek writers such as Eudoxus of Cnidus and Latin writers such as Pliny the Elder praised Zoroastrian philosophy as "the most famous and most useful". By requiring its adherents to have faith and belief in equally opposing powers Zoroastrianism characterizes itself as dualistic. He is also believed to be one of the oldest monotheists in the history of religion. It proposed a system of ethics based on rational thought. He espoused an ethical philosophy based on the primacy of good thoughts (pendar-e-nik). who form a heptad that is good and constructive. such as the Myth of Er. also frequently transliterated as Charvaka or Cārvāka. which originated in Iran. The teachings of Zarathustra (Zoroaster) appeared in Persia at some point during the period 1700-1800 BCE. It has a dualistic nature (Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu). Zarathustra was the first who treated the problem of evil in philosophical terms. The works of Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism had a significant influence on Greek philosophy and Roman philosophy.Cārvāka. however. good words (goftar-e-nik). It is this persistent conflict between good and evil that distinguishes Zoroastrianism from monotheistic frameworks that have only one power as supreme. with an additional series of six important divine entities called the Amesha Spentas. Plato learnt of Zoroastrian philosophy through Eudoxus and incorporated much of it into his own Platonic realism. In modern Zoroastrianism they are interpreted as aspects or emanations of Ahura Mazda (the Supreme Being). His wisdom became the basis of the religion Zoroastrianism. Iranian philosophy Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion. . In the 3rd century BC. and generally influenced the development of the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian philosophy. and good deeds (kerdar-e-nik). and also known as Lokayata or Lokyāta. this school has been dead for more than a thousand years. They are opposed to another group of seven who are evil and destructive.
Mazdak. According to Zaehner. "Zurvan". Fatalistic Zurvanism Fatalistic Zurvanism resulted from the doctrine of limited time with the implication that nothing could change this preordained course of the material universe and that the path of the astral bodies of the 'heavenly sphere' was representative of this preordained course. An important principle of Manichaeism was its dualistic nature. viewed Zurvan as undifferentiated Time. divided into reason (a male principle) and concupiscence (a female principle). and whose writings continue to be influential among Catholic. to China in the East. was influential from North Africa in the West. as a primordial creator. Zurvanism appears to have three schools of thought all of which have classical Zurvanism as their foundation: Aesthetic Zurvanism Aesthetic Zurvanism which was apparently not as popular as the materialistic kind. which. Mazdakism The religious and philosophical teaching called Mazdakism which was regarded by its founder. materialist Zurvanism challenged the concept that anything could be made out of nothing. which he passionately denounced in his writings. founded by Mani. Its influence subtly continues in Western Christian thought via Saint Augustine of Hippo. under the influence of desire. Protestant and Orthodox theologians. as a reformed and purified version of Zoroastrianism displays remarkable influences from Manichaeism as well. who converted to Christianity from Manichaeism. According to the Middle Persian . Zurvanism Zurvanism is characterized by the element of its First Principle which is Time. Materialist Zurvanism While Zoroaster's Ormuzd created the universe with his thought.Manichaeism Manichaeism.
is one of two main disciplines of Islamic philosophy that is currently live and active. can be traced back to the wisdom of early Mesopotamia. which embodied certain philosophies of life. Bahá'u'lláh. such as bodies. hymns. The reasoning and rationality of the Babylonians developed beyond empirical observation. The undated Babylonian text Dialog of Pessimism contains similarities to the agnostic thought of the sophists. folklore.  Babylonian philosophy The origins of Babylonian philosophy. lyrics. Transcendent Philosophy Transcendent Philosophy. it was owing to the extortion of these planets. Many philosophical works. in the popular sense of the word. but if man did not receive it.work Menog-i Khrad: "Ohrmazd allotted happiness to man. have survived." Avicennism The Persian polymath Avicenna wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects. and later Hellenistic philosophy. Light produces immaterial and substantial lights. including immaterial intellects. It is possible that Babylonian philosophy had an influence on Greek philosophy. however the textual evidence is lacking. the Heraclitean doctrine of contrasts. human and animal souls and even 'dusky substances'. prose. in the forms of dialectic. epic poetry. Bahá'í Philosophy Concepts of Bahai Philosophy are portrayed in the work Divine Philosophy by Abdul-Baha. among them The Book of Healing. particularly ethics. and proverbs. Iranian Illuminationism The Philosophy of Illumination founded by Sohrevardi argued that light operates at all levels and hierarchies of reality. developed by Sadr Shirazi. the eldest son of the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. . Sohrevardi's works display extensive developments on the basis of Zoroastrian ideas and ancient Iranian thought. dialogs.
hence many consider Islamic philosophy to be both an Eastern philosophy and a Western philosophy. as well as a precursor to the maieutic Socratic method of Socrates and Plato. Islamic philosophy The rise of Islam and the influence of classical Greek thought. and Ibn Khaldun. The Milesian philosopher Thales is also said to have studied philosophy in Mesopotamia. Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen). Islamic philosophy had a strong influence on Jewish philosophy. destiny and the universe. Early Islamic philosophy was influenced by Greek philosophy. especially Aristotle. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. Later in the 13th century. Amongst them Sufism established esoteric philosophy. Al-Mu'tazilah ( )المعتزلةor Mu'tazilite is a popular theological school of philosophy during early Islam. led to the emergence of various philosophical schools of thought. Western philosophy. Iranian philosophy and Indian philosophy. One of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West was Averroes (Ibn Rushd). Hellenistic philosophy. considered the father of the philosophy of history and sociology and a pioneer of social . founder of the Averroism school of philosophy. while Ash'ari reshaped logical and rational interpretation of God. a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī. Most of their valuable works were destroyed during the Crusades and Mongol invasion.and the dialogs of Plato. Christianity and Indian philosophy. Christian philosophy. a pioneer of phenomenology and the philosophy of science and a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy and Aristotle's concept of place (topos). They ascended dramatically during 8th and 9th century due to the support of intellectuals and elites. They called themselves Ahl al-'Adl wa alTawhid ("People of Justice and Monotheism"). It is said that other influential Muslim philosophers include al-Jahiz. Avicenna. a critic of Aristotelian logic. justice. a critic of Aristotelian logic and a pioneer of inductive logic. and in turn. Mu'tazili (partly influenced by Hellenistic philosophy) reconstructed rationalism. Judaism. they lost official support in favour of the rising Ash'ari school. Iranian philosophy. a pioneer of evolutionary thought and natural selection.
Reference: http://en. In order to attain this supreme truth. See Also: Mu'tazili — Ash'ari — Sufism — Illuminationist philosophy  Sufi philosophy Sufism portal Main article: Sufi philosophy Sufism ( تصوفtaṣawwuf) is a school of esoteric philosophy in Islam. Chillakashi (asceticism) and Sama (esoteric music and dance). Ruh (spirit). Dhikr (Zikr or recitation). However. they also perform Muraqaba (meditation). Khafi and Akhfa. which is based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. with regards to the exact sciences of semantics and hermeneutics. Sirr.org/wiki/Eastern_philosophy .philosophy. at least in the field of Arabic-English translation methodology.wikipedia. Nafs. not very much credible evidence to support such claims is forthcoming. Qalb. Sufism has marked Lataif-e-Sitta (the six subtleties). Apart from conventional religious practices.
however.. Siddhartha Gautama became known as the Buddha. is Prana. the breath of life.). derived from the root kas.C. Taoism & Confucianism The most important characteristic of the Eastern world view . 1969) Buddhism On the Life of Buddha. meaning "to awaken" or "to be enlightened".486 B. Buddhist Thought & Practice Buddhism is a moral philosophy / religion based upon the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (566 . as different manifestations of the same ultimate reality. 'to radiate. 'Buddha' (from the ancient Indian languages of Pali and Sanskrit) means "one who has awakened". (Lama Anagarika Govinda. .one could almost say the essence of it . and "to comprehend". Space is the all-embracing principle of higher unity.is the awareness of the unity and mutual interrelation of all things and events. all-pervading rhythm of the universe. The Middle Way is an important idea in Buddhist thought and practice. All things are seen as interdependent and inseparable parts of this cosmic whole. To seek moderation and avoid the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. Nothing can exist without Space. It is derived from the verbal root "budh". the experience of all phenomena in the world as manifestations of a basic oneness. The Buddha offered metaphysical knowledge into the nature of reality as well as a moral way of life.. namely Space. and has therefore the meaning of ether which is conceived as the medium of movement. According to ancient Indian tradition the Universe reveals itself in two fundamental properties: as Motion and as that in which motion takes place. . (Fritjof Capra. Hinduism.The Tao of Physics) The fundamental element of the cosmos is Space. the all-powerful. The principle of movement.Ancient Eastern Philosophy On the Ancient Wisdom of Buddhism. This Space is called Akasa . to shine'.
This teaching is known as the Four Noble Truths: Dukkha: Suffering is everywhere Samudaya: There is a cause of suffering. there is no moment. do not go upon report . right conduct. from the Dhatuvibhanga-sutta (No. (Buddha. with right action... Siddhartha reached Enlightenment.. known as the Noble Eightfold Path (right view. it is just like a mountain river.At the age of 35. do not go upon tradition.' (Buddha. no instant. right thought. Thus with right wisdom he sees it as it is (yatha bhutam) .. has known Truth. right attention and right concentration). good things will come to you. Nirodha: There is an end of suffering. right speech. flowing far and swift. Liberation from suffering may come by training the mind and acting according to the laws of karma (cause and effect) i. awakening to the true nature of reality. 140) of the Majjhima-nikaya) The Buddha taught that the nature of reality was impermanent and interconnected. has penetrated into Truth. which is Nirvana (the possibility of liberation exists for everyone). no second when it .. The Absolute Truth is Nibbana. He has seen Truth. has attained Truth. is without wavering. (Buddha) It is proper for you to doubt . We suffer in life because of our desire to transient things. Maggo: There is a path that leads out of suffering. which is Nirvana (Absolute Truth). The following quotes (from Buddha and others) express some of the main ideas of Buddhism. The dustless and stainless Eye of Truth (Dhamma-cakkhu) has arisen. meditating under a Bodhi tree. right vocation. taking everything along with it. which is attachment or misplaced desire (tanha) rooted in ignorance.e. Kalama Sutra) O Brahmana. right effort. has crossed over doubt. I will teach you the Truth and the Path leading to the Truth.do not go upon hearsay.. which is Reality.
Good is it to control the mind. but it goes on flowing and continuing. then suffering follows . this is the Teaching of the Buddhas. Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. thus must ye train yourselves : Liberation of the will through love will develop. All (mental) states have mind as their forerunner. we will often practice it.’ (Buddha) From The Dhammapada. Hard to restrain. and they are mind-made. to live in seclusion. we will make it vehicle and base. thoroughly set it going. to cultivate the good. By endeavour. to purify one’s mind. unstable is this mind. (Buddha) ‘Wherefore. is human life. brethren. diligence. take our stand upon it. (Walpola Rahula. to be moderate in eating. store it up. To speak no ill will. this is the Teaching of the Buddhas. This is the Path to Purity. let the wise person make (of himself) an island that no flood can overwhelm. If one speaks or acts with a defiled mind. So Brahmana. and Buddhist practice has essentially to do with acquiring the freedom to choose as one ought to choose with truth: that is of acquiring a freedom from the passions and desires that impel us to distraction and poor decisions. This is an eternal Law. then one becomes dispassionate towards the painful. mind is their chief. What the Buddha Taught) ..stops flowing. A controlled mind brings happiness. to devote oneself to higher consciousness. it is appeased by love. Buddhism recognizes that humans have a measure of freedom of moral choice. when one sees this in wisdom. it flits wherever it lists. like a mountain river. discipline and self-mastery. to practice self-restraint according to the fundamental precepts. Not to do any evil. to do no harm. 'All conditioned things are impermanent’.
of action and reaction. If a good action produces good effects. it is a natural law. It is the source of all the troubles in the world from personal conflicts to wars between nations. (Aldous Huxley) See our webpage Buddha Nirvana / Buddhism Religion for more pictures. meaning knowledge . impurities and problems. pride.000 years BC. meted out by anybody or any power sitting in judgement of your action. Anatta (No Soul) and Conditioned Genesis (Paticcasamuppada). which has nothing to do with the idea of justice or reward and punishment. without any least reference to God. Buddha's conception of Mind and Matter.000 BC. but this is in virtue of its own nature. and other defilements. it is not justice. egoism. craving. the Dynamic Unity of Reality. . The Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. Hinduism On the Metaphysics & Philosophy of Hinduism Beliefs & Hindu Gods All is One (Brahman) The first collection of Indian philosophy that was written down was the Vedas. Buddhism proclaimed a salvation which each individual could gain from him or herself. in this world. the idea of self is imaginary. Truth. its own law. false belief which has no corresponding reality. or reward. hatred. ill-will. Every volitional action produces its effects or results. (Rahula) For the first time in the history of the world. attachment. or to gods either great or small. (Rahula) The theory of karma is the theory of cause and effect. selfish desire. and it produces harmful thoughts of ‘me’ and ‘mine’. conceit. or Atman. information and quotes on Karma. during this life. The word 'Veda' comes from the Sanskrit vid. Self. it is possible that the knowledge dates back 10. Their exact date is controversial. According to the teaching of the Buddha. and were first written around 3.the Vedas are 'sacred knowledge'.Buddhism stands unique in the history of human thought in denying the existence of such a Soul.
the One infinite eternal thing which causes and connects the many things. from death to immortality. God. The ordinary human world of many separate and discrete (finite) things (which our mind represents by our senses) is an illusion.D.The metaphysical foundation of Hinduism. Brahman is the unborn (aja) in whom all existing things abide. (Radhakrishnan) Hindu cosmology is non-dualistic. The One manifests as the many. (Rig Veda) Behold but One in all things. which is expressed in both the Vedas and the Upanishads is that Reality (Brahman) is One or Absolute. To use the words of Pascal 'it is a circle the center of which is everywhere and the circumference nowhere. perfect and eternal. one can experience their true Self which is Brahman. the formless putting on forms. OM Asato ma sadgamaya. Brahman is the eternal Now. The word Brahman is derived from the Sanskrit root .' (Sudhakar S. (Kabir) The word Brahman means growth and is suggestive of life. The following mantra and quotes express the aspirations of Hinduism religion. 1988) In Indian philosophy. Everything that is is Brahman. to experience the supreme reality as Self. it is the second that leads you astray. the main terms used by Hindus and Buddhists have dynamic connotations. Through meditation and purity of mind. always. Brahman is the cause of the many. from darkness to light. and in eternity there is no before or after. for everything is everywhere. mrityor mamritam gamaya " OM Lead me from falsehood to truth. tamaso ma jyotirgamaya. progress. changeless. True enlightenment is Self-realisation. motion." Though One.
Shiva sustains the manifold phenomena in the world. Lao Tzu There is a thing. the cosmic One is thus intrinsically dynamic.brih . .The Eastern mystics see the universe as an inseparable web.and thus suggests a reality which is dynamic and alive.to grow. Some . (Lao Tzu) Taoism is one of the great religions / philosophies of Ancient China (along with Buddhism and Confucianism). The cosmic web is alive. and the apprehension of its dynamic nature is basic to all schools of Eastern mysticism. In its phenomenal aspect.a magnificent image of the dynamic unity of the Universe. formless yet complete. (Capra. the term Rita. It is allpervading and unfailing. . Before heaven and earth it existed. is perhaps the most perfect personification of the dynamic universe. Lao Tzu was a contemporary of Confucius and wrote a book called the Tao te Ching.C.. as it moves. without substance. moving'. Shiva the Cosmic Dancer. it moves and grows and changes continually. with Lao Tzu (so called founder of Taoism) honoured as a deity. They all emphasize that the universe has to be grasped dynamically.' The Rig Veda uses another term to express the dynamic character of the universe. it stands alone and unchanging. the sage is in accord with the Tao. whose interconnections are dynamic and not static. 1972. thus associating it with motion even though it transcends all forms. but we call it Tao. composed some time between the sixth and third centuries B.) In Hinduism. The Upanishads refer to Brahman as 'this unformed. see the webpage Hinduism / Hindu Gods Taoism Way of the Tao. (Fritjof Capra. vibrates and dances. Being one with nature.to move.. Through his dance. unifying all things by immersing them in his rhythm and making them participate in the dance . In 440 B. This word comes from the root ri. We do not know its name. Without sound.C. Taoism was adopted as a state religion of China. immortal. The Tao of Physics) For a more detailed explanation of the Metaphysics of Hinduism and the Wave Structure of Matter.
The way of the Tao is the way of Nature and of ultimate reality. with Nature. It clothes and feeds all things.” “There is a thing. One may think of it as the mother of all beneath Heaven. All things come to it and it does not master them. and it does not turn away from them. it seems to have existed forever. but does not claim to be master over them.” . it stands alone and unchanging. or 'road'. It accomplishes its tasks. Reality are One. It may go left or right. We do not know its name. Nature. State support of Taoism ended in 1911 with the end of the Ch'ing Dynasty and much Taoist heritage was destroyed. Tao (pronounced 'Dao') can be defined as 'path'. formless yet complete. Before heaven and earth it existed. Tao. It is all-pervading and unfailing. Deep and still. The following quotes (attributed to Lao Tzu) help us understand the nature of the Tao. but we call it Tao. Tao is often described as a force that flows through all life. It will inexorably and adversely affect them If they accept it with knowledge and reverence.” “The Great Tao flows everywhere. A happy and virtuous life is one that is in harmony with the Tao. “If people do not revere the Law of Nature. It will accommodate them with balance and harmony. without substance. Always without desires. but does not claim credit for it. it may be called the Small. The philosophy of Taoism understands Tao as the One Thing which exists and connects the Many things. it may be called The Great.people believe Lao Tzu is a mythical character. Without sound. All things depend on it for life.
Confucianism On the Life of Confucius & the Philosophy of Confucianism Confucianism is an ethical and philosophical system based upon the teachings of the Chinese sage. Used since then as the imperial orthodoxy. though failed.” “Being one with Nature. Confucius.” “Hold on to the Tao of old in order to master the things of the present. Confucius' . Living in the Spring and Autumn period (a time when feudal states fought against each other). After much travelling around China to promote his ideas among rulers. correctness of social relationships. repay hatred with virtue. Have few desires. Embrace simplicity. Reduce selfishness. information. whose teachings have deeply influenced East Asia for centuries. and justice and sincerity. he was convinced of his ability to restore the world's order.“The Tao that can be told of is not the eternal Tao.” (Lao Tzu) See our webpage Taoism / Philosophy of the Tao for more quotes.” “Be still like a mountain and flow like a great river.” ”Manifest plainness. the name that can be named is not the eternal name. he eventually became involved in teaching disciples. His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality. Confucius was a famous thinker and social philosopher of China. he is in accord with the Tao.” “Whether it is big or small. many or few. history and pictures. he is everlasting. Being in accord with the Tao.
he wanted his disciples to think deeply for themselves and relentlessly study the outside world.” “ I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge. and not to do it. is want of courage or of principle. These contain an overview of his teachings.” “ To see what is right. never forget kindnesses.” “ Study the past if you would define the future. The Analects is a short collection of his discussions with disciples. In this respect. For almost two thousand years. for a man was not considered morally upright or enlightened if he did not study Confucius' works.” .” “ Respect yourself and others will respect you. and earnest in seeking it there. Analects had also been the fundamental course of study for any Chinese scholar. Confucius presents himself as a transmitter who invented nothing and his greatest emphasis may be on study. Based upon http://en. compiled posthumously. Far from trying to build a systematic theory of life and society. I am one who is fond of antiquity.wikipedia. “ Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. he is seen by Chinese people as the Greatest Master.” “ Men's natures are alike.org/wiki/Confucius The following quotes from The Analects demonstrate the simplicity and wisdom of Confucianism.thoughts have been developed into a vast and complete philosophical system known in the west as Confucianism.” “ Forget injuries. it is their habits that carry them far apart. the Chinese character that opens the book.” “ Everything has its beauty but not everyone sees it.
go with all your heart." namely Asia.” Reference: http://www. he will find sorrow near at hand.spaceandmotion. and the general area. When one uses the unqualified term "philosophy" in a Western academic context. Japan. Most Western universities focus almost exclusively on Western philosophical traditions and ideas in their philosophy departments and courses (with several exceptions). think of the consequences. India.” “ When we see men of a contrary character.com/buddhism-hinduism-taoismconfucianism.htm Eastern Philosophy .“ What the superior man seeks is in himself.” “ They must often change who would be constant in happiness or wisdom.” “ If a man takes no thought about what is distant. including China. it typically refers to the Western philosophical tradition beginning with the ancient Greeks.” “ When anger rises. what the small man seeks is in others. we should turn inwards and examine ourselves. the term Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of "the East.” “ Wheresoever you go.” “ Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue. Eastern philosophies are typically .” “ Have no friends not equal to yourself.Definition In the West.
(c.Hindu deities . 96% of whom live in the Indian subcontinent. and an understanding that the essential spark of the Divine (Atman/Brahman) is in every human and living being. the first of the Dharma religions. It has its origin in ancient Vedic culture at least as far back as 2000 BC. etc. as well as the teachings of many great Hindu gurus through the ages. What can be said to be common to all Hindus is belief in Dharma. but increased connections between "East and West" in recent years have served to bridge the culture gap by a large degree. the primacy of the Guru. Bhakti sects and Tantra Agamic schools into the one ocean of Hinduism. See Also: Hindu philosophy -. love of Truth in many manifestations as Gods and Goddessess.Vedic civilization -. roughly Perennial Faith) is generally considered to be the oldest major world religion still practised today and first among Dharma faiths. It is the third largest religion with approximately 1. and meditative yogas.overlooked. thus allowing for many spiritual paths leading to the One Unitary Truth.Bhakti -.f. Each tradition has a separate article with more detail on sects. Many streams of thought flow from the six Vedic/Hindu schools. hence Veda Dharma. Hinduism is characterized by a diverse array of belief systems. the Upanishads. and moksha (liberation) of every soul through a variety of moral.Vedanta -. karma. and their mystic issue. reincarnation. Still more fundamental principles include ahimsa (non-violence). action-based.05 billion followers worldwide. the Divine Word of Aum and the power of mantras. practices and scriptures.Hindu scripture -Yoga -. schools. Philosophical and religious traditions Following is an overview of the major Eastern philosophic traditions. Hinduism rests on the spiritual bedrock of the Vedas. Sanātana Dharma.) Hinduism Main article: Hinduism Hinduism (ससससस सससस.
Confucian officers often behaved as Taoists. Confucianism emphasizes formal rituals in every aspect of life. and was a doctrine professed by those who "retreated in mountains". Morality was not important.Confucianism Main article: Confucianism Confucianism developed around the teachings of Confucius and is based on a set of Chinese classic texts. Confucian scholars were persecuted under Legalist rule. At the end of their lives --or during the night. It was the mainstream ideology in China and the sinized world since the Han dynasty and may still be a major founder element in Far-East culture. adherence to the letter of the law was paramount. a divinatory set of 64 geometrical figures describing states and evolutions of the world. linked also with the Book of Changes (I Ching). incorporating elements of mysticism dating back to prehistoric times. Legalism Main article: Legalism Legalism advocated a strict interpretation of the law in every respect. specifically to one's parents and to the state in the form of the Emperor. The core concepts of Taoism are traced far in Chinese History. Taoism emphasizes Nature. Taoism Main article : Taoism Taoism is the traditional foil of Confucianism. Yet Taoism is also a government doctrine where the ruler's might is ruling through "non-action" (Wuwei). traditionally attributed to Lao Zi (Lao tse) and the Zhuang Zi (Chuang Tse). It could be understood as a social ethic and humanist system focusing on human beings and their relationships. refusal of social bounds. . Taoism's central books are the Tao Te Ching. writing poetry or trying to "reach immortality". Officials who exceeded expectations were as liable for punishment as were those who underperformed their duties. from quasi-religious ceremonies to strict politeness and deference to one's elders. since both were not adhering exactly to their duties. individual freedom. Legalism was the principal philosophic basis of the Qin Dynasty in China.
The question of God is largely irrelevant in Buddhism. or phenomenological constituents. a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. and said that anyone. 3. Dukkha: All worldly life is unsatisfactory. which delineates the Buddhist concept of causality.Buddhism Main article: Buddhism Buddhism is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. The ultimate goal of a Buddhist practitioner is to eliminate karma (both good and bad). anywhere could achieve all the insight that he had. One effect of karma is rebirth. containing suffering.Buddhism in China . The Buddhist soteriology is summed up in the Four Noble Truths: 1. an Indian prince later known as the Buddha. and Buddhist phenomenological analysis of dharmas. the karma from a given life determines the nature of the next life's existence. which specifies that all is without substantial metaphysical being. However. 2. See also: Buddhist philosophy -. though some sects (notably Tibetan Buddhism) do venerate a number of gods drawn in from local indigenous belief systems. Buddhist philosophy as such has its foundations more in the doctrines of anatta. which is attachment or desire (tanha) rooted in ignorance. Samudaya: There is a cause of suffering. and attain Nirvana. one whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or nonexistence of a God or gods. Marga: There is a path that leads out of suffering. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events. disjointed. Buddhism is a non-theistic religion.Schools of Buddhism -. which is Nirvana. end the cycle of rebirth and suffering. 4. or one who is Awake derived from the Sanskrit 'bud'. 'to awaken'. At death. translated as nothingness or blissful oblivion and characterized as the state of being one with the entire universe. The Buddha himself expressly disavowed any special divine status or inspiration. pratitya-samutpada. Most Buddhist sects believe in karma. known as the Noble Eightfold Path. Nirodha: There is an end of suffering.
Zen Buddhism Zen is a fusion of Mahayana Buddhism with Taoist principles. known in Japan and in the West as Zen Buddhism. notably the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. Several schools of Zen have developed various other techniques for provoking satori. Deng's chief contribution was to reject the supremacy of theory in interpreting Marxism and to argue for a policy of seeking truth from facts. Bodhidharma was a semilegendary Indian monk who traveled to China in the 5th century. one cannot ever achieve enlightenment. or enlightenment. Zen practitioners engage in zazen (just sitting) meditation. Zen riddles designed to force the student to abandon futile attempts to understand the nature of the universe through logic. Sendero Luminoso in Peru. Maoism Maoism is a Communist philosophy based on the teachings of 20th century Communist Party of China revolutionary leader Mao Zedong. Chinese Communist leader Deng Xiaoping reinterpreted Maoism to allow for the introduction of market economics. . Maoism has remained a popular ideology for various Communist revolutionary groups around the world. but rejects the urban proletariat and Leninist emphasis on heavy industrialization in favor of a revolution supported by the peasantry. he began the Ch'an school of Buddhism. Zen teaches that the entire universe is one's mind. and a decentralized agrarian economy based on many collectively worked farms. it also contributed to the widespread famine. There. It is based partially on earlier theories by Marx and Lenin. Despite this. which eventually enabled the country to recover. with millions of people starving to death. and an ongoing (as of early 2005) Maoist insurrection in Nepal. Many people believe that though the implementation of Maoism in Mainland China led to the victory of communist revolution. at the Shaolin temple. ranging from whacking acolytes with a stick to shock them into the present moment to koans. As a philosophy. Zen philosophy places emphasis on existing in the moment. right now. and if one cannot realize enlightenment in one's own mind now.
Formally. based on the classification of Sanskrit as one of the earliest Indo-European languages. Furthermore.) The central conceptual structure shared with Classical Western philosophy (and lacking in East Asian thought prior to the Buddhist "invasion") includes counterparts of the dichotomies between reason v emotion. Indian and Western thought. A related argument is linguistic. These concepts underwrote the emergence (or perhaps spread) of logic in Greece and India (In contrast to pre- . share consequent tendencies to subjective idealism or dualism. the immortal soul (ancestor of mind-body dualism). One such argument is historical. Whether its root lie in India (or the roots of Indian philosophy stem from an Indo-Aryan invasion) we may never know.g. and inference. Shared concepts include the supernatural. or in small shrines constructed in one's home. Worship is at public shrines. belief and (propositional) knowledge. it has been argued that the term Eastern philosophy implies similarities between philosophical schools which may not exist and obscures the differences between Eastern philosophies. and permanence v change. that this artificial distinction does not take into account the tremendous amount of interaction between Eastern and Western thought. one v many. a sophisticated form of animism that holds that spirits called kami inhabit all things. Differences from Western Philosophy Arguments against the "Eastern philosophy" designation Some have argued that the distinction between Eastern and Western philosophies is arbitrary and purely geographic. appearance v reality.Shinto Shinto is the indigenous religion of Japan. (Nietzsche famously argued that Christianity and Buddhism were "kindred" religions. and that the distinction is more misleading than enlightening. Our first "historical glimpse" of Western philosophy actually takes us to Asia Minor. But it is surely plausible that the Middle East was a crossroads of ancient religious cum philosophical systems. they share the rudiments of Western "folk psychology" --a sentential psychology and semantics e. with their robust mind-body conceptual dualism. subject-predicate grammar (and subject-object metaphysics) truth and falsity.
One fundamental reason for the separation is that both traditions of Eastern philosophy tend to be marginalized or ignored in Western studies of the "history of philosophy. or to New Age nonacademic works. Eastern philosophies have not been as concerned by questions relating to the nature of a single God as the universe's sole creator and ruler. This has created a dichotomy among Western philosophies between secular philosophies and religious philosophies which develop within the context of a particular monotheistic religion's dogma regarding the nature of God and the universe.Buddhist China).) The distinction between religion and philosophy is not so important in the East. Thus. space. while others embrace Taoist philosophy while ignoring the religious aspects.all concepts hard to isolate within ancient Chinese conceptual space. which has traditionally enforced either a completely unified philosophic/religious belief system (e." So both tend to be relegated to the World Religions departments of Western universities. the various sects and associated philosophies of Christianity. This arrangement stands in marked contrast to most philosophy of the West. The distinction between the religious and the secular tends to be much less sharp in Eastern philosophy.g. Gods' relationship with the universe . and the same philosophical school often contains both religious and philosophical elements. Judaism.g. some people accept the metaphysical tenets of Buddhism without going to a temple and worshipping. etc. and Islam). Voltaire. Western philosophies have been faced with the question of the nature of God and His relationship to the universe. Marx. The perception of God and the gods Because of the influence of monotheism and especially the Abrahamic religions. Nietzsche. objecthood and causation -. though there are several notable exceptions. or a sharp and total repudiation of religion by philosophy (e. Other noticeable similarities include structural features of related concepts of time. Some have worshipped the Taoist deities religiously without bothering to delve into the philosophic underpinnings.
Eastern philosophic traditions generally tend to be less concerned with the existence or non-existence of gods. He anticipated that the Upanishads (primary Hindu scriptures) would have a . objective viewpoint. on the other hand.Another common thread that often differentiates Eastern philosophy from Western is the belief regarding the relationship between God or the gods and the universe. Eastern philosophies. German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was very interested in Taoism. and that attempts to discuss the universe from an objective viewpoint as though the individual speaking was something separate and detached from the whole are inherently absurd. The role and nature of the individual It has been argued that in most Western philosophies. most Eastern religions teach that ordinary actions can affect the supernatural realm. Hegel's arch-enemy Arthur Schopenhauer developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism and Buddhism with Western thought. or else hold that God or the gods are something separate and distinct from the universe. The true nature of this God is incomprehensible to us. Although some Eastern traditions have supernatural spiritual beings and even powerful gods. these are generally not seen as separate from the universe. Syntheses of Eastern and Western philosophy There have been many modern attempts to integrate Western and Eastern philosophical traditions. which teach that this universe was created by a single all-powerful God who existed before and separately from this universe. typically hold that people are an intrinsic and inseparable part of the universe. the same can be said of the individual: Western philosophies generally assume as a given that the individual is something different from the universe. but rather as a part of the universe. Western philosophies typically either disavow the existence of God. Conversely. This comes from the influence of the Abrahamic religions. and Western philosophies attempt to describe and categorize the universe from a detached. His creations. His system of dialectics is sometimes interpreted as a formalization of Taoist principles.
http://www.much greater influence in the West than they have had. Recent attempts to incorporate Western philosophy into Eastern thought include the Kyoto School of philosophers. Schopenhauer was working with heavily flawed early translations (and sometimes seconddegree translations). However.com/definition/Eastern_Philosophy . who combined the phenomenology of Husserl with the insights of Zen Buddhism.wordiq. and many feel that he may not necessarily have accurately grasped the Eastern philosophies which interested him.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.