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Module 5: FOOD SERVICE BUSINESS The Varied Field of Food Service

The word restaurant covers a broad range of food service operations. The term comes from the French word restaurant, meaning restorer of energy. The term was used as early as the mid-1700s to describe public places that offered soup and bread. Today, any public place that specializes in the sale of prepared food for consumption on or off premises can be described as a restaurant. Food away from home may be purchased in a variety of locations. This speaks to the size and scope of the food service industry that includes employee cafeterias, convenience stores, traditional restaurants, hotel facilities, casinos, and taverns, among others. The other major food service sector, on-site food service (sometimes referred to as institutional food service), represents a smaller but equally important part of the greater food service industry. This part of the industry is composed of contractors and caterers (who serve food in places such as manufacturing plants and office buildings, health care facilities, and schools and colleges) and those institutions that own and operate their own food service. Learning Objectives After completing this module, you should be able to: 1. Define food service and describe each of the characteristics types of food service establishment 2. Define the terms dining market and eating market, and describe the major kinds of restaurant operations in each 3. Define the contemporary popular priced restaurant and explain the categories of each kind of operation 4. Compare dining market, eating market and contemporary popular priced restaurant in terms of price level and meal experience 5. Describe factors that make variation among foodservice establishments 6. Define form of ownership of restaurant 7. Describe the trends in foodservice business

Discussion points: 1. Define what foodservice is and define each of the following characteristics types of foodservice establishments and cite 1 (one) example of each! Food service is in US English or Cathering Industry (British English) defines those businesses, institutions, and companies responsiblefor any meal prepared outside the home( The provision of food and drink ready for consumption away from home. Became popular as take away restaurant. Professor S Medlik(in Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry (1978) London: Heinemann) recognized this problem and defined a catering establishment:

2|Page 1. The goods sold are usually consumed on the premises 2. The buyer is able to determine the quantity of the goods purchased in a retail shop, but in a catering unit the caterer determines quantity, i.e. portion size 3. The caterer also determines quality as in most cases the customer orders the meal without seeing it before the order is placed. 4. The caterer is a processor of materials as well as retailer of goods 5. In general, the caterer holds less stock and there is a shorter time between receipt of raw materials to point of sale than most retailer.( Peter Jones: Food Service Operations: Cassell) Food service is an integral and vital part of the North American Way. Americans. Food away from home may be purchased in a variety of locations. This speaks to the size and scope of the food service industry that includes employee cafeterias, convenience stores, traditional restaurants, hotel facilities, casinos, and taverms, among others For some years, the biggestv growth in food service has been in operations such as takeout, frive-trough, and delivery, which we will call collectively off-premise sales.

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Limited menu

a kind of ala carte menu in which the menu can be modified by the diner Read more: ZFQiBvgm

Theme restaurant

restaurants in which the concept of the restaurant takes priority over everything else, influencing the architecture, food, music, and overall 'feel' of the restaurant. The food usually takes a backseat to the presentation of the theme, and these restaurants attract customers solely on the premise of the theme itself.


a type of food service location in which there is little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school; a school dining location is also referred to as a dining hall or canteen (in UK English) For legal purposes (and the consumption patterns of customers), this system is rarely or never used for alcoholic beverages in the USA



What is a diner?
The question has been asked many times. What, exactly, is the definition of a diner? for my own part, I have often stuck to the party line of 24 hour breakfast, or else I've offered some half-hearted claim that I know a diner when I see one, but to try to describe definite characteristics which make one restaurant a diner while another is not is somewhat difficult, to say the least. However, I'd like to make some attempt here to define (or perhaps interpret) what a diner is. For one thing, there are a number of characteristics which many diners share. Most are open 24 hours a day, or at least extremely late, and serve breakfast for the whole time. Most serve coffee (black as death) as a staple. Another typical characteristic is one of several themes: Hellenic, Neon '50's, or Abandoned Train Car. Fare ranges from American to Italian to Greek, but any diner will be able to give you cole slaw, pickles, some sorts of pastries, waffles, coffee (this point bears repeating), grilled cheese and so forth. Finally, typical diners have jukeboxes at tables, or somesuch. But, though these qualities can be found in many diners, there are some which possess few, or perhaps none, of them. It becomes rather tricky to say which of these attributes are strictly necessary to be a diner, and which are merely unexpected treats, turning an otherwise pleasant diner into a great one. Calling oneself a diner is insufficient. The Penn-Can Restaurant and Truckstop, for example, makes no such claim, but in visiting it, one becomes instantly aware that this is a diner of no mean standing. The Ramapo Forum Diner, on the other hand, while certainly a good place to eat, left me with some doubt that it was anything other than a family restaurant. An even more insidious example of a restaurant masquerading as a diner is the Tiffany Diner near Philadelphia. In this case, an early closing family restaurant adopts the title of diner for some evil purpose of which I have no clear


understanding. However, despite the elaborate deceptions set up to beguile and confuse us, I think that a couple of things can be said with reasonable assurance. The first is that diners can be roughly divided into two type: The Suburban, and the Highway. The former is usually a restaurant which is open late (if not 24 hours), which caters to the old folks, or the high school kids, and, late at night, to the worst elements (such as my friends). The latter, however, is what the purists idealize when they talk of diners. They spring up to serve the needs of travelers and truckers; two groups which may need sustenance (and especially coffee) at any hour of day or night, and who can only survive the consumption of fast food for so long. Some purists, therefore, may consider only the Highway diner to be a true diner, but I have to disagree. While no doubt the call for Suburban diners is different than that of Highway diners, the reason is the same: People need somewhere cheap, bustling, good, and yes, even greasy, where they can meet, eat, talk, and so on. After all, who can go to a true diner and not people watch? A regrettable side effect of all of this is that the line between the Suburban diner and the family restaurant has been blurred, and as such, people sometimes can't tell the difference. In that case, remember: If you are in complete doubt, look for speckled formica, linoleum, stainless steel and moldy wood. Chances are, if you find all of them in the same eating establishment, you've found yourself a genuine diner.
5 Tops restaurant Neighborho od restaurant Vending

2. Define the terms dining market and eating market! Describe the characteristics and explain the major kinds of restaurant operations under each market!

5|Page Building upon this, we can say that restaurants serve both our social needs. We can divide restaurants into those serving predominantly our social needs (the dining market) and those serving our biological needs (the eating market). Nearly all meals eaten in the company of others have a social dimension, just as the most formal state dinner has its biological aspect. The main purpose, however, is usually clear Dining Well People dine out for a variety of reasons, including to escape from boredom, to socialize, to avoid drudgery, to be waited on, to have foods different from those served at home, and for convenience Because dining( as opposed to eating) is predominantly a social event, service is important. Servers are expected to be friendly, as signified by a warm smile, and accurate. The role of the server is, therefore, much more than a mechanical one. In the relatively expensive restaurants serving the dining market, the operation that falls short on service is likely to lose customers quickly. (Service is discussed in more detail in the final chapter of the book). Fine-Dining Restaurant Most full service, fine dining establishments are small, independent operations, some seating fewer than 100 guests, which is quite small by todays standards. Despite their modest capacities, these restaurants succeed(or dont) because of their quality. Excellence is the absolute prerequisite in fine dining because the prices charged are necessarily high. An operator may do everything possible to make the restaurant efficient, but the guests still expect careful, personal service: food prepared to order by highly skilled chefs and delivered ny expert servers. Because this service is, quite literally, manual labor, only marginal improvements in productivity are possible. For example, a cook, server, bartender can move only so much faster before she ar he reaches the limits These distinguished operations generally require the right combination of threeelements: a large market, skilled workers, and devoted management. First, because of the high prices they must charge, most are located in or near large population centers or in major tourism areas where there is a sufficiently large number of people with highincomes to ensure a satisfactory sales volume. Fine dining accounts for only about2 percent of total food service sales each year, but the majority of its customers are re-peat customers. Getting and

6|Page keeping customers is critical in most segments but is par-ticularly important in fine dining. A second requirement of these restaurants is having qualified personnel: chefs,servers, and the like with highly polished skills. It was, for a time, difficult to find thiskind of staff, but the growth in culinary education and training programs has reduced the shortage somewhat. People with these skills are most likely to be found in largemetropolitan areas, although there are some obvious exceptions to this generalization. A third and most important requirement for successful fine-dining restaurants is aspecial devotion from the key operating personnel, especially the owners and/or man-agers. The hours tend to be long, and the owners, although they may be amply com-pensated, generally devote their lives to their work.As we have already noted, fine-dining sales have been falling for the last twodecades due to a growing preference for all things casual. According to a study by magazine, 40 percent of respondents reported that they haddined less in fine dining restaurants than in the previous year. Casual Upscale Dining Casual dining appeals to consumers on many levels. In fact, the casual segment can be further segmented by price and service level. Casual up-scale dining represents those restaurants that are at the top end of the casual segment. They may even be referred to as casual fine dining. The Eating Market and Its Dynamics Take out Drivetrough

3. Define the contemporary popular priced restaurant! Give explanation for the categories of each kinds of operation and draw the comparison with dining and eating market based on the price level and meal experience.

4. Explain factors that make differences of one foodservice to another. 5. 4. French service = reserved untuk haute cuisine (elegant) resto.makanannya di arranged di platter dan disajikan kepada tamu,setelah persiapan sudah komplit di gueridon table di samping

7|Page kursi para tamu.gueridon table adalah trolley seperti meja dengan gas burner untuk table side cooking. 6. -russian service = makanannya di masak di kitchen,ditata di serving dish,dan diberi garnished.kemudian hidangan disajikan pada tamu dan dihidangkan secara individually dengan cara mengangkat makanan menggunakan nampan dengan tangan sendiri dan menyajikannya tepat pada para tamu.biasanya alat makan para tamu telah dipersiapkan terlebih dahulu pada meja. 7. American service = terdiri dari sedikit Russian service techniques.makanan disiapkan dan dihidangkan secara individual plate di kitchen,di bawa ke dining room,dan disajikan pada para tamu.metode ini lebih popular daripada Russian service karena metode ini lebih cepat dan para tamu dapat menikmati makanannya sesuai dengan pesanannya.karena pelayanannya yang cepat maka juga harus diperhatikan kualitas pelayanannya.semakain baik pelayanannya akan semakin membuat para tamu tertarik untuk datang kembali dan dapat juga meningkatkan pendapatan tip yang banyak. 8. 9. Food service industry has expanded globally in recent years. This article provides an empirical study on the identification of the critical success factors of food service operations and the restaurant industry. Research objective was to develop factors for food service industry/restaurants in order to identify key dimensions in determining consumer choice. The primary instrument was developed through a thorough and detailed analysis of the literature followed by qualitative research. A quantitative survey with a sample of 300 participants, followed. A seven-factor, 24-item measure was extracted from the purification process. A second stage analysis followed with new data collected for the study from a sample of 400. The final structure included six factors consisting of 14 items. The factors labeled as (a) Adaptation to Locality, (b) Service, (c) Facilities, (d) Food Quality, (e) Place to Be, and (g) Sales Incentive Program. Reliability and construct validity were established using coefficient alpha measures and confirmatory factor analysis. Success factors can be used by researchers and marketing managers to help them better understand market and consumer behavior. 10. 11. ther&source=bl&ots=bJoWEY9Ygj&sig=kIJrT4sDXQHbB6flATUP98OnD0&hl=id#v=onepage&q&f=true 12.

13.Explain the 3 (three) forms of ownership of the restaurant and give example! Chains strengths include the following: Site selection expertise

8|Page Economies of scale Name/brand recognition Relatively easy access to capital Centralized control and information systems Personnel training programs The independents flexibility, the motivation of its owner, and the owners closeness to the operation all affect its success The key to recognition for the independent is quality food and service Independents enjoy the flexibility inherent in having only one boss or a small partnership Independents must differentiate their menus, service style, ambience, atmosphere, and the owners personal identity to stay competitive. Franchises offers an investor a proven way of doing business Business format franchising includes the use of products, service, and other systems and standards associated with the business The franchisee has full day-to-day operating control and responsibility New franchisee services include screening, site selection and planning, preopening training, and operations manuals Continuing services include operating and control procedures, information management, quality control, training, field support, purchasing, marketing, advertising, new products, and new concepts 1. Partnership A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more parties who join to carry on a trade or business. Each party contributes money, property, labor or skill and expects to share in the profit and losses of the business - sharing profits - two heads are better than one - liability issues - management and control 2. Franchising Franchising is essentially buying a pre built restaurant and the ideals and name that come with it. Franchisees not only use a franchiser's product, service, and trademark, but also the complete method for conducting the business, such as the marketing plan and operations manuals - as practiced in retailing, franchising offers franchisees the advantage of starting up a new business quickly based on a proven trademark and formula of doing business, as opposed to having to build a new business and brand from scratch - for some constumers, having franchises offer a consistent product or service makes life easier, they know what to expect when entering a franchised establishment - too many franchises in one place can become an eyesore 3. Leasing

9|Page Most restaurant most commonly use the Ground Lease. Ground means that tenant pays for long term use of a specified property for an period of time, usually 2-5 years - leasing is less capital - intensive - capital assets may fluctuate in value - leasing may provide more flexibility to a business - if the succesful, lessors may demand higher rent payments

14.Explore the latest trends in foodservice business!

SUMBER /article/id/11900270

The food services industry: trends and challenges in a globalized world

One of the services industries served by Egon Zehnder International is the catering or food services industry - a well established worldwide business with a number of large international players, as well as many national and regional companies. Several of the international players have grown through acquisition of regional players, leading to international groups that work through local brand names (Compass Group, Sodexho, Aramark and others). Other companies have used their strong brand name and a franchise formula to grow an international organization (YUM! Brands). Food services companies generally employ large numbers of staff in relation to turnover (see table) and are focused on creating a service experience and atmosphere around food. These companies are extremely sensitive to food security and quality. A recent trend in the industry is for companies to consider outsourcing food production and focusing instead on sales, service, and logistics. This is the "make or buy" paradigm that has been tackled in numerous manufacturing industries in recent years. But while other industries employing large numbers of assembly workers can transfer some of the work to low-cost locations, this is less practicable in the food services industry due to issues inherent in the products, such as food security and decay. In terms of organizational structure, food services companies tend to opt for market specialization. This applies not only to local players but also to global ones such as LSG Skychefs. The specialized market segments include: Contract catering - "Managing the organisation's lunch room" (business/industry, government, healthcare, seniors, education)

Concession catering - "Gaining access to specific public spaces" (motorways, airports, railway stations, leisure sites, exhibition centers)

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An overview of major international players reveals that the industry is primarily based in Europe and America. Asia does not seem to have developed the catering industry, although Compass Group has targeted Asia as its growth market for the future. Traditionally, internal promotion or acquisition of good management talent through M&A activity was seen as the way to succeed in the catering industry. However, in recent years key players such as Sodexho Alliance and Compass Group have been struggling to produce healthy financial results, leading to disappointing share performance. The arrival of Jacques Petry at Sodexho Alliance as Senior Vice-President Europe could be a first indication that the industry is gearing up to reenergize its management teams and attract talent from the outside. Succession planning has also emerged as a real need in the industry, as current leaders approach the end of their tenure. SUMBER Eating Trends This paper will focus on five eating trends:
1. 2. 3. 4.

The money spent at food service establishments. The role of convenience in consumers' food and restaurant selections. The increasing demand for meal variety. The importance of food safety in consumers' shopping patterns. Trend 1: Money Spent at Foodservice Establishments Continues to Grow During the last 10 years there have been noticeable changes in the eating habits of Americans. These changes have been reflected in increases of money spent at foodservice establishments compared with money spent on in-home meals. However, this does not mean that fewer meals are eaten at home. On the contrary, the number of meals has not changed, just the origin or substance of those meals. The growing availability of take-out meals from restaurants well illustrates this trend. This not only allows the customer to eat at home, but satisfies another of the recent trends in eating: people craving high quality meals with short to no preparation time. Trend 2: Convenience Is King The rise in convenience foods over the last 10 years has been illustrated in the steady growth of fast-food chains in the United States. The broad success of the cell phone is symbolic of Americans' greater mobility. This on-the-run mentality has created the need for quick, easy-to-prepare foods. The increase in single parent households, women in the workplace, and the amount of disposable income of teenagers have added to the need for ready-to-eat meals. Convenience foods need to be easy to make for any age group, with easy cleanup and little or no waste. Most meals are eaten on-the-go, so the ability to hold the food item with one hand and the freedom to eat without utensils are important. Trend 3: Healthy Is "In" Another trend in U.S. eating habits is the desire for healthy meals. Whether eating at home or out, consumers are starting to demand healthy alternatives to the usual menu

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fair. This change has been spawned by increased public awareness of heart disease, cancer, and other illnesses. Along with disease awareness has come public education on disease prevention--most of all, by modification of the diet. People now take into account more than ever the amount of calories, fat, and sodium consumed. Other popular concerns include all natural ingredients and use of organic produce. Trend 4: More Than Just Meat and Potatoes In addition to healthy foods, consumers are requesting more multicultural meals. With minority populations growing at increasing rates, the mobility of consumers, and the globalization of the marketplace, consumer tastes are broadening to include many different cultures. For example, a decade ago Mexican restaurants were few and farbetween but have now joined Italian and Chinese restaurants in the mainstream market (Mills, 2000). With Hispanic and African-American populations on the rise in the United States, additional changes for the restaurant industry are imminent. Trend 5: Is Our Food Safe? Lastly, there has been increased public concern about food safety. After outbreaks such as the E. coli O157:h7 in ground beef at Jack-in-the-Box restaurants and the amplified use of genetically modified foods, consumers are looking for assurances that their food is safe and that its safety is maintained throughout the cooking process.

Source: Everybody has to eat, so changes involving the food industry are important to all of us. Restaurants and other food-service enterprises are big business. By the year 2000, over three-quarters of a million locations will be offering food service in the United States, with sales of over $350 billion (about 4.5% of U.S. gross domestic product). Over half of all consumer food dollars will be spent eating out. Here we will summarize some of the present and future changes in food service. Demographic Trends And Implications * The world's population is expected to double in the next 40 years. To adequately meet human nutritional needs over the next 40 years, global agriculture will have to supply the same amount of food that was previously produced throughout the entire history of humanity. * By 2000, the spending power of African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans will increase by approximately $300 billion. Minorities will use their increased economic power to influence new choices in foods and services to reflect their own tastes and lifestyles. * Children aged 5-15 and adults 45-54 are the fastest-growing segments of the American population, while the percentage of people aged 25 to 34 will shrink over the next decade. More "kid friendly" restaurants will emerge. * The elderly population will grow to approximately 11.5% of the total population by 2000, offering restaurants and food services a growing pool of mature, experienced workers. As customers, older persons will likely increase demand for less-spicy foods, smaller portions, easy-to-read menus, and brighter dining rooms. Sales of dietetic foods and foods specially prepared for older persons will increase.

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* Contrary to popular belief, the United States is not becoming increasingly polarized between rich and poor, and it is not losing the middle class. Instead, the movement is toward one big middle class, with fewer very poor and fewer very wealthy individuals. Restaurants offering good value and "something for everyone" will likely flourish in the decade ahead. Values and Lifestyles of Eaters * More than one-half of all adults are food-service patrons on a typical day. One-half of all adults also say that their lives are too stressful, so convenience, easy-going service, and relaxing atmosphere will be the order of the day for restaurants. * The number of adult Americans working at home is estimated at 20 million-39 million; that number will increase as the price of office equipment drops and as technology improves, increasing people's access to the information superhighway. "Free Delivery" may become the most seductive slogan for food services marketing to home workers. * The number of people working at night will increase slightly: International competition increasingly calls for work to be performed during hours that match business hours in different time zones. More night workers will likely create a demand for more 24-hour food services. * The majority of families now depend on two salaries. While this leads to greater affluence, greater time constraints are placed upon these working couples in the process. Working couples will increasingly demand the convenience of picking up fully prepared meals on the way home--or having family meals routinely catered. * The proportion of Americans who are nutrition-conscious and who order healthy items when dining in restaurants has increased. One impact is that Americans are importing Japanese foods and cooking techniques, which are perceived as healthy choices. * Environmental concerns of consumers will be reflected by the restaurants they choose to patronize. -- Look for more ecosensitive packaging systems for food in fast-service restaurants. -- Food services will become more innovative in reducing waste be-home. Consumers are using restaurants for more in-house meals, a strong indicator of the demand for time-saving convenience. The opportunity for restaurants and other food services is to increase takeout offerings and to enhance eaters' perceptions of takeout/delivered foods. * Men spend 40% of the U.S. food dollar, which includes restaurant meals. Men will pick up more of their share of domestic burdens, including the food shopping. Manufacturers and grocery stores should start to gear their products and product mix to males. * Home-shopping programs on TV will allow us to purchase retail products and have them delivered to our homes; delivery within all segments of the food-service industry is quickly becoming a standard. * One outstanding feature of the house of the future will be a special refrigerated storage area opening from both the inside of the house and the outside. Grocery stores and takeout services will be able to deliver food directly to this refrigerated space when you're not home. * The proliferation of the drive-through lifestyle will spawn "hand-held foods." You'll use your hand-held cellular phone or fax in your car to order food that you can then easily hold and eat while driving.

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* The trend in "just-in-time" service will hit home in the form of the ultimate "meals on wheels." Mobile menus will cater to a variety of tastes, as restaurant-style meals are brought to the home and cooked en route. The Business of Food Service * Even the finest restaurants will serve more foods partly prepared off-premise, to be completed in the restaurants' own kitchens. Look for greater use of "cook-chill" technology in bringing quality food products from outside. * In 1994, there were more than 9 million people employed in the U.S. food-service industry, and it is expected to reach 10 million by the year 2000. * Long stereotyped as the domain of teenage boys, the food-delivery business is attracting a growing number of workers in their late 20s and over 50. * Restaurants will use increasing numbers of illiterate people and provide their training, especially in reading skills and basic math. * "Cyber trainers and cyber servers" will provide instructions remotely via telecommunications. For example, a master baker will monitor and instruct workers in a bakery through video- and audio-conferencing technologies. Restaurants will be able to remotely consult seasoned "Superstar Servers" to assist inexperienced servers trying to handle their increasingly demanding customers. * Information systems linked to smart production equipment and robots will prepare foods as soon as orders are taken; for example, robots will drop the french-fry basket into the deep fryer or start broiling burgers when an order is taken and entered into the computer system, then send it on to fast pickup. Even gourmet restaurants will approach fast-food efficiency. * Technologies will enable self-service and self-paying at restaurants, similar to some grocery stores; look for the "cashierless cafe." * Cashless credit/debit systems of payment will proliferate. All transactions will be conducted via "smart cards" containing all possible customer information. This information will be collected and used for more efficient target marketing. More Food-Service Industry Opportunities * For airlines, the trend in first and business class is on entertainment and gastronomy as an experience. In economy class, the emphasis will be on simple, ready-made meals or no meal service. Some airlines will increasingly encourage customers to buy food in the terminal to eat on the plane. * Growth of prisons will increase demand for institutional food service. Electronic order and delivery will supplement "prison food." * More states will follow Rhode Island's lead, turning their entire state over to contract management for school food service. * Look for a huge expansion of retirement communities with restaurant-delivered meals to residents. * Look for combinations of food service and retailing. Many non-restaurant facilities are serving food. Some examples of this currently are: -- bookstore/coffee shops -- casual restaurant/clothing sales -- grocery store/food service -- home furnishings/food service

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* Restaurant products will be increasingly sold in grocery stores, convenience stores, gas stations, airplanes, and retail outlets. Examples: Philip's Crabhouse tartar sauce, Wolfgang Puck's pizzas, and Chi-Chi's salsa in supermarkets. * Fast food is capturing a growing share of eating-place sales (from 28.6% in 1970 to 47.3% in 1994). -- Fast food is now the largest eating-place sector, with sales expected to reach $86 billion in 1994, slightly outdistancing sales at full-service restaurants ($85.5 billion). -- The rapid growth in franchising, especially in nontraditional sites, adds to increasing the fierce competition that already exists in the fast-food market. * Convenience stores are undergoing a bimodal distribution: The big get bigger, the small survive, and the middle-sized are squeezed out. -- Consumer lifestyle trends will continue to place a premium on convenient shopping attractions: e.g., Tiger Mart convenience stores at Exxon gas stations. -- With a trend toward fewer and larger convenience stores, consumers will confront new forms of inconvenience, in terms of location and store size. -- Convenience stores will get more competition as grocery stores, gas stations, and other food-service providers adopt convenience-store operating characteristics, such as 24-hour operation, express checkouts, and even convenience store-within-a-store concepts. Conclusion As we approach the twenty-first century, a multitude of challenges face the food-service industry. Consumers will continue to be more demanding in the future, especially in service. They have less time and are too rushed to prepare meals. In addition to heightened demand for convenience, the percentage of consumers who are concerned about nutrition-but who are taste-conscious and occasion-driven when eating out-has risen. Food establishments will have the challenge of securing an image of satisfying customer nutrition needs and providing new tastes to excite customers. RELATED ARTICLE: Food Therapy Could restaurants start competing with drugstores for business? Will future pharmacies stock fresh produce? Consumers are increasingly seeking foods that have medicinal value, according to a new book. Poor diet is believed to be the single-biggest contributor to heart disease and may be responsible for about 30% of cancers, according to New Choices in Natural Healing. "More and more, researchers are learning how the way we eat can influence our physical and emotional health, playing a leading role in scores of other diseases-everything from arthritis to wrinkles," according to the book. But changing one's diet could reverse these problems. According to research at Northwestern University Medical School, going on a low-fat diet may be as effective in reducing heart-attack risk as a low-fat diet combined with cholesterol-lowering medication. "With a low-fat diet, especially one free of animal food sources and . . . junk foods, you'll see all kinds of welcome changes," says Michael A. Klaper, director of the Institute of Nutritional Education and Research in Manhattan Beach, California. "Joints often stop hurting. Asthma frequently improves. Psoriasis can get much better or completely disappear. You start to see that there is a large group of diseases with an inflammatory component that is improved with diet."

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In addition to a low-fat diet in general, some specific food therapies recommended in the book include: * Grapefruit for colds. * Carrots or pumpkin for acne. * Pumpkin seeds for prostate problems. * Yogurt for canker sores. * Oranges for hangovers. * Cayenne pepper for bronchitis. * Pineapple for bursitis. Source: New Choices in Natural Healing: Over 1,800 of the Best Self-Help Remedies from the World of Alternative Medicine edited by Bill Gottlieb. Rodale Press, Inc., 33 East Minor Street, Emmaus, Pennsylvania 18098. Telephone 610/967-8545; fax 610/967-8962. 687 pages. $27.95. Marvin J. Cetron is the founder and president of Forecasting International, Ltd., 1001 North Highland Street, Arlington, Virginia 22210. Telephone 703/527-1311. He will be speaking at "Future Vision: Ideas, Insights, and Strategies," the World Future Society's Eighth General Assembly, to be held July 14-18, 1996, in Washington, D.C. Frederick J. DeMicco is an associate professor and associate director of hotel, restaurant, and institutional management at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. John A. Williams is a graduate assistant in the hotel, restaurant, and institutional management program at Pennsylvania State University.

Trend Bisnis Jasa Boga Secara Umum dalam Usaha Catering

Apr.25, 2010 in Aspek Teknis Usaha, Pengetahuan Umum, Tips dan Triks Usaha, Usaha Bidang Jasa Industri Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering tidak diketahui secara pasti kapan mulai berkembangnya, karena industri ini dapat dilakukan dari skala kecil sampai besar. Keberadaan industri Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering di Indonesia bermula dari hobi memasak yang kemudian diikuti oleh permintaan makanan secara rantangan. Perkembangan Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering selanjutnya menurut beberapa sumber industri Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering terus berkembang mengikuti perkembangan sektor pengkonsumsinya yaitu sektor rumah tangga, sektor industri, pertambangan, pengeboran minyak, transportasi/penerbangan, perkantoran, rumah sakit dan lain-lain. Perkembangan industri manufaktur di dalam negeri khususnya industri padat karya telah membuka peluang bagi usahaJasa Boga / Usaha Catering berupa penyediaan makanan untuk karyawan. Karena dalam prakteknya tidak semua perusahaan mampu menyediakan makanan buat karyawannya, apalagi perusahaan pertambangan yang lokasinya jauh dari pemukiman. Perusahaan penerbangan yang perlu kerja cepat serta pabrik-pabrik padat karya membutuhkan penyediaan makanan untuk penumpang ataupun karyawannya secara kontinyu, serempak, cepat serta dalam jumlah banyak, telah mendorong industri Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering berkembang. Selain itu

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belakangan ini beberapa rumah sakit swasta juga telah menyerahkan pengadaan menu makanan untuk pasien maupun karyawannya kepada perusahaan Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering. Penyelenggaraan jamaah haji di Indonesia yang merupakan kejadian tahunan, juga membutuhkan dukungan penyediaan makanan dari industri Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering yang cukup besar. Kebutuhan makanan yang harus dipasok oleh industri Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering dalam penyelenggaraan haji Indonesia mulai dari masa persiapan hingga pemberangkatan sangat besar karena melibatkan ratusan ribu jamaah haji setiap tahunnya. Perkembangan pasar industri Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering di dalam negeri yang terus berkembang disebabkan oleh perkembangan sektor pengkonsumsinya yang cukup luas. Sektor industri Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering di Indonesia saat ini bukan hanya melayani sektor industri manufaktur, pertambangan, penyelenggaraan haji dan penerbangan tetapi juga oleh peristiwa-peristiwa insidentil seperti pesta pernikahan, ulang tahun, khitanan, syukuran bahkan oleh sektor perkantoran/karyawan. Begitu luasnya segmen pasar industri ini menyebabkan jumlah pelaku Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering dalam negeri terus berkembang sehingga jumlahnya mencapai ribuan. Jumlah perusahaan Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering selama tahun-tahun terakhir ini cenderung meningkat, meskipun senantiasa berfluktuasi karena ada perusahaan yang tutup dan ada juga perusahaan baru yang masuk.. Jumlah perusahaan Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering yang terdaftar baik yang berbadan hukum maupun tidak berbadan hukum pada tahun 1996 tercatat sebanyak 3.644 buah. Pada tahun 1997 jumlah perusahaan Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering mengalami penurunan menjadi 3.557 buah dan turun lagi tahun 1998 menjadi 2.578 buah. Pada tahun 1999 jumlah perusahaan Jasa Boga / Usaha Catering terlihat mulai meningkat lagi hingga pada tahun 2002 jumlahnya tercatat sebanyak 3.951 buah.

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