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BBI-7-07065 Mr. PRAMOD CONTENTS
meaning 'unit of life' and the suffix -ic. Steele in 1958. pronounced [bi:on] ("bee-on"). biognosis. Some dictionaries.• CLASSICAL CONCEPT • CASE STUDIES 1) EYEBORG SYSTEM -The EPI-RET Project -The Retinal Implant Project. The word bionic was coined by Jack E. however. explain the word as being formed from biology + electronics . hence 'like life'. bio-inspiration. possibly originating from the Greek word βίον. and close to bionical creativity engineering) is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. bíon. biomimetics. • MAJOR APPLICATIONS • OTHER APPLICATIONS • REFERENCES CLASSICALLY Bionics (also known as biomimicry. meaning 'like' or 'in the manner of'.
including fauna and flora. and swarm intelligence. Although almost all engineering could be said to be a form of biomimicry. Evolutionary computation was also motivated by bionics ideas but it took the idea further by simulating evolution in silico and producing welloptimized solutions that had never appeared in nature. CASE STUDY: EYEBORG SYSTEM Neil Harbisson (27 July 1982) is a British-Spanish artist. the modern origins of this field are usually attributed to Buckminster Fuller and its later codification as a house or field of study to Janine Benyus. and the swarm intelligence (SI)-based behaviour of a school of fish. we can distinguish three biological levels in the fauna or flora. musician and performer best known for his self-extended ability to hear colors. Color and the use of technology as an extension of the performer. desirable because evolutionary pressure typically forces living organisms.and water-repellent paint (coating) from the observation that the surface of the lotus flower plant is practically unsticky for anything (the lotus effect). sonar. are the central themes in Harbisson's work. radar. the study of bionics has produced artificial neurons. optimization of ant foraging and bee foraging. to become highly optimized and efficient. Roughly. . artificial neural networks .The transfer of technology between lifeforms and manufactures is. In 2004 he became the first person in the world to wear an eyeborg. Examples of bionics in engineering include the hulls of boats imitating the thick skin of dolphins. and medical ultrasound imaging imitating the echolocation of bats. The inclusion of the eyeborg on his passport photo has been claimed by some to be official recognition of Harbisson as a cyborg. A classical example is the development of dirt. In the field of computer science. after which technology can be modeled: • • • Mimicking natural methods of manufacture Imitating mechanisms found in nature (velcro) Studying organizational principles from the social behaviour of organisms. such as the flocking behaviour of birds. according to proponents of bionic technology. and not as part of the performance.
In 2007. Neil memorised the frequencies related to each colour: high frequency hues are high-pitched. Kese offered to develop the eyeborg even further so that Harbisson could perceive color saturation and not only color hues. a student from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya is currently developing the eyeborg into a small chip as part of his final year project. and won the Europrix Award in Content Tools and Interface Design (2004). Harbisson attended a lecture on cybernetics. Matias Lizana. while hitch-hiking around Europe. In Vienna. a software developer from Kranj. while low frequency hues sound bolder. After a few weeks he had developed a new eyeborg model that allowed Harbisson to perceive up to 360 different hues through microtones and saturation through different volume levels. Harbisson met Peter Kese in Ljubljana. From that moment they started working on the eyeborg project. The eyeborg works with a head mounted camera that picks up the colors directly in front of a person. one of more than 400 entries from 29 different countries. Bristol 2004). a Plymouth University student. as well as the Innovation Award (Submerge. given by Adam Montandon. Neil found this of immense interest and at the end of the lecture he went up to Adam to explain his condition.In October 2003 in his second year at Dartington College of Arts. they co-presented their Eyeborg project. The new chip will allow Harbisson to hear colours in stereo and to implant the eyeborg in his forehead. particularly on sensory extensions via cybernetics. Neil Harbisson (27 July 1982) . and converts them in real-time into sound waves[. Slovenia.
The use of an implant to bypass the damaged rods and cones is an approach that mirrors the way the renowned cochlear implant project has restored hearing to deaf patients. [D] The Retinal Implant Project began in 1989 as a Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary/Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology collaboration. Peripheral vision goes flat followed by gradual loss of central or reading vision. much as a TV set decodes the airwave signal. denying approximately 1. Retina diseases such as Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa involve only the rods and cones while cells that connect the eye to the brain remain healthy. opposite the damaged rods and cones and in contact with the relay cells to the brain. The second chip.The Retinal Implant Project. will decode the laser's visual information. optic nerve or brain. A small CCD camera will also reside on the glasses to convert the visual scene to a series of laser pulses that will invisibly carry power and visual signals into the eye. The chip under design will rest on the inside surface of the retina. the circuit chip." The top chip will receive light entering the eye. cataracts or diseases affecting the retina. . The implant will contain two silicon chips. This central loss of vision often makes it difficult to impossible to perform detailed work such as reading. Blindness can result from corneal diseases. initially from a tiny laser affixed to a pair of glasses. Retinitis Pigmentosa ranks number one in the world as a genetic form of blindness.2 million people sight. Age-related Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of blindness. The project seeks to develop a silicon chip eye implant that can restore vision for patients suffering from Retinitis Pigmentosa and Macular Degeneration. both within the "silicone capsule.
Jim Mann. Both the solar panel and circuit chip will be contained within a capsule.The visual signal will be sent to an "electrode array" that will transmit electric pulses to the eye's nerve cells. The one cent coin is slightly smaller than a British 1 penny coin. The solar panel measures 2 by 2 millimeters and consists of 12 photodiodes made of silicon connected in series. Light striking the panel causes ionization which produces charged ion pairs or current. I wish them and their future patients very good luck with it. Terry Hernden and Tony Soares at MIT-Lincoln Labs were instrumental in the design. . A bona fide ocular implant should be able to power itself. the photodiode array delivers approximately seven volts. Using near infrared wavelengths at intensities believed to be safe for the eye. [D] Solar Panel to Power Chip The image above shows a power chip placed on an American 1 cent coin. so this is a very tiny little power chip. A tiny solar panel solves the problem of supplying energy. fabrication and testing of the solar panel. An implant without that capability would necessitate surgery to replace batteries or have a wire emerge from the eye to supply electricity. I wish the inventors of this implant the very best luck with their fantastic Retinal Implant Project and I know that many people worldwide will have their lives changed forever by this implant. slightly more than needed to power the circuit chip that will transfer the visual signal to the retina. Voltage depends on the light's wavelength and intensity.
The EPI-RET Project There is world-wide currently no therapy for blind people with degenerated retina such as • • • Retinitis Pigmentosa Makular Degeneration Usher Syndrome In these cases. thereby enabling the group of patients affected by this disorder . The Retina Implant is a learning. the photosensitive cells of the retina (the photoreceptors) recede and the brain no longer receives sufficient information for visual perception. tunable visual prosthesis that bridges and replaces the defect functions of the retina.
the Retina Stimulator forwards the information via more than 100 microcontacts to the ganglion cells which are directly linked to the optic nerve. Our internet pages describe our special epiretinal approach with a learning encoder. In order to bridge the degenerated retina. e. The aim is the production of a learning visual prosthesis and provide the corresponding implantation and training methods. The signals are transmitted wireless to the implanted Retina Stimulator. funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Science BMBF.the Implant The Retina Stimulator is a flexible microcontact foil consisting of a receiver for the signals produced by the Retina Encoder and stimulation microcontacts with their corresponding controlling devices to stimulate the retinal ganglion cells. The Retina Encoder together with a photosensor array for pattern reception and a transmitter for the transmission of signals and energy are housed in a pair of glasses. SUB-RET). The person wearing the implant can interactively alter its function so as to procuce the best possible perception. The Retina Implant of the EPI-RET Project has two basic components: The Retina Encoder . Currently. are working on the development of a Retina Implant to replace the defect functions.g.to regain modest visual perception. The Retina Stimulator . two German research consortia (EPI-RET vs.the "Intelligence" The Retina Encoder is a learning neural computer that transforms a visual scene into nerve signals. The Retina Stimulator that is implanted into the eye can be removed and the modules integrated into the frame of the pair of glasses. just like the retina used to do. the Retina . the project: EPI-RET.
for example in the case of future updates. . can be exchanged. People affected by retinal degeneration can thereby expect to gain a significant lasting improvement in their quality of life. The person wearing the Retina Implant will be able to independently orientate himself again.Encoder. move freely in an unfamiliar environment and identify and perceive the form and location of larger objects.
is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis. such as a microphone or a gas sensor.” funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).” For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success. according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office. and would conceivably surveil an environment and detect explosives or gas Similarly. which could carry one or more sensors. guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 meters of a specific end point. In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy. the cybernetic bug must remain in place. Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies. . “The intimate control of insects with embedded microsystems will enable insect cyborgs. researchers demonstrated the “first wireless flying-insect cyborg. and even pigeons. moths. sharks. DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks.” Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle. it must fly 100 meters from a starting point. The goal for HI-MEMS. The shark's unique senses would be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement and underwater explosives. beetles. The success of the Beetle Borg has sparked an onslaught of research and the creation of a program called Hybird Insect MEMS or HI-MEMS. The insect's motion would be controlled from a MEMS. or Micro-Electro-Mechanical System. DARPA has announced its interest in developing "cyborg insects" to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. to relay back information gathered from the target destination.MAJOR APPLICATIONS In the military Military organizations' research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for inter-species relationships for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. bees. rats. Once landed.
• OTHER APPLICATIONS • Velcro is the most famous example of biomimetics. opening up when the wearer is warm and sweating. "I wanted a nonliving system which would respond to changes in moisture by changing shape". Pinecones respond to higher humidity by opening their scales (to disperse their seeds). rendered: microscopic view . Cat's eye reflectors were invented by Percy Shaw in 1935 after studying the mechanism of cat eyes. and shutting tight when cold. which their design does by covering the wings with fish-inspired scales that could slide over each other. Julian Vincent drew from the study of pinecones when he developed in 2004 "smart" clothing that adapts to changing temperatures. Resilin is a replacement for rubber that has been created by studying the material also found in anthropods. which was capable of reflecting the tiniest bit of light. The morphing wings were inspired by different bird species that have differently shaped wings according to the speed at which they fly. but most are very small — the pinecone is the largest and therefore the easiest to work on". the researchers needed to make the overlying skin also be able to change. "Morphing aircraft wings" that change shape according to the speed and duration of flight were designed in 2004 by biomimetic scientists from Penn State University. known as tapetum lucidum. The "smart" fabric does the same thing. "There are several such systems in plants. He had found that cats had a system of reflecting cells. In 1948. In order to change the shape and underlying structure of the aircraft wings. Leonardo da Vinci's flying machines and ships are early examples of drawing from nature in engineering. • • • • • Lotus leaf surface. In some respects this is a refinement of the swing-wing design. the Swiss engineer George de Mestral was cleaning his dog of burrs picked up on a walk when he realized how the hooks of the burrs clung to the fur. he said.
in Harare was modeled after a termite mound to achieve very efficient passive cooling.a. Chiral Photonics. This research in bionics may also be used to create more efficient helicopters or miniature UAVs. The cooling system of the Eastgate Centre building. Similar statements were also made by John Videler and Eize Stamhuis in their book Avian Flight  and in the article they present in Science about LEV's . The wing structure of the blue morpho butterfly was studied and the way it reflects light was mimicked to create an RFID tag that can be read through water and on metal Neuromorphic chips. twisted glass fiber. crawl and fly). Synthetic or "robotic" vegetation. new aircraft designs with far greater agility and other advantages may be created. UC Berkeley as well as ESA have finally also been working in a similar direction and created the Robofly (a miniature UAV)and the Entomopter (a UAV which can walk. This latter was stated by Bret Tobalske in an article in Science about Hummingbirds. Inc. that change color with temperature changes. using bionics research. has wiring that is modelled after real neural networks. Computer viruses also show troubling similarities with biological viruses in their way to curb program-oriented information towards self-reproduction and dissemination. • • • • • • • • • . which is electronics using photons as the information carrier instead of electrons. has abstracted the selfassembled structure of the organic CLCs to produce analogous optical devices using tiny lengths of inorganic. This has been described by Geoff Spedding and Anders Hedenström in an article in Journal of Experimental Biology. S. Bret Tobalske has thus now started work on creating these miniature UAVs which may be used for espionage.• Some paints and roof tiles have been engineered to be self-cleaning by copying the mechanism from the Nelumbo lotus] Nanostructures and physical mechanisms that produce the shining color of butterfly wings were reproduced in silico by Greg Parker. Through the field of bionics.: connectivity. Medical adhesives involving glue and tiny nano-hairs are being developed based on the physical structures found in the feet of geckos. silicon retinae or cochleae. They change color because their molecules are arranged in a helical or chiral arrangement and with temperature the pitch of that helical structure changes. Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) are the thin-film material often used to fabricate fish tank thermometers or mood rings. reflecting different wavelengths of light. which aids in conservation and restoration. John Videler and Eize Stamhuis have since worked out real-life improvements to airplane wings. professor of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton and research student Luca Plattner in the field of photonics. are machines designed to mimic many of the functions of living vegetation.
Int. Information Technology. M.duke. Sci.html#Neuroscience_-_Neural_Plasticity_in ^ Nelumbo lotus inspiration for self-cleaning paint ^ RFID Through Water and on Metal with 99. http://www. 31 May 2005.) SUB-RET phase 2. mondo a colori con l'aiuto di "Eye-borg"". (2005). Cristina. Dept. La Repubblica. RFID Radio ^ Woodley. Nadotti. 19 January 2005. ^ Avian Flight book ^ Videler. Stamhuis and Povel LEV-article in Science-magazine ^ Bret Tobalske's Hummingbird-research ^ Robofly UAV ^ ESA's biomimetics program ^ Mail Online.9% Reliability (Episode 015). A. Bonn. Greg. Tech. Environ. Dept. J. "Synthetic Vegetation: An Ecosystem Prosthesis". Summer 1982 ^ *Wade. "Seeing things in a different light".com/implant._MendozaElias/Research_Interests.REFERENCES • • • • • ^ Registre El Maresme Issue 224.deafblind.html#e1 Project Description EPI-RET Phase 1 (1995-1999) (Financial Project Management: Berlin.edu/~jme17/Joshua_E. 6 May 2010 ^ Nichi-In classification of biomimetics in medicine . • • • • • • • • • • • ^ http://www. 2:4. Health. BBC.) DLR. • Project Description EPI-RET Phase 2 (2000-2003) (Financial Project Management: alternative approach DLR. 395–398. "Daltonici.
al.• ^ Atul Kumar et. Tetrahedron Letters. 7857–60.48 2007. HbA/H2O2: an efficient biomimetic catalytic system for the oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides".] .
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