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Li Kevin Luke Eugene Yao Jason Eckstein Team Leader: Ini Li Team Advisor: Emily Persson Submission Date: December 11, 2006
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Table of Contents
SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................... 3 SECTION 2: PROJECT DESCRIPTION................................................................................... 4 DESCRIPTION OF GATEWAY COURSE AND SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAM .............................. 4 DESCRIPTION OF TEAM’S ORGANIZATION ................................................................................... 4 DESCRIPTION OF COMMUNITY PARTNER ..................................................................................... 5 DESCRIPTION OF PRESENTED PROBLEM ...................................................................................... 6 FORMAL PROBLEM STATEMENT ................................................................................................... 7 NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND CONSTRAINTS.................... 8 DESCRIPTION OF EVOLUTION OF DESIGN .................................................................................... 9 DEFINING THE PROBLEM.................................................................................................................. 9 FORMULATING SOLUTIONS .............................................................................................................. 9 DEVELOPING MODELS/PROTOTYPES ............................................................................................. 10 IMPLEMENTING, TESTING, MODIFYING, AND PRESENTING THE FINAL DESIGN ............................ 10 SECTION 3: TRANSITION PLAN AND PROJECT DOCUMENTATION........................ 12 CONNECTION TO PRIOR WORK AND EXPANSION OF SOLUTION ............................................... 12 DOCUMENTATION FOR DUPLICATION OF PROCESS ................................................................... 12 DOCUMENTATION FOR USE AND MAINTENANCE OF SOLUTION ............................................... 13 PICTURES, DIAGRAMS, TECHNICAL DRAWINGS, ETC… ................................................................ 14 SECTION 4: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................. 15 SECTION 5: APPENDICES....................................................................................................... 16 APPENDIX A: PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS ..................................................................... 16 APPENDIX B: GANTT CHART ....................................................................................................... 20 APPENDIX C: TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS (MAYA)................................................................. 21 APPENDIX DA: BUDGET INFORMATION AND LIST OF MATERIALS ........................................... 23 APPENDIX DB: ALPHABETIZED LIST OF ALL PLANTS ............................................................... 25 APPENDIX DC: PLANT DESCRIPTIONS FOR HIGHLY RECOMMENDED PLANTS ....................... 26 APPENDIX DD: NOTES ON OTHER PLANTS ................................................................................. 30 APPENDIX E: PHOTOGRAPHS ILLUSTRATING THE TEAM EXPERIENCE ................................... 35 APPENDIX FA: IDEAS FOR HORTICULTURE ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS ................................. 36 APPENDIX FB: PLANTING DETAILS FOR SOME VEGETABLES ................................................... 39 APPENDIX FC: DETAILS FOR STARTING AN AVACADO TREE .................................................... 40 APPENDIX FD: GUIDELINES FOR CARE OF PLANTS ................................................................... 42 APPENDIX FG: SEASONAL ACTIVITIES ....................................................................................... 53 APPENDIX G: REFERENCES CONSULTED FOR PROJECT............................................................ 54 APPENDIX H: COPY OF POWERPOINT SLIDES............................................................................ 55
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006
Section 1: Executive Summary
As students in the Fu Foundation of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, we participate in service learning projects through the Gateway Lab course. Our team worked among seven other teams all devoted to different aspects of designing a greenhouse for the community partner PS79M, a public school for physically and mentally handicapped students in Harlem. The parents of Lauren Schwartz, a former student of PS79M, have provided funding to build the greenhouse that will commemorate their daughter and provide the students of the school with the same opportunities that Lauren enjoyed during her life. Unlike most of the other students at the school, Lauren had regular therapy, both at the Rusk institute and at her own home; however, the majority of the parents of the PS79M students neither have the time nor the money to provide this for their children. In school, therapy is only available twice a week, which is adequate but nowhere near ideal. Our task, therefore, is to improve the students’ quality of life within the school by creating an environment that provides therapy and builds prevocational skills that will be invaluable to the students upon graduation. Our group provides in this report computer models of plants, cost estimates, activities lists, and purchasing schedules. We have collaborated with the school’s therapists, the parents of Lauren Schwartz, members of the Rusk Institute, and the other teams to produce a comprehensive list of plants and activities that meets the physical, therapeutic, and educational needs of every student and is easy to implement and maintain for the school. The greenhouse must be an active and usable educational and therapeutic environment, so we chose potted plants, which are robust in their ability to survive and the variety of activities that they provide. One main aspect of the design is our use of pots rather than plant beds to allow students to bring the plant of their choice to a central table to work on activities in groups ranging from transplanting and pruning to drying leaves. That way, the greenhouse can also foster a social environment. The main varieties of potted plants we have recommended are common houseplants and flowers that have attractive and varied foliage, have health benefits such as filtering the air, and have the ability to thrive under the care of the children and provide rewarding gardening experiences which are therapeutic in their own right. Such plants include Begonias, Dracaenas, Chinese Evergreens, Norfolk Island pines, and Snapdragons. We will also provide a potted herb garden with some vegetables for more varies activities involving sensory stimulation that cater to students with more limited abilities to physically handle plants. For the aesthetics of the greenhouse, we recommend the use of hanging plants, which can also be used for hydroponic growth activities for students who cannot work with soil. Ficus trees can be placed in large pots on ground level to provide natural barriers to different areas of the greenhouse. Such trees are easy to maintain and can be moved when necessary. This design is extremely realistic and can meet the needs of the students and the school while providing a model from which other schools attempting similar projects can draw.
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006
Section 2: Project Description
Description of Gateway Course and Service-Learning Program
The Gateway Lab course was created by Professor McGourty to teach first year students the value of being an engineer, while providing members of the community with services that they would otherwise be unable to afford. Before the creation of this course, engineering students had to wait until their junior or senior years to receive real design experience characteristic of the engineering profession. Gateway not only provides lessons on engineering, the design process, Maya, and MALAB, but also provides students with a real project to work on. Each semester, a new set of students tackle the community project that is given to them. Sometimes, they are handed a partially completed project or a completely new project. The projects are always aimed at helping community partners of Columbia University and, as a result, the students receive feedback and must work hard to meet the needs of the clients. The course provides a realistic experience because the clients really rely on the work of the students and the final design must meet the client’s needs well. The Gateway Lab class section 3 in the fall of 2006 was given a project started over the summer. This class was given the task of completing a therapeutic greenhouse for the school PS79M. The Gateway course has provided these students with design lessons and the necessary background knowledge to complete the task for the client.
Description of Team’s Organization
The class was broken down into teams that covered separate parts of the greenhouse. Certain major tasks for the greenhouse were given to more than one team. For example, the Interior Design team has their own license to provide a design, but they must make their own design fit with the water irrigation team’s. Our team was assigned the task of complete the design for the Interior and Exterior Landscaping, and Horticulture. Once our group was assigned, we divided the team roles. Ini volunteered for the role of primary facilitator. She understands the time, effort, and commitment it takes for this role and has agreed to provide it. She sends e-mails after every meeting to remind the group of the objectives and what needs to be prepared for meetings, in addition to setting the deadlines for work to be submitted to her for revision. She has set doable standards, and makes sure every team member does his or her job, and she has been a key person ensuring that all the work our team submits is revised and complete. Eugene has agreed to take on the role of secondary facilitator. His previous experiences in leadership provide him the skills to help Ini keep the group focused on the task at hand. He understands that his job is to help Ini with her responsibilities, keep the group focused at meetings, and help set the agenda for meetings.
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Kevin was chosen as conflict manager because of his natural tendency to listen and think carefully before acting. The team felt that these skills were essential to a conflict manager because in the event of conflict, rash action can exacerbate rather than ameliorate the situation. However, by listening carefully, a conflict manager can discover the true root of the conflict, and then act carefully to eliminate the foundation of the conflict, rather than merely cover up a conflict. Mike agreed to take on the role of being the group’s process observer. His role is to sit back at times and watch how each individual interacts with each other. Since he has to observe the member’s interactions, he also acts as the group scribe. By jotting down what each individual says, he can also focus on his or her behavior. In addition to watching individuals, he also has to watch the group as a whole to make sure all members stay professional and efficient. Jason volunteered for the position of time keeper. He plans on making sure the group does not stay in meetings for longer than an hour and thirty minutes. The group has set this amount of time as a limit because the group has decided that passed that time we will no longer be efficient. If our time working with the group in one sitting exceeds this, each individual’s willingness to stay on task will be greatly decreased, and it will be more difficult for the group as a whole to work together efficiently and cooperatively. The Time Keeper will work with the Secondary Facilitator, in addition to the Process Observer, to keep the group on task and to make sure the group is using the time efficiently.
Description of Community Partner
PS 79 is a separate public facility for students with mental and physical disabilities. They provide all the therapy they can afford to give. The students here are watched during the day and taught certain basic skills. The school continues to teach the children until they are 21 years of age. According to the assistant principal of the school, the students are split up into two types of disabilities: those who can function normally physically, but are disabled cognitively, and those who have severe physical impairments that require the use of a wheelchair. After their daughter passed way, the parents of Lauren Schwartz proposed the idea to build the greenhouse. Lauren Schwartz attended daily physical therapy at the Rusk Institute. Her parents saw firsthand the positive influences horticulture therapy had on handicapped children. The Rusk Institute, part of New York University, is “the largest university-affiliated center devoted entirely to inpatient/outpatient care, research and training in rehabilitative medicine.” The therapists there use horticulture as part of their physical therapy. After Lauren passed away, her parents wished to create a memorial for her in the form of a greenhouse. They wished for the students at Lauren’s school to benefit from horticulture therapy as she did. -5-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 There was a team who worked on our project in the summer although they were responsible for interior design as well which has been delegated to a separate team this term. These students were high school students who attended a shortened version of the Gateway Lab course. They completed preliminary research and had just moved on to product design. They provided recommendations that were based primarily on the therapeutic nature of plants but not on the functional needs of the greenhouse. They also did not provide written explanations for how they arrived at their conclusions or why they chose the particular plants they did. As a result, many of the recommendations in their report are not plausible to implement or easy to understand.
Description of Presented Problem
Our preliminary understanding of the problem stemmed from research we conducted in preparation for speaking to the school and parents of Lauren Schwartz. Around the end of the 18th century, therapeutic horticulture treatment was started. Dr. Benjamin Rush, professor at the Institute of Medicine and Clinical Practice in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, announced in 1798 that field labor on a farm helped people with mental illnesses. From there on, various forms of horticulture sprang up. No major strides were made in horticulture therapy as a treatment until 1879; Friends Hospital installed the first greenhouse solely for therapeutic purposes. However, the biggest growth of interest and research began during WWII when injured soldiers were given horticulture treatment. Since horticulture therapy can improve the quality of the life for the students at PS 79M, it is important to understand its benefits and how it works. Unfortunately there is no definite answer as to why horticulture therapy works. There is the theory that it soothes students in a relaxing environment because any environment surrounded by plants is guaranteed to be less stimulating than our modern environment. In other words, standing in the middle of a park causes far less visual and auditory stress than standing in the middle of the city. Another theory is that since we evolved with plants we have an unlearned habit of relieving the stress in our body around them. In any case, either theory (although there are many more than just 2, the point is the same) allows for any kind of plant to be used in horticulture therapy. In light of this brief information to horticulture therapy, we can understand better how the greenhouse should function. The students of PS 79 are mentally and physically handicapped. The amount of stress this places on the student is unimaginable. We hope, based on research that students who work with the plants will have less stress. In order for the greenhouse to be effective, outside distractions will need to be minimized. Sounds, smells, even sight needs to be shut out. The greenhouse should act as a shelter for peace. The plants selected will give the students the feeling that they have accomplished something and at the same time give their minds a peaceful activity on which to dwell. After the first community partner meeting, we gained a clearer understanding of our client’s problem and began formulating possible solutions. We found that the basic purpose of the greenhouse is to provide a therapeutic space, which the students would enter during a particular class period. The students, however, should be active -6-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 participants in the operation of the greenhouse, which means that the plants must be able to be cultivated by the students. Our understanding of the problem had changed from the summer team idea of focusing primarily on plants that would provide sensory therapy to a focus on usable and durable plants. Due to the nature of the disabilities of the students, however, the plants and therapeutic activities need have to be varied. According to the assistant principal of the school, the students are split up into two types of disabilities: those who can function normally physically, but are disabled cognitively, and those who have severe physical impairments that require the use of a wheelchair. One of the largest problems that would arise from this stark contrast of disabilities is need to cater to all of the different kinds of students in one class period without alienating some of them. Though one student could, for instance, maintain a more complex and fragile plant, another student could only be able to handle a very sturdy and robust plant. For the more physically advanced student, dealing with more robust plants could be rather dull or unchallenging. It would be difficult to challenge those with a larger range of motor abilities and to also allow those with impaired motor abilities to do the same or similar activities. Another problem that our Horticulture team realized needed to be considered after the client meeting was the wide variety of allergies the students may have. Because of their physical condition, the students are more prone to such environmental factors, and having a certain type of plant in the greenhouse that they are allergic to could be devastating to the condition of their health. We gained further insight into the problem by speaking to the Rusk institute to gain insight into how they organize plants in their greenhouse and conducted activities. We learned that the problem also involved building a social environment and prevocational skills such as working in groups and following sets of instructions. Rusk solved this problem by keeping plants in pots that can be easily transported to central work areas. That way, students can pick the plants they want to handle and easily move them to an area with other people. After speaking to the parents of Lauren Schwartz, we saw that they approved of our main design decisions. Taking into account these new areas of the problem that involved having functional plants and a setup that allowed students to work together easily, we developed the final problem statement, which can be found below.
Formal Problem Statement
The parents of Lauren Schwartz have provided funding for the school PS79M to build a greenhouse that will commemorate their daughter and provide the students of the school with the same opportunities that she had. Lauren, unlike most of the other students at the school, had regular therapy, both at the Rusk institute and at her own home; however, the majority of the parents of the PS79M students have neither the time nor the money to provide this to their children. In school, therapy is only available twice a week, which is adequate but nowhere near ideal. Our task, therefore, is to improve the students’ quality of life within the school by creating an environment that provides therapy and builds prevocational skills that will be invaluable to the students upon graduation. The particular problem our group must tackle is to choose which plants we want to place in the greenhouse in order to address the wide range of specific disabilities of the students, -7-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 while providing a social, therapeutic, and educational environment. Our solution must provide a list of plants, which are easy to maintain by the students and faculty. In addition, these plants must also be used in activities that bring students with a wide range of physical and mental disabilities together in a social environment. These activities can also be group-oriented. These activities must also develop prevocational skills so the students can be more viable candidates for the job market upon graduation. Plants must therefore be robust enough to withstand daily handling by the students and grow successfully to give the students a rewarding experience. We must also provide some plants that provide olfactory, tactile, and/or visual stimulation for students who have limited to no ability to actively cultivate plants due to physical handicaps.
Narrative Description of Functional Requirements and Constraints
The Product Design Specifications begins with establishing the needs that our design must fulfill, including daily therapy; a social environment; and a place to develop prevocational skills. Plants must not only be varied enough to allow participation from students with vastly different physical and mental abilities, but the activities must also bring those students together and cultivate teamwork as well as the ability to work in groups. These needs provide a base criterion on which later requirements can be judged. Most of the PDS outlines the functional requirements of the plants and activities using the following criteria: Functional Performance, Safety, Quality, Manufacturing, Timing, Economic, Ergonomic, Ecological, Aesthetic, and Life Cycle. The functional performance of the plants must include year-round therapeutic activity that may also build gardening skills, which can be used by students upon graduation. The plants must be distributed to allow all students to participate in those activities and robust enough to provide an easily maintainable population that survives in static room temperature environment. Plants with varying life cycles such as blooming and planting cycles will provide a dynamic year-round calendar of student activity. Since students have unpredictable allergies that change from year to year, plants cannot be commonly allergic or poisonous. Even though there is no set cost limit to the project, in order to make the design easily maintainable for the school and accessible to others who may wish to duplicate the design, our choice of plants will be common, low maintenance, low cost, houseplants, which are visually attractive and meet the functional needs of the students. Large pots with Ficus trees on ground level can provide aesthetics that are easily maintained and mobile. The last section of the PDS deals with Corporate Constraints. We know that the school would like to start construction in the summer of 2007, so we need to provide a design with plants that can be acquired in large quantities by then and fully grown. We feel that building a relationship with a supplier is very important for the PS79M, so we will make several recommendations and suggest that one is chosen and used throughout the year. An alternative solution could be to use one supplier for each period of purchasing. This solution could be desirable if there is particular advantage to purchasing seasonal plants -8-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 from one supplier at a particular time. We must make sure that our design conforms to all ADA and public school requirements. We do not feel that any of our ideas warrant consideration for a patent since one of the strengths of our design is the use of conventional and realistic ideas based on the given the high level of development and success in the world of greenhouses and horticulture therapy.
Description of Evolution of Design
Defining the Problem
PS 79 is primarily for students of handicapped nature. They provide all the therapy they can afford to give. The students here are watched during the day and taught some basic skills. The school takes the children up to when they are 21 of age. According to the assistant principal of the school, the students are split up into two types of disabilities: those who can function normally physically, but are disabled cognitively, and those who have severe physical impairments that require the use of a wheelchair. The parents of Lauren Schwartz have decided to fund the building of a greenhouse for the students at PS79M. Their vision of the greenhouse is not only to commemorate their daughter, but also to provide the students of PS79M, the school she attended, with the same opportunities that she had. Lauren, unlike most of the other students at the school, had regular therapy, both at the Rusk institute and at her own home. However, the majority of the parents of the PS79M students have neither the time nor the money to provide this to their children. In school, therapy is only available twice a week, which is adequate but nowhere near ideal. The goal, therefore, is to improve the students’ quality of life within the school by creating an environment that provides therapy through horticulture and aesthetics. The particular problem our group must tackle is to choose which plants we want to place in the greenhouse in order to address the wide range of specific disabilities of the students, while providing a social and therapeutic environment. Horticulture offers a great way for the kids to receive the therapy they need. The students, however, are so varied in the types and severity of the disabilities they have, that one of the largest problems we must address is the need to cater to all of the different kinds of students in an inclusive way. Another issue that our team considered was the wide variety of allergies the students may have. Because of their physical condition, the students are more prone to such environmental factors, and having a certain type of plant in the greenhouse that they are allergic to could be devastating to the condition of their health. Our solution must actively address and attempt to solve these problems.
Initially, our team analyzed the work of the summer horticultural team. The summer team’s solution was to maximize the therapeutic properties of each plant by grouping them into the following therapy categories: visual, olfactory, tactile, and taste. In the -9-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 greenhouse, the summer team planned to group plants of the same therapeutic property in the same area in order to create several sensory stimulation stations. These stations would consist of plant beds, where students could work with the plants. Our team initially felt that the summer team had a very good plan, and our early efforts focused on expanding this plan and working out the intricate details. However, our team began to doubt the effectiveness of the summer team’s plan when one our team members, while researching disability therapy, discovered that disabled students received much more therapy from working together in a group than from actual sensory stimulation. Our doubts were verified when we met with therapists from The Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine. The therapists strongly emphasized the importance of learning how to work in groups, since this would be an essential life lesson that the students would take with them after leaving the school. On the contrary, when our team mentioned purely aesthetic plants, the Rusk therapists felt that hardy plants that the students could directly work with would better replace such plants. These findings drastically changed our plans. Our team completely abandoned the idea of therapeutic stations and plant beds. Instead, we decided a central work area would be the most functional plan. With a central workstation, several students would be grouped together. Since they would not always be able to directly ask a teacher or aid across the table, students would be forced to ask each other for help, developing group work abilities in the process. In addition, instead of placing plants in plant beds, our team decided to place most functional plants in pots. This would allow students to choose a plant to work on, and then bring the plant to the central work area. Finally, in terms of plant selection, we decided to choose robust plants that would be able to handle a variety of conditions, including minor mistreatment. Our finalized plan allowed students to gain the most therapy by developing group work abilities through interaction with other students. Aesthetic concerns could be met with hardy hanging plants and large pots on ground level with Ficus trees which are again easy to maintain and visually pleasing.
We learned from our Maya instructor, Jose, how to incorporate plants into Maya. We collaborated our design with the interior design team and created a preliminary 3Dimensional design of what the final greenhouse will look like. The distribution of the plants is not extremely important because the plants are in pots and not plant beds, so each individual plant is mobile and can be placed in any arrangement.
Implementing, Testing, Modifying, and Presenting the Final Design
We realized throughout the semester that in order to implement our design, the school would need more information than just details on buying and maintaining plants. Initially, we felt that the school would only need a list of plants and materials to order and a supplier in order to implement our design. However, as our research became more -10-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 detailed, we realized that the problem was much more complex. Providing a plant list was not a very simple task. In order to develop a methodology for choosing plants, we needed to choose plant attributes that would be most beneficial for the client. This was rather difficult because there were several plant attributes that tended to the clients’ needs, such as light, soil, durability, and sensory therapeutic value. Therefore, our team needed to develop a method to prioritize these qualities. Ultimately, we realized that it was more important for the greenhouse to be an active, usable place with plants that could be successfully cultivated by the students than a traditionally therapeutic space with expensive, exotic plants that could not be actively used by the students. Although providing a plant list was difficult, we realized that we could not simply produce a plant/material list and a vendor for the client. In order for the client to select among the plants from the plant list, we would need to provide recommendations for each plant. This involved much more detailed research and analysis. Finally, our team realized that the school would need an idea of what to do with the plants they have, so we decided to include a list of plant activities. Although we did not need to test our design, we did need to modify it greatly. A description of the evolution of our modifications is in the Formulating Solutions part of this report. In terms of presenting our design, we changed our presentation format for the final presentation. During the midterm presentation, we went into excessive detail of the problem and the restrictions on our solution. This took a large portion of the midterm presentation, which left only a little time to present our solution. However, for the final presentation, we decided to define the problem statement and our restrictions, and then use most of the time to explain our solution. In this part of the presentation, we would discuss our plant list, activities list, and a quick cost analysis. In addition, we decided to enhance our presentation by including a few live samples of recommended plants and a demonstration of a recommended activity. Our final presentation would give the client the most applicable information of our detailed design.
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006
Section 3: Transition Plan and Project Documentation
Connection to Prior Work and Expansion of Solution
Our work was linked to the work of the summer team, who were the first group to contribute to this project. They seemed to focus on a large variety of plants, with several groups for stimulation of each of the senses. A list of specific plants was also included, each with a brief description. While this was informative, a major flaw of the summer group is that their choices were not explained; though it was logical to provide sensory stimulation, our team soon realized that this was not necessarily the most critical issue. And while the list of plants was well compiled, it completely failed to address any problems that could arise from the students being disabled, such as allergies, and while oversensitivity and under sensitivity were mentioned, the plant choices did not reflect an understanding and taking into account of these disabilities. Also, the summer team’s work did not offer any explanations as to why particular plants were chosen: all that was given were various categories that explained which of the five senses the plant was geared towards. Future teams should focus on plant activities that would benefit students and more investigation into plant vendors. While places like Rusk institute use large plant vendors with huge varieties like Angel plants, this may not necessarily be the best solution for the school’s greenhouse. Our team has recommended Angel plants, but we also discovered that smaller plant vendors, and perhaps even farmer’s markets, offer enough variety and expertise to be acceptable. The school may find these local, small vendors more convenient to restock their supply of plants.
Documentation for Duplication of Process
Our team gained much insight from speaking to experts who deal with similar problems and horticulture on a daily basis, so duplicating and continuing our process would require continued communication with those people. At this point in the design phase, it is important to consider activities for the students above the plant types. After talking to Rusk institute as well as independent therapists, we discovered that students with disabilities such as those in PS 79 would gain more from group activities with generic, hardy plants, rather that focusing on various types of sensory stimulations that can be gained from certain plant types. Also, we urge any continuing teams to look more into different plant vendors. As stated in the upper section, the Rusk institute use large plant vendors, but this may not necessarily be the best solution for the greenhouse. We found the BBC gardening website particularly useful in filtering types of plants based on characteristics such as hardiness, light value, aesthetics, and soil pH. That site could be used to check on plant suggestions from smaller vendors if they do not have the same plants that we have recommended in the appendices.
Documentation for Use and Maintenance of Solution
To maintain the greenhouse, some basic knowledge of gardening is needed beyond simply watering the plants. Soil must be prepared. The indoor soils can be made from 1/3 top soil, 1/3 sand, 1/3 leaf compost. Do not use outdoors soil unless it has been pasteurized. Also, avoid the prepackaged potting soils that can be bought. If buying prepackaged soil is a must, then check the ingredients. Use peat moss, perlite, vermiculite, or sand to make the soil more suitable. Peat moss gives the soil more organic content, keeping the soil loose around the roots and also keeps the moisture in the soil. Perlite makes the soil more porous letting the air get in and breath, keeping the soil fresh. Vermiculite also retains moisture. Sand lets the water circulate freely. There are also some synthetic mixes that are available now in stores. They offer advantages such as uniformity, lightness, no weeks or organisms, easy to buy, and simple to store. However the disadvantages are the plants become top heavy sometimes since the soil is so light, a regular fertilizing program must be held since the soil is not natural. These problems can be solved with a few simple solutions: weighing down the soil with water and using an all purpose and slow releasing fertilizers. Water is very precious to the plants. The plants use the water to absorb the nutrients. Just enough water will create a solution with the nutrients so the plant can take up its “veins” and store the food. Too much water will push the oxygen out of the plant. See Appendix Fd for basic guidelines to watering. Fertilizers are needed to supplement the nutrients that the plant needs. It contains elements such as nitrogen that renew the soil. Fertilizers come in either organic or nonorganic states. When it is cold, inorganic fertilizers must be used because organic fertilizers require a temperature over 60 degrees F. General organic fertilizers are animal manures or wood ashes. Light is the most important factor in the growing process and the one that is least likely to be controlled. Light is the source for growth. It provides energy for the photosynthesis that takes place in the plant. There are three categories of plants, ones that require longer daylight, shorter daylights, and those that are indifferent. See appendix for guidelines. Another factor is the temperature. Like the light, plants can be grouped into three categories: Warm, Temperate and Cool; however, almost every plant we have recommended will thrive under the temperate conditions of the greenhouse. Warm is 8085, temperate is 65-70, and cool is 55-60. See Appendix Fd for temperature guidelines. For further information on the care of the plants, see Appendix Fd. The recommended plant arrangement in the Greenhouse can be found in Maya sketches throughout the report and in Appendix C. Many of those details are only relevant for trees since pots can be easily moved. Information regarding how often plants should be watered and when they need soil replacement can be found in Appendix Fd. Activities can be found in -13-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Appendix Fa. Weeds should immediately be removed if noticed, although this is unlikely because the plants are grown in pots. It may also be necessary to cut branches of any trees if they grow out too far, as well as trim any hanging plants if they grow down too low. For additional instruction on particular plants, contact a preferred Vendor such as Angel Plants. All information pertaining to how many plants should be purchased can also be found in Appendix D along with materials list and cost estimations based on recommendations.
Pictures, Diagrams, Technical Drawings, etc…
All necessary pictures, diagrams, and technical drawings can be found in Appendix C.
Section 4: Conclusions and Recommendations
The greenhouse must be an active and usable educational and therapeutic environment, so we chose potted plants, which are robust in their ability to survive and the variety of activities that they provide. One main aspect of the design is our use of pots rather than plant beds to allow students to bring the plant of their choice to a central table to work on activities in groups ranging from transplanting and pruning to drying leaves. That way, the greenhouse can also foster a social environment. The main varieties of potted plants we have recommended are Begonias, Dracaenas, Chinese Evergreens, and Norfolk Island pines. These plants are common houseplants that have attractive, varied foliage, have health benefits such as filtering the air, and will thrive under the care of the children and provide rewarding gardening experiences which are therapeutic in their own right. We will also provide a potted herb and vegetable garden as well as several varieties of flowers for aesthetics and activities involving sensory stimulation that cater to students with more limited abilities to physically handle plants. Appendix F contains a list of various activities and the plants they involve ranging from drying leaves to seasonal decorations that we recommend for the school. The flowers we have chosen are fairly low maintenance and low cost, but still aesthetically pleasing and can provide visual and aroma therapy. Some of the varieties are Snapdragons, Peonies, and Marigolds. We recommend the use of Pothos and spider plants to hang in pots above the storage and work areas for aesthetic decoration but also because they can be used in hydroponic growth activities for students who cannot work with soil. We also recommend the use Ficus trees in large pots placed on ground level to provide natural barriers to different areas of the greenhouse as opposed to having expensive permanent hedges. Such trees are easy to maintain and can be moved when necessary. Our estimated total cost ranges from $3233.48 for a barebones solution to $7746.82 for a dream solution.. It is derived from the interior design specifications for counter space, and our recommendations for supplies and tools. We have assumed room for approximately 250 total plants with a total plant cost ranging from $2650.00 to $6280.00. The wide range in these costs is due to the large difference in price between sizes of plants and some differences among materials costs. The estimated recommended cost is $5346.35. Our recommended vendor is Angel Plants on long island due to their vast supply and convenience. Their inventory can be found in Appendix Fe. Many of the plants we have chosen do not require soil replacement or fertilizer on a regular basis, so the costs we have provided are for the initial purchase. Replacement costs will depend on price of each bag of soil and the annual plants that the school will need to replace, but they must be ordered based on the needs of the school as they see throughout the year. Due to the simple and conventional nature of our design, PS79 can easily follow our recommendations and provide an environment that meets their needs and the needs of the students while providing a model from which other schools attempting similar projects can draw. -15-
Section 5: Appendices
Appendix A: Product Design Specifications
Product Title Horticulture and interior landscaping for PS 79M greenhouse Purpose To provide a therapeutic, aesthetic, and educational environment with plants that can be cultivated by the students at PS 79M. Special Features • Potting benches that will be wheelchair accessible. • Activities for students with limited or no ability to use their hands. Need for Product • Many parents cannot afford to provide daily therapy for their children, so the greenhouse would provide free supplementary therapy. • Having the opportunity to work in a new environment with plants on a daily basis will reduce stress and provide a more pleasant school environment. • Many students rely on school to provide their only social interaction with other students. The greenhouse will aid in developing that social environment by allowing students to work in groups. • Many of the students will have difficulty obtaining employment after graduation; through group projects in the greenhouse, students will develop the ability to work in groups, follow a specific set of instructions, and produce a final product • All of these prevocational skills will make the students more viable job candidates. • Some students will benefit specifically by gaining horticulture skills in the greenhouse which may be immediately used in the gardening industry upon graduation Functional Performance • The greenhouse will be the location of daily classes throughout the year, so at all times of the year plants must be available for cultivation and other handling. • Plant distribution must be limited to the space designated by the interior design team and be organized in such a way as to allow all of the students present during a given class period to be occupied. From their numbers we estimate approximately 300 potted plants and three to five large pots for trees. • Plants will be used frequently and possibly handled roughly, so plants must be robust enough to withstand abuse. • The plants chosen must provide therapy through sensory stimulation and hands-on activity. Safety • No poisonous or commonly allergic plants can be present given that students will be handling the plants daily and may attempt to ingest them. • Plants should be labeled properly if they have dangerous thorns or needles. -16-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Quality • We will provide plant descriptions to the safety and signage team so that they can provide educational material and fulfill an important requirement for the greenhouse. • Plants must be resistant to disease to minimize maintenance difficulties for the school. • There must be a base population of plants that germinate easily and require minimal maintenance to prevent deterioration of the greenhouse environment during times when the school may not be able to provide proper maintenance. The reasons for this situation could be insufficient funding or a learning period when the students are still developing proper maintenance skills. Manufacturing • Reliable suppliers must be chosen so that the school can replenish their supply of plants and soil as needed. • If the school builds a relationship with a particular supplier, they may be able to have discounts in future purchases. • Angel Plants, Rusk Institute’s current supplier, is a possible supplier for PS 79M, since it has experience with therapeutic plants and is based in Long Island. Timing • Due to the time and space requirements of the greenhouse, most of the plants cannot start as seeds but rather as seedlings. • The school must balance future purchases of seeds and bulbs vs. seedlings to meet the financial needs of the school, the functional needs of the school, and the therapeutic needs of the students. • We will provide a calendar of seasonal plant activities which is linked with a purchasing schedule with the appropriate types and quantity of plants to purchase. Economic • Fertilizer can be bought, developed from compost, or a combination of the two. Although compost would save fertilizer cost, there will be greater initial costs for the compost method • Because the greenhouse is meant for long-term use, compost is recommended because it would save money in the future and would provide an additional activity for the students. • High quality gloves and pots could be bought at a higher cost, but they will need a storage place and must be replaced if lost. Disposable gloves and cheap pots would cost much less, but they would need to be replaced yearly. • Disposable gloves are recommended because they will not need to be stored or cleaned. More durable pots are recommended because they will be used constantly for planting, so they must be able to withstand several uses. • Choosing plants that require multiple soil pH levels would necessitate the purchase of three different types of soil by the school. That cost could be avoided if all of the plants can grow in neutral soil.
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Plants themselves should be as low cost as possible while still providing the functional needs of the greenhouse so that the design is more accessible to others and the students learn more practical skills involving common houseplants. • Estimated Total Cost Range: $3233.48 - $7746.82 • Recommended Cost of Plants: $4460 Ergonomic • The plants must serve the wide range of physical and mental abilities of the students and provide therapeutic aesthetics and sensory stimulation. • Some students have developed tactile skills and will be able to cultivate plants in pots and on ground level, whereas other students are confined to wheel chairs and may only be able to touch and smell the plants in a specific position. We must have plants that can be grown in pots and on ground level with varying degrees of robustness to allow students with varying degrees of physical ability to have experience nurturing the plants. • The greenhouse must also contain plants that serve the needs of students who have limited or no ability to cultivate the plants such as flowers or herbs with therapeutic aromas and textures. • Bulbs and seeds must be purchased at the appropriate seasonal time, so students can plant them and see them successfully grow. • A population of plants must be available for transplanting and arranging at all times, so merely having a supply of seeds will be inadequate. • Since the students have allergies that change with the population of the student body, no commonly allergic plants will be placed in the greenhouse. • Since some students may be allergic to soil, plants must be available which can be propagated and grown hydroponically. • Some activities must reflect those that occur in the gardening and landscaping industry so that when the students graduate, they can apply the skills they have learned immediately in the work environment. • No plants can be poisonous because students will be working with them constantly. Ecological • Plants should all be able to survive at room temperature and the humidity of the greenhouse that is decided by the ventilation team. The temperature will not vary with seasons because the Greenhouse must always be a comfortable environment for the students. • In addition to survival, plants must be chosen which bloom and live through normal lifecycles at that static temperature and humidity. Aesthetic • The school has requested that aesthetic plants be placed on the security fence so it is less conspicuous. We will meet that need with varieties of Ivy which can be found in Appendix Dc. •
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 We will use varieties of Ficus tree in large pots on the ground to provide aesthetic barriers between different parts of the greenhouse as partitioned by the interior design and accessibility team • A variety of robust hanging plants will be recommended to provide the students with an atmosphere surrounded by plants, which can also be taken down by faculty and used in transplanting and hydroponic activities. • Other aesthetic plants such as highly ornamental flowers which require high levels of maintenance and are expensive are not recommended since it violates the primary practical and economic needs of the school. It also would make the design inaccessible to future schools that would like to use this design as a model for their own. • Most of the general potted plants will have foliage that is attractive enough to provide a strikingly different environment than that to which the students are accustomed. Life Cycle • There should be a mixture of plants that grow year round and those that require seasonal planting. That will allow for a plant population that provides a static environment that can be maintained with low costs and another population which changes seasonally to provide changing aesthetics and activities for the students. • The plants must have staggered blooming/cultivation schedules to provide seasonally varying activities for the students. • A compost heap may be desirable to recycle plants which die seasonally. This would decrease maintenance costs of both dead plants and newly growing plants. • We will refrain from placing plants outside except robust ones that may grow on the security fence due to the inconvenience associated with maintenance and the inability of plants to survive year round in the NYC climate Corporate Constraints • The project timeline has a completion goal within 2007, so any plants chosen would have to be available in large enough quantities by that time. • Since the greenhouse must be functional by that time, it must contain some full grown plants and not just seedlings or seeds. • The school should choose one supplier and build a reliable relationship with them even for convenience even if other suppliers may temporarily have better prices. Social, Political, and Legal Considerations o All of our designs must comply with the ADA regulations o All of our designs must comply with public school regulations •
Appendix B: Gantt Chart
Project Schedule for Greenhouse-Horticulture & Exterior and Interior Landscaping
Project Schedule for Greenhouse Initiating (Week 1) Preliminary Project Initiation (Week 1) Determine Team Roles Determine Future Meetings Determine Set Meeting Place Obtain Contact Information from members Planning/Background Information (Week 2-5) Basic Project Understanding (Week 2-3) Research Previous Greenhouses Research Indoor and Outdoor Plants Determine Size of Land and Greenhouse Design Potential Exterior Landscaping Consider Previous Designs by summer Gateway group Define Project in-depth (Week 3-5) Meet with clients (teachers and students of school) Narrow Down Possibilities of Types of Plants Consider Types of Nutrients and Soils Required Decide on Potential Exterior Landscaping Collaborate with Other Groups on Interior Landscaping Design Project Initiation (Week 4-6) Define Parameters/Specifications for Interior and Exterior Landscape Decide Upon Types of Plants for Interior and Exterior Determine Fertilizers and Nutrients Needed Determine Other Supplies Needed for Plants Determine Possible Venders Preliminary Cost Analysis Preliminary Design for Landscaping Client Presentation/Design Check (Week 6) In-Depth Project Design (Week 6-9) Refine Design Post-Client Presentation 3-D Modeling of Landscapes Final Analysis of Plants Final Analysis of Materials Used for Interior and Exterior Landscaping Finalizing Design (Week 9-11) Finalization of 3-D Models Prototype Construction Final Cost Report Final Presentation of Design to Client Work 90 hrs 2 hrs 2 hrs 0.5 hrs 0.5 hrs 0.5 hrs 0.5 hrs 24 hrs 8.5 hrs 2 hrs 2 hrs 1 hr 3 hrs .5 hrs 15.5 hrs 3 hrs 3 hrs 3 hrs 3 hrs 3.5 hrs 27 hrs 4 hrs 4 hrs 4 hrs 4 hrs 5 hrs 2 hrs 4 hrs 3 hrs 17 hrs 5 hrs 4 hrs 3 hrs 5 hrs 14 hrs 5 hrs 5 hrs 4 hrs 3 hrs Duration 61 Days 6 days 6 days 6 days 6 days 6 days 6 days 17 days 6 days 6 days 6 days 6 days 6 days 6 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 11 days 1 day 16 days 14 days 14 days 14 days 14 days 16 days 5 days 5 days 5 days 1 day September October November December
Appendix C: Technical Specifications (Maya)
Appendix Da: Budget Information and List of Materials
Tools were found at http://www.hardwareworld.com/Landscaping--GardencIRUC14.aspx Plant price approximations were determined from Angel Plants, Inc. costs
ITEM ESTIMATED QUANTITY 20 20 20 20 40 (can vary greatly) 8 (40 lb) 16 12 8 4 8 4 20 10 10 (can vary greatly) 1 5-7 150 UNIT COST ESTIMATED TOTAL COST $37.60 - $90.40 $37.60 - $95.40 $38.60 - $95.40 $71.40 - $224.20 $110.80 REQUIREMENT/ RECOMMENDED/ DREAM SOLUTION Required Required Recommended Wish Required (quantity depends on how often disposed) Required Required (plants will most likely arrive in pots) Required (plants will most likely arrive in pots) Recommended Depends on watering method Required
Transplanter Cultivator Trowel Bulb Planter Gloves
$1.88 - $4.52 $1.88 - $4.77 $1.93 - $4.77 $3.57 - $11.21 $2.77 (includes S, M, and L sizes) $10 for 5 lb 6’’: $1.02 8’’: $1.65 - $1.77 10’’: $2.61 - $2.70 12’’: $3.66 - $12.56 10’’: $1.18 - $1.26 12’’: $2.60 - $2.71 $5 - $10 $4.64 - $5.03 $4.10 (16 qt)
Plant Food (Miracle-Gro) Pots (Planters)
$80 $16.32 $19.80 - $21.24 $20.88 - $21.60 $14.64 - $50.24 $9.44 - $10.08 $10.40 - $10.84 $100 - $200 $46.40 - $50.30 $41.00
Hanging Pots (Planters) Pruners Watering Can Potting Soil Compost System1 Large Standing Plants Major Working Plants Other Plants
$125 - $349 $30 - $40 $10 - $30 (depends on average sizes ordered) $10 - $15
$125 - $349 $150 - $280 $1500 - $4500
$1000 - $1500
Wish Recommended (part of interior design) Required (students will take care for these plants) Recommended (students will have planned horticulture activities with these plants)
OVERALL TOTAL RANGE BAREBONES ESTIMATE RECOMMEND ED DREAM ESTIMATE
$3233.48 - $7746.82 Plants: $2650 Total: $3233.48 Plants: $4460 Total: $5346.35 Plants: $6280 Total: $7746
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006
Several compost systems can be found at this website: http://www.gardeners.com/on/demandware.store/Sites-GardenersSite/default/ViewSimpleSearch2-Start
Appendix Db: Alphabetized List of All Plants
American Wisteria Baby’ breath Basil Bayberry Bittersweet Blue Wild Indigo Canna Chinese Evergreen Chinese Lanterns Chives Chrysanthemum Cockscomb Cornflower Curly Mint Docks/Sorrels Dusty miller Fairy fan-flower Ferns Gladiolus Globe amaranth Globe thistle Goldenrod Grape hyacinth Heather Honesty Hydrangea Larkspur Lettuce Lilac Magnolia Marigold Marjoram/Oregano Night-scented stock Pansies Peony Pomegranate Pothos Queen Anne’s Lace Red Edged Dracaena Sagebrush/Wormwood Salvia Snapdragon Spider Plant Statice Strawflower Sumac Swan river daisy Sweet Pea Teasel Thyme Trailing lobelia Vine Lilac Violas Wax Begonia Weeping Fig Yarrow Zinnia
Appendix Dc: Plant Descriptions for Highly Recommended Plants
POTTED PLANTS Dracaena Genus: Dracaena, Species: marginata (commonly known as Madagascar Dragon Tree or Red Edged Dracaena) Easy to grow, can be in sun or shade, attractive foliage, true of most dracaenas, this is just one particular species. Tolerant to dry soil and irregular watering
Genus: Aglaonema (Chinese Evergreen can be a common name) Flowering tropical plants, about 20 species, easy to grow, wide range of light, resistant to disease and neglect, variety of leaf types between species, prefer partial shade, moist soil. Can filter the air.
Wax Begonia Genus: Begonia, Species: semperflorens (Commonly known as Wax Begonia) Adaptable and forgiving plants, they combine a neat, compact habit, attractive flowers and foliage, and trouble-free cultural requirements. They can yield a long season of blooms while growing in partial shade.
Norfolk Island Pine
Genus: Araucaria, Species: heterophylla (Commonly known as Norfolk Island Pine) Norfolk Island Pine enjoy humid environments. With age, and lack of humidity, the needles along the trunk will fall off. Dead, lower branches, are a sign that the plant has been dehydrated. The dry needles will not come back. These plants do best with consistency stay on a watering schedule. Over watering results in sporadic bright yellow needle clusters that come off very easily, and don't come back.
HANGING PLANTS Pothos Genus: Epipremnum Species: aureum (commonly known as Pothos) Very effective at removing indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde, xylene, and benzene. Studies show that when stimulated with music it gives of a sweet scent similar to Chocolate and Vanilla. Medium indoor light, grows hydroponically (activities can be done with taking cuttings and placing them in water for students who can’t work with soil). Can tolerate much abuse. Spider Plant Genus: Chlorophytum Species: comosum (commonly known as Spider Plant) Effective at removing toxins, can be grown hydroponically (same activities as Pothos), can thrive in almost any condition.
LARGE PLANTS (for separating greenhouse areas) Weeping Fig Genus: Ficus Species: benjamina (Weeping Fig or Benjamin’s Fig) Tolerance to poor growing conditions, grows best under bright light but can tolerate shade, only requires enough watering to prevent drying out, warning: drops many leaves when relocated as it adapts to new light intensity. Effectively removes indoor air toxins according to NASA
VINES FOR FENCE American Wisteria This plant is terrific because of its beautiful blossoms, and easy pruning. However, this plant may be mildly aggressive and strangle nearby trees. Dormant pruning is the best way to maintain this plant, for it controls the plant without sacrificing color. The person in charge of pruning this plant may want to ask t he plant vendor specific directions for how to prune it. Purple Hardenbergia For a hardy, evergreen, twining, woodystemmed climber, the client may want to purchase the purple hardenbergia. It has dark green leathery leaves and produces a mass of dark purple pea flowers.
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Carolina Yellow Jasmine
This plant is a nice, fast growing evergreen vine with fragrant flowers that bloom throughout late winter and early spring. Caution! All parts of this plant are poisonous.
Appendix Dd: Notes on Other Plants
Plant recommendations were mostly based on hardiness and ease of their maintenance, so that all of the plants would be able most likely to survive in any poor conditions or under any potential mistreatment. Note: general categories of plants such as docks/sorrels and grasses are not detailed here. PLANT NAME American Wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) NOTES Propagation: seeds, cuttings, layering; seeds planted late Spring, cuttings taken in early Summer NOTE: can take up to 20 years to flower from seed Propagation: seeds, cuttings, root division before growth starts; divided March to April Propagation: seeds, cuttings; seeds planted March to May RECOMMENDATION LEVEL Medium (propagates easily, very hardy, but may take long time to flower) Medium (special water preference) Medium (special light/soil preference, but propagates easily) High (propagates easily, very hardy) High (propagates easily, very hardy) Low (special light/soil preference) Low (special light/soil preference) Low (although it is hardy and easily propagated, it can cause oral pain) High (blooms repeatedly throughout the year)
Baby’ breath (Gypsophila) Basil (Ocimum basilicum)
Bayberry (Myrica) Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)
Blue Wild Indigo (Baptisia australis) Canna (Canna)
Chinese Evergreen (Aglaonema)
Propagation: seeds, cuttings; seeds planted late Spring/early Summer, cuttings taken July/August Propagation: seeds, cuttings, layering; seeds planted February, cuttings taken in December, layering in August Propagation: seeds, division; seeds planted late Winter/early Spring, divided in Spring Propagation: seeds, dividing rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs; seeds planted early Spring, divided in Spring Propagation: seeds, cuttings; Warning: causes severe pain in the mouth if ingested Propagation: seeds, cuttings; seeds planted Spring, cuttings taken early Spring -30-
Chinese Lanterns (Abutilon x hybridum)
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 NOTE: Physalis alkekengi is also known as Chinese Lantern, but is very toxic Propagation: seeds, dividing rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs; seeds planted April to May Propagation: dividing rootball, rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs Warning: can cause severe skin irritation Propagation: seeds; seeds planted early to mid Spring
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum)
Medium (special light preference) Medium (special light preference, skin irritation) Low (special light/soil preference, only seed propagation) Low (special light/soil preference, only seed propagation) High (very hardy, propagates easily, nice aroma)
Cockscomb (Celosia argentea var. cristata) Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)
Propagation: seeds; seeds planted Spring
Curly Mint (Mentha spicata var. crispa) Dusty miller (Artemisia ludoviciana) Fairy fan-flower (Scaevola aemula) Globe amaranth (Gomphrena globosa) Globe thistle (Echinops)
Grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum)
Heather (Calluna vulgaris)
Medium (special light preference, but drought resistant) Low (not very hardy, rather tender) Propagation: seeds Low (special light preference, difficult to propagate) Propagation: seeds, cuttings, root Medium division; seeds planted early Spring, (propagates easily, cuttings taken in Winter, division in drought resistant, but special soil preference) Fall Propagation: seeds, division; High seeds planted late Spring/early Fall, (although special light divided in early Fall preference, propagates easily, colorful, and beneficial) Propagation: seeds, cuttings, Medium layering, division; cuttings taken (fragrant, propagates late Summer/Fall, layering in Fall, easily, but special light -31-
Propagation: seeds, dividing rootball; seeds planted Spring, divided anytime (preferably Spring or Autumn) Propagation: seeds, cuttings, division; cuttings in late Spring, division in Spring or Fall Propagation: seeds, cuttings; long blooming period
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 divided in Spring Propagation: seeds; seeds planted May to June Note: after first sowing, plant selfsows freely Warning: pollen may trigger allergies Propagation: seeds, cuttings, layering Propagation: dividing rootball, cuttings, air layering Warning: All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested Propagation: seeds Propagation: cuttings preference) High (hardy, self-propagates, bright colored, fragrant, but beware of allergies)
Honesty (Lunaria annua)
Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) Larkspur (Delphinium elatum)
Low (special light/soil preference Low (poisonous if ingested)
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Lilac (Buddleja davidii) Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) Night-scented stock (Matthiola longipetala) Pansies (Viola x wittrockiana) Peony (Paeonia lactiflora) Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Queen Anne’s Lace (Daucus carota) Sagebrush (Artemisia
Propagation: cuttings Warning: poisonous if ingested, skin irritation Propagation: seed Note: self-sows Propagation: seeds
High (can be eaten) High (beautiful and also fragrant) Low (poison and skin irritation) High (hardy, self-sows) Medium (easy to care for, drought resistant) Medium (hardy, fragrant) Low (special soil/water preference) Low (special soil preference) High (Drought-resistant, edible) Low (potentially toxic) High (drought-resistant)
Propagation: cuttings, seed
Propagation: dividing rootball Propagation: seed, cuttings, layering Propagation: seed Warning: poisonous if ingested, skin irritation Propagation: seed Warning: trigger pollen allergies -32-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 campestris subsp. Caudate) Salvia (Salvia elegans) Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) Statice (Limonium platyphyllum) Strawflower (Helichrysum petiolare)
Propagation: cuttings Warning: N/A Propagation: Seeds Propagation: seeds; seeds planted March to April
Propagation: cuttings; cuttings taken from March to May
Sumach (Rhus typhina)
Propagation: seedlings or fully grown trees
Swan river daisy (Brachyscome iberidifolia) Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus)
Propagation: seeds; seeds planted March to April
Teasel (Dipsacus fullonum)
Propagation: seeds; seeds planted September to May Warning: can produce a strong perfume aroma, peas are poisonous if ingested Propagation: seeds; seeds planted April to May
Propagation: cuttings; cuttings taken May-June
Trailing lobelia (Lobelia)
Vine Lilac (Hardenbergia)
Propagation: seeds; seeds planted March to April Warning: pollen may trigger allergies Propagation: seeds, cuttings; cuttings taken August to October -33-
Medium (soil preference, fragrant) High (very hardy, colorful) High (Easy to grow, hardy, attractive oval leaves that can be dried) Medium (sasy to grow, silver foliage, but somewhat tender and special light preference) Low (special light preference, difficult to maintain, mostly grown outdoors) Medium (hardy, colorful, but special light preference and difficult to propagate) Low (hardy, easy to grow, but aroma may provoke allergic reactions, and toxic) Medium (hardy, easy to grow, visually interesting, but require a year before flowering, biennials) Medium (woody aromatic perennial and hardy, but special light preference) High (hardy, very colorful)
Low (special water/light
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 preference) High (interesting black petals, hardy, easy to grow) High (Hardy, Perenial flower, easy to grow, does not spread uncontrollably, attractive foliage) Medium (colorful flower, grows in any soil, but somewhat fragile and special light preference)
Viola (Viola) Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
Propagation: cuttings; cuttings only July-August Propagation: seeds (common), seedlings
Propagation: seeds (common), seedlings
Appendix E: Photographs Illustrating the Team Experience
Appendix Fa: Ideas for Horticulture Activities for Students
o Hydorponics o Take cuttings from Pothos, Spider plant, Ficus trees, etc… and place them in water for growth o Place them in water and eventually transplant. o Make bark, stump, and leaf rubbings. o Place a mushroom top on a piece of paper to make spore prints, and then spray with acrylic. o Make compost in a large plastic bag. o Add starter soil, compost material, one cup of agricultural lime, and one cup of water. o Have children train ivy around stakes. o Start with three ivy plants in a pot. o Arrange the stakes in the shape of a teepee. o During the winter, make winter scenes on sheets of white Styrofoam. o Evergreen branches for trees (can use Norfolk Island Pines), and spray with artificial snow. o Floral prints o Use construction paper, velvet, satin, or burlap for the background. Pressed flowers are mounted and glued on one at a time. The picture can be covered with clear plastic or glass. o Placemats and bookmarkers o Arrange pressed plant material on a piece of plastic Contac paper. Apply another piece of plastic over the arrangement. The margins can be cut with pinking shears. o Growing herbs o Transplant o Use various herbs for tea: one teaspoon of dried leaves or flowers is used for one cup of tea. If fresh herbs are used, double the amount, and steep in boiling water for ten to fifteen minutes. o Making potpourri o A potpourri is a small compost of exquisite ingredients such as flower petals, oils, spices, gums, barks, and leaves. It is used to refresh and scent the air. o Start to collect the ingredients during the summer and throughout the fall. The flowers should be selected for their color and fragrance. o Rose petals are commonly used because they retain some of their fragrance. o The petals of carnations, geraniums, heliotrope, honeysuckle, lavender, lilac, and spice pinks can also be sued. o Separate the petals and place them with salt, orrisroot or gum benzoin, various spices, and brown sugar. -36-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 o Layers of the ingredients are placed in a jar, and these are aged for three to six weeks. o The mixtures should be mixed twice a week. Once blended, the mixtures will last for years. o The following are potpourri recipes. Mint Potpourri General Mixture o 2 cups dried lavender o 1 gallon dried flower petals o 1 cup dried mint leaves o 1 box plain salt (peppermint, spearmint, o 1 tablespoon allspice orangemint) o 1 ounce oil of bergamot o ½ cup dried thyme o ½ ounce orrisroot powder o ¼ cup rosemary o Small box of ground cinnamon o A few drops of lavender, thyme, o 1 box bay leaves and bergamot oil o Dried red geranium petals, blue bachelor’s buttons, and delphiniums
o Plant seeds in the form of a child’s initials. o The following plants grow quickly. The growth can be measured day to day. The following are quick to germinate and grow fast: castor beans, sunflowers, morning glory, pumpkins, gourds, zinnias, marigolds, cosmos, radishes, wax beans, green beans, and beets. o A whistle or horn can be made from a sqush leaf stem. The hollow leaf stem or petiole becomes solid where it joins the leaf blade. Cut the leaf stem from the vine and cut it again through the solid part near the leaf. Make a slit in the stalk about ½ inch up from the solid part. Put the end with the slit in your mouth and blow. Drying plants and flowers: Red: cockscomb, peony, pomegranate, roses, strawflowers, sumac, zinnia Pink: delphinium, gladiolus, globe amaranth, larkspur, peony, snapdragon, statice Yellow: acaia, chrysanthemum, goldenrod, marigold, strawflower, yarrow, zinnia Blue: cornflower, delphinium, globe thistle, hydrangea, larkspur, slavia Green: ferns, foliage, grasses, hydrangea, seed pods Orange: bittersweet, Chinese lanterns, marigolds, strawflower, Zinnia Violet: gladiolus, heather, lilac, statice, stock Gray: Artemisia, bayberry, dusty miller Brown: canna, cones, dock, seed pods Tan: grasses, leaves, seed pods, wood roses Black: baptisia pods, magnolia leaves, teasel White: baby’ breath, honesty, peony, Queen Anne’s Lace, statice, strawflower.
Small compact drying method -37-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 1. Collect the plants on a bright, sunny day before they reach full maturity, but not after their color deigns to deteriorate. 2. Remove all unnecessary leaves. The shaping of the plants can also be done at this time. The bottom of the flower original stem can be removed and replaced with florist’s wire inserted through the bottom of the floral head. 3. Tie the plants in a small bunch and suspend them upside down. This keeps the stems straight and the flower heads upright. 4. Hang the plants in a dry, warm location with good ventilation. Do not cover or enclose them in a closet. Do not expose them to direct sun. It takes about 8-10 days for the majority of plants to dry, but it depends on humidity.
Note: this information was taken directly from Horticulture for the disabled and disadvantaged. Citation information can be found in the bibliography
Appendix Fb: Planting Details for Some Vegetables
QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Note: this information was taken directly from Horticulture for the disabled and disadvantaged. Citation information can be found in the bibliography
Appendix Fc: Details for Starting an Avacado Tree
1. Cut into your avocado carefully, so as not to injure the pit located in the fruit's center. Carefully remove the pit, and set it aside. Use the avocado meat to create the tasty dip/topping known as guacamole. 2. Gently wash the avocado pit, removing all avocado flesh from the pit. 5. Set your avocado pit (with inserted toothpicks) on the top rim of the container. The toothpicks should sit on the rim of the container, while keeping the pit only half-submerged in the water.
3. Holding the pit "narrow" (pointed) side up, stick four toothpicks into the middle section of the pit at even intervals, to a depth of about 5 mm.
4. In a small, slender container (preferably glass), add water until it reaches the very top rim. Your container's opening should be wide enough to easily accommodate the full width of the avocado, but not too much wider. -40-
6. Set the avocado-topped container in temperate, undisturbed place-near a window or other well-lit area--to begin the rooting and growth process. 7. Change the water every 1-2 days to ensure that contaminants (i.e. mold, bacteria, fermentation, etc.) do not hinder the avocado sprouting process. Ensure that the base of the avocado always remains moist and submerged in water. 8. Remember: Wait patiently. The avocado takes several weeks to begin to root. Over the next 2-3 weeks, the avocado's brown outer layer will begin to dry out and wrinkle, eventually sloughing off. Soon after, the pit should begin to split open at the top and bottom. After 3-4 weeks, a tap root should begin to emerge at the base of the pit. 9. Continue to water the plant accordingly, being careful not to
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 disturb or injure the tap root. Continue to allow the avocado pit time to establish its roots. Soon, the avocado will sprout at the top, releasing an unfolding leaf-bud that will open and begin to grow a shoot bearing leaves. pack the soil, adding more soil as needed. Once the soil is prepared, dig a narrow hole deep enough to accommodate your avocado's roots and pit. 12. Carefully bury the avocado pit in the soil such that the top-half of pit shows above the surface of the soil. Pack the soil lightly around the pit. 13. Water your plant daily or enough to keep the soil moist. Avoid over-watering to the point that the soil becomes muddy. If the leaves turn brown at the tips, the tree needs more water. If the leaves turn yellow, the tree is getting too much water and needs to be permitted to dry out for a day or two. 14. Continue to tend to your avocado plant regularly, and in a few years you will have an attractive and low-maintenance tree. Your family and friends will be impressed to know that from an avocado pit, salvaged from your guacamole recipe, you have cultivated and grown your very own avocado tree.
10. When the roots are substantial and the stem top has had a chance to re-grow leaves (after at least one pruning), your baby avocado tree is ready to be planted in soil. Remove the sprouted pit from the water container, and gently remove each of the toothpicks. 11. Use a 20-25 cm terra cotta pot filled with enriched soil to 2 cm below the top. A 50/50 blend of topsoil and coir (coconut fibre) works best. Smooth and slightly
Note: This information was taken directly from <http://www.wikihow.com/Plant-anAvocado-Tree> citation information in bibliography
Appendix Fd: Guidelines for Care of Plants
Watering Guidelines: 1. Overwatering causes root injury and death of plants. Learn to water when the plant needs it. Feel the soil. More plants die of overwatering than from any other factor. 2. A cool environment requires less water than a hot, dry one. 3. When a plant is growing new leaves or producing flowers, it needs more water. 4. Plants with heavy, thorny, or waxy leaves need less water than the thin-leaved varieties. Water cacti once every 2-4 weeks in the summer, and once every 2 month in the winter. 5. Wet the soil until the excess water drains off. 6. Water less with plastic pots, more with clay pots. 7. Small pots dry out faster, as do hanging plants. 8. If the plant is rootbound, it will need more water than when just starting to fill the pot with roots. 9. Newly transplanted seedlings or repotted plants need less water until the roots get established, but do not let the seedlings dry out. 10. Water “sick” plants sparingly. The roots are weak and they are likely to rot. 11. Water with tepid water; cold water can shock and cause leaf damage. 12. Water from the tap may contain chlorine and it should stand overnight before being used. Avoid water that is softened with chemicals. Use rain water or cover the surface of the soil with charcoal to strain out some of the chemical impurities. 13. Rain water or soft water is ideal for watering. It is slightly acid, and it favors the growth of soil bacteria which break down organic matter in the soil. 14. Hard or alkaline water contains salts of calcium and magnesium, in addition to chlorides and sulfates. High concentrations of salts may injure the plant’s roots and leaves. 15. Dry heat indoors during winter means more frequent watering. With indoor plants, a lack of humidity is detrimental due to excessive evaporation. Increase the humidity by placing a layer of damp pebbles in trays under the pots or by spraying the plants with a fine mist everyday. Do not mist plants such as cacti or succulents, or those with fuzzy leaves. Lighting Guidelines 1. Vegetable plants grow better in full sunlight than in the shade, and some need more sun than others. 2. Some indoor plants can stand direct sunlight, but most prefer a relatively strong, filtered, or diffused light. 3. A plant that lives with insufficient light might look well for months, but it is actually suffering. The amount of light that a plant needs is more than most people think. 4. Artificial lighting may be used alone or in combination with natural light. -42-
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 5. Use the shadow test to determine the amount of light. Hold a piece of paper up to the light and note the shadow it makes. A sharp shadow means that you have bright or good light, whereas a barely visible shadow means dim light. 6. A full sun requirement means that the plant will need sun for at least half of the day. Indirect or partial sun means that the sun should be filtered through a curtain. Bright light means no direct sun, but the room should be bright and well lighted. Shade-loving plants should be kept in a well-shaded area with no direct sun at all. 7. When plants are not getting enough light, the lower leaves die, and the new leaves are small. When plants get too much light, they wilt, fade, or burn. 8. Rotate plants so that taverage date for the first killing frost in the fall. he leaves get an even distribution of light. Temperature Guidelines 1. Temperatures that are comfortable for people are also satisfactory for most indoor plants. 2. Most plants prefer to bge 10 or 15 degrees cooler at night. 3. Keep plants away from drafts, air conditioners, and radiators. 4. All plants benefit from proper temperature and a gentle circulation of air. 5. Most plants do not like sudden changes in temperature.
Note: this information was taken directly from Horticulture for the disabled and disadvantaged. Citation information can be found in the bibliography
Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Appendix Fe: Inventory List from Angel Plants
Appendix Fg: Seasonal Activities
Table I. Availability of typical greenhouse crops Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Crop produced spring bulbs, azalea, primula, cineraria, calceolaria, cyclamen roses, spring bulbs, oxalis, cineraria, calceolaria, primula, cyclamen, azalea, lilies hydrangea, kalanchoe, cineraria, calceolaria, primula, cyclamen, azalea, lilies, bedding plants spring bulbs, azalea, lilies, gloxinia, heimalis begonia, bedding plants, flowering baskets hydrangea, azalea, kalanchoe, lilies, gloxinia, potted roses, late flowering bulbs, geranium, new guinea impatiens, bedding plants, flowering baskets gloxinia, heimalis, begonia, foliage, hibiscus, gerbera, potted bedding plants gerbera, gloxinia, streptocarpus, heimalis begonia hibiscus, azalea, heimalis begonia, foliage plants, field chrysanthemum foliage plants, gloxinia, azalea, hibiscus, ornamental pepper, field chrysanthemum hibiscus, foliage, flowering cabbage, flowering kale, cyclamen poinsettia, cyclamen, Christmas cactus poinsettia, Christmas cactus, cyclamen, heimalis begonia
Table II. Seasonal plant material produced for specific holidays Occasion/season Valentine's Day Easter Secretary's Day Mother's Day Preferred type* Plant material cut potted both both anything red, cut roses, potted tulips, azalea, cyclamen spring bulbs, Easter lily, hydrangea, chrysanthemum, azalea cineraria, spring bulbs, potted chrysanthemum, primula
roses, hydrangea, spring bulbs, azalea, potted chrysanthemum, gloxinia, African violet, early bedding plants, fuchsia Memorial Day potted geranium September potted foliage plants Thanksgiving cut chrysanthemum Christmas potted poinsettia, cyclamen, Christmas cactus * The holidays are denoted as either 'cut' or 'potted' based on whether cut flowers or potted plants are the primary products sold.
Note: This information came directly from http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/greenhou/ghprodct.htm. Citation information can be found in the bibliography
Appendix G: References Consulted for Project
BBC-Gardening. BBC. 10 December 2006. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening> Begeman, John “Create your own backyard garden” Arid-Southwestern Gardening Information. 1 December, 2006. <http://ag.arizona.edu/gardening/news/articles/1.3.html> “Gardening Australia” ABC. 19 October, 2006. <http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s1460240.htm>
“How to plant an Avocado tree” wikiHow 4 December 2006. 13 October 2006 <http://www.wikihow.com/Plant-an-Avocado-Tree> Olszowy, Damon R. Ph.D. Horticulture for the disabled and disadvantaged Springfield, Illinois: Thomas Books, 1978. Summer Winds. “Antigonon leptopus” 10 October, 2006 <http://www.summerwindsaz.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=plants.plantDetail&plan t_id=1646> West Virginia University “Greenhouse Production” West Virginia University. 25 October, 2006. <http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/greenhou/ghprodct.htm>
Windows to my World. “Carolina Jasmine” 20 October, 2006. <http://www.sd1new.net/GardenPages/carolina-jasmine.htm>
Appendix H: Copy of PowerPoint Slides
Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture
Primary Facilitator: Secondary Facilitator: Conflict Manager: Process Observer: Time Keeper: Ini Li Eugene Yao Kevin Luke Mike Aronov Jason Eckstein
to improve the students’ quality of life within the school by creating an environment that provides therapy and builds prevocational skills to choose which plants we want to place in the greenhouse in order to address the wide range of specific disabilities of the students, while providing a social, therapeutic, and educational environment
Summary of Presentation
Functional Requirements Provide a list of plants Preliminary Maya design of plants inside greenhouse Instructions on care for plants Horticulture-related activities for students Summaries of potential costs
Need for Product Provides Therapeutic/Social Environment Build Prevocational Skills Performance Requirements Year Round, 100% Student Participation Sensory Stimulation Aesthetic Plants Hands on Activities Robust Plants Service Environment Room Temperature & Comfortable Humidity Static Conditions Throughout Year
Main Design: Plant Distribution
Main Design: Potted Plants
Dracaena Marginata Norfolk Island Pine Easy Vegetables and Fruit: Lettuce, Radishes, Grapes
Carolina Yellow Jasmine
Potted Herbs: Mint, Basil Thyme, etc…
Main Design: Trees & Flowers
Benjamin Fig Ficus
Ficus Rubber Tree
Main Design: Hanging Plants
Pothos Spider Plant
Use the correct type of soil Water according to guidelines Apply fertilizer as needed for nutrients Make sure light is appropriate for each plant Prune plants to avoid overgrowth
Students can make flower bookmarks from dried leaves and potpourri to bring home Activities may reflect the season or holiday Herb and Vegetable Gardens can be grown in pots and used for aromatherapy and cooking
Avocado pit growing Place pothos and spider plant cuttings in water Flower drying
Plants: $2650 Total: $3233.48
Plants: $6280 Total: $7746
Cost Analysis (cont’d)
Plants: $4460.00 Tools: $886.00 Total: $5346.35
Tools: shovel, fertilizer, replacing annuals
Three categories of plants: potted for activities, trees for section separation and atmosphere, and hanging plants for aesthetics and some activities Activities that cater to all students Estimated Cost Basic: $3233.48 Recommended: $5346.35 Dream: $7746
Hydroponics Aquatic Plants
Look further into additional vendors and activities