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FIRST AID It refers to the immediate, direct treatment of an injured person.

Anyone with a basic understanding of medical treatment can administer aid at the first signs of trouble. Simple procedures may include stopping blood loss by applying pressure, dressing a wound, treating a burn with ointment, or setting a bone with a splint. Some types of first aid, such as performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), require an individual to receive specialized training from an accredited first aid program. Many minor injuries can be overcome with simple, immediate medical attention. A small cut, burn, or blister, for instance, can be attended to by thoroughly cleaning the injury, applying a topical antibiotic cream, and covering it with a breathable bandage or wrap. Treating bruises, muscle strains, swelling, and animal bites usually involves icing and compressing the injuries, as well as taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatory or pain medication. Some injuries require medical services beyond the average person's abilities. A person who is choking or drowning, for example, may depend on a trained professional to administer the Heimlich maneuver or CPR. Strokes, seizures, concussions, and broken bones create special challenges for immediate medical care providers, as they are usually required to keep victims calm and conscious while temporarily relieving symptoms. AIMS The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points:

Preserve life: the overriding aim of all medical care, including first aid, is to save lives Prevent further harm: also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous. Promote recovery: first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury, and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound

First aid in Electronic Industry OSHA (Occupational Standard and Health Administration) is an organization is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. It was created by Congress of the United States under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M. Nixon, on December 30, 1971. Its mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and occupational fatality by issuing and enforcing standards for workplace safety and health. The agency is headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor.

ELECTRICAL SHOCK The most dangerous shocks are those that involve the brain or vital organs in the chest and abdominal areas. Fatal shocks usually involve paralysis where the victim responds by passing into a depressed condition of the body called traumatic shock. The severity of electric shock is determined by three things: *The amount of current flowing through the body. Current flow of 50 milli-amperes or more through the body can result in ventricular fibrillation and/or cardiac arrest. *Time of exposure. Prolonged exposure to current could cause chest muscles to contract causing death by asphyxiation. *Bodys physical condition. Can cause temporary paralysis of nerve center and/or permanent nerve damage. First Aid: When a person comes in contact with an electrical power source muscle contraction occurs. Remove the victim as quickly as possible from the power source. Remember the 3 factors that determine the severity of the shock! Severe electrical shock usually causes the victim to stop breathing. Artificial respiration must be started immediately when the victim is free of the power source. Mouth to mouth resuscitation is the best method to use. Use the Red Cross approved method. Once the victim begins to breathe, treat to prevent traumatic shock. Do not give artificial ventilation to any person who is breathing naturally. TRAUMATIC SHOCK Traumatic shock is a depressed condition of many of the body functions due to failure of enough blood to circulate through the body following serious injury. Signs and symptoms: Pale skin wet with sweat. Rapid but weak pulse. Thirsty, gasping for air and faint. First Aid: Keep victim LYING DOWN. Elevate the feet. Keep the victim warm and comfortable. Do Not Move the victim unless necessary. Seek medical help. Give water (neither hot nor cold) if victim is fully conscious.

CARDIAC ARREST Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Paralysis following severe electrical shock may cause the heart to stop. Immediate action must be taken to restore some blood circulation until normal heart action returns. First Aid: Cardiac arrest consists of CLOSED HEART MASSAGE. (Use Red Cross approved methods.) Remember apply pressure to victims sternum, not the rib cage. Continue until qualified medical help arrive. CONTROL OF BLEEDING First Aid: Apply pressure to the wound with a clean dressing or other available clean cloth. Continue direct pressure as long as needed. Raise limb if necessary. Use a tourniquet as a last resort. o Make a loop around the injured limb. o Pass a stick under the loop. o Tighten enough just to stop the bleeding. o Secure tourniquet in place.

Once the bleeding has been controlled, treatment for shock must begin IMMDIATELY, and continued until medical assistance is obtained.

TREATMENT OF BURNS Burns are always accompanied by extreme pain, and among other things, treatment for the prevention of traumatic shock must begin immediately. Treatment for the burn itself is limited to cutting or tearing excessive cloth away from the area surrounding the burn. Do not attempt to remove any cloth from the burn itself. Three things must be done immediately: Prevent traumatic shock.

Protect against infection. Obtain medical assistance. First Aid: Cover the burned area with sterile gauze or bandage. Never put ointments, grease, or butter on a burn. Seek professional medical assistance. FIRST AID PROCEDURES FOR CHEMICAL EXPOSURES Chemicals on skin or clothing Immediately flush with water for no less than 15 minutes (except for Hydrofluoric Acid, Flammable Solids or >10% Phenol). For larger spills, the safety shower should be used. While rinsing, quickly remove all contaminated clothing or jewelry. Seconds count. Do not waste time because of modesty. Use caution when removing pullover shirts or sweaters to prevent contamination of the eyes. Check the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) to determine if any delayed effects should be expected. Discard contaminated clothing or launder them separately from other clothing. Leather garments or accessories cannot be decontaminated and should be discarded.

For flammable solids on skin, first brush off as much of the solid as possible, then proceed as described above. For hydrofluoric acid, rinse with water for 5 minutes and apply calcium gluconate gel, then get immediate medical attention. If no gel is available, rinse for 15 minutes and immediately seek for medical assistance. For phenol concentrations more than 10%, flush with water for 15 minutes or until the affected area turns from white to pink. Apply polyethylene glycol, if available. Do not use ethanol. Proceed as described above. Chemicals in Eyes Immediately flush eye(s) with water for at least fifteen minutes. The eyes must be forcibly held open to wash, and the eyeballs must be rotated so all surface area is rinsed. The use of an eye wash fountain is desirable so hands are free to hold the eyes open. If an eyewash is not available, pour water on the eye, rinsing from the nose outward to avoid contamination of the unaffected eye.

Remove contact lenses while rinsing. Do not lose time removing contact lenses before rinsing. Do not attempt to rinse and reinsert contact lenses. Seek medical attention regardless of the severity or apparent lack of severity.

Chemical Inhalation Close containers, open windows or otherwise increase ventilation, and move to fresh air. If symptoms, such as headaches, nose or throat irritation, dizziness, or drowsiness persist, seek medical attention and explain carefully what chemicals were involved. Review the MSDS to determine what health effects are expected, including delayed effects.

First Aid Kits First aid supplies shall be placed in weatherproof containers if the supplies could be exposed to the weather. Each first aid kit shall be maintained, shall be readily available for use, and shall be inspected frequently enough to ensure that expended items are replaced but at least once per year. The following is a list of OSHA standards for equipment/medicine that a first aid kit must contain. 1. Gauze pads (at least 4 x 4 inches). 2. Two large gauze pads (at least 8 x 10 inches). 3. Box adhesive bandages (band-aids). 4. One package gauze roller bandage at least 2 inches wide. 5. Two triangular bandages. 6. Wound cleaning agent such as sealed moistened towelettes. 7. Scissors. 8. At least one blanket. 9. Tweezers. 10. Adhesive tape. 11. Latex gloves. 12. Resuscitation equipment such as resuscitation bag, airway, or pocket mask. 13. Two elastic wraps. 14. Splint. 15. Directions for requesting emergency assistance.

FIRST AID MYTHS Sucking a snake bite. Breathing into a paper bag for hyperventilation. Putting something in a seizure patients mouth to bite. Leaning back with a nosebleed.


Raw steak on black eye. Butter on Burns. Rubbing alcohol to reduce fever. Lie down when having a heart attack. Cold water as shock therapy. Use heat for bone and joint injuries.