SAPscript Tutorial - Introduction Page 1 of 9 Often there are instances where an output from a SAP program is required on a physical

paper in a pre-designed format. Using normal ABAP code this is not possible. Instead SAP provides an object called SAPSCRIPT to generate such kind of documents which can contain logos, tables and other objects and which can look like pre-printed documents. This article focuses on the design and use of Layout sets in ABAP programs to generate beautified output in SAP. A layout set is a template designed in SAP to place the stream of data coming from a SAP program on different parts of a physical page. The designer needs to lay out the various elements that need to be printed on the page and store it as an object in the SAP system. An ABAP program will subsequently call this object to generate an instance of the template – thus generating an output document from the program. In this 7 article tutorial we will cover subjects such as: • • • • • • • Main elements of SAPscript Commands that can be used in a layout set How to include a graphical image Commands that can be used in SAPscript Step-by-step walkthrough of example Example layout set Example SAPscript code

- Main elements Page 2 of 9

Language
Language in which the data coming on to the layout set will be printed. Generally, this will be the language that has been set up as default in the SAP system

Header
Section to define the various attributes of the layout set on a global level. Changing these attributes will affect all the components of the layout set. The various components of the header are explained below • Administration Information

This shows the information about the layout set – details of the designer, details of changes occurring to the design, development class of the layout set and the language details for the layout set • Standard Attributes

1. Description - Brief description or title of the layout set 2. Default paragraph - The base paragraph that is globally applicable to the document. This can be overridden at lower level of the layout set by using other paragraphs 3. Tab Stop - The base tab-stop that is globally applicable to the document. These can be overridden at lower level of the layout set by using other tab stops 4. First Page - The start page of the layout set 5. Page Format 6. Orientation - The direction of printing the data on a page – P for portrait (vertical) and L for landscape (horizontal) 7. Lines per inch 8. Characters/inch • Font Attributes

Here the various attributes and the base font applicable to the document can be defined. This font setting can be overridden at a lower level using the character strings

Paragraphs
Used to define the start and end positions for the different texts and objects that need to be printed on the output document.

- Main elements (more) Page 3 of 9

Character Strings
Used to define the fonts and the formatting and printing styles for each and every character that needs to be printed on the output document. The start of the character string is indicated by <string name>, while the end of the character string is indicated by </>

Pages
The designer needs to organise the template as a series of pages. When an actual output document is printed, it will refer to each page for putting the data coming from the ABAP program. The order of pages is also taken from the template i.e the layout set defined.

Windows
Various parts of the output document can be conveniently organised on the pages using windows. Thus the data stream coming from the ABAP program can be logically grouped into various parts and can be placed on different locations on a page There are 2 main types of windows that can be used in a layout set:

MAIN - A layout set can have only one MAIN window which is created by default. This window can flow over multiple pages. CONSTANT - A layout set can have any number of constant windows. A constant window can be used once per page

Text Elements
Any text that needs to be written on the output document should be placed within a text element. This includes constant text as well as variable data like internal table data coming from the ABAP program. It is advisable to group logically related data within one text element. The fields of various tables defined in the ABAP program will be included under these text elements. These fields are carriers of data. Every field should be included in a pair of & characters. (e.g. &aufk-aufnr&)

Page Windows
All the windows that form a page of the layout set. Choose the window and click the Text Elements button to go to the Layout Set Editor. This consists of 2 parts The small space on the left is for specifying the type of command, while the window adjacent to it is for writing the command or the text that needs to go under a text element.

Including Graphical Images Page 4 of 9

The various types of commands that can be used within a layout set are tabulated below Command * Blank = ( / /= Purpose Default paragraph Continuous text Extended Line Raw Line Line Feed Line feed and extended line

/( /: /* /E <PN>

Line Feed and Raw Line Command Line Comment Line Text Element This is either the name of the paragraph that should be applicable from that line of the layout set

- Layout Set Commands Page 5 of 9

The steps for including graphical elements in the layout set are as follows
• • • • • • • The graphical element (like company logo) should be in valid graphic file format like .bmp or .jpg Use appropriate software to convert the above file into a .TIFF file Use report RSTXLDMC to upload this file as a text module in SAP Execute the above program from the ABAP /4 editor Enter the location of the .TIFF file on the PC Specify BMON or BCOL as the raster image type The SAP system suggests a name for the file ( like ZHEX-MARCO-* ). The * indicates the type of file. For e.g. if the file contains a logo then the name can be ZHEX-MACROLOGO The ID should be ‘ST’ and give the logon language Running the program will convert this .TIFF file into a text element Incorporate this converted logo in the appropriate window under the appropriate text element by giving INCLUDE ZHEX-MACRO-LOGO OBJECT TEXT ID ST in the first line

• • •

- Commands Page 6 of 9

The commands that are commonly used in a sap script are as follows -: Command New-page <page name> Use Prints the text following this command on a new page (when a page name is specified then that page is taken as the next page) This acts like a conditional page break. Putting the text within this command prevents the breaking of the text across multiple pages. If there is not enough space for the entire paragraph to be printed in the space remaining on the page, then the entire paragraph is printed on the next page The BOX command draws a box as per the specifications. The x y co-ordinates are for the upper left corner relative to the values in the position command. POSITION command is used to set the x y co-ordinates with respect to the start position of the window. SIZE command is used to specify the size of the box that we need to draw. Varying these parameters also helps to draw a line instead of a box. IF ….. END IF This allows the conditional printing of the text on the output document. The various conditional operators that can be used are as follows = EQ Equal to < LT Less than > GT Greater than <= LE Less than or equal to >= GE greater than or equal to <> NE not equal to The logical operators that can be used are as follows

Protect ….. Endprotect

Box <xpos> <ypos> <width> <height> <frame> <intensity> Position <xorigin> <yorigin> <window> <page> Size <width> <height> <window> <page>

NOT, AND, OR

- Invoice Example Walkthrough Page 7 of 9

The best way to explain the various steps in designing a SAP script is to visualize the creation of a document. The entire process is explained as a series of steps.
Let us assume that we need to design the document Invoice.doc for the ABC Company Limited. 1. Understand the structure of the document that needs to be generated page by page. 2. Find out the different pages that form the document. 3. Decide the FIRST page of the document and the pages that are going to follow. 4. Find out the various fonts and styles (bold, italics, etc) that are used in the document. 5. Also try to group the data printed on the document into logical parts. 6. Create all the character strings that have been used in the document 7. Create all the paragraphs that have been used in the document 8. Create all CONSTANT the windows that have been uniquely identified in the document 9. Identify the MAIN window of the every page of the document 10. Define the pages that form the parts of the document 11. Assign the windows to each page 12. Define the text elements within each window 13. Use function module OPEN_FORM to open the layout set. 14. Use function module WRITE_FORM to write the text elements in various windows 15. Use function module CLOSE_FORM to close the layout set Always remember to check and activate the layout set when any change is done to it, otherwise the change will not appear on the output document that is printed!!!

- Example Layout Set Page 8 of 9

Layout set Description Standard attributes First page Default paragraph Tab-stop Page format Orientation Lines/inch Characters/inch Font attributes Font family Font size Bold Italic Underlined Characters B

Z_TESTSCRIPT Test SAP script FIRST P1 1.00 CH DINA4 Landscape 6.00 10.00 COURIER 12.0 Point No No No

Attributes Character String Bold Standard attributes Marker No Font attributes Bold Yes Attributes Default Paragraph Standard attributes Line spacing 1.00 LN Left margin 1.00 CM Alignment Left-aligned Font attributes Font family TIMES Font size 12.0 Point Header Paragraph Standard attributes Line spacing 1.00 LN Left margin 4.50 CM Alignment Left-aligned Font attributes Font family TIMES Font size 18.0 Point Bold Yes Undelined paragraph Standard attributes Line spacing 1.00 LN Alignment Left-aligned Font attributes Font family TIMES Font size 12.0 Point Underlined Yes Attributes Main window

Paragraphs P1

P2

P3

Windows MAIN

HEADER FOOTER Pages FIRST

Window type Main window Window type Main window Window type

MAIN CONSTANT CONSTANT

Attributes First Page Standard attributes Next page FIRST Page counter Mode START Numbering type Arabic numerals Page window HEADER Left margin Upper margin Window width Window height MAIN Left margin Upper margin Window width Window height FOOTER Left margin Upper margin Window width Window height

00.00 00.00 20.00 04.00 00.00 05.00 20.00 20.00 00.00 25.00 20.00 04.00

CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM CM

Text elements for following windows: HEADER Element HEADER /: POSITION XORIGIN 2 CM YORIGIN '-0.5 CM' /: BOX XPOS 1 CM YPOS 1 CM WIDTH 18 CM HEIGHT 1 CM FRAME 10 TW INTENSITY 10 / / / P2 ,,<B>TEST PURCHASE ORDER</> / / MAIN Element MAIN P1 <B>Customer/Supplier:</>,,&KNA1-NAME1& / P1 <B>PO No:</>,,&EKPO-EBELN& / P1 <B>Part No:</>,,&MAKT-MATNR& / P1 <B>Description:</>,,&MAKT-MAKTX& / P1 <B>Quantity:,,</>&EKPO-MENGE& / P1 <B>Sign:</>&uline(81)& / P1 <B>Date:</>&EKKO-AEDAT&

FOOTER Element FOOTER /: POSITION XORIGIN 2 CM YORIGIN '-0.5 CM' /: BOX XPOS 1 CM YPOS 1 CM WIDTH 18 CM HEIGHT 1 CM FRAME 10 TW INTENSITY 10 / / / P2 ,,<B>PLEASE SIGN THE PO BEFORE DISPATCH</> / /

Example Code Page 9 of 9 REPORT ZPSAPSCRIPT. TABLES : EKKO, EKPO, KNA1, USR01, MARA, MAKT. DATA : BEGIN OF ZOPTION. INCLUDE STRUCTURE ITCPO. DATA : END OF ZOPTION. PARAMETERS: P_EBELN LIKE EKKO-EBELN, P_EBELP LIKE EKPO-EBELP. CLEAR EKPO. SELECT SINGLE * FROM EKPO WHERE EBELN = P_EBELN AND EBELP = P_EBELP. CLEAR KNA1. SELECT SINGLE NAME1 FROM KNA1 INTO KNA1-NAME1 WHERE KUNNR = EKPO-KUNNR. CLEAR MAKT. SELECT SINGLE MAKTX FROM MAKT INTO MAKT-MAKTX WHERE MATNR = EKPO-MATNR AND SPRAS = SY-LANGU. CLEAR USR01. SELECT SINGLE * FROM USR01 WHERE BNAME = SY-UNAME. ZOPTION-TDDEST = USR01-SPLD. "Output device (printer)

ZOPTION-TDIMMED = 'X'. ZOPTION-TDDELETE = 'X'. ZOPTION-TDPROGRAM = 'ZPQRPRNT'. CALL FUNCTION 'OPEN_FORM' EXPORTING APPLICATION * ARCHIVE_INDEX * ARCHIVE_PARAMS DEVICE DIALOG FORM LANGUAGE OPTIONS IMPORTING LANGUAGE EXCEPTIONS OTHERS = 1.

"Print immediately "Delete after printing "Program Name

= 'TX' = ' ' = ' ' = 'PRINTER' = ' ' = 'Z_TESTSCRIPT' = SY-LANGU = ZOPTION = SY-LANGU

CALL FUNCTION 'WRITE_FORM' EXPORTING ELEMENT = 'HEADER' * FUNCTION = 'SET' * TYPE = 'BODY' WINDOW = 'HEADER' EXCEPTIONS ELEMENT = 1. CALL FUNCTION 'WRITE_FORM' EXPORTING ELEMENT = 'MAIN' * FUNCTION = 'SET' * TYPE = 'BODY' WINDOW = 'MAIN' EXCEPTIONS ELEMENT = 1. CALL FUNCTION 'WRITE_FORM' EXPORTING ELEMENT = 'FOOTER' * FUNCTION = 'SET' * TYPE = 'BODY' WINDOW = 'FOOTER' EXCEPTIONS ELEMENT = 1. CALL FUNCTION 'CLOSE_FORM' EXCEPTIONS UNOPENED = 1 OTHERS = 2.

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