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Thin Solid Films 517 (2008) 148151

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Thin Solid Films

j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / t s f

GaAs on Ge for CMOS

G. Brammertz , M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, M. Leys
Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven, Belgium

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Selective epitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge is a prerequisite for the integration of GaAs and Ge in the sub-22 nm CMOS nodes. The problems encountered for epitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge are described and illustrated. Mainly the problem of anti-phase boundary (APB) formation is addressed. Selective epitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge with a SiO2 mask is discussed and selectively grown layers are characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, defect etching and photoluminescence spectroscopy. An optimized growth procedure is presented, which simultaneously reduces loading effects and APB creation. Low temperature photoluminescence measurements show the good quality of the selectively grown GaAs on Ge. 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Available online 15 August 2008 Keywords: GaAs Ge Epitaxy Selective epitaxy

1. Introduction As Si device scaling approaches the 22 nm node, more problems with straightforward device scaling become apparent. Therefore, several alternative channel materials, which possess inherent higher carrier mobility, are currently under study as replacement of Si as a channel material in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices [1]. One of the materials that promises a four times larger hole mobility as compared to Si is Ge. Recent results on short channel Ge pMOS transistors conrm the higher inherent performance of Ge [2]. For nMOS devices on the other hand, IIIV compound semiconductors possess the potential to improve transistor performance considerably, due to their much higher electron mobility as compared to Si. The major challenge is nevertheless the integration of these materials on large scale Si wafers in a planar technology. For the integration of IIIV semiconductors in the sub-22 nm nodes, epitaxial growth of the IIIV material on Ge or Si is a basic prerequisite. Fig. 1 shows a schematical view of the layout of a CMOS chip at the sub-22 nm mode, integrating Si CMOS as well as Ge pMOS and IIIV nMOS on a same wafer and at the same height. The condition of planar technology is an important one. Buffer layers with thickness larger than 1 m must be ruled out for this kind of technology and the growth of relatively thin (100200 nm) IIIV on Ge with good quality is a must. Lattice mismatch of the different materials to be integrated is therefore of importance, because generally the formation of growth defects due to lattice mismatch is highly undesirable. Therefore, GaAs and Ge are of somewhat particular interest, as they almost have an identical lattice constant, whereas all other IIIV semiconductors with reasonably large electron mobility present a very different lattice constant as compared to Si and Ge. Fig. 2 illustrates this statement, by showing the electron mobility of different semiconductors as a function of the lattice constant

of the crystal lattice. From this graph it becomes apparent that GaAs is the only IIIV with high electron mobility that can be grown directly on Ge with low lattice mismatch, enabling defect free growth of layers thicker than a few nanometer. This work gives an overview of the encountered problems when depositing GaAs on Ge and presents an initial study of selective epitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge. 2. Epitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge The main problem when growing polar GaAs on non-polar Ge is the formation of anti-phase domains (APD). These APDs are mainly two GaAs crystals rotated 90 with respect to one another and which are characterized by GaGa and AsAs bonds at their extremities, which are very active scattering centers. For electronic applications the formation of such GaGa and AsAs bonds must be omitted, as they reduce electron and hole mobility considerably. The problem arises because on a (001) Ge surface, the dimers on two adjacent Ge domains, separated by just one atomic step, are rotated 90 with respect to one another, causing the growth of GaAs on two adjacent steps with opposite phase [3]. Fig. 3 shows an optical microscope picture of an APD-containing GaAs layer, where the boundaries between the different domains were visualized with a CrO3-HF defect etch (a), as well as a cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) picture of a GaAs layer grown on Ge with APDs (b). For Metal-

Corresponding author. Fax: +32 16 28 1214. E-mail address: (G. Brammertz). 0040-6090/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2008.08.049

Fig. 1. Schematical representation of the co-integration of Ge and GaAs in a planar CMOS technology on large scale Si wafers.

G. Brammertz et al. / Thin Solid Films 517 (2008) 148151


the environment, will then result in GaAs layers without any APDs. The very large As partial pressure needs to be kept for the growth of a certain buffer layer of GaAs, typically 100 nm, in order to prevent too

Fig. 2. Room temperature electron mobility as a function of lattice constant for different semiconductors. The inset shows a close-up of the region with low electron mobility. The GaAs/Ge combination is the only reasonable t when it comes to growing heterostructures with low lattice mismatch.

Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) the solution to the APD problem consists of growing on a (001) Ge substrate miscut a few degrees (typically 6) towards either the (110) or the (111) plane [46]. In this way, on the growth surface, a very large density of single atomic steps is present. After a short bake at temperatures in excess of 650 C, these single atomic steps coalesce into double atomic steps that are energetically more stable. In this conguration all the adjacent domains on the Ge surface have all surface dimers in the same direction and not perpendicular to one another anymore. Flushing the so-annealed surface with either AsH3 or tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs) produces a Ge surface with a self-limiting monolayer of As, having all the surface dimers in the same direction. Because of the volatile nature of As, the ush needs to be performed in an environment with a very large As partial pressure, of the order of 3 Torr. Starting the GaAs nucleation on such a surface, by adding Trimethylgallium (TMGa) to

Fig. 3. Anti-phase boundaries at the GaAs surface visualized by defect etching in a HF CrO3 solution (a) and a cross-section TEM picture of a 300 nm thick GaAs lm with APDs grown on a Ge substrate (b).

Fig. 4. High resolution cross-section TEM picture of GaAs on Ge (a). XRD reciprocal space map of the (115) reection of 300 nm of GaAs on Ge (b). 77 K photoluminescence response of a 1 m thick layer of GaAs grown on Ge. Experimental data (dotted line), as well as theoretical t to the data (dashed line). The grey lines represent the different contributions to the t (c).


G. Brammertz et al. / Thin Solid Films 517 (2008) 148151

procedure as presented in the previous paragraph, very strong loading effects can be observed at the boundaries of the openings in the SiO2, as well as a certain amount of GaAs nucleation on larger areas of SiO2. In order to obtain a better selectivity and less loading effects the growth procedure for selective epitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge needs to be optimized. In general, lower growth pressures result in fewer loading effects and a smaller amount of nucleation on the mask area, but unfortunately, to start the GaAs nucleation on Ge, a very large partial pressure of As2 is needed in order to prevent APD growth. As a consequence, one needs to minimize the thickness of the GaAs buffer layer grown at high pressure. An optimization of the growth procedure was made [11], which resulted in a growth procedure consisting of the growth of an only 13 nm thick nucleation layer grown at high pressure, followed by the growth of high quality GaAs at a growth pressure as low as 30 Torr. Fig. 6 shows a

Fig. 5. SIMS prole of a 700 nm thick GaAs lm grown on Ge at 650 C with MOCVD.

much outdiffusion of As from the thin GaAs layer. This buffer layer is of somewhat lower quality, as it presents a lot of As antisite defects, due to the large As partial pressure in the growth environment. After the growth of this buffer layer, the As partial pressure can be gradually reduced in order to grow very high quality GaAs with a ratio of [TBAs]/ [TMGa] of about 15. A high resolution cross-section TEM micrograph of a very high quality MOCVD-grown GaAs layer on Ge is shown in Fig. 4(a), as well as an X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan of the (115) reection (b) and a 77 K photoluminescence (PL) spectrum (c). The quality of the GaAs is nearly perfect, with a complete defect free growth of the GaAs on the Ge substrate. Both the XRD spectrum and the photoluminescence spectrum show that the GaAs grows fully strained on the Ge substrate, causing a slight splitting of the light- and heavy-hole valence bands [7]. Only for GaAs layers thicker than 1 m, relaxation of the strain in the GaAs on Ge is observed, accompanied by the formation of defects in the material. For Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) deposition of GaAs on Ge, the solution to the problem seems much more complicated, as the physical evaporation of As2 used in MBE is not self- limiting to a monolayer coverage on the Ge surface, creating multiple As monolayers on the substrate, again resulting in the formation of APDs. Starting the growth procedure with a thin Ga prelayer of exactly one monolayer thickness was reported to be helpful for APD-density reduction in MBE-grown GaAs on Ge [8], but of course the control over the exact monolayer coverage of the Ge substrate is not obvious and total suppression of APD growth is probably impossible. A second problem that appears when growing GaAs on Ge is diffusion of Ge into the GaAs layer and Ga and As diffusion into the Ge layer. Ge is an n-type dopant in GaAs, whereas Ga is a p-type dopant in Ge and As an n-type dopant. The inter-diffusion of the species from the different layers can lead to the creation of unwanted pn-junctions, which can be harmful for electronic applications. Fig. 5 shows a secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurement of a 700 nm thick GaAs layer grown at 650 C on a Ge substrate with MOCVD. It can be observed that the rst 150 nm of GaAs contain a very important Ge concentration in excess of 1018 cm 3, which makes this layer strongly n-type doped. In order to reduce this problem, the growth of GaAs on Ge should be conducted at the lowest possible temperatures [9,10]. 3. Selective epitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge The co-integration of both GaAs and Ge in a planar technology requires selective epitaxial growth of GaAs on Ge. A rst study with MOCVD-grown GaAs was performed, that demonstrates the feasibility [11]. A mask layer consisting of a 200 nm thick SiO2 lm deposited on top the Ge substrate was used. Then this lm was patterned be removing the SiO2 lm on parts of the substrate with buffered HF. When conducting the GaAs growth on this patterned substrate, using the standard growth

Fig. 6. Optical microscope image of a selectively grown layer of GaAs on Ge with a SiO2 mask (a). Cross-section SEM picture of a 10 m wide stripe of GaAs grown on Ge (b). 77 K PL spectrum of a selectively grown GaAs lm, superimposed to a spectrum from a planar layer of GaAs grown on Ge (c).

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microscope picture of a selectively grown GaAs structure on Ge (a), a crosssection SEM picture of a selectively grown stripe of GaAs on Ge (b) and a 77 K photoluminescence spectrum of a selectively grown GaAs layer (c). The good selectivity of the growth can be seen from the optical microscope image. On the cross-section SEM image, a certain amount of loading effects can be seen at the intersection with the SiO2 lm. Finally, the PL spectrum of the selectively grown GaAs layer shows the good quality of the grown layer. Even though the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the PL peak of the selectively grown GaAs layer is larger than the FWHM of the PL peak from a planar GaAs lm, the corresponding peak width of ~15 meV at 77 K corresponds to very high quality material [7]. Further studies of selective growth of GaAs on Ge in a Cl-containing environment are believed to reduce loading effects further, so that selective growth of GaAs on Ge should be feasible with very good quality and atness, similar to the results obtained presently with SiGe selective epitaxial growth on Si [12]. 4. Conclusions In view of integration of GaAs and Ge as channel materials into the sub-22 nm CMOS node, we have presented a study of GaAs growth on Ge. Problems encountered, such as anti-phase domain growth and inter-diffusion were discussed for both MOCVD and MBE growth. A photoluminescence spectroscopy study reveals that the GaAs grown on Ge is of very high quality. An initial study of selective epitaxial growth, a prerequisite for integration of both Ge and GaAs onto large scale Si wafers in a planar technology, was presented and feasibility of the latter was demonstrated.

Acknowledgment UMICORE is acknowledged for providing high quality Ge substrates. References

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