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# Math and String Functions

In addition to performing simple arithmetic and string operations with the arithmetic and
string operators, Visual Basic programs can take advantage of several built-in
mathematical functions and string functions to perform useful processing that,
otherwise, could require highly complex original code.

Mathematical Functions

Popular mathematical functions are summarized in the following table. Note that certain
functions do not require the Math. prefix.

Function Use
Returns the absolute value.
Math.Abs()
Math.Abs(-10) returns 10.
Returns an integer that is greater than or equal to a number.
Math.Ceiling()
Math.Ceiling(5.333) returns 6.
Returns the integer portion of a number.
Fix()
Fix(5.3333) returns 5.
Returns an integer that is less than or equal to a number.
Math.Floor()
Fix(5.3333) returns 5.
Returns the integer portion of a number.
Int()
Int(5.3333) returns 5.
Returns the larger of two numbers.
Math.Max()
Math.Max(5,7) returns 7.
Returns the smaller of two numbers.
Math.Min()
Math.Min(5,7) returns 5.
Returns a number raised to a power.
Math.Pow()
Math.Pow(12,2) returns 144.
Returns a random number between 0 and 1. Used in conjunction with
Rnd()
Randomizestatement to initialize the random number generator.
Rounds a number to a specified number of decimal places. Rounds up on
Math.Round() .5.
Math.Round(1.1234567,5) returns 1.12346.
Returns the sign of a number. Returns -1 if negative and 1 if positive.
Math.Sign()
Math.Sign(-5) returns -1.
Returns the square root of a positive number.
Math.Sqrt()
Math.Sqrt(144) returns 12.

Random Numbers
The Rnd() function returns a random number between 0 and 1. More likely, the need is to
generate a number within a particular range, between a given low and high number. This
is accomplished with the following formula.

## Math.floor((high - low + 1) * Rnd() + low)

For instance, to generate a random number between 0 and 10 the formula becomes

Math.floor((10 - 0 + 1) * Rnd() + 0)

String Functions

## Several built-in string functions perform string manipulations to augment simple

concatenation with the "&" operator. These functions are summarized in the following
table.

Function Use
Returns the character code of the first character of a string.
Asc()
Asc("A") returns 65.
Returns the display character of a character code.
Chr()
Chr(65) returns "A".
Returns the character at a specified position in a string, counting from 1.
GetChar()
GetChar("This is a string", 7) returns "s".
Returns the starting position in a string of a substring, counting from 1.
InStr()
InStr("This is a string", "string") returns 11.
Returns the starting position in a string of a substring, searching from the
InStrRev() end of the string.
InStr("This is a string", "string") returns 11.
Returns the lower-case conversion of a string.
LCase()
LCase("THIS IS A STRING") returns "this is a string".
Returns the left-most specified number of characters of a string.
Left()
Left("This is a string", 4) returns "This".
Returns the length of a string.
Len()
Len("This is a string") returns 16.
Removes any leading spaces from a string.
LTrim()
LTrim(" This is a string") returns "This is a string".
Mid() Returns a substring from a string, specified as the starting position
(counting from 1) and the number of characters.
Mid("This is a string", 6, 4) returns "is a".
Replaces all occurences of a substring in a string.
Replace() Replace("This is a string", " s", " longer s") returns "This are a longer
string" (replaces an "s" preceded by a blank space).
Returns the right-most specified number of characters of a string.
Right()
Right("This is a string", 6) returns "string".
Removes any trailing spaces from a string.
RTrim()
RTrim("This is a string ") returns "This is a string".
Returns the string equivalent of a number.
Str()
Str(100) returns "100".
Fills a string with a given number of spaces.
Space()
"This" & Space(5) & "string" returns "This string".
Compares two strings. Return values are 0 (strings are equal), 1 (first string
has the greater value), or -1 (second string has the greater value) based on
StrComp()
sorting sequence.
StrComp("This is a string", "This string") returns -1.
Reverses the characters in a string.
StrReverse()
StrReverse("This is a string") returns "gnirts a si sihT".
Removes any leading and trailing spaces from a string.
Trim()
Trim(" This is a string ") returns "This is a string".
Returns the upper-case conversion of a string.
UCase()
UCase("This is a string") returns "THIS IS A STRING".
Converts a numeric expression to a number.
Val()
Val( (1 + 2 + 3)^2 ) returns 36.

The above summaries give you a basic idea of the uses of these arithmetic and string
functions. There are occasions throughout these tutorials to see them in action and in
combination as they are applied to various processing needs.

Introduction
My company needed a small expression evaluator to use in
our .NET application. Using the .NET framework compilation
capabilities seem to be the most obvious way to make an
evaluator. However, in practice this technique has a nasty
side effect, it looks like it creates a new DLL in memory
each time you evaluate your function and it seems nearly
impossible to unload the DLL. You can refer to remarks at
the end of the article Evaluating Mathematical Expressions
by Compiling C# Code at Runtime for more details.

## This evaluator is neither using CodeDOM nor trying to

compile VB source. On the contrary, it parses your
expression and evaluates its value.

## Compared to other projects that I have seen, this evaluator

can do the following:

## You can add any number of custom functions without having

to change the evaluator code.

## Using the code

The evaluator can be run with just two lines of code:

## Dim mEvaluator As New Evaluator

Dim res As integer = CInt(mEvaluator.Eval("1+1"))

## How to provide variables for the

evaluator
The evaluator raises an event GetVariable when a keyword is
not detected. There is no need for you to publish all the
variables and then run the eval. On the contrary, you can
provide an on demand function which provides only the
needed variables:
Private Sub Evaluator1_GetVariable(ByVal name As String, _
ByRef value As Object) Handles Evaluator1.GetVariable
Select Case name
Case "anumber"
value = 5.0
Case "theForm"
value = Me
value = #1/1/2005#
End Select
End Sub

## How to extend the evaluator with custom

functions
The member functions found in the class EvalFunctions are
automatically used by the evaluator. In this example, you
can see how we can make the evaluator implement the sin and
now functions:

## Public Class EvalFunctions

Function sin(ByVal v As Double) As Double
Return Math.Sin(v)
End Function

## Function now() As DateTime

Return Microsoft.VisualBasic.Now
End Function

As you can see you don't need much wrapping, the function
can be written and used straightaway in this class. Note
however that the evaluator does not make any distinction
between the Integers and Doubles. Therefore, remember to use
Doubles and not Integers for your function parameters.

## How does this work?

The evaluator is made of a classic Tokenizer followed by a
classic Parser. I wrote both of them in VB, without using
any Lex or Bisons tools. The aim was readability over
speed. Tokenizing, parsing and execution is done in one
pass. This is elegant and at the same time quite efficient
because the evaluator never looks ahead or back, more than
one character.

The tokenizer
It reads the characters one by one and changes its state
according to the characters it encounters. When it
recognizes one of the recognized Token types, it returns it
to the parser. If it does not recognize a character, it
will raise a syntax error exception.

Collapse
' Recognized token types :
Private Enum eTokenType
none ' temporary state
end_of_formula ' when the tokenizer reach the end
operator_plus ' +
operator_minus ' -
operator_mul ' *
operator_div ' /
operator_percent ' %
open_parenthesis ' (
comma ' ,
dot ' .
close_parenthesis ' )
operator_ne ' <>
operator_gt ' <=
operator_ge ' >=
operator_eq ' =
operator_le ' <=
operator_lt ' <
operator_and ' AND
operator_or ' OR
operator_not ' NOT
operator_concat ' &
value_identifier ' any word starting with a letter or _
value_true ' TRUE
value_false ' FALSE
value_number ' any number starting 0-9 or .
value_string ' any string starting ' or "
open_bracket ' [
close_bracket ' ]
End Enum

## The Tokenizer is fairly simple, it accepts a loose VB/Excel

syntax. The evaluator is split into two classes, one does
the tokenization and the second processes the tokens. This
is the standard way of doing it. This is quite flexible
also. This way, if you wish you could amend it to accept a
C++ syntax by changing the way the parser detects the
operators eq, ne, and, or, not... Changing the Tokenizer
will not force you to reprogram the rest of the evaluator.

The Parser

## The Parser is a bit more complicated than a Tokenizer. It

is like the Tokenizer with a sort of flow machine, a bit
like a pipe. It will process the token one by one without

parts and right parts. In the expression 1 + 2, I
call + the operator, 1 is the left part and 2 is
the right part.

## One of the complicated concepts of the Parser is

priorities. For example, the expression:

1 + 2 * 3

1 * 2 + 3

## The evaluator operates using a standard set of priorities.

The multiplication has more priority than addition.
Therefore:

1 + 2 * 3 = 1 + 6 = 7
1 * 2 + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5

none = 0
[concat] = 1
[or] = 2
[and] = 3
[not] = 4
equality = 5
plusminus = 6
muldiv = 7
percent = 8
unaryminus = 9
End Enum

## When the parser encounters an operator, it will recursively

call the parser to get the right part. When the parser
returns the right part, the operator can apply its
operation (for example +) and the parsing continues.
The interesting part is that while calculating the right
part, the Tokenizer already knows its current level of
priority. Therefore, while parsing the right part, if it
detects an operator with more priority, it will continue
its parsing and return only the resulting value.

## You said it supports object?

Yes, the evaluator supports the . operator. If you enter the
expression theForm.text then the evaluator will return the
title of the form. If you enter the expression theForm.left,
it will return its runtime left position. This feature is
only experimental and has not been tested yet. That is why
I have put this code here, hoping others will find its
features valuable and submit their improvements.

## In fact the object came free. I used System.Reflection to

evaluate the custom functions. And the same code is used to
access the object's methods and properties. When the parser
encounters an identifier that is a keyword without any
meaning for it, it will try to reflect the CurrentObject to
see if it can find a method or a property with the same
name.

mi = CurrentObject.GetType().GetMethod(func, _
_Reflection.BindingFlags.IgnoreCase _
Or Reflection.BindingFlags.Public _ Or
Reflection.BindingFlags.Instance)

## If a method or a property is found, it will feed its

parameters.

valueleft = mi.Invoke(CurrentObject, _
_ System.Reflection.BindingFlags.Default, Nothing,
_ DirectCast(parameters.ToArray(GetType(Object)), Object()), Nothing)