Ice cream

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Ice cream (disambiguation). Ice cream or gelato in Rome, Italy Origin Alternative name(s) Gelato, sorbet, frozen custard Dish details Course served Dessert Main ingredient(s) Milk/Cream, water ice, sugar Ice cream (formerly and properly ice-cream, derived from earlier iced cream) is a frozen dessert, usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners. In some cases, artificial flavourings and colourings are used in addition to, or instead of, the natural ingredients. The mixture of chosen ingredients is stirred slowly while cooling, in order to incorporate air and to prevent large ice crystals from forming. The result is a smoothly textured semi-solid foam that is malleable and can be scooped. The meaning of the term "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Terms such as "frozen custard", "frozen yogurt", "sorbet", "gelato" and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles. In some countries, such as the USA, the term "ice cream" applies only to a specific variety, and most governments regulate the commercial use of the various terms according to the relative quantities of the main ingredients.[1] In other countries, such as Italy and Argentina, one word is used for all variants. Analogues made from dairy alternatives, such as goat's or sheep's milk, or milk substitutes, are available for those who are lactose intolerant, allergic to dairy protein, and/or vegan.

History
Precursors of ice cream
An ice cream store in Damascus, Syria In the Persian Empire, people would pour grape-juice concentrate over snow, in a bowl, and eat this as a treat, especially when the weather was hot. Snow would either be saved in the cool-keeping underground chambers known as "yakhchal", or taken from snowfall that remained at the top of mountains by the summer capital - Hagmatana, Ecbatana or Hamedan of today. In 400 BC, the Persians went further and invented a special chilled food, made of rose water and vermicelli, which was served to royalty during summers.[2] The ice was mixed with saffron, fruits, and various other flavours. Ancient civilizations have served ice for cold foods for thousands of years. The BBC reports that a frozen mixture of milk and rice was used in China around 200 BC.[3] The Roman Emperor Nero (37–68) had ice brought from the mountains and combined with fruit toppings. These were some early chilled delicacies.[4] Arabs were perhaps the first to use milk as a major ingredient in the production of ice cream. They sweetened it with sugar rather than fruit juices, and perfected means of commercial production. As early as the 10th century, ice cream was widespread amongst many of the Arab world's major cities, such as Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo. It was produced from milk or cream, often with some yoghurt, and was flavoured with rosewater, dried fruits and nuts. It is believed that the recipe was based on older Ancient Arabian, Mesopotamian, Greek or Roman recipes, which were probably the first and precursors to Persian faloodeh. Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat asserts, in her History of Food, that "the Chinese may be credited with inventing a device to make sorbets and ice cream. They poured a mixture of snow and saltpetre over the exteriors of containers filled with syrup, for, in the

so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative. Mary Eales's Receipts in London in 1718. either plain or sweeten’d. where it was used in fruit sorbets. 4) 333 (heading) To make Ice Cream.[13] 1768 saw the publication of L'Art de Bien Faire les Glaces d'Office by M. a poem named "詠冰酪" (Ode to the ice cheese) was written by the poet Yang Wanli.[8] When Italian duchess Catherine de' Medici married the duc d’Orléans in 1533. and a Handful of Salt. Japanese green tea ice cream with anko sauce In the sixteenth century. reprinted in a magazine in 1877. Charles I of England was supposedly so impressed by the "frozen snow". Rasberries. les Liqueurs.[9] Ice cream was introduced to the United States by Quaker colonists who brought their ice cream recipes with them.same way as salt raises the boiling-point of water. starting with the 1692 edition. and lay some Straw at the Bottom. this poem was named "詠酥” (Ode to the pastry. in the Yuan Dynasty. Emy. put enough in the Pots to make the Fruit hang together. 酥 is a kind of food much like pastry in the Western world) and has nothing to do with ice cream.[9] True ice cream Ice cream recipes first appear in 18th-century England and America. Kublai Khan enjoyed ice cream and kept it a royal secret until Marco Polo visited China and took the technique of making ice cream to Italy. then lay in your Ice. to six Pots you must allow eighteen or twenty Pound of Ice. Confectioners sold ice cream at their shops in New York and other cities during the colonial era. hold it in your Hand and it will slip out. the Mughal emperors used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush to Delhi. which lay at the Bottom and Top: You must have a Pail. she is said to have brought with her to France some Italian chefs who had recipes for flavoured ices or sorbets.[9] One hundred years later. Ben Franklin. 1744 in Pennsylvania Mag. OED gives her recipe: H. A recipe for ice cream was published in Mrs. The earliest reference to ice cream given by the Oxford English Dictionary is from 1744. and 93 lay Ice and Salt between every Pot.was some fine ice cream. Latini claims that the results of his recipes should have the fine consistency of sugar and snow. When you wou’d freeze any Sort of Fruit.[13] The 1751 edition of The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy by Hannah Glasse features a recipe for ice cream. that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret. it will be froze in four Hours. made with Spring-Water and Lemmon-Juice sweeten’d. 126 Among the rarities. there will be some great Pieces. shut your Pots very close. et les Fruits. or Fruit in it.[7] It has also been claimed that. in Nicholas Lemery’s Recueil de curiositéz rares et nouvelles de plus admirables effets de la nature. The first recipe in French for flavoured ices appears in 1674.set it [sc. eat most deliciously. fill your Tin-Pots with the Fruit.. then take it out just as you use it.[9] Recipes for sorbetti saw publication in the 1694 edition of Antonio Latini's Lo Scalco alla Moderna (The Modern Steward). lay a good deal of Ice on the Top. Take Tin Ice-Pots. Song Dynasty (9601279) of China."[5][6] (Toussaint does not provide historical documentation for this. Massialot's recipes result in a coarse. which. Fill it with Ice. put to them Lemmonade. set it in a Cellar where no Sun or Light comes. but the Ice must lie round them on every Side. either Cherries. a cookbook devoted entirely to recipes for flavoured ices and ice cream.[11][12] To ice cream. Actually. the cream] into the larger Bason. & Biogr. (1877) I.. with the strawberries and milk. pebbly texture. GLASSE Art of Cookery (ed.[10] There is no historical evidence to support these legends. or Strawberries. it lowers the freezing-point to below zero. Hist. that they may not touch.) Some distorted accounts claim that in the age of Emperor Yingzong. and put them in Ice as you do Cream. George . but it may stand longer. fill them with any Sort of Cream you like. cover the Pail with Straw. and put in amongst it a Pound of Bay-Salt.[9] Recipes for flavoured ices begin to appear in François Massialot's Nouvelle Instruction pour les Confitures. Currants. which first appeared during the 19th century. breaking the Ice very small. set in your Pots of Cream. but as hollow as you can.

Two Rivers. Augustus Jackson. The company now boasts that it has developed over 1000 varieties. Vendors often competed on the basis of variety.[21] to which some people have an intolerance. nuts. Louis. thicker ice creams being sold as "premium" and "superpremium" varieties under brands such as Ben & Jerry's and Häagen-Dazs. as the wife of U. selling scoops of ice cream in shells for one penny. the soda fountain to some extent replaced the outlawed alcohol establishments such as bars and saloons . she served ice cream at her husband's Inaugural Ball in 1813. A SwissItalian businessman.[14] In 1843. Ithaca. adding to ice cream's popularity. thereby reducing costs. and Tastee-Freez pioneered in establishing chains of soft-serve ice cream outlets.S. and Evanston. New York. There was an explosion of ice cream stores and of flavours and types.[18] George and Davis' Ice Cream Cafe on Little Clarendon Street. Carlo Gatti.[15] Europeans were eating cones long before 1904. patent for a small-scale handcranked ice cream freezer. Nancy Johnson of Philadelphia was issued the first U. although there is no conclusive evidence to prove his claim. Dairy Queen. One important development in the 20th century was the introduction of soft ice cream. and the ice cream parlor. and Thomas Jefferson were known to have regularly eaten and served ice cream. Illinois. Howard Johnson's restaurants advertised "a world of 28 flavors. an African American confectioner. Oxford. Technological innovations such as these have introduced various food additives into ice cream. The history of ice cream in the 20th century is one of great change and increases in availability and popularity. A chemical research team in Britain (of which a young Margaret Thatcher was a member)[19][20] discovered a method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream. ice cream remained an expensive and rare treat. Towns claiming to be the birthplace of the sundae include Buffalo.[22] The 1980s saw a return of the older. It made possible the soft ice cream machine in which a cone is filled beneath a spigot on order. Recent awareness of this issue has prompted a number of manufacturers to start producing gluten-free ice cream.Washington. President James Madison. Wisconsin. This cold treat was probably invented by Robert Green in 1874. notably the stabilizing agent gluten.S. One respected history of ice cream states that. The invention of the ice cream soda gave Americans a new treat. Both the ice cream cone and banana split became popular in the early 20th century.[16][17] In the UK." Baskin-Robbins made its 31 flavours ("one for every day of the month") the cornerstone of its marketing strategy. opened the first ice cream stall outside Charing Cross station in 1851. New York. until large quantities of ice began to be imported from Norway and the US in the mid Victorian era. . In the United States. In the United States in the early 20th century. and a wafer The ice cream sundae originated in the late 19th century. Ice cream sundaes with fruit. Several men claimed to have created the first sundae. Carvel. which forbade serving sodas on Sunday. not only created multiple ice cream recipes. Several food vendors claimed to have invented the ice cream cone at the 1904 World's Fair in St. the soda fountain. Around 1832. the ice cream soda was a popular treat at the soda shop. which allowed manufacturers to use less of the actual ingredients. MO. During American Prohibition. but there is no conclusive evidence to back up any of their stories. but he also invented a superior technique to manufacture ice cream. First Lady Dolley Madison is also closely associated with the early history of ice cream in the United States. Some sources say that the sundae was invented to circumvent blue laws. Ice cream became popular throughout the world in the second half of the 20th century after cheap refrigeration became common.

making ice cream in a sorbetière (a covered pail with a handle attached to the lid). and in individual servings from small carts or vans at public events. Two years later. Making it was quite laborious.S. cut and stored ice in the winter for use in the summer. Later. Traditionally. Mass production reduced the cost of ice cream and added to its popularity. which gradually melts while the ice cream freezes. In the pot-freezer method. ice cream was a luxury reserved for special occasions. The hand-cranked churn. 1843. Pennsylvania. but the first U. Jacob Fussell of Baltimore. he moved his factory to Baltimore. in modern times generally an electrical device that churns the ice cream mixture while cooled inside a household freezer. Some ice cream distributors sell ice cream products from traveling refrigerated vans or carts (commonly referred to in the US as "ice cream trucks"). Commercial delivery A bicycle-based ice cream vendor in Indonesia Ice cream can be mass-produced and thus is widely available in developed parts of the world. or using a solution of pre-frozen salt and water. The salt water is cooled by the ice. insulated by straw. Frederic Tudor of Boston turned ice harvesting and shipping into a big business. and the action of the salt on the ice causes it to (partially) melt. The development of industrial refrigeration by German engineer Carl von Linde during the 1870s eliminated the need to cut and store natural ice and when the continuous-process freezer was perfected in 1926. In Europe and early America. Some more expensive models have an inbuilt freezing element. Many farmers and plantation owners. This was called the pot-freezer method. folding in whipped cream. or in wood-frame or brick ice houses. Some ice cream recipes call for making a custard. The exact origin of the handcranked freezer is unknown. patent for one was #3254 issued to Nancy Johnson on September 9. An unstable demand for his dairy products often left him with a surplus of cream. which he made into ice cream. it allowed commercial mass production of ice cream and the birth of the modern ice cream industry. ice was cut from lakes and ponds during the winter and stored in holes in the ground.Production Cherry ice cream Before the development of modern refrigeration. and sold them in Baltimore. he opened factories in several other cities and taught the business to others. in 1851. Fussell bought fresh dairy products from farmers in York County. The hand-cranked churn produced smoother ice cream than the pot freezer and did it quicker. and milk bars. Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. including U. replaced the pot-freezer method. convenience stores. the temperature of the ingredients is reduced by the mixture of crushed ice and salt. in smaller quantities from ice cream shops. absorbing latent heat and bringing the mixture below the freezing point of pure water. ice cream vans in the United Kingdom make a music box noise rather than actual music. In Turkey and Australia. He built his first ice cream factory in Seven Valleys. who operated their own plants.S. mostly confectioners and caterers. Ice cream was made by hand in a large bowl placed inside a tub filled with ice and salt. ice cream was made and sold by small businesses. French confectioners refined the pot-freezer method. ice cream is sometimes sold to beach-goers from small powerboats equipped with chest freezers. cutting ice in New England and shipping it around the world. and immediately freezing the mixture. which also uses ice and salt for cooling. A newer method of making home-made ice cream is to add liquid nitrogen to the mixture while stirring it using a spoon or spatula. Ice cream can be purchased in large cartons (vats and squrounds) from supermarkets and grocery stores. Many inventors patented improvements on Johnson's design. The most common method for producing ice cream at home is to use an ice cream maker. sometimes equipped with speakers playing children's music. Maryland was the first to manufacture ice cream on a large scale. The immersed container can also make better thermal contact with the salty water and ice mixture than it could with ice alone. . Pennsylvania.

 Dondurma: Turkish ice cream. These compositions are percentage by weight. the percentages by weight are more relevant. According to legend.[25] but the idea definitely predated that. contains the proteins (caseins and whey proteins) and carbohydrates (lactose) found in    milk 12 to 16% sweeteners: usually a combination of sucrose and glucose-based corn syrup sweeteners 0. unsuccessful due to intense heat. the waffle maker offered to make cones by rolling up his waffles and the new product sold well. and their popularity increased greatly during the St.2 to 0.Dietary Black sesame soft ice cream. and boiled red bean and topped with evaporated milk. Louis World's Fair in 1904.4% egg yolk and much less air beaten into it. Reliable evidence proves that ice cream cones were served in the 19th century. similar to Gelato. made of salep and mastic resin  Frozen custard: at least 10% milk fat and at least 1. Even the low fat products have high caloric content: Ben and Jerry's No Fat Vanilla Fudge contains 150 calories per half cup due to its high sugar content. these numbers may be reduced by as much as half if cited by volume. Since ice cream can contain as much as half air by volume. Next door to the ice cream booth was a Syrian waffle booth. She patented and manufactured an ice cream maker and was the first person to suggest using liquefied gases to freeze ice cream after seeing a demonstration at the Royal Institution. fairly rare. Agnes Marshall was a celebrated cookery writer of her day and helped to popularise ice cream. Ais kacang: a dessert in Malaysia and Singapore made from shaved ice. so they could not sell any more produce. and was widely copied by other vendors. Sometimes. also known as the serum solids. published in 1888. syrup. endorsed serving ice cream in cones.5% stabilisers and emulsifiers 55% to 64% water which comes from the milk or other ingredients.[24] Ice cream around the world Main article: Ice cream around the world Ice cream cone Main article: Ice cream cone Mrs Marshall's Cookery Book. other small ingredients like raspberries and durians are added in too.[26][27] Other frozen desserts The following is a partial list of ice cream-like frozen desserts and snacks: Raspberry sorbet. In terms of dietary considerations.  . Japan Ice cream may have the following composition:[23]  greater than 10% milkfat and usually between 10% and as high as 16% fat in some premium ice creams  9 to 12% milk solids-not-fat: this component. at the World's Fair an ice cream seller had run out of the cardboard dishes used to put ice cream scoops in. Known in Italy as Semifreddo.

and then eaten from a wooden stick used to pick it up from the snow. made from balls of crushed ice topped with sweet syrup served in a paper cone. Maple toffee: A popular springtime treat in maple-growing areas is maple toffee. with vegetable fat substituted for milk fat Parevine: Kosher non-dairy frozen dessert established in 1969 in New York[29] Sherbet: 1–2% milk fat and sweeter than ice cream. The most common places to find snow cones in the United States are at amusement parks. The ice cream. are consumed in many parts of the world. Such ice crystals will grow very quickly via the processes of recrystallization thus obviating the original benefits unless steps are taken to inhibit ice crystal growth. and allowing one to get the same texture by using less milkfat. has only recently started to see commercialization.[34] The preparation results in a column of white condensed water vapor cloud. The use of liquid nitrogen in the primary freezing of ice cream." is allowed to rest until the liquid nitrogen is completely vaporised. the crystal grains are smaller. fruit juice. or flavoured sugar water on a stick or in a flexible plastic sleeve. and must be allowed to thaw. Sorbet: fruit puree with no dairy products Snow cones. Using liquid nitrogen Dippin' Dots Flavored Ice Cream Using liquid nitrogen to freeze ice cream is an old idea and has been used for many years to harden ice cream. Kulfi: Believed to have been introduced to South Asia by the Mughal conquest in the 16th century.[30] The most noted brands are Dippin' Dots. Halo-halo: a popular Filipino dessert that is a mixture of shaved ice and milk to which are added various boiled sweet beans and fruits. See also       Brain freeze Gelato Ice cream parlor List of ice cream brands Soft serve Frozen Yogurt .[32] Project Creamery. and served cold in a tall glass or bowl. reminiscent of popular depictions of witches' cauldrons. Due to the rapid freezing. Sometimes ice cream is frozen to the sides of the container. Popsicle (or ice pop or lolly): frozen fruit puree.[33] and Sub Zero Cryo Creamery. dangerous to eat while still "steaming. Some commercial innovations have been documented in the National Cryogenic Society Magazine "Cold Facts". once marketed as "ice milk" but now sold as low-fat ice cream in the United States.[31] Blue Sky Creamery. where maple syrup boiled to a concentrated state is poured over fresh snow congealing in a toffee-like mass. Ice milk: less than 10% milk fat and lower sweetening content. Making ice cream with liquid nitrogen has advantages over conventional freezing. that is to effect the transition from the liquid to the frozen state without the use of a conventional ice cream freezer.            Frozen yogurt: a low fat or fat free alternative made with yogurt Gelato: an Italian frozen dessert having a lower milk fat content than ice cream.[28] Mellorine: non-dairy. giving the ice cream a creamier texture. its origins trace back to the cold snacks and desserts of Arab and Mediterranean cultures.

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