# Name of the experiment

:
Determination of total dissolved solids (TDS).

Principle:
Many salts are found dissolved in natural water. The common ones have been carbonates, bi-carbonates, chlorides, sulphates, potassium, iron and manganese etc. a high concentration of dissolved solids increases the density of water; affects osmo-regulation of fresh water organism, reduce solubility of gases (like oxygen). It has been regarded as an important parameter in analyzing saline lake, coastal estuarine and marine water. It is expressed as gh‾ or mgh‾ or ppm. TDS may be determined by subtracting TSS from TS value.

Materials:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Beaker Water sample Digestion chamber Filter paper Oven Measuring cylinder

Procedure:
a. A clean dry beaker was taken and 20 ml of water was

b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

taken into it by measuring cylinder Before sample was taken, the empty beaker’s weight had been recorded. The beaker with the water sample was placed in a digestion chamber and the water was evaporated fully. When whole water got evaporated the weight of the beaker was recorded after cooling it. The total solids were calculated from these values. Then an empty filter paper was weighed. After weighing 20 ml of water sample was filled by this filter paper. This filter paper was dried in an oven, and then the weight of filter paper with total suspended solids was recorded.

Data:
i. The weight of empty beaker was 45.48 ii. The weight of beaker with total solids is 45.50 iii. The weight of empty filter paper was 0.8 iv. The weight of filter paper with total suspended solids 1.00 gm.

Calculation:
Total solids= Weight of residue in gm × 1000000 Ml of sample taken = (45.50-45.48) × 1000000 20 Total solids = 10000 ppm. Total suspended solids= Weight of residue in gm × 1000000 Ml of sample taken = (1.0-0.8) ×1000000 20 = 10000ppm. Therefore, total dissolved solids= Total solids- total suspended solids = (10000-10000) ppm = 0 ppm.

Result:
There were no total dissolved solids in this supplied sample.

Name of the experiment:
Determination of total conductivity (EC) by EC meter. Principle:
Pure water is a very poor conductor of electric current, whereas water containing dissolved salts ordinarily found in soils conducts current approximately in proportion to the amount of salt present. Based on this principle, electrical conductance, which is reciprocal of resistance, is measured for salinity appraisal. Electrical conductivity, which is commonly represented by the symbol “EC” increase with salt content and therefore, interpretation of reading, is simple. EC is expressed as m mhos/cm, i.e. reciprocal of ohms.

Electrical

Materials:
7. Beaker 8. Water sample 9. EC meter

Procedure:
a. water sample was taken in a beaker b. Then EC reading was taken by a EC meter.

Result:
The EC reading of the supplied water sample was 0.6 ms/cm

Name of the experiment:
Determination of (NH4+ + NO3‾) Nitrogen

Principle:
In specifying the quality characteristics of water, it is necessary to know the nitrate status of water. In groundwater, nitrate is only rarely an important natural constituent; high concentration may indicate sources of past or present pollution. Nitrate in water can be determined either by reduction to ammonia (by using Devorda’s alloy) which is then liberated by alkaline stream distillation and titrated against a standard acid or color metrically either directly or after reduction of nitrate to ammonia.

Materials:
10.40% NaOH 11. 0.01N H2SO4 12.4% boric acid mixed indicator 13.Devardas alloy 14.Water sample 15.Distillation apparatus 16.Measuring cylinder 17.Pipette 18.Beaker 19.Conical flask 20.Micro burette

Procedure:
j. 10 ml water sample was taken in a beaker with the help of measuring cylinder. k. 10 ml 40% NaOH was added l. 0.2 gm devardas alloy was added m. Then did distillation by using micro distillation apparatus. n. About 50-70 ml volume of the distillate was collected in a conical flask containing 10 ml of Boric mixed with indicator. o. Then titrated against 0.01 N H2SO4, the end point will be indicated by pink color of the solution.

p. A blank experiment was also done by using deionized water. For, blank experiments without water sample, all procedures were the same.

Data:
Observation Sample (T) Blank(B) IBR 0.00 0.48 FBR 0.89 0.76 Difference 0.89 0.28

Calculation:
%N in water sample= (T-B) ×f×0.014×100 Amount of sample taken Here, T= Burette reading B= Blank Reading f= Normality of H2SO4 %N in water sample = (0.89-0.28) ×0.01N×0.014×100 10 = 0.000854% In ppm = 0.000854×10000 = 8.54 ppm

Result:
The supplied water sample contained 8.54 ppm (NH4+ + NO3‾) Nitrogen.

Name of the experiment:
Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD))

Principle:
Most of the organic matter decomposed and produces carbon-di-oxide (CO2) and water when boiled with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid. A sample is refluxed with a known amount of potassium dichromate in sulphuric acid medium and the excess of dichromate is titrated against ferrous ammonium sulphates (FAS). The amount of dichromate consumed is proportional to the oxygen required to oxidize the organic matter.

Materials:
21.Conical flask 22.Measuring cylinder 23.Water bath 24.Pipette 25. K2Cr2O7 solution (o.25 N) 26. AgSO4 27. HgSO4 28. Conc. H2SO4 29.Distilled water 30.Ferroin indicator solution 31.Standard ferrous ammonium sulphates solution (o.27N) 32.Funnel with aluminium foil.

Procedure:
q. 20 ml water sample was taken in a 250 ml conical flask. r. 10 ml 0.25N K2Cr2O7 was added by a pipette. s. A pinch of AgSO4 was added. t. A pinch of H2SO4 was added. u. Then did airtight with aluminium foil to protect evaporation loss. v. Then the conical flask was placed in a water both for one and half hour at 75-80°C w. Cooled it and 100 ml distilled water was added to dilute it.

x. 2-3 drops of ferroin indicator solution was added. y. After that it was titrated against 0.27N ferrous aluminium sulphates solution. The end point will be indicated by reddish blue color of the solution. z. Two blank experiments will also be done with distilled water.

Data:
Observation Sample Observation Blank I Blank II IBR 21.4 IBR 1.6 20.5 FBR 31.10 FBR 11.7 30.8 Difference 9.7 Difference Mean 10.1 10.3 10.2

Calculation:
COD (%) = (B-T) ×f×100×8 Amount of sample taken ×1000 = (10.2-9.7) ×0.27×100×8 20×10000 = 0.0054% In ppm = 0.0054×10000 = 54 ppm

Result:
The Cod of the supplied water sample was 54 ppm.

Name of the experiment:
Determination of Free CO2

Principle:
The CO2 which is found in well water and surface waters to a great extent can cause corrosion. The CO2 present in water in excess of carbonates and bio-carbonates is known as free CO2. It can be estimated by titration with N NaOH or N KOH solution using phenolphthalein as indicator.

Materials:
33.Conical flask 34.Measuring cylinder 35.Water sample 36.Pipette 37.Phenolphthalein indicator 38.0.02 N Standard NaOH

Procedure:
aa. Supplied water sample (25ml) was taken in a conical flask by a measuring cylinder. bb.Then 3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator was added. cc. Then titrated against 0.02 N standard NaOH solutions. The end point will be indicated by pink color of the solution. dd.A blank experiment was also done by using distilled water.

Data:
Observation Sample(T) Blank (B) IBR 4.1 11.00 FBR 6.2 11.10 Difference 2.1 0.1

Calculation:
CO2 (%) = (T-B) ×normality of NaOH×44×100 Amount of sample taken = (2.1-0.1) ×0.02×44×100× 25×10000 = 0.0704% In ppm = 0.0704×10000 = 704 ppm

Result:
The supplied water sample contained 704 ppm free CO2.

Name of the experiment:
Determination of Chloride (Cl‾)

Principle:
The Chloride is titrated with a standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium chromate as the indicator. As the equivalence point is attained, the excess silver combines with the chromate to form a red or reddish-brown precipitate of silver chromate (Ag2CrO4). This color change is easily recognized and serves as the end point of the titration. The reaction in titration is as follows: NaCl + AgNO3 AgCl + NaNO3 (White ppt.) K2CrCl4 + 2AgNO3 Ag2CrCl4 + 2KNO3 (Red ppt.)

Materials:
39. 0.025 N AgNO3 40. 5% K2Cr2O7 41. 1% NaHCO3

42.Water sample 43.Measuring cylinder 44.Conical flask

Procedure:
ee. 10 ml water sample was taken by a measuring cylinder in a conical flask ff. One drop NaHCO3 was added gg. One drop K2Cr2O7 indicator was also added. hh. Then titrated against 0.025N AgNO3 solution ii. A blank experiment was also done by using distilled water.

Data:
Observation Sample (T) Blank(B) IBR 0.1 35.3 FBR 4.2 36.4 Difference 4.1 1.1

Calculation:
% Cl in water = 35.5× normality of AgNO3×100× (T-B) Amount of sample taken ×10000 = 35.5× 0.025× 100 (4.1-1.1) 10×10000 = 0.0266% In ppm = 0.0266×10000 = 266 ppm

Result:
The supplied water sample contained 266 ppm Chloride (Cl‾).

Name of the experiment:
Determination of pH by pH meter.

Principle:
The electrode of pH meter in contact with hydrogen ions of the sample under test, acquires an electrical potential which depends on the concentration of H+ ions. A measure of the electrical potential is, therefore, give H+ ion concentration or pH of the sample because the negative logarithm of hydrogen concentration is called pH. pH = -log [H+] The pH scale value is from 0 to 14. the 7 is neutral; below 7 is acidic and above 7 is basic in nature.

Materials:
45.Supplied water sample 46.pH meter 47.Beaker 48.Buffer solution

Procedure:
jj. The pH meter was calibrated before use with buffer solution of known pH values. kk.Then the electrode of pH meter was submerged into the sample that was taken in a beaker and pH of the sample was recorded.

Result:
The pH of the sample was 6.9