Afghanistan Mujahadeen

Tactics, Techniques, & Procedures

UNCLASSIFIED

Objective
► Action:

Identify the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures used by Mujahadeen in Afghanistan. ► Conditions: Given student handouts ► Standards: Identified the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures used by Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.

Administrative
► There ► The

are no safety requirements.

risk assessment level is low. are no environmental considerations Student Checks

► There

► Evaluations

Topics
► Maneuver ► Fire Support ► Air Defense ► Command & Control ► Mobility & Counter-

mobility ► Logistics ► Denial & Deception

Maneuver
► Ambush ► Harassment

  

2 to 15 personnel Small scale Rapid withdrawal

► Resupply

 Require more personnel
► Up

to 150

 Looting
► W eapons ► Food ► Munitions

Maneuver
► Ambush Teams

   

Observers Firing Element Alert Element Reserve Element

► Radio or visual

communications ► 3 Lines
   Fire Element Commo Element Command Element

Maneuver
► Ambush Locations

 Entrance/exit of canyon  Behind earthen walls
► Early morning or

evening ► Hit convoys on return trips ► Hit rapid reaction forces

Maneuver
► Ambush Lessons

Learned
 Advance recon patrols are necessary  Helicopter support is essential  Avoid predictable patterns  Communicate with replacements

Maneuver
► Sniper Operations

 Lack of well-trained Muj shooters
► Al

Qaeda marksmanship is generally good

 Will use canals to move  Catch targets in crossfire  Use of bounties
► Helicopter

crews are

popular

Maneuver
► Raids ► Generally against

isolated outposts ► Probe for weaknesses
 Gather forces covertly
► Prefer

cover of night

  

Attack the objective Seize needed supplies Withdraw before counterattack

Maneuver
► Individual & Small

Team Tactics
 Probe and assess reactions/patterns
► Airfield Raids

 Influenced by Soviet war  Propaganda value
► Shelling Attacks

 Will attack civilians to prove Gov’ts inability to protect them

Maneuver
► Mujahadeen Tactics

     

Fire and move Reduce signatures Delayed fuse rockets Survivability is key Use of mines Blend in with population

Maneuver
► Mountain Defense &

Ambushes ► Caves and tunnels
 Used since Mongol invasion
► Prepared defenses

 Used to attract attacks
► Ambush

 Limited routes  Attack on return
► Use of air support

Maneuver
► Urban Ambush and

Bombs ► Cover for action
    Homes Businesses Mosques Gov’t buildings

► Multiple IED attack
Kanhadhar

 Max casualties

Maneuver
► Hostile House-Clearing

         

6-10 team Ak-47, hand grenade Room to room Single location Tradition technique Front, rear vehicles Box vehicle Kill guard/driver Subdue abductee Exit scene

► Hostage Taking

Maneuver
► Armor

        

Small number assets Primarily defensive T-54, T-55, T-62 May still possess Fortified/stationary position Dug in defensive position Hard to spot Alters signatures Sensor-fused weapons hard to target

Maneuver

Infantry Anti-tank Weapons
 Used as multipurpose direct fire weapons  Used on aircraft  Used as crude mortar  Used to destroy buildings or bunkers  Improvised off-route mine  Breach minefields  Used against light armored/soft-skinned vehicles

Maneuver
► Recoilless Rifles

 90mm
► No

info on use

 B10 82mm
► Not

seen in engagements ► Large amounts of ammo found

 SPG-9 73mm
B-10 82-mm Recoilless Rifle
► Often

fired on shoulder

Maneuver

Rocket-Propelled Grenades
 Anti-armor weapon  Used against helicopter  Firing signature

Tactics
 W etting ground  Track flight patterns  Higher elevation  Teams

Countermeasures
 Physical  Tactical

Fire Support
► Mortars

  

Primary support weapon Team leaves mortar set up High elevations

► 82 mm mortar

 Primary indirect weapon
► 120 mm mortar

 Used, not preferred
► 60 mm mortar

 Found, not used

Fire Support
► Rockets

    

No organized units High elevation Crude, expedient launch Harassment fire Cities and bases targets

► 107 mm rocket

 Crude time delay firing
► 122 mm rocket

 Expedient aiming methods

Fire Support
► Artillery

 Employ unconventionally  Control of warlords  Not employed against coalition forces
► 122mm D-3 Howitzer

 Most plentiful prior to air attacks in 2001

Air Defense
► MANPADS

 Limited numbers may still exist in theater  Work in pairs or small groups  Attempt to use higher elevation (warmer months)  Take off or landing  Along take off or landing path

Command & Control
► C2

 Use of commercial VHF radios  Tactical leaders use, higher levels use operator  Probable satellite telephone use  Couriers  Challenge and Password system
► Arabic ► Dari/Pashtu

Command & Control
► Intelligence and

Reconnaissance
 Human intelligence and dissemination
► Family,

friends, tribal

leaders

 Commercial radio scanners  Know the area  Attacks to observe countermeasures

Command & Control
► Checkpoints

 Traditional fundraising function under Taliban  Tribal leaders or warlords may keep unofficial tolls to a minimum  Unofficial checkpoints usually do not hamper coalition operations

Mobility & Counter-Mobility
► Mine Threat

 5 million uncleared  Urban and rural areas  Iran/Pakistan borders mined  Markings  Indicators

Mobility & Counter-Mobility
► Improvised Explosive

Devices/Booby Traps
 Coupling  Daisy Chain
► Up

to 200 meters

   

Boosting Sensitizing Timed delay Vehicle borne

Logistics
► Caravan and Convoy

Use to bring in supplies At night Vehicles, livestock Canyons, caves, dry riverbeds, green zones  Advance team  Decoy team  Main element    

Logistics
► Caches

Throughout AF In operational area Small to large Caves, houses, possibly commercial or government facilities  May use guards  Many individual/households have small cache for self-defense purposes    

Denial & Deception
► Understanding

Signatures
 Basic knowledge of D&D  Understand difference between night-vision and thermal sensors  Information to my Afghani Mujahideen Brothers  Spiderholes, tarps, blankets

Denial & Deception
► Thermal Decoys

 Wood fire in shallow pits  Look like person or vehicle  Method to deceive radar with rocks and pieces of metal approximating size of vehicle

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