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People and Practices Research (PaPR) has been a part of Intel for over 10 years. We are a research and innovation group.
conducting highly innovative and disruptive programs for Intel. Intel’s CTG labs and Intel’s business units. We are developing capabilities in design in order to provide Intel with a unique perspective on what’s possible today. conferences and seminars. qualitative and quantitative. These researchers engaged the techniques of social science and design in order develop deep understanding of how people live and work and to draw out implications of the research for corporate strategy and technology development. to generate insights. Intel hired several social scientists to form People and Practices Research. tomorrow and in the coming years. publications. the middleclass.OUR PROGRAMS explore fundamental paradigms and phenomena of everyday life to help Intel think critically about how people. models and demonstrations that help reframe “what matters” to internal and external partners. We expect PaPR programs to provide important contributions to Physicality and Concealing Complexity in the future. Today. Our internal partners at Intel include the Intel Research community. We focus especially on the areas of Personal Awareness and Richly Communicative which explore questions of personal agency and empowerment. there are over 40 social scientists and designers at Intel. kids and media literacy. practices. We have led innovation activities for Intel’s business units. We have close ties with the academic community forged through program collaborations. PaPR & Intel Research Our home in Intel Research places us within a community of research labs tasked with 2 . A Brief History In 1997. PaPR researchers and designers have worked on topics that include time and immersiveness. In 2007-08. global experiments in currency and finance. sociality. We use social science methods. The contents of this brochure present some of the highlights. and institutions matter to technological innovation and to conceive of provocative experiences in the future. PaPR’s programs fulfill the Intel Research vision of Essential Computing: simplifying and enriching all aspects of work and daily life. and communication.
Our first set of studies revealed that the issue of managing one’s own personal time zones—the set of social obligations. (in connection with Intel’s Mobility Group’s Strategic Planning). how do you think about it. so that all friends and business partners are happy BUSY. shrinking and expanding around immediate concerns. Dawn Nafus. multi-method research. yet somehow.MOBILE TIMES WHAT DOES THE CONCEPT OF BUSYNESS REALLY MEAN FOR TECHNOLOGY USE? Ken Anderson. though this occurs differently in different parts of the world. and then switching to a long leisurely coffee with friends —Attending simultaneous banquets in China. However. RUSHED? Your time shrinking. relationships. The experience of “plastic time” frames modern life—it is an experience that is highly interruptible. we have studied the long term social transformations that have created this way of life. creating the need to ‘shift gears’ frequently: —Working for a meeting-driven multinational in Latin America. HOW DO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS PUT TOGETHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE? In multi-sited. Most social science of time use focuses on the ‘time crunch’— the set of work and life balances that people attempt to achieve as the demands of work and family grow greater. interviewing people. fundamental questions. By tracking 169 laptops and MIDs. each field site and method provides an important piece of the puzzle. enabling social scientists to ask broad. Tye Rattenbur y PLASTIC TIME IS A FRAMEWORK THAT EXPLAINS HOW TECHNOLOGIES FIT INTO OUR LIVES —Trying to get children out the door. Here our central problem was. the study turned to mixing qualitative and quantitative methods to understand how personal time zones affected technology use. we expect the amount of gear shifting to increase MOBILE TIMES IS A GLOBAL study of time use—what do you do with it. you happen to know the latest post on your favorite website? Our research shows that you are experiencing ‘plastic time’. By doing this we discovered a new aspect of time—‘plastic time’—that is cause to rethink our assumptions about busy lifestyles. which aspects of time use matter most to technology use? Being busy was not the root cause of dissatisfaction with time use Conflicts arise not when people have more to do. and how it evolves with the forces of globalization and social change. Based on this. we have been able to develop an alterna- 3 . by tracing computer usage. and activities that create the rhythms of one’s day—was increasingly complex and fragmented. and working with national time use datasets. as they space out in front of the television With globalization. but increasingly diverse things to switch between. and interleaving through multiple activities.
in the kitchen and on the go. in both relaxed and high-pressure moments. There are many aspects of our day. This bending and stretching we are calling “plastic time. that fly under the radar. When we showed printouts of people’s computer usage. their accounts of their time use became very different. can be done not just in a rushed manner but at the right time. not less. These accounts showed that even the busiest of us still manage to surf the internet. from which people can distract themselves. Distracted computing takes place in front of the television. and be bent and stretched in such a way as to enable people to interleave the multiple activities going on in their lives.” and is a key way that people engage with the constraints and opportunities of modern life. The introduction of MIDs is set to expand the range of physical spaces. and content. such as computer usage. 1 46 . where people engage in totally unrelated content at varying levels of attention.tive point of view. These social conditions mean that people use technologies to create more distractions for themselves.
Lucia Barbados Grenada El Salvador Trinidad & Tobago Morocco Libya Algeria Costa Rica Venezuela Panama Colombia Guyana Suriname French Guiana Egypt Saudi Arabia Laos Tunisia U. Cambodia Oman Sri Lanka Yemen Sudan Thailand Philipines Western Sahara Eritrea Somalia Niger Chad Ethiopia Mauritania Mali Central African Republic Maldives Vietnam Ecuador Djibouti Federated states Of Micronesia Marshall Is. Romania Moldova Russia Ireland United Kingdom Netherlands Germany Belgium Luxembourg Poland Kazakhstan Ukraine Mongolia Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan France Switz. reveals whether a country has about the proportion of information technology they should have given their productivity. we calculate a ratio of a country’s economic productivity to the productivity of all countries in a given year. Palau Malaysia Uganda Kenya Cameroon Democratic Republic Of Congo Cape Verde Peru Brazil Senegal The Gambia Nigeria Togo Bolivia Guinea-Bissau Guinea Sierra Leone Liberia Chile Paraguay Zambia Angola Sao Tome & Principe Equatorial Guinea Gabon Malawi Congo Cote D’Ivoire Ghana Rwanda Burundi Tanzania +5 Rate of Acceleration Burkina Macau Hong Kong Indonesia Belize Qatar Myanmar St. First. Austria Slov. Bulgaria S. The ratio of these two ratios. James Galanis (MMBP) ECONOMICS ALONE DOES NOT EXPLAIN TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION TOO OFTEN. Rates have been averaged across three technologies: mobile phones. Hungary Croatia Bosnia & Herz. Ken Anderson. This means we can tell whether the country has more. Korea Portugal Albania FYR Mace. Acceleration/deceleration measures the rate at which technology adoption exceeds (or falls below) expectations for the country’s level of GDP. after some mathematical adjustments. This leads companies to divide the world in terms of ‘mature’ and ‘emerging’ markets. Western Samoa Madagascar Mauritius Mozambique Vanuatu Fiji 0 Argentina Tonga Namibia Zimbabwe Australia Botswana Uruguay Swaziland South Africa Lesotho New Zealand -5 Rate of Deceleration 2007 Data. and internet users. Puerto Rico Virgin Is. economic growth is seen as the driver of technology adoption and diffusion. Then we calculate a ratio of a country’s given year. Korea Georgia Azerbaijan Armenia Greece Japan Malta China Turkey Mexico The Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic Jamaica Lebanon Turkmenistan Afghanistan Syria Iraq Jordan Kuwait Pakistan Bhutan Taiwan Nepal Iran Bangladesh India Cayman Is. PC’s. By better understanding the multiple paths to adoption. Rate of Acceleration/Deceleration of Technology Adoption. less or about the right level of technology diffusion given the size of the country’s economy. Tye Rattenbur y. Countries that have no data available have been assigned a ‘0’. and public policy bodies to focus on tools that shape economies to look like Western ones. Image by Steve Marsh 5 . By Country Sweden Greenland Norway Finland Canada Iceland Denmark Estonia Latvia Lithuania Belarus Czech Rep. Rep. Then we calculate a ratio of a country’s technology use to the technology use of all countries in a given year. This index is created through a ratio of two ratios. Please see full report for details.A. Dominica Honduras Guatemala Nicaragua Aruba Netherlands Antilles St.E. Rogerio Depaula (EMPG). Kitt’s & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Isreal Bahrain Seychelles Comoros Kiribati Benin Papua New Guinea Solomon Is. and the way enabling factors work differently under different conditions. more nuanced approaches to enabling diffusion and public policy measures can be developed. Italy Slovenia United States Spain Serbia Tajikistan N.TECHNOLOGY METABOLISM INDEX WHICH COUNTRIES ADOPT TECHNOLOGIES AT RATES HIGHER THAN GDP WOULD PREDICT—AND WHY? Dawn Nafus.
2 3 6 . such as telephone network density and FDI.The Technology Metabolism Index (TMI) is an ethnostatistical model that tells us which countries adopt technologies at rates higher than GDP would predict—and why.yIt has three components: 1 The Index– ranking countries in 3+ technology categories for accelerated adoption rates Statistical modeling– quantitative model that correlates countries’ acceleration based on easily measured factors. than others. and to introduce new technologies into. Ethnography/Intel experience documentation—expert interviews and in-country cultural analysis to assess what makes some GEOs easier to work with.
EXTINGUISHED? TECHNOLOGY AND THE MIDDLE CLASS IN US EXURBIA Kathi R. We are reexamining the conventional wisdom about class. But even mainstream populations whose technology adoption is often taken for granted can be rich sources of design inspiration and early indicators of trends. A mixture of long-time residents and newcomers from the other parts of the U. Scott Mainwaring.” often deemed “under attack” in the United States and other wealthy countries or “emerging” in the developing world. and ethnicity to one specific neighborhood in Beaverton. Kitner. a rapidly growing exurb just beyond Portland’s West Hills. We are applying the ethnographic lenses of class.S. EMERGING. 7 .TECHNOLOGY AND THE MIDDLE CLASS ESTABLISHED. Oregon. In our research. we are focusing on the “middle class. by looking in detail at the role of technology in how “middle class-ness” is “done” within an oft over-looked setting: the 21st Century American exurb.—as well as Latin America and South and East Asia—the neighborhood is a microcosm of technological meanings and usages. Lilly Irani WHO IS THE MIDDLE CLASS? THE TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY often focuses on “exotic” technology users like extreme gamers or community technology activists to track new ideas for design and to discover new social trends. gender. seeking to move beyond such simple dichotomies and generalizations.
OR Matthew Yapchaian. social profiles. s digital production tools become less expensive and more widely available at home and school. suggesting the need for technical innovation to support kids doing things for and with each other. art. kids and teens are also using a variety of media to engage in social play. but on the communal nature of it. or collaborating over the Internet. Though these nascent friendships rarely last longer than the duration of a single play session. graphics. now. Drawn from qualitative work in Portland. in the cases where no friends are available. virtual worlds. video cameras. MAKING: EVERYDAY DIGITAL PRODUCTION Games are everywhere and they are an everyday activity for many kids and teens. comics. games have become another important communication medium. making games more fun and interactive for kids who would rather not play alone. and even powerpoint. digital cameras. literacy is defined increasingly as an individual’s ability to use a broad range of media tools interchangeably to produce a substantive media object. Nintendo Wii. Console game systems are reaching new audiences through successful interfaces introduced by the Nintendo DS. Facebook applications. 9 . Although most kids report preferring to meet in the real world whenever possible. Although media literacy used to be gated by access to technology. they are nonetheless valuable partners. And. As a result of increased digital making. In addition to rule-based games including MMOGs and networked multi-player console games. AND MEDIA LITERACY GAMING: A NEW WAY OF BEING NEW. and their school projects. EXPLORATORY WORK on kids and teens focuses on the ways in which technology and media figure centrally in the everyday lives of today’s kids and teens. MySpace’s profile and image comments. video games are increasingly collaborative and communal. graphic applications. kids and teens are increasingly using them to create digital media to express their thoughts. kids enjoy playing games with and against their friends. gaming and social relationships. Maria Bezaitis TECHNOLOGY. IL AND PORTLAND. kids and teens are experimenting with and expressing different identities in ways that are at once more private (veiled in online anonymity) and more public (posted online where millions can see) than ever before. kids will find new friends online. and identities. and Guitar Hero/Rock Band series. photographic images. and Club Penguin enable kids and teens to be playful with their friends. kids and teens alike. Games. Games are no longer for a particular gender or age—they are popular with boys and girls. interests. Although children still enjoy a variety of single-player and handheld games. movies. Growing media literacy is enabling kids and teens to express themselves in a variety of new creative and socially constructive ways. Brooke Foucault. this research represents an initial review of how which technology and media are embedded in everyday creativity. Illinois. The everyday nature of making amongst kids and teens is marked not just by the emphasis on craft. and interactive presentations are some of the many new media objects American youth are producing for themselves. To that end. Using mobile phones. meeting in the virtual world to play a game is a suitable alternative. and in particular digital games. media literacy has become fundamental to who today’s kids and teens are and what they do. Oregon and Chicago. Games. Whether they are playing together in the same room.POSTALPHABET KIDS AMERICAN YOUTH 8 – 16 YEARS CHICAGO. their friends. SOCIALITY. are readily available through multiple channels across most hardware/software platforms.
” “He posts a lot of photos. What varies across online and actual world environments. IM.”) As a result.FRIENDS: MORE CONNECTIONS ACROSS SHARED SPACES Technologies. however. Rather. communication channels are used interchangeably to negotiate and manage these relationships. Our research suggests that for most kids and teens. provide kids and teens with a toolkit for enacting social ties. Youth maintain multiple lists across social applications and mobile phones that reflect the same group of friends and are often not device or application specific. they have provided new mechanisms for more customized.” “She’s always there for me. While kids generally cite socio-emotional factors when describing desirable characteristics for actual-world friends (“He’s loyal. Tyler Connor Eleanor Kristin Matt Linnea Suvarna Madeline Matt H. Kids and teens populate lists with peers of varying degrees of closeness. New technologies haven’t changed the social community. commenting) connected to a large contact list (buddy list. is intimacy. but these friends are generally more distant than their real-world friends. Jenn Nora Jeshua Carolynn Colin 1 0 . Eliza’s School Friends Rachel H. phone entries). Closeness in actual world relationships does not always map equally to closeness online and vice versa.”) their best online friends often have much more functional characteristics (“She makes me laugh. Nora Ricky Linnea Chloe Kristin Colin Elise Connor Nathaniel Rachel Jenn Alexander Madeline Mell H. like the mobile phone and a range of social applications. online and actual world friends are often the same community of people. everyday interactions between known sets of people. kids and teens tend to have more online friends. Toolkits are social/mobile environments featuring multiple communication channels (text. Moses Eliza’s Online Friends Matt C. talk.
but something which is constantly at hand: we want to design delight into everyday experiences. Everyday We are creating concepts that naturally weave themselves in to the fabric of our lives. 1 1 . We have taken one day in her life and brainstormed ways that future technology could support and enhance her daily activities. John Cross Neumann DESIGNING MOBILE EXPERIENCES WE ARE USING DESIGN as a tool to transform our thinking about the future of mobile experiences and design new frameworks for interacting with personal devices. Japan. In PaPR we are using our understanding of everyday life to inspire design concepts that allow us to plot a course towards new ideas. Mobile computing is obviously not just desktop computing while moving.MOBILE EXPERIENCES CONCEPTS THAT NATURALLY WEAVE THEMSELVES INTO THE FABRIC OF OUR LIVES Wendy March. TWO UNDERLYING PRINCIPALS INFORM OUR WORK sensitive to your context and adapt their interfaces to your environment and attention level. but which isn’t trying to constantly interrupt you with new information? We are exploring concepts that are This is Miki. and to design for a truly mobile world we must take into account a constantly shifting set of environments and intentions. To be truly part of our everyday experience mobile technology has to be useful all the time. Not something that is brought out just for a special “wow” occasion. a 23 year old graduate student from Yokohama. Kieran Del Pasqua. A DAY IN THE LIFE Context Sensitive How do you design technology that takes advantage of a data and context rich world.
1 2 .
. to humansupervised. the system output is designed for the teacher. Computer supported assessment will make not only teachers’ jobs easier but also make educational computing more tractable. from sensors and reasoning) to assist in analyzing what is in a video field. and geometry tiles). How do planned and unplanned disruptions to an individual’s schedule (a doctor’s appointment. In informal education. systems that span a large range of human concerns. EGOCENTRIC CONTEXT AUGMENTED VISION (ECAV) ESP in Formal Education Most educational applications of computing have focused on life behind the screen while many educators feel that interacting with real objects forms the backbone of a child’s education. Computer applications work best when they address the needs of a user but user needs are not always transparent to an application. student portfolios can be automatically created to support the teacher in analyzing performance. the system output is designed for individuals using the system and the output is just of that one system ESP is looking to help families negotiate and coordinate their busy lives Each of our lives intersects with some select set of others. ESP in Informal Education Science learning at home and field tools for biology fieldtrips. Cuisenaire rods. Similarly helpfully. a traffic jam) influence others within the temporal system? How can automatic identification of breakdowns in routine help alleviate their cascading effects on the family? How can knowledge of routine and 1 3 . These capabilities will facilitate the move beyond explicit and intentional interactions. Handheld devices reveal interesting aspects of the environment depending on the learning goals. sensors and inferencing can give teachers real time assessment and evaluation of a classroom full of students. we are starting with mathematics manipulatives (e. Education Educational computing should make teachers’ jobs easier. ESP will address computer vision by using context awareness (e. with ESP. assessments can be done by evaluating interactions in context. which are required today. Adults and children can learn how the ecosystem works in their yard/park. (rather than controlled). The Everyday Sensing and Perception (ESP) project includes the support of family coordination through learning of family’s and individuals’ contexts. curricula and lesson plans can be delivered by the system. Based on these assessments. Independent students (or parents) can evaluate the appropriate level of challenge and task performance can be analyzed to see where students need the most help. Dozens of individual systems can feed into one output system to assist the teacher in classroom instruction. unifix cubes. SOCIAL COORDINATION: THE DIGITAL VALET ECAV will make video a more useful sensor for users. Computer vision is hard. In education. assessments define student need and. with ESP. Sharon Greenfield. Simply using more computation is not the best path to a solution.g. In the case of formal education. Individual tracking of large numbers of students will allow each to work at their own pace and teachers to intervene when necessary. While many educational scenarios are possible.. For example.g.EVERYDAY SENSING & PERCEIVING ESP: COMPUTING THAT PERCEIVES THINGS THE WAY THAT YOU DO Richard Beckwith. Daniel Avrahami MACHINES THAT SEE THINGS THE WAY THAT WE DO EDUCATION AND ECAV EVERYDAY SENSING AND PLANNING (ESP) defines two key future capabilities of computing systems: sensing and sensemaking. Real time object recognition of mathematics manipulatives and tracking will allow teachers (and parents) to more easily assess students’ progress.
using sensors and inference. focusing on the car as a personallystatic.ESP is a large initiative within Intel Research that involves researchers from multiple IR labs. 1 4 . routine breakdown be alleviated through augmented group awareness and increased sensing? We focus on identifying activities and contexts that contribute to the family routine. The work includes: Learning activities and affective aspects of family life including daily transit. mobile space that plays a significant role in the family coordination and routine. Supporting the Mobile Times project through technology in order to understand the flexibility of time as family coordination spans time and space. and detecting when anomalies and breakdowns in these routines occur. Collaboration with researchers at Carnegie Mellon University to understand the dynamics of planned activities and how those change over the course of the day. ESP is led by IR Seattle’s Matthai Philipose and Anthony LaMarca.
PARINTHINS. Create a clearinghouse for information about the project and a data warehouse for new ideas and problem-solving. The actual needs and desires of Parintins are seen in the following areas: the business sector high-speed internet access rural health and education workers. 5 What to do: Supply the project with enough spare/replacement technology so that equipment failure does not sabotage the project in its earliest stages. Staff should be non-partisan and tasked with facilitating technology uptake. 1 What to do: Employ the best qualified team members as possible. PARINTINS. Establish what the baseline statistics are that that project will try to impact. political as well as practical “gotchas” (pitfalls that should have been obvious). Goal: To allow the project to run continuously for at least one year without technology failure and hiccups. magic and power of computing to the targeted community.” 2 3 1 5 . This positioning will serve Intel better in thefuture as it avoid creating any actual or perceived dependence on “charity. economic. Community members are our customers.. Think along a 3-5 year timeline. Develop milestones based on these goals. and how much of an impact might be desired. Staff should also be the go-to people when problems arise with the project. BRAZIL RAPID ETHNOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF A DIGITAL CITY IN THE AMAZON Kathi R. Goal: To truly work in partnership with communities on an equal footing. an eight day rapid social impact assessment of Intel’s introduction of WiMAX and associated technology was carried out in the Amazon River town of Parintins. BRAZIL: WHAT SHOULD HAVE HAPPENED BETTER 1 Conduct a rapid social assessment of all of Parintins. To create consistent connectivity to bring the beauty. Kitner. Account for as many different community groups as possible. Rather than relying on one or two key “go-betweens” develop a wide network of contacts for each grouping the project hopes to work with or impact (e. Be sure to involve community members for proper context. These needs and desires should become the project’s goals. The purpose was to evaluate this type of technology transfer and determine what has been successful so far and in what ways.1 above). Goal: Guide program managers in that particular geo as to the best deployment points for the project & identify and avoid key social. and the customer is always right. ISPs). Involve technologists to deploy the technology. but use designers and social scientists to work with the people. clinics. Use a trained ethnographer. Make these goals (needs and desires) clear to all impacted by and working with the project. Work to locate an office for project facilitation that advantages no one if possible. what has not been successful and why. 2 What to do: Seat and manage project activities from within the targeted community. Clear approvals and paperwork ahead of time to facilitate quick replacements for things not on-site. Do a rapid ethnographic assessment immediately.g. local ISPs expand services to the 3 What to do: Pay attention to the actual needs and desires of community members (see No. Goal: Streamline project planning and spread of technology impacts. not just urban areas. Goal: To get the best possible solutions to the community in record time without unexpected and unwanted consequences. What to do: Choose a site. Vanessa Empinotti KEY RECCOMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE SITES OF TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION 4 IN OCTOBER. the agricultural sector better marketing. 2007. schools.
and assist in facilitating problems as is practical. uptake. An inventory of items not available locally would create the basis for creating a “back-up kit. and the municipal government and associated education facilities. A “local” should be recruited to monitor the project and communicate with Intel in the next 3-5 years. organize and facilitate the social/human aspects of the new technologies. but also employ a trained social scientist to help plan. and propagation. 4 Employ and engage the best trained people as possible to get the technologies up and running. or a designated NGO should remain in contact with this person.community. Working with these groups by offering guidance and training will “get the ball rolling” and create sustainable technology. 5 1 6 . While it sounds simple. Intel. providing the project with key spare equipment should something break is critical to the project’s initial and long term success. should be addressed as much as possible early on in the planning stages.” Legal hurdles for the importation of certain items.
but digital money can also be realized in lighter-weight. These multiple currencies commingle in people’s wallets. places. loyalty point collectors in Tokyo. a mobile phone-based money transfer system offered by Kenya’s leading telecom is a prominent As an initial exploration into how money’s abstract qualities and interactions might be made tangible and visible—not through product offerings. We sought insights via fieldwork in diverse sites of monetary innovation. and rational economic choice. studying wage-earners (and remitters) in Nairobi. Digitalization of money accelerates its pluralization. WHAT DIGITAL MONEY CAN DO example. but unlike paper.” The fine line between trickery and purposeful suspension of disbelief points to the importance of nuanced design and recognition of different monetary literacies. the creditless. It tries to trick people into feeling they are not spending real money. These micro-rewards provide an important benefit: a reminder of the user’s dreams and satisfaction in getting something back from the system. Paying with Edy e-cash at participating Tokyo convenience stores results not only in an exchange of Yen for goods. to using electronic media like credit or debit cards to interact with ATMs. Access to money is moving from using static objects like coins.PERSONAL DIGITAL MONEY RESTRUCTURING CONSUMERS’ EXPERIENCES OF MONEY Scott Mainwaring. or anything in between All forms of money are abstract. Camellia George PAPER OR PLASTIC? ADVANCES IN ICTs extend and amplify the circuits of global finance changing the lived experience of money from face-to-face physical transfers to computer-mediated representations. bills. Wages earned in Nairobi are instantly and reliably remitted back to family in a remote village via SMS message—making M-PESA a lightweight and commonplace as prepaid airtime. the off-the-grid. Digital money can delight by playfully frosting mundane activities Highly successful forms of digital cash overcome the unexciting routines of everyday life by bringing a bit of irrational fun into the mix through loyalty points and the experience of tokushita! (Japanese exclamation: “I’ve won something!”). virtual currency spenders in Chengdu. “Virtual money is just money under a different name. digital money can be expressed by nearly any human-usable (and machine-accessible) object or interface. ethical action. These fly above or tunnel under conventional banking and finance systems making their way to the unbanked. We’re studying convenience. security. userfriendly ways. Personal Digital Money investigates the motivations and implications of these transformations in terms of personal value and meaning. but as one research participant in China complained. or paper certificates interacting with human agents. but also in a reward of ANA airline miles. Digital money can be made real. metal or plastic money. but via conceptual prototypes—we partnered with the Royal College of Art in London. Virtual currencies create a sense of other-ness and insulation from real money. Quasi-moneys and para-currencies operate alongside bank-based electronic moneys and telecommunications-based currencies that may have only a tenuous link to legal tender. THE FUTURE OF MONEY: DESIGN INVESTIGATIONS AT THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF ART Digital money can reach new people. and transductions. even as it depends on legal and technical standards of inter-operability and enforceability. Findings from these case studies inform the current project which leverages design methods and perspectives to understand the opportunities and challenges for future Intel platforms. encounters. Tad Hirsch. and mobile phones. and markets Digital money can be as cumbersome and risky to transport as cash or as dependent on reputation scoring and tracking as credit cards. cultural. unreal. and autonomy. restructuring people’s experience of money as well as their everyday practices of budgeting and accounting. We tapped the unique conceptual design talents of twenty five graduate students in RCA’s Design Interactions program to imagine possibilities to 1 7 . M-PESA. PCs. and aesthetic matters such as self-expression. along with social.
As a result. attitudes. and banking proliferate. service. but how and from whom we buy it. Navigating Future Moneyscapes investigates product. we are implicated in ever-more intricate financial relations with people and institutions. we are investigating this emerging landscape of digitally-enhanced personal finance through conceptual design. social and cultural significance. In developing these visions for the future of money. supports nuanced decision-making. transferring. discover and explain how digital money facilitates transactions. Concurrent with these developments is a changing conception of consumption that includes a host of social factors—we begin to define ourselves not only through what and why we buy. At PaPR. and new pleasures will emerge? How will deliberate action and dreaming interact to move toward personal financial empowerment? How will new communities form around different modalities of digital money? What rules of money will be subverted— playfully or criminally—by its digitalization? NAVIGATING FUTURE MONEYSCAPES Relational banking presents an opportunity to construct ourselves as both consumers and producers of financial services through alternative and semi-formal banking. and fosters social and institutional relationships. We have identified four key opportunites for future ICTs to enhance quality of financial life: Monetary literacy can be advanced and empower consumers through a tools that reconcile familiar ways of understanding budgets. credit. and technology opportunities arising at the juxtaposition of new monetary forms. This vision of technology-enabled personal finance will help us imagine. currency browsing and opportunity prospecting. and cash flow with changing financial infrastructures. 1 8 . new dangers. As public and private currencies and methods for spending. current wisdom and tools prove insufficient to contend with the deluge of competing financial demands and instruments. and practices. Currency wrangling puts us in command of multiple evolving currencies through access to small-scale money-markets. we asked them to consider the technology of e-money and currency advances: how will it affect the social and psychological valences of those technologies? What new behaviors.enrich money with personal. new rituals. Expressive consumption recognizes that in “voting with our dollars” we code our purchases with personal significance and ideas of social investment. receiving. person-to-person loans and point-of-sale capabilities. interfaces.
Currently. and Apple Computer. cosmopolitans. Recent work has included a focus on transculturals. a business consulting and technology services firm. She has led client research programs on photographs and instantaneity. Maria holds a PhD in French Literature and Cultural Studies from Duke University. Kieran is currently fascinated by the design challenges of blending mobile technologies into the existing fabric of daily routines. mobile communication and the home. identity and culture. he likes getting involved even more andis annoyed by design that does not truthfully connect to a human goal. As a research scientist at Princeton University’s Cognitive Science Lab. Frito-Lay/Pepsi. Kieran has a Bsc in Human Computer Interaction from the University of Waterloo. design and adoption. MediaOne. Richard has worked on sensor networks for agriculture and educational applications of technology. At Intel. Her dissertation research looked at seriality and collections their relationships to photographs. RICHARD BECKWITH is a research psychologist by training. services and experiences people can use. natural user interfaces and context awareness. His dissertation work at Brown University was on was on intertextuality and Azorean identity. a firm that pioneered the use of ethnography for product and service development. family networks for clients including Nokia. culture and technology. and Polaroid. he looked at ways to use research for structuring natural language applications. his research has explored the relationship between identity. Over the last 20 years. Past work includes design for family coordination. Prior to joining Intel. he is working on research that highlights the importance of temporalities in technology practice. KEN ANDERSON is a symbolic anthropologist by training. He is currently co-organizer of EPIC2007 (Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference) and on the governing board of National Association for the Practice of Anthropology. 1 9 . He has taught at Brown University’s Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship (IRIS). a project which explored the space of media. Ken’s career has included positions with AT&T | Broadband. She started her professional career at E-Lab.RESEARCHERS MARIA BEZAITIS became Director of Intel’s People and Practices Research in June 2006. Steelcase. Kieran transforms insights from the world around him into interfaces. Ontario. interpersonal computing. emerging markets. He received his PhD in Developmental Psychology from Columbia University where he researched how children learn in specific contexts. He also loves falling off his surfboard off the coast of Oregon. conducting research on how technology can best be used in education and training. Schick Wilkinson Sword. she led global research teams at Sapient Corporation. women and body hair. identity and image culture. He was previously an Associate Professor at Northwestern University’s Institute of the Learning Sciences. His recent work has focused on communities in emerging economies and models of technology adoption. US West. Canada. While captivated by people watching. where she became a managing partner with overall responsibility for projects. KIERAN DEL PASQUA is an interaction designer with the People and Practices Research group at Intel.
Kitner is exploring gendered approaches to technology adoption. United Nations Development Program. oil and tourism was transforming a Venezuelan island of fishermen and farmers. and Microsoft Research India. and technology. She has extensive experience conducting research on a range of technology and development topics in emerging economies. She used ethnographic methods to critically explore state. Tad is also a frequent collaborator with the Institute for Applied Autonomy. She has a Masters degree in Public Affairs from Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School with a focus in international development and science and technology policy. and has received several prestigious commissions and awards. society and entrepreneurship relationships. in computer science from Harvard University and a PhD in cognitive psychology from Stanford University. Tad holds degrees from Vassar College. At the University of Miami Kathi was the co-Principal Investigator on an NIH project evaluating needle use among street-based heroin addicts. She conducted her research as part of the Technology and Infrastructure for Emerging Regions group at Berkeley. Scott explores the relationships between individuals and the systems in which they find themselves embedded. Carnegie Mellon University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. and services for the Baby Boom generation. NGOs. ICT-augmented television. RENEE KURIYAN is a finishing up her PhD at the University of California. virtual worlds. and social sciences. Scott received an A. KATHI R. At Interval Research.TAD HIRSH is a researcher and PhD candidate in the Smart Cities Group at MIT’s Media Lab. and religious meanings. Renee holds a BA in Anthropology from Middlebury College. In her dissertation research. activism. For the last 12 years. Berkeley and will be joining PaPR in September 2008.B. cognitive. He has worked with Intel’s People and Practices Research Group. and new linkages for common property regimes and technology. Scott has combined his interests in ethnographic studies with the revolutionary potential for information and computing technologies in everyday life. SCOTT MAINWARINGS has an eclectic background in computer. and video artists to design audio-based media spaces. and has several years experience in the nonprofit sector. 20 . an award-winning arts collective that exhibits throughout the United States and Europe. Kitner has worked for the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council where she was responsible for defining and determining the social and cultural impacts of new fedZeral regulations on the fishing communities of the southeastern United States. business planners. KITNER is a cultural anthropologist and holds a PhD from the University of Florida. engineers. Currently. cultural. where his work focuses on the intersections between art. Kathi examined how the uneven process of modernization and globalization in the guise of free port economics. He publishes and lectures widely on a variety of topics concerning social aspects of technology. Scott collaborated with designers. Her doctoral research focused in Development Studies and looked at the political economy of information and communication technologies and development in India. Motorola’s Advanced Concepts Group and the Interaction Design Studio at Carnegie Mellon University. content creation for emerging areas. This includes projects with the World Bank. At Intel. Scott’s current focus is on digital money and how new technologies of transaction can better serve individual interests and address money’s emotional.
This project includes researchers from Intel Research Berkeley and PaPR. Wendy’s previous research at Intel has focused on “smart streets. Steelcase and Xerox. DAWN NAFUS holds a PhD in anthropology from the University of Cambridge. Before joining Intel. Wendy was with IDEO Product Development. Currently she is researching the ways that cultural perceptions of time affect technology adoption. Dawn has previously served on the steering committee at the National Centre for e-Social Science in the UK. His primary research interest is in modeling socio-cultural patterns of behavior. in Computer Science at the University of California.D. Focusing on the intersection of technology. home networking equipment. and information retrieval. She continues to be fascinated by the way that social transformation in Russia has become a twenty year long project without a known endpoint. knowledge sharing. To build these models.” the use of technology by teenage girls. experience prototypes. the needs of mobile workers and communities. TYE RATTENBURY is a PhD candidate in Computer Science at University of California. he worked as a Senior Industrial Designer at Motorola. Before coming to Intel she was a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Essex.S. She has published about seemingly ‘open’ communities of open source developers. His dissertation research is focused on modeling knowledge work.WENDY MARCH holds a MS in Information Systems from Brighton University. and is finishing his Ph. Her regional specialism is Russia. and the social imaginations sparked by the sudden appearance of the internet in St. and consumer culture. with applications to information organization. Tye Rattenbury holds a B. his graduate work explored the opportunity for design to create pedagogical experiences through digitally augmented products. where she worked on a broad range of design projects for clients including 3COM. Russia. He is currently studying the cultural perception and production of time using ethnographic methods and statistical data mining. Prior to joining Intel. Pepsi. She has built a foam core “living room” to investigate ideas for digital media and entertainment. the cultural forces behind governments’ search for the next Silicon Valley. Tye combines qualitative and quantitative data and analyses. and corporate vision concepts. in Applied Mathematics from the University of Colorado at Boulder. While there. technology in higher education policy. using a mix of quantitative and qualitative approaches. 2 1 . UK. and a MA in Computer Related Design from the Royal College of Art in London. He holds an undergraduate degree in fine arts and mathematics. Wendy has explored a range of research methodologies including “technology probes” for long-term installation in a local café. experience. Berkeley. Petersburg. he acted as lead designer on a range of products including mobile phones. Berkeley. Wendy’s current research looks at how the design of money can reflect social values such as sustainability. As an interaction designer Wendy uses research as a basis for new concepts and future scenarios. JOHN CROSS NEUMANN holds a Master of Industrial Design from the Rhode Island School of Design.
We have existing ties with the following institutions: University of California Irvine Goldsmiths College. UK For more information about People & Practices Research at Intel. please contact us at: papr@intel. London. informatics and in design at select colleges and universities. and shape academic curriculum in addition to points of view about the future.ACADEMIC PARTNERS PaPR has important partnerships with academic colleagues in the social sciences.com . University of London University of Washington Royal College of Art. These relationships influence our own research programs.
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